Lists of appointments

Office-Holders in Modern Britain: Volume 2, Officials of the Secretaries of State 1660-1782. Originally published by University of London, London, 1973.

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'Lists of appointments', in Office-Holders in Modern Britain: Volume 2, Officials of the Secretaries of State 1660-1782, (London, 1973) pp. 22-58. British History Online [accessed 12 April 2024]

In this section

Secretaries of State 1660-1782

The Secretaries of State were appointed by the crown. They entered office on receiving the seals from the Sovereign and, as soon as was convenient, took the required oath at a meeting of the Privy Council. In due course their appointments were embodied in letters patent under the great seal which granted the offices during pleasure. The patents conferred the offices in similar terms on all their holders. The assignment of particular areas of responsibility and any subsequent transfer from one department to another were matters for informal communication from the crown. (fn. 200) The authority of the Secretaries lasted until such time as they delivered up the seals.

The remuneration attached to the offices was derived from a number of different sources. (fn. 201) From 1660 each Secretary enjoyed a patent salary of £100 payable at the Exchequer. This salary was granted for life until the appointment of Trevor in 1668 and thereafter, like the offices themselves, during pleasure. From 1660 each Secretary also received an additional salary of £1850. (fn. 202) There were two further types of allowance which at first varied with the responsibilities of particular Secretaries. One of these was a payment at the Exchequer for secret service. The amounts were fixed from 1675 at £3000 for the Secretary who had charge of the Southern Department, who was normally the senior Secretary in length of service, and £2000 for the Secretary responsible for the Northern Department. (fn. 203) This remained the case until the appointment of Sunderland in 1706 after which the secret service allowance was £3000 for all Secretaries. (fn. 204) The other type of allowance was the board wages payable by the Cofferer of the Household. From 1689 the allowance was fixed at £730 for the Secretary for the Southern Department and £292 for the Secretary for the Northern Department. This remained the case until the establishment of the third office in 1709 when the board wages of all Secretaries were fixed at £730. (fn. 205) Thus from 1709 until the end of the period the total fixed allowances for all Secretaries amounted to £5680 a year. Secretaries were also entitled to 1000 ounces of white plate from the Jewel Office on entering office.

In addition to their fixed allowances the Secretaries enjoyed certain perquisites which yielded variable amounts. These included the profits of the London Gazette which were divided equally from 1672, fees from the Signet Office and fees arising on instruments passing through their own offices. From 1699 the product of the latter was equally divided between the two Secretaries. The question how far the third Secretary was entitled to a share in these fees was the subject of considerable dispute. Queensberry seems to have been successful in establishing that all the fees should be placed in a common pool and divided equally between the three Secretaries. Subsequent holders of the third office, whether their responsibilities covered Scotland or the Colonies, received only those fees which arose in connection with the work of their own department. (fn. 206)

In the following lists the appointments of Secretaries for the Northern and Southern Departments have been grouped together into a single chronological list; those of Secretaries for Scotland and the Colonies have been grouped in separate lists. In the case of Secretaries for the Northern and Southern Departments the letters (N) or (S) have been placed after their names to indicate the department with which they were first entrusted. Subsequent transfers to another department and instances in which a Secretary acted alone for more than a month have been noted. (fn. 207) The date of appointment given is, where possible, that on which the seals were received. Before 1700 this date cannot be established precisely except in a few cases. Thereafter it can usually be ascertained from the salary warrants. Where evidence about the reception of the seals is either lacking or unsatisfactory, the date on which the oath was taken in the Privy Council has been adopted.

Northern and Southern Departments

1659 27 Feb. Nicholas, Sir E. (S)
1660 27 May Morrice, Sir W. (N)
1662 15 Oct. Bennet, Sir H. (S)
1668 29 Sept. Trevor, Sir J. (N)
1672 3 July Coventry, Hon. H. (N) (fn. 1)
1674 11 Sept. Williamson, Sir J. (N)
1679 10 Feb. Sunderland, 2nd Earl of (N) (fn. 2)
1680 26 April Jenkins, Sir L. (N) (fn. 3)
1681 2 Feb. Conway, Earl of (N)
1683 28 Jan. Sunderland, 2nd Earl of (N) (fn. 4)
1684 17 April Godolphin, S. (N)
1684 24 Aug. Middleton, Earl of (N) (fn. 5)
1688 29 Oct. Preston, Viscount (N)
1689 19 Feb. Shrewsbury, Earl of (S)
1689 5 March Nottingham, Earl of (N) (fn. 6)
1690 26 Dec. Sydney, Viscount (N)
1693 23 March Trenchard, Sir J. (N) (fn. 7)
1694 2 March Shrewsbury, Earl of (N) (fn. 8)
1695 3 May Trumbull, Sir W. (N)
1697 2 Dec. Vernon, J. (N) (fn. 9)
1699 13 May Jersey, Earl of (S)
1700 5 Nov. Hedges, Sir C. (N)
1702 3 Jan. Manchester, Earl of (S)
1702 2 May Nottingham, Earl of (S)
1702 2 May Hedges, Sir C. (N) (fn. 10)
1704 16 May Harley, R. (N)
1706 3 Dec. Sunderland, 3rd Earl of (S)
1708 13 Feb. Boyle, Hon. H. (N)
1710 14 June Dartmouth, Lord (S)
1710 21 Sept. St. John, Hon. H. (N) (fn. 11)
1713 17 Aug. Bromley, W. (N)
1714 17 Sept. Townshend, Viscount (N)
1714 22 Sept. Stanhope, J. (S) (fn. 12)
1716 21 June Methuen, P. (S) (fn. 13)
1717 12 April Sunderland, 3rd Earl of (N)
1717 12 April Addison, J. (S)
1718 15 March Craggs, J. (S)
1718 19 March Stanhope, Viscount (N)
1721 6 Feb. Townshend, Viscount (N)
1721 4 March Carteret, Lord (S)
1723 29 May Walpole, R. (fn. 14)
1724 4 April Newcastle, Duke of (S) (fn. 15)
1730 16 May Harrington, Lord (N)
1742 12 Feb. Carteret, Lord (N)
1744 24 Nov. Harrington, Earl of (N)
1746 19 Oct. Chesterfield, Earl of (N)
1748 13 Feb. Bedford, Duke of (S)
1751 21 June Holdernesse, Earl of (S) (fn. 16)
1754 24 March Robinson, Sir T. (S)
1755 14 Nov. Fox, H. (S)
1756 6 Dec. Pitt, W. (S)
1761 25 March Bute, Earl of (N)
1761 9 Oct. Egremont, Earl of (S)
1762 5 June Grenville, Hon. G. (N)
1762 14 Oct. Halifax, Earl of (N) (fn. 17)
1763 9 Sept. Sandwich, Earl of (N)
1765 10 July Seymour Conway, Hon. H. (S) (fn. 18)
1765 11 July Grafton, Duke of (N)
1766 23 May Richmond, Duke of (S)
1766 30 July Shelburne, Earl of (S)
1768 20 Jan. Weymouth, Viscount (N) (fn. 19)
1768 21 Oct. Rochford, Earl of (N) (fn. 20)
1770 19 Dec. Sandwich, Earl of (N)
1771 22 Jan. Halifax, Earl of (N)
1771 12 June Suffolk, Earl of (N)
1775 10 Nov. Weymouth, Viscount (S) (fn. 21)
1779 27 Oct. Stormont, Viscount (N)
1779 25 Nov. Hillsborough, Earl of (S)

Scottish Department

1709 3 Feb. Queensberry, Duke of
1713 9 Sept. Mar, Earl of
1714 24 Sept. Montrose, Duke of
1716 13 Dec. Roxburghe, Duke of
1742 25 Feb. Tweeddale, Marquess of

Colonial Department

1768 21 Jan. Hillsborough, Earl of
1772 15 Aug. Dartmouth, Earl of
1775 10 Nov. Germain, Lord G.
1782 11 Feb. Ellis, W.

Under Secretaries and Assistant Under Secretaries 1660-1782

Although it occurs as early as 1672 and passed increasingly into current use thereafter, it was only towards the end of the period covered by these lists that the title 'Under Secretary' finally superseded other designations. (fn. 22) The offices which it denoted were those filled by the principal subordinates of the Secretaries of State. At the Restoration each Secretary appears to have followed earlier practice in appointing a single individual, ranking above his other officials, to whom he entrusted the running of his department. However, before the end of the reign of Charles II, it had become customary for this principal subordinate to have a colleague of comparable standing and from at least 1689 it was the convention for there to be two Under Secretaries of equal standing in each of the older offices. This convention was only varied between 1759 and 1768 when it was the practice in one of these offices for the Secretary of State to appoint one Under Secretary and two or three Assistant Under Secretaries instead of two Under Secretaries. With the exception of Bute (1761-2) who appointed two Under Secretaries, this practice was observed between 1759 and 1763 by the successive Secretaries for the Northern Department, Holdernesse, Grenville and Halifax. After 1763, when Halifax was transferred to the Southern Department, Secretaries for the Northern Department reverted to the older convention of appointing two Under Secretaries. As Secretary for the Southern Department Halifax retained the Under Secretary and two Assistant Under Secretaries who had served him in the Northern and appointed another full Under Secretary with specific responsibility for American affairs. Halifax's successors in the Southern Department, Seymour Conway and Richmond, each appointed an Under Secretary and two Assistant Under Secretaries. Shelburne, shortly after succeeding Richmond in 1766, replaced one of his Assistant Under Secretaries by two Assistant Under Secretaries with specific responsibilities for American affairs. Until 1768 he was thus served by one Under Secretary and three Assistant Under Secretaries. In July of that year he reverted to the older convention of appointing two Under Secretaries and was followed in this by succeeding Secretaries for the Southern Department.

Queensberry, the first Secretary of State for the Scottish Department, appointed two Under Secretaries in 1709; his successors, however, employed only one. In the Colonial Department one Under Secretary was at first appointed in 1768; a second was added in 1770.

The remuneration attached to these offices was derived mainly from official fees. Until 1689 these fees appear to have been enjoyed by the Secretary of State's principal subordinate alone while his colleague received a fixed salary. From about this year it was the practice for the two Under Secretaries in each office to divide the product of the fees equally between them. The effect of the agreement of 1699 to divide the fees between the two offices appears to have been to make the receipts of all four Under Secretaries equal. From at least 1702 each of the Under Secretaries in the older offices received £50 a year from the Irish concordatum fund. (fn. 23) In 1770 salaries of £500 were made available by the crown for two Under Secretaries in each of the three offices. (fn. 24) The Assistant Under Secretaries received their remuneration either in the form of equal shares in the product of one of the Under Secretaries' fees or of a salary from the Secretary of State. (fn. 25)

While there is no evidence on the point, it is likely that the Under Secretaries in the Scottish Department received fees like their colleagues in the older departments. In the Colonial Department Phelps (1768) and his successor, Pownall (1768-76), received all the Under Secretaries' fees, the Secretary of State making up the deficiency in the event of the product amounting to less than £452 11s. Knox, appointed in 1770, at first received only his salary of £500 from the crown. When Pownall left office in 1776 a new arrangement was made according to which the two Under Secretaries, in addition to their salaries from the crown, shared equally in the fees, the Secretary of State making up the deficiency in the event of the product amounting to less than £250 each. (fn. 26)

Northern and Southern Departments

Nicholas 1660-2 1660 May Whittaker, C.
1660 July Williamson, J.
Morrice 1660-8 1660 May Cooke, J.
Bennet/ 1662-74 1662 Oct. Williamson, J.
Arlington 1662 Oct. Godolphin, W.
c. 1667 Bridgeman, W. (fn. 27) (? v. Godolphin)
By 1673 Richards, J. (fn. 28)
Trevor 1668-72 1668 Sept. Cooke, J.
Coventry 1672-80 1672 July Cooke, J.
1672 July Thynne, H. F.
Williamson 1674-9 1674 Sept. Bridgeman, W.
1674 Sept. Brisbane, J.
(?) 1676 Sept. Warre, R. (v. Brisbane)
Sunderland 1679-81 1679 Feb. Bridgeman, W.
1679 Feb. Mountsteven, J.
Jenkins 1680-4 1680 April Cooke, J.
1680 April Wynne, O.
Conway 1681-3 1681 Feb. Gwyn, F.
1681 Feb. Blathwayt, W.
Sunderland 1683-8 1683 Jan. Bridgeman, W.
1683 Jan. Mountsteven, J.
Godolphin 1684 1684 April Cooke, J.
1684 April Wynne, O.
Middleton 1684-8 1684 Aug. Cooke, J.
1684 Aug. Wynne, O.
1688 Nov. Bridgeman, W. (v. Cooke)
Preston 1688 1688 Nov. Graham, F.
1688 Nov. Warre, R.
Shrewsbury 1689-90 1689 Feb. Wynne, O.
1689 Feb. Vernon, J.
1689 Sept. Pulteney, J. (v. Wynne)
Nottingham 1689-93 1689 March Finch, Hon. E.
1689 March Warre, R.
1693 April Isham, J. (v. Finch)
Sydney 1690-2 1690 Dec. Bridgeman, W.
1690 Dec. Pulteney, J.
Trenchard 1693-5 1693 March Bridgeman, W.
1693 March Vernon, J.
1694 April Hopkins, T. (v. Vernon)
1694 July Tucker, J. (v. Bridgeman)
Shrewsbury 1694-8 1694 March Vernon, J. (fn. 29)
1694 March Yard, R.
Trumbull 1695-7 1695 May Tucker, J.
1695 May Ellis, J.
Vernon 1697-1702 1697 Dec. Hopkins, T.
1697 Dec. Ellis, J.
1700 Nov. Yard, R. (v. Ellis)
Jersey 1699-1700 1699 May Yard, R.
1699 May Prior, M.
Hedges 1700-1 1700 Nov. Tucker, J.
1700 Nov. Ellis, J.
Manchester 1702 1702 Jan. Ellis, J.
1702 Jan. Stanyan, A.
Nottingham 1702-4 1702 May Warre, R.
1702 May Aglionby, W.
1703 Oct. Isham, J. (v. Aglionby) (fn. 30)
Hedges 1702-6 1702 May Tucker, J.
Hedges 1702-6 1702 May Ellis, J.
1705 July Addison, J. (v. Ellis)
Harley 1704-8 1704 May Warre, R.
1704 May Lewis, E.
Sunderland 1706-10 1706 Dec. Hopkins, T.
1706 Dec. Addison, J.
1709 Jan. Pringle, R. (v. Addison)
Boyle 1708-10 1708 Feb. Walpole, H.
1708 Feb. Tilson, G.
Dartmouth 1710-13 1710 June Warre, R.
1710 June Lewis, E.
St. John/ 1710-14 1710 Sept. Tilson, G.
Bolingbroke 1710 Sept. Hare, T.
Bromley 1713-14 1713 Aug. Lewis, E.
1713 Aug. Stawell, Hon. E.
(?) 1714 Holt, C. (v. Stawell)
Townshend 1714-16 1714 Sept. Walpole, H.
1714 Sept. Tilson, G.
1715 Oct. Stanyan, T. (v. Walpole)
Stanhope 1714-17 1714 Sept. Pringle, R.
1714 Sept. Stanhope, C.
Methuen (fn. 31) 1716-17 1716 Dec. Tilson, G.
(?) 1716 Dec. Stanyan, T.
Sunderland 1717-18 1717 April Tilson, G.
1717 April Delafaye, C.
Addison 1717-18 1717 April Stanyan, T.
1717 April Tickell, T.
Stanhope 1718-21 1718 March Tilson, G.
1718 March Delafaye, C.
Craggs 1718-21 1718 March Stanyan, T.
1718 March Tickell, T.
Townshend 1721-30 1721 Feb. Tilson, G.
1721 Feb. Delafaye, C.
1724 April Townshend, Hon. T. (v. Delafaye)
1729 Sept. Weston, E. (v. Townshend)
Carteret 1721-4 1721 March Stanyan, T.
1721 March Tickell, T.
Walpole 1723 No appointments traced (fn. 32)
Newcastle 1724-54 1724 April Stanyan, T.
1724 April Delafaye, C.
1729 June Couraud, J. (v. Stanyan)
1734 July Stone, A. (v. Delafaye)
1743 Ramsden, T. (v. Couraud)
1750 April Amyand, C. (v. Ramsden)
1751 April Jones, H. V. (v. Stone)
1751 June Wallace, J. (v. Amyand)
Harrington 1730-42 1730 May Tilson, G.
1730 May Weston, E.
1739 May Stanhope, Hon. T. (v. Tilson)
1741 Nov. Burnaby, J. (v. Stanhope)
Carteret/Granville 1742-4 1742 Feb. Weston, E.
1742 Feb. Balaguier, J. A.
Harrington 1744-6 1744 Nov. Weston, E.
1744 Nov. Chetwynd, W. R.
Chesterfield 1746-8 1746 Oct. Chetwynd, W. R.
1746 Oct. Potter, J.
Bedford 1748-51 1748 Feb. Chetwynd, W. R.
1748 Feb. Potter, J.
1748 April Aldworth, R. N. (v. Chetwynd)
1749 June Leveson Gower, Hon. R. (v. Potter)
Holdernesse 1751-61 1751 June Amyand, C.
1751 June Potenger, R.
1754 March Wallace, J. (v. Amyand)
1759 Morin, P. M. (Assistant) (fn. 33)
1759 Fraser, W. (Assistant) (fn. 34)
Robinson 1754-5 1754 March Amyand, C.
1754 March Rivers, J.
Fox 1755-6 1755 Nov. Amyand, C.
1755 Nov. Digby, H.
Pitt 1756-61 1756 Dec. Wood, R.
1756 Dec. Rivers, J.
Bute 1761-2 1761 March Weston, E.
1761 March Jenkinson, C.
Egremont 1761-3 1761 Oct. Wood, R.
1761 Oct. Rivers, J.
Grenville 1762 1762 June Weston, E.
1762 June Morin, P. M. (Assistant)
1762 June Lloyd, C. (Assistant)
Halifax 1762-5 1762 Oct. Weston, E.
1762 Oct. Morin, P. M. (Assistant)
1762 Oct. Lloyd, C. (Assistant)
1763 Sept. Sedgwick, E. (fn. 35)
1764 May Stanhope, L. (v. Weston)
Sandwich 1763-5 1763 Sept. Phelps, R.
1763 Sept. Rivers, J.
Seymour Conway 1765-8 1765 July Burke, W.
1765 July Morin, P. M. (Assistant)
1765 July Roberts, J. C. (Assistant)
1766 May Fraser, W. (fn. 36)
1767 Feb. Hume, D. (v. Burke)
Grafton 1765-6 1765 July Stanhope, L.
1765 July Stonehewer, R.
1765 July Fraser, W. (v. Stanhope)
Richmond 1766 1766 May Stonehewer, R.
1766 May Morin, P. M. (Assistant)
1766 May Roberts, J. C. (Assistant)
Shelburne 1766-8 1766 July Sutton, R.
1766 July Morin, P. M. (Assistant)
1766 July Roberts, J. C. (Assistant)
1766 Aug. Macleane, L. (Assistant) (fn. 37)
1766 Aug. Morgann, M. (Assistant) (fn. 38)
1768 July Porten, S. (fn. 39)
Weymouth 1768-70 1768 Jan. Wood, R.
1768 Jan. Fraser, W.
Rochford 1768-75 1768 Oct. Sutton, R.
1768 Oct. Porten, S.
1772 Oct. Willes, F. (v. Sutton)
Sandwich 1770-1 1770 Dec. Phelps, R.
1770 Dec. Fraser, W.
Halifax 1771 1771 Jan. Sedgwick, E.
1771 Jan. Stanhope, L.
Halifax 1771 1771 March Fraser, W. (v. Stanhope)
Suffolk 1771-9 1771 June Whately, T.
1771 June Fraser, W.
1772 June Eden, W. (v. Whately)
1778 Oct. Oakes, R. (v. Eden)
Weymouth 1775-9 1775 Nov. Chamier, A.
1775 Nov. Porten, Sir S.
Stormont 1779-82 1779 Oct. Langlois, B.
1779 Oct. Fraser, W.
Hillsborough 1779-82 1779 Nov. Chamier, A.
1779 Nov. Porten, Sir S.
1781 Jan. Bell, J. (v. Chamier)

Scottish Department

Queensberry 1709-11 1709 Feb. Montgomery, J.
1709 Feb. Rowe, N.
Mar 1713-14 1713 Sept. Strahan, W.
Montrose 1714-15 1714 Sept. Kennedy, C.
Roxburghe 1716-25 1716 Dec. Scott, T.
Tweeddale 1742-6 1742 Feb. Mitchell, A.

Colonial Department

Hillsborough 1768-72 1768 Jan. Phelps, R.
1768 June Pownall, J. (v. Phelps)
1770 June Knox, W. (fn. 40)
Dartmouth 1772-5 1772 Aug. Pownall, J.
1772 Aug. Knox, W.
Germain 1775-82 1775 Nov. Pownall, J.
1775 Nov. Knox, W.
1776 April D'Oyly, C. (v. Pownall)
1778 Jan. de Grey, T. (v. D'Oyly)
1780 July Thompson, B. (v. de Grey)
1781 Oct. Fisher, J. (v. Thompson)
Ellis 1782 1782 Feb. Knox, W.
1782 Feb. Fisher, J.

Clerks 1660-1782

The Secretaries of State appear to have employed salaried Clerks as early as 1628. (fn. 41) In all probability the practice was resumed at the Restoration. It was certainly observed from the close of the seventeenth century until the end of the period. By 1702 it seems to have been accepted in principle that Clerks, once appointed, were entitled to remain in office until their death or resignation. Formally the Secretaries retained the power of dismissal but they exercised it only rarely and in practice their freedom of action was limited to the making of new appointments. Subject to this consideration the Secretaries were able to fix the number of Clerks in their offices at whatever level they wished. The practice of employing salaried Clerks was followed in the Scottish and Colonial Departments. In the latter part of the eighteenth century certain of the more senior Clerks in each department were distinguished by the designation 'Senior Clerks'. (fn. 42)

In the absence of satisfactory evidence it is impossible to give a complete account of the salaries paid by the Secretaries to their Clerks. They evidently varied considerably in amount at different times. Those in Middleton's office in 1684 received from £40 to £60 a year. (fn. 43) Trumbull and Vernon paid their Clerks £50 between 1695 and 1702. (fn. 44) Harley (1704-8) paid one of his Clerks £60 and the other four £50. In 1710 and 1717-18 Sunderland paid one of his Clerks £100 and the other four £50. (fn. 45) During his second term of office (1718-21) Stanhope paid one of his Clerks £100, three £50 and one £40. (fn. 46) Newcastle's usual practice between 1724 and 1733 was to pay his Clerks £30 or £40 on appointment and to increase these sums later to £50. A few received as much as £100 and one was eventually paid £150. (fn. 47) In 1737 one of Newcastle's Clerks claimed that the Secretaries of State in both departments had 'always distinguished their Senior Clerks by an additional £50'. (fn. 48) As a result of action taken by Egremont and Halifax at the beginning of the reign of George III salary scales in both the offices were considerably improved. (fn. 49) Egremont (1761-3) paid four of his Clerks £100, two £80 and one £60. (fn. 50) In 1767 Seymour Conway paid two of his Clerks £170, two £100, two £80 and three £50. In 1768 Shelburne paid three of his Clerks £120, two £100, one £80, four £50 and two £40. (fn. 51) There do not appear to have been any substantial changes in salary levels between this date and 1782. (fn. 52) Nothing is known of the salaries paid in the Scottish Department except that in 1746 Tweeddale paid his only Clerk, apart from his Chief Clerk, £50. (fn. 53) In the Colonial Department Dartmouth in 1774 paid his Clerks £170, £120, £80, £60, £50 and £40; while Ellis in 1782 paid one £170, one £120, two £60 and three £50. (fn. 54)

Originally the Clerks, like certain others of the Secretaries' officials, enjoyed the privilege of franking mail. This constituted a valuable addition to their salaries. The privilege was greatly curtailed in 1764. (fn. 55) After representations had been made on their behalf compensation was provided in 1769 in the form of £500 which was paid annually out of Post Office funds to each of the three Secretaries of State for distribution amongst their Clerks. (fn. 56)

Northern and Southern Departments

1663 Swaddell, J.
By 1666 Francis, R.
Leigh, R.
By 1668 Yard, R.
By 1671 Ball, H.
Benson, F.
Field, J.
c. 1675 Le Pin, J.
By 1683 de Paz, S.
By 1684 Carne, E.
Chute, E.
Widdows, - (fn. 57)
By 1685 Tucker, J.
By 1689 Armstrong, T. (fn. 58)
Bernard, D.
Bedingfield, E.
Knatchbull, E.
Morley, R.
Champion, L.
By 1693 Stanyan, A.
Egar, D.
By 1694 Brown, -
Welby, A.
By 1695 Swinford, J.
Payzant, J.
Dayrolle, J.
1695 Woodeson, G.
1696 Devenish, St. G.
By 1697 Rowley, W.
By 1698 Jones, W.
Roberts, P.
Vanbrugh, K.
Weston, H.
1699 Drift, A.
1699 de Lacombe de Vrigny, J.P.
By 1700 Tilson, G.
Watkins, F.
Delafaye, C. (fn. 59)
By 1701 Hussey, W.
By 1702 Southern, S.
Gilbert, H.
Batchellor, T.
By 1704 Tooke, C.
By 1706 Borret, T.
Brocas, J.
Pauncefort, T.
Man, N.
1706 Gregg, W.
1706 Thomas, W.
By 1708 Whittaker, -
Coling, -
Stanyan, T.
Prevereau, D.
Lowndes, W.
1709 Burch, J.
By 1710 Newcomen, (?) T.
1710 Davids, J.
1710 Marshall, H.
By 1711 Weston, -
Mauries, F.
1711 Wace, J.
1713 Kineir, A.
1713 Maskelyne, N.
1715 Shepherd, J.
By 1716 Armistead, M.
1716 Gedney, T.
1716 Maskelyne, E.
By 1717 Couraud, J.
1717 Richardson, J.
1717 Woodward, G.
1718 Tickell, R.
1718 Gregory, G.
1718 Bowes, G.
1719 Griffin, J.
1719 Shaftoe, G.
1719 Milnes, J.
1721 Balaguier, J. A. (fn. 60)
1722 Tigh, E.
1724 Stepney, J.
1724 Wiggs, J.
1725 Moore, H.
1725 Lawrey, A.
1726 Pelham, T. (fn. 61)
1726 West, G.
By 1727 Dale, J.
1727 Burnaby, J.
1727 Hutchinson, F. H.
1727 Sandys, W.
1729 Price, J.
1729 Trevor, Hon. R.
1730 Ramsden, T.
By 1731 Larpent, J.
1734 Brown, G.
By 1736 Huxley, G.
1736 Lister, J.
1737 Gage, T.
By 1741 Houghton, W.
1741 Morin, P. M.
1742 Harling, W.
By 1743 Jones, H. V.
1744 Rivers, J.
1744 Cranmer, T.
1745 Wace, F.
1745 Shadwell, R.
1746 Henricks, G.
1746 Duck, W.
1747 Wallace, J.
1748 Sneyd, F.
1748 Aspinwall, S. (fn. 62)
1748 Pulse, P.
By 1749 Money, J.
1749 Digby, H.
By 1750 Allen, W.
1750 Sneyd, J.
By 1751 Bell, C.
1751 Fraser, W.
1751 Noble, T.
1752 Kluft, J.D.
1752 Payzant, J.
1752 Shelley, T.
1753 Royer, J.
1753 Diemar, G.
1753 Jouvencel, P. C.
1754 Draper, N.
c. 1755 Wright, J.
1756 Francis, P.
1756 Brietzcke, C.
1756 Haynes, J.
By 1757 Morrison, R.
1758 Shuckburgh, S.
1759 Kluft, J. D.
1761 Larpent, J.
1761 Featherstone, R.
1761 Brummell, W.
1761 Roberts, J. C.
By 1762 Taylor, W.
1762 Broughton, B.
1762 Weston, F.
1763 Pollock, W.
1763 Fenhoulet, J. J.
1763 Aust, G.
1763 Cooke, G.
1765 Morin, J.
1766 Collins, C.
1766 Bidwell, T.
1767 Deyverdun, G.
1767 Leautier, D.
1767 Stewart, T.
1767 Randall, G.
1767 Shadwell, T.
1768 Carrington, G. W.
1768 Daw, T.
1768 Higden, W. H.
1772 Carter, R.
1772 Jenkins, J. W.
1774 Colleton, J. N.
1779 Chetwynd, Hon. R.
1780 Money, W.
1780 Manby, J.

Scottish Department

By 1710 Scott, T.
Gibbons, -
By 1717 Kineir, A.
1742 Reid, G.

Colonial Department

1768 Sawer, W.
By 1769 Hutchinson, J.
Hanbury Williams, C.
Pownall, J. L.
By 1771 Allen, W.
By 1775 Wilmot, E.
Bayley, A. Y.
By 1777 Poplett, T.
By 1779 Peace, C.
By 1780 Palman, G. L.
By 1782 Burrell, W.
Walsh, F. T.

Chief Clerks c. 1689-1782

In the eighteenth century it was the established practice for there to be a First or Chief Clerk in each of the Secretaries' offices, ranking immediately after the Under Secretaries. Considerable obscurity surrounds the origins of this office. (fn. 63) Such evidence as exists suggests that it evolved from the earlier position of Entering or Writing Clerk and that the Chief Clerks acquired their distinctive position at the head of each office about 1689. The term 'First' Clerk is not actually used until 1700 and the Chief Clerks were not regularly distinguished from their colleagues in lists until 1718. In consequence their identification in the earlier part of the period, and particularly in the years before 1700, must in many cases be tentative.

At first there was a tendency for the Chief Clerks, like the Under Secretaries, to go out of office with the Secretaries whom they were serving. However, from the time of the appointments of Jones in one office (1704) and Wace in the other (1717) it was accepted that the tenure of the Chief Clerks should not be affected by changes of Secretary and that they should remain in office until death or retirement.

In both the Scottish and the Colonial Departments Chief Clerks were appointed with the same rank and function as their counterparts in the older offices.

Unlike the other Clerks the Chief Clerks in the older offices received no salary from the Secretary of State. Their remuneration consisted principally in official fees. At some point during the eighteenth century they were accorded annual allowances of £25 from the Irish concordatum fund. (fn. 64) Since the Chief Clerks in the third office did not share in the arrangement for the pooling of the fees, their incomes from this source were smaller than those of their colleagues. It was probably for this reason that Tweeddale paid his Chief Clerk a salary of £100 and that successive Colonial Secretaries undertook to make up the deficiency in the event of the product of their Chief Clerk's fees falling below £250. (fn. 65) After 1769 the Chief Clerks in each of the three offices received shares of the money made available from Post Office funds. (fn. 66)

Northern and Southern Departments

(?) 1689 Feb. Yard, R.
(?) 1689 March Armstrong, T.
(?) 1690 Dec. Tucker, J.
(?) 1693 March Stanyan, A.
(?) 1694 March Bernard, D.
(?) 1697 Nov. Vernon, J.
1697 Dec. Welby, A.
1698 May Stanyan, A.
1699 March Welby, A.
1699 May Swinford, J.
1702 Jan. Lewis, E.
1702 May Armstrong, T.
1702 May Swinford, J.
1704 May Jones, W.
1706 Dec. Delafaye, C.
1714 Sept. Micklethwaite, J.
1717 April Wace, J.
1719 Dec. Prevereau, D.
1745 March Richardson, J.
1746 May Larpent, J.
1766 May Brown, G.
1769 April Sneyd, J.
1772 Oct. Shadwell, R.

Scottish Department

1709 Feb. Stanyan, T.
1716 Dec. Paxton, N.
1742 March Patterson, W.

Colonial Department

768 Jan. Pollock, W.

Senior Clerks c. 1763-1782

During the second half of the eighteenth century it was the practice, in each of the Secretaries' offices, for certain of the more senior Clerks below the rank of Chief Clerk to be designated 'Senior Clerks'. The reason for the introduction of this term is obscure and there is no evidence to suggest that the Senior Clerks undertook duties or responsibilities that were significantly different from those of other Clerks. (fn. 67) The term is first used in 1763 to distinguish two Clerks in one of the older offices. (fn. 68) There is no trace of its use in the other office until 1772 after which it was the practice for there to be two Senior Clerks in the Northern Department and three in the Southern. Two Senior Clerks were appointed in the Colonial Department on its establishment in 1768. Senior Clerks, like other Clerks below the rank of Chief Clerk, received their salaries from the Secretaries of State. After 1769 they received shares of the money made available from Post Office funds. (fn. 69)

Northern and Southern Departments

By 1763 Shadwell, R.
Wace, F.
By 1772 Duck, W.
Brietzcke, C.
Haynes, J.
1772 Wright, J.
1776 Morin, J.
1779 Broughton, B.
1780 Aust, G.

Colonial Department

1768 Larpent, J.
1768 Serle, A.
1776 Sawer, W.

Office Keepers c. 1689-1782

In 1684 the 'Office Keeper' was amongst those of the Secretaries' officials who were entitled to fees. (fn. 70) Although Office or Chamber Keepers had undoubtedly been employed at an earlier date it is not until the reign of William III that they can be identified. Before 1698 their number seems to have varied. The poll tax assessment of 1689 suggests that there were then three in Shrewsbury's office and two in Nottingham's. (fn. 71) Trumbull appears to have employed three during his term of office 1695-7. (fn. 72) From 1698 it was the regular practice for there to be two in each of the older departments. (fn. 73) Only one was appointed in the Scottish and Colonial Departments. The Office Keepers appear to have enjoyed a tenure similar to that of the Clerks and to have remained in employment until death or voluntary resignation. On occasion they exercised their functions by deputy. (fn. 74)

In addition to their fees, the Office Keepers received salaries from the Secretaries of State. These were already fixed at £20 16s in 1695 and remained unchanged until the end of the period. (fn. 75)

Northern and Southern Departments

By 1689 Shorter, T.
Robinson, J.
Wright, W.
Price, -
Sedgwick, -
By 1695 Smith, T.
Ramsey, B.
By 1698 Turner, J.
1702 Goodridge, A.
By 1706 Mynatt, W.
By 1708 Marlow, -
By 1716 Blenner, J.
Burrows, I.
By 1723 Ward, A.
Noble, J.
1730 Sommer, J.
1732 Quin, W.
By 1748 White, J.
1752 Turner, R.
1759 Milburn, W.
c. 1769 Gorton, W.
c. 1770 Kirby, W.
1777 Doudiet, J.
c. 1782 Shaw, J.

Scottish Department

By 1710 Turner, J.
1742 Massey, J.

Colonial Department

By 1769 Muly, J. P.
1782 Lackington, C.

Necessary Women c. 1695-1782

The earliest evidence of the employment of a Necessary Woman or Cleaner dates from 1695 and relates to Trumbull's office. (fn. 76) From at least 1698 it was the regular practice for there to be one Necessary Woman in each of the older departments. (fn. 77) One was probably employed in the Scottish Department from the first although there is no evidence on the point until the time of Tweeddale's secretaryship (1742-6). (fn. 78) There was one Necessary Woman in the Colonial Department throughout its existence. Necessary Women held their places on a tenure that was similar to that of the Office Keepers.

The Necessary Women received their remuneration, which included a salary and an allowance for incidents, from the Secretaries of State. During the secretaryships of Trumbull and Vernon (1695-1702) this amounted to £9 10s a year. (fn. 79) Harley (1704-8) paid his Necessary Woman £12 a year. Sunderland and Stanhope paid theirs £14 between 1717 and 1720 as did Carteret and Newcastle between 1724 and 1733 and Egremont between 1761 and 1763. (fn. 80) In 1766 the Necessary Women in the offices of Shelburne and Seymour Conway were receiving £14 and £48 respectively. (fn. 81) The Necessary Woman in the Colonial Department was paid £48. (fn. 82)

Northern and Southern Departments

By 1695 Pope, -
By 1698 Hill, -
c. 1699 Ombee, -
By 1717 Smart, E.
1724 Bickford, M.
By 1745 Turfery, E.
Graham, M.
By 1751 Shirley, P.
c. 1759 Southcott, M.
c. 1765 Matthews, E.
c. 1778 Emmitt, E.

Scottish Department

1742 Blenner, -

Colonial Department

By 1769 Muly, E.

Embellisher of Letters 1660-c. 1800

The employment of individuals to embellish diplomatic letters and other documents, particularly those addressed to eastern princes, occurred during the early Stuart period and was continued after the Restoration. (fn. 83) From 1662 payments were made to a series of Embellishers for this work. These payments, usually at the rate of £10 a document, were made by the Treasurer of the Chamber on the authority of a warrant from one of the Secretaries of State. From 1707 to 1782 a regular salary of £60 was paid by the Treasurer of the Chamber. (fn. 84) Although in fact in the employment of the Secretaries of State, the Embellisher was from at least 1714 sworn by the Lord Chamberlain as an official of the Royal Household. (fn. 85) By 1797 the salary had been reduced to £25 16s carried on the Stationer's bill of the Foreign Office. (fn. 86) The last trace of the office occurs in 1800. (fn. 87)

By 1662 Tomlin, G.
By 1669 Royer, G.
By 1704 Brand, T.
1761 Holland, J.

Writer of Gazette 1665-1863, Deputy Writer of Gazette c. 1751-1828 and French Translator of Gazette 1666-c. 1710

The publication of the London Gazette began in 1665. (fn. 88) It was at first prepared under the auspices of Williamson, Under Secretary to Arlington. On the appointment of Coventry as Secretary in 1672 an arrangement was made whereby the profits from its sale were equally divided between the two offices and from this date the Gazette may be regarded as common to the secretariat as a whole. The compilation of the Gazette was at first undertaken for brief periods by Muddiman and Perrott. By 1673 it had been entrusted to Yard, originally a Clerk in Arlington's office, during whose period of service the writership came to be recognised as a distinct office with a regular salary attached to it. Yard's successor, C. Delafaye, was placed under the supervision of the four Under Secretaries who were responsible for the contents of the Gazette. (fn. 89) This arrangement did not prove satisfactory and on the appointment of Steele in 1707 the Writer regained his former position. Originally the Writer was appointed by the Secretaries of State. In 1719, however, Buckley, who had originally been appointed in 1714, had the office conferred upon him by the crown by letters patent under the great seal. (fn. 90) Thereafter it was granted for life and the principal was empowered to exercise his functions by deputy. Between 1714 and 1828 the office was held by persons who were either officials or former officials of the Secretaries' offices who appointed Clerks in those offices as their deputies. Rolleston (1803-28), however, exercised his duties in person and was responsible for reorganising the office in 1811 following the expiry of the Printer's patent. (fn. 91) Gregson, the last Writer of the Gazette, also took an active part in the work at the beginning of his period of office (1829-63). During the course of the year 1848 a series of reforms were carried out with the object of transferring the business connected with the printing and publishing of the Gazette from the Secretaries of State to the Treasury. The immediate direction of the Gazette was placed wholly in the hands of a Superintendent. Gregson was allowed to continue to receive his salary as Writer until his death when the office was finally abolished. (fn. 92)

The salary of the Writer of the Gazette was paid by the Printer who was responsible to the Secretaries of State for keeping the accounts of its sales. Yard's salary was £60 in 1679 and 1684. By 1695 it had risen to £100. (fn. 93) C. Delafaye received £60. Steele was appointed at £300 in 1707 and King and Ford at £200 in 1711 and 1712. (fn. 94) From the time of Buckley's appointment in 1714 the salary remained fixed at £300. (fn. 95) The salary of the deputy was £30 paid by the principal. (fn. 96)

In 1666 a French version of the Gazette began to be published, being prepared by a distinct official known as the French Translator who received a salary of £52 from the same source as the Writer. There is no trace of this office after 1710. (fn. 97)

Writer of Gazette

1665 Nov. Muddiman, H.
1666 Feb. Perrott, C.
By 1673 Yard, R.
1702 May Delafaye, C.
1707 May Steele, R.
By 1711 Scott, -
1711 Dec. King, W.
1712 July Ford, C.
1714 Sept. Buckley, S.
1741 22 Nov. Weston, E.
1770 13 July Fraser, W.
1803 15 Jan. Rolleston, S.
1829 23 Sept. Gregson, W.

Deputy Writer of Gazette

By 1751 Brown, G.
By 1770 Wace, F.
By 1781 Aust, G.
By 1791 Moore, F.
1797 30 Jan. Rolleston, S.
By 1804 Rolleston, H.

French Translator of Gazette

1666 Morainville, -
By 1679 Delafaye, L.

Law Clerk 1743-74

This office was created in 1743. (fn. 98) Appointments were made by the crown by letters patent under the great seal granting it during pleasure. The function of its holders was 'to attend the Secretaries of State in order to take the depositions of such persons whom it may be necessary to examine upon affairs which may concern the Public and to do and perform all such matters relating thereto as may be committed to (their) care'. (fn. 99) The office was discontinued in 1774 on the resignation of Stanhope. It was, however, revived in 1791 and attached to the Home Office. (fn. 100)

The salary attached to the office in 1743 was £200, payable by the Paymaster of Pensions. (fn. 101) In 1747 it was raised to £300 payable by the Treasury Solicitor. It was further increased to £500 in 1761. (fn. 102)

1743 10 Feb. Waite, T.
1747 4 Aug. Stanhope, L.

Secretary for Latin Tongue 1660-1832

This office originated in the early sixteenth century. (fn. 103) Appointments were made by the crown by letters patent under the great seal. It was held on a life tenure from 1661 to 1681 and during pleasure thereafter except for the years 1722-30 when it was again held for life. (fn. 104) The office appears to have become a sinecure by the beginning of the eighteenth century and it was discontinued on the revocation of Hobhouse's patent in 1832.

The patent salary attached to the office was £80. An additional salary of £200 was granted to Lee in 1722 (fn. 105) and was continued to his successors. Both salaries were paid at the Exchequer.

1661 12 Jan. Fanshawe, Sir R.
1666 19 July Oudart, N.
1682 2 March Cooke, J.
1691 6 Nov. Hill, R.
1714 22 Oct. Hill, S.
1718 18 July Lee, W.
1730 27 Nov. Couraud, J.
1752 20 April Ramsden, T.
1792 15 Nov. Bruce, J.
1826 23 May Hobhouse, H.

Secretary for French Tongue 1660-1700

This office originated in the fifteenth century. (fn. 106) Appointments were made by the crown by letters patent under the great seal. De Vic was appointed for life; Henshaw was at first appointed for life, in 1662, but received a new grant during pleasure in 1693. (fn. 107) The office appears to have been a sinecure from the Restoration until the death of Henshaw in 1700 when it was discontinued. The salary was £66 13s 4d payable at the Exchequer.

1634 27 Sept. de Vic, H.
1662 13 March Henshaw, T.

Interpreter of Oriental Languages 1723-1835

This office originated in 1723. (fn. 108) Its holder was principally concerned with translation from Arabic. Appointments were made by the crown. Until 1782 it was attached to the secretariat generally. In that year it passed under the general authority of the Home Office, being transferred to the Colonial Office in 1804. (fn. 109) It was abolished in 1816 but was temporarily revived between 1823 and 1835. (fn. 110)

The salary attached to the office was paid by the Paymaster of Pensions from 1723 to 1770 and after 1784 from the contingent funds of the Home and Colonial Offices. (fn. 111) Until 1816 it was fixed at £80. The salary of Salamé, the last holder of the office, was £150 from 1823 to 1828 and £200 from 1828 to 1835. (fn. 112)

1723 May Negri, S.
1727 May Didichi, T. R.
1734 May Massabeky, J.
1739 July Stamma, F.
1755 Sept. Stonehewer, R.
1763 June Arbona, J.
1767 Dec. Logie, A.
1769 May Deceramis, A. X.
1782 March Cardozo Nunes, I.
1784 May Lucas, S.
1794 Jan. Tully, R.
1802 July Costa, F.
1809 Sept. Delagarde, C.
1823 Jan. Salamé, A. Y.

Translator of German Language 1735-1802

This office originated in 1735 with the appointment of a Decipherer, Zolman, who by the time of his death in 1748 had acquired the title of Translator of the German Language. (fn. 113) Until 1782 it was attached to the secretariat generally. From that date it passed under the authority of the Foreign Office, being formally included in its establishment in 1797. The office, which had probably become a sinecure by 1760, was abolished in 1802 on the death of Fraser. (fn. 114)

Until 1782 the salary attached to the office was, like those of the Decipherers, disbursed by the Secretary of the Post Office out of secret service money. From that year the Foreign Secretary was responsible for paying it out of the secret service money provided for his department. Zolman's salary, originally £200, was raised to £300 in 1744. (fn. 115) Wallace was appointed at £200 in 1748, his salary being increased to £400 between 1761 and 1763. (fn. 116) From the time of Howard's appointment in 1772 the salary remained fixed at £300. (fn. 117)

1735 July Zolman, P. H.
1748 Aug. Wallace, J.
1772 March Howard, Hon. C.
1773 Oct. Fraser, W.

Translator of Southern Languages 1755-c. 1765

The office of Translator of Southern, or Italian and Spanish, Languages originated in 1755. It seems to have been created principally with the object of providing an allowance for Rivers who was temporarily removed from the position of Under Secretary in that year. (fn. 118) Rivers continued to hold it after his reappointment as under Secretary in 1756.

The salary attached to the office was, like those of the Decipherers, disbursed by the Secretary of the Post Office out of secret service money. Originally £200 it was raised to £400 at some time between 1763 and 1765. (fn. 119) The last evidence of the payment of the salary is of the latter year although it is possible that Rivers continued to receive it as a form of retiring allowance until his death in 1807. (fn. 120)


1755 Dec. Rivers, J.

Decipherers 1701-1844

Although cryptography and translation were amongst the general responsibilities of the Secretaries of State from the Tudor period, it was only in the early eighteenth century that settled arrangements were made for the decipherment of letters and dispatches. (fn. 121) After the Restoration much of the work was entrusted to Wallis, who, until 1701, had no established position, being paid by the Secretaries of State for each commission that he executed. In that year, however, the Decipherers' office was placed on a permanent basis, Wallis and his grandson, Blencowe, being granted a regular salary by privy seal. (fn. 122) Blencowe was succeeded in 1713 by Keill who was himself succeeded in 1716 by the elder E. Willes. Between 1716 and the abolition of the office there were invariably between one and three members of this family serving as Decipherers. In 1715 a second salaried position was established and conferred upon Corbiere who at first appears to have worked under the immediate supervision of the Treasury. (fn. 123) Corbiere was succeeded by Scholing (1743-8) and he in turn by the brothers Neubourg (1750-3; 1753-62). (fn. 124)

Until 1722 the salaries of the Decipherers were paid at the Exchequer. From that year until 1782 they were disbursed by the Secretary of the Post Office from secret service money in the same manner as those of the officials of the secret department of that office with whom the Decipherers came to be closely associated. (fn. 125) Since no regular accounts of these disbursements exist it is in many cases impossible for the periods of service of Decipherers to be determined precisely. New appointments and changes in salary appear usually to have been a matter of oral communication of the King's pleasure to the Secretary of the Post Office. (fn. 126)

By 1723 a third salaried post of Decipherer had come into existence and was held by Ashfield who was succeeded by Lampe in 1729. On Lampe's death in 1755 his salary was divided between one of the Clerks in the secret department of the Post Office and the former Under Secretary, Rivers, who was given the title of Translator of the Southern, or Italian and Spanish, Languages. (fn. 127) In 1735 a salary was made available from secret service money for Zolman who was given particular responsibility for the translation of the German language. (fn. 128) From 1762 the Decipherers' office was staffed exclusively by members of the Willes family. (fn. 129) Having been common to the secretariat as a whole until 1782 it passed in that year under the authority of the Foreign Secretary who became responsible for paying the salaries out of the secret service money provided for that department. The office was abolished on 1 October 1844. (fn. 130)

The salaries of the Decipherers varied considerably in amount. Wallis and Blencowe were granted £100 in 1701, Blencowe's salary being raised to £200 in 1709. (fn. 131) Keill was appointed at £100 in 1713. (fn. 132) The elder E. Willes' salary, originally £200, was raised to £250 in 1721. (fn. 133) Corbiere's salary began at £100 in 1715 and was raised to £200 in 1716, to £400 in 1721 and to £500 in 1722. (fn. 134) In 1742 the elder and the younger E. Willes were sharing £1000, Corbiere was receiving £800 and Lampe £500. (fn. 135) Scholing was appointed at £300 in 1743 and the elder W. Willes at £100 in 1744, the younger E. Willes also being granted an additional £100 in the latter year. (fn. 136) The two Neubourgs were successively appointed at £300 in 1750 and 1753. (fn. 137) In 1761 the elder E. Willes, now Bishop of Bath and Wells, was being paid £800, the younger E. Willes £300, G. W. Neubourg £300 and the elder W. Willes £200. (fn. 138) In 1763 the Bishop and the younger E. Willes were both receiving £500 and the elder F. Willes £300. (fn. 139) In 1775 the latter was advanced from £400 to £700 in consideration of his services as Under Secretary 1772-5. (fn. 140) In 1801-4 the salaries of the elder F. and the youngest E. Willes remained fixed at £700 and £500 respectively while the younger F. Willes was receiving £200. (fn. 141) In 1806 the elder F. Willes was receiving £900 and the younger F. Willes £500. (fn. 142) The salaries of the last Decipherers, the younger F. Willes and Lovell were £700 and £200 in 1844. (fn. 143)

1701 Wallis, J.
Blencowe, W.
1713 Keill, J.
1715 Corbiere, A.
1716 Willes, E.
By 1723 Ashfield, F.
1729 Lampe, J.
c. 1741 Willes, E.
1743 Scholing, -
1744 Willes, W.
1750 Neubourg, P. F.
1753 Neubourg, G. W.
By 1763 Willes, F.
By 1793 Willes, E.
1793 Willes, W.
By 1801 Willes, F.
By 1844 Lovell, W. W.

Keeper of State Papers 1660-1854

This office originated in 1578. (fn. 144) Appointments were made by the crown by letters patent under the great seal. The tenure of the office varied. It was held for life 1660- 1701, during pleasure 1702-22, for life 1722-38, (fn. 145) during pleasure 1739-1800 and for life 1800-54. (fn. 146) Power to act by deputy was included in patents from 1702. (fn. 147) The office was practically a sinecure for much of the eighteenth century. With the appointment of Bruce in 1792, however, the Keeper became active and in 1800 the office was reorganised and given a new establishment. (fn. 148) The office was abolished on the death of Hobhouse in 1854 when its functions were transferred to the Public Record Office.

In 1660 the Keeper was receiving a salary of 3s 4d a day and an additional allowance of £100 a year. In 1661 a consolidated salary of £160 was provided payable at the Exchequer. (fn. 149) At the time of the reorganisation of 1800 this was increased to £500. (fn. 150)

By 1660 Raymond, T.
1661 31 Dec. Williamson, J.
1702 16 July Tucker, J.
1714 18 Nov. Howard, H.
1739 3 Feb. Couraud, J.
1741 5 May Stone, A.
1774 3 May Porten, Sir S.
1792 15 Nov. Bruce, J.
1826 23 May Hobhouse, H.

Collector of State Papers 1725-1848

This office, the full title of which was Collector and Transmitter of State Papers, was created in 1725. (fn. 151) Appointments were made by the crown by letters patent under the great seal. Except for the years 1739-41 when it was granted during pleasure the office was always held for life. Between 1739 and 1751 it was occupied by joint holders. The nominal function of the office, which was a sinecure almost from the time of its creation, was to collect records from the offices of the Secretaries of State and to transmit them to the Keeper of State Papers. It passed under the general authority of the Foreign Office in 1782 and was formally included in its establishment in 1795. (fn. 152) It was discontinued on the death of Goddard in 1848.

The remuneration attached to the office was £500, composed of a salary of £400 and an allowance of £100 for Clerks and incidents. This sum was disbursed by the Secretary of the Post Office until 1782 when the Foreign Secretary became responsible for its payment. (fn. 153)

1725 20 Jan. Tilson, G.
1739 18 May Weston, E.
Stone, A.
1741 26 June Weston, E.
Couraud, J.
1742 4 Jan. Couraud, J.
Ramsden, T.
1796 6 Jan. Goddard, C.

Methodisers of State Papers 1764-1800

The offices of Methodisers of State Papers, which were usually three in number, were created in 1764. (fn. 154) Appointments were made by the crown by warrant under sign manual. The Methodisers of State Papers also held the distinct offices of Methodisers of the records of the Court of Exchequer which had been created in 1763 and which were abolished in 1789. (fn. 155) The offices of Methodisers of State Papers were abolished in 1800 when that of Keeper of State Papers was reorganised. (fn. 156)

In 1764 the Methodisers were accorded salaries of £100 each, an allowance of £100 for Clerks and a further allowance of £100 for incidents. (fn. 157) This was in addition to their remuneration for their work in the Exchequer. When this work was discontinued in 1789 a new arrangement was adopted. One Methodiser, the elder Astle, served without salary and the remaining two, Topham and the younger Astle, were given salaries of £200 each. At the same time allowances of £100 for Clerks, £100 for incidents and £50 for a Housekeeper were also provided. (fn. 158) In addition to their ordinary remuneration the Methodisers also shared £1000 from the secret service money. This payment does not appear to have been continued after 1782. (fn. 159)

1764 16 July Ayloffe, Sir J.
Ducarel, A. C.
Astle, T.
1781 30 April Ducarel, A. C.
Astle, T.
Topham, J.
1789 26 June Astle, T.
Topham, J.
Astle, T.

Clerks of the Signet, Deputy Clerks of the Signet and Office Keepers of the Signet Office 1660-1851

The number of the Clerks of the Signet was fixed at four from the sixteenth century. (fn. 160) The Clerks were appointed by the crown by letters patent under the great seal. (fn. 161) Between 1660 and 1807 grants of the offices were invariably for life and until 1678 reversionary in character. (fn. 162) After 1678 appointments were usually made only when one of the offices fell vacant. (fn. 163) Although the patents did not authorise the Clerks to act by deputy, it is clear that by the end of the seventeenth century most of the work had in fact been delegated to deputies or 'Clerks for the Business of the Office'. (fn. 164) From the early eighteenth century it was the usual practice for those Clerks who wished to act by deputy to secure from the crown a commission under the privy seal authorising them to do so. (fn. 165) Deputies, who occasionally acted for more than one principal at the same time, were frequently selected from amongst the Clerks in the Secretaries' offices.

In 1817 the offices were regulated by act which required that Clerks appointed thereafter should exercise their duties in person subject to such conditions as the Treasury should lay down. (fn. 166) In 1832 the Treasury was given statutory authority to reduce the number of clerkships when it saw fit. (fn. 167) Under this authority one office was abolished in 1833 and another in 1846. (fn. 168) The remaining two clerkships were abolished by act in 1851 which transferred to the Home Office the residual functions connected with the signet. (fn. 169)

Originally the Clerks of the Signet received no salary, being dependent on dividends of the fees arising from signet business for the greater part of their remuneration. During the Tudor and early Stuart period they had been entitled to diet as members of the Household. In the latter part of the seventeenth century this privilege was commuted for board wages of £30 a year each payable by the Cofferer. (fn. 170) In 1825, under the authority of the act of 1817, the Treasury substituted a fixed salary of £300 in place of all other emoluments for Clerks appointed thereafter. (fn. 171) Until the early nineteenth century the remuneration of the deputies appears to have been a matter for private negotiation between them and their principals. From at least 1834, however, the deputies received a recognised share of the fees arising from signet business. (fn. 172)

An Office Keeper of the Signet Office first occurs in 1689. Until 1790 he was also Office Keeper of the Privy Seal Office. During the eighteenth century he occasionally acted as a Deputy Clerk of the Signet as well. In 1814 the Office Keeper was also appointed Receiver of Fees. (fn. 172) A second Office Keeper was appointed about 1828 and from about 1833 these two officials were described as Record Keepers and Receivers of Fees.

Clerks of the Signet

By 1660 Warwick, Sir P.
Sir T. (fn. 172)
Trumbull, W.
Nicholas, J.
By 1678 Bere, S.
1678 Morrice, N.
1683 15 Jan. Trumbull, W.
c. 1684 Gauntlet, J.
1705 9 Jan. Cooke, W.
1708 25 Aug. Moyle, J.
1716 18 Feb. Alexander, Hon. P.
1716 2 Oct. Fry, G.
1728 28 May Delafaye, C.
Delafaye, T.
1729 13 Nov. Weston, E.
1736 7 May Moyle, J.
1746 22 May Blair, W.
1762 22 Dec. Rivers, J.
1770 15 July Wilkinson, M.
1781 16 April Morin, J.
1782 4 March Fraser, W.
1797 June Wilmot, E.
1801 24 Jan. Taylor, B.
1802 11 Dec. Bentinck, W. H. E.
1807 19 March Gage, J.
1807 30 Oct. Powlett, T. N.
1825 26 Feb. Cockburn, A.
1826 8 May Stapleton, A. G.
1847 26 Jan. Grey, C. S.

Deputy Clerks of the Signet

By 1682 Gauntlet, J.
Williamson, R.
Woodeson, G.
Tench, J.
By 1701 Gregson, R. (fn. 172)
By 1716 Fry, G.
By 1722 Richardson, J.
By 1723 Haynes, H.
1725 Marwood, W.
1725 Fisher, T.
By 1735 Davids, J.
1735 Moyle, J.
1735 Maskelyne, E.
1740 Richardson, J.
1740 Haynes, T.
1744 Brown, G.
1761 Haynes, J.
1769 Shadwell, R.
1769 Brietzcke, C.
1776 Jones, J.
1776 Brietzcke, C.
1785 Pollock, W.
1795 Jones, C. P.
1795 Higden, W. H.
1801 Williams Wynn, H. W.
By 1804 Bidwell, T.
1808 Canning, S.
1814 Canning, C. F.
1816 Venables, T.
1837 Plasket, T. H.
1841 Taylor, B.
1850 Scott, H. D.

Office Keepers of the Signet Office

By 1689 Littlefield, G.
By 1702 Fountain, N.
1735 Richardson, T.
1773 Routledge, J.
By 1783 Jones, E. D.
By 1789 Jones, C. P.
By 1828 Jones, E. D.
1832 Sanders, H. W.


  • 200. For the principles governing the distribution of functions between the Secretaries, see pp. 1-2.
  • 201. For the remuneration of the Secretaries generally, see F. M. G. Evans (Mrs C. S. S. Higham), 'The Emoluments of the Principal Secretaries of State in the 17th Century', Eng. Hist. Rev., xxxv (1920), 513-28; Thomson, Secretaries of State, 145-7.
  • 202. This additional salary was a charge on the farm of the Post Office 1660-8, on the farm of the customs on unwrought wood 1668-74, on the customs in general 1674-99 and on the Exchequer from 1699 (Evans, Principal Secretary, 212-13; CTB, xiv, 412).
  • 203. Both Jersey (1699-1700) and Manchester (1702) received the larger allowance as Secretaries for the Southern Department although they were junior to Vernon (1697-1702) in length of service.
  • 204. CTB, xxi, 132, 169.
  • 205. Warrants to Cofferer 3 and 12 Feb. 1709 (BM Loan 29/45A f. 4/121).
  • 206. Thomson, Secretaries of State, 31-2, 164-6; Spector, American Department, 52-5.
  • 207. For the purpose of the lists the authorities used for the allocation of duties between the Secretaries are Evans, Principal Secretary, 349-51; Thomson, Secretaries of State, 180-5; Handbook of British Chronology, 2nd ed., ed. F. M. Powicke and E. B. Fryde (London 1961), 110-15. The proposed appointment of Granville in Feb. 1746 has been ignored since the formalities attending his entry into office were not completed.
  • 1. Transferred to Southern Department Sept. 1674.
  • 2. Transferred to Southern Department April 1680.
  • 3. Transferred to Southern Department Feb. 1681.
  • 4. Transferred to Southern Department April 1684.
  • 5. Transferred to Southern Department Oct. 1688.
  • 6. Sole Secretary June-Dec. 1690; Secretary for Southern Department Dec. 1690-March 1692; Sole Secretary March 1692-March 1693; Secretary for Southern Department March-Nov. 1693.
  • 7. Sole Secretary Nov. 1693-March 1694; Secretary for Southern Department March 1694.
  • 8. Transferred to Southern Department April 1695.
  • 9. Sole Secretary Dec. 1698-May 1699; Secretary for Northern Department May 1699-June 1700; Sole Secretary June-Nov. 1700; Secretary for Southern Department Nov. 1700-Dec. 1701; transferred to Northern Department Jan. 1702.
  • 10. Transferred to Southern Department May 1704.
  • 11. Transferred to Southern Department Aug. 1713.
  • 12. Transferred to Northern Department Dec. 1716.
  • 13. App. temporary Secretary for Southern Department in absence of Stanhope; assumed full responsibility for Southern Department Dec. 1716 on Stanhope's transfer to Northern Department.
  • 14. Temporary Secretary for both departments in absence of Townshend and Carteret.
  • 15. Transferred to Northern Department Feb. 1748.
  • 16. Transferred to Northern Department March 1754.
  • 17. Transferred to Southern Department Aug. 1763.
  • 18. Transferred to Northern Department May 1766.
  • 19. Transferred to Southern Department Oct. 1768.
  • 20. Transferred to Southern Department Dec. 1770.
  • 21. Sole Secretary March-Oct. 1779.
  • 22. For a discussion of the origin and development of these offices, see pp. 7-12.
  • 23. BM Add. MS 28889 ff. 158, 179, 183; 1st Rept. on Fees, 19, 27. These payments were probably related to the allowance of £100 formerly paid to the Under Secretary who acted as Agent for the Irish government (Hist. MSS Comm. Ormonde, vi, 40).
  • 24. Royal warrant 12 July 1770 (T 52/60 p. 463) effective from 1 Jan. 1770. These salaries were paid by the Treasurer of the Chamber until 1782; in that year they were transferred to the Exchequer (T 52/64 pp. 452-3).
  • 25. Notes and Queries, cxcix (1954), 208; ibid. cciv (1959), 284, 413; SP 45/31.
  • 26. SP 45/32; Spector, American Department, 50-1.
  • 27. The standing of Bridgeman and Richards relative to that of Williamson in Arlington's office is obscure.
  • 28. On Vernon's promotion to the secretaryship in Dec. 1697 his former position as Under Secretary to Shrewsbury appears to have been left vacant.
  • 29. The office formerly held by Aglionby remained vacant between Aug. 1702 and Oct. 1703.
  • 30. As acting Secretary for the Southern Department from June to Dec. 1716 Methuen appears to have been served by Stanhope's Under Secretaries.
  • 31. As acting Secretary for both departments from May to Dec. 1723 Walpole appears to have been served by Townshend's and Carteret's Under Secretaries.
  • 32. Morin and Fraser jointly filled the place left vacant by Wallace.
  • 33. Appointed Under Secretary for American affairs.
  • 34. On his transfer from the Southern to the Northern Department Seymour Conway appointed Fraser Under Secretary in place of his former Assistant Under Secretaries, Morin and Roberts, who remained in the Southern Department to serve Richmond, the incoming Secretary.
  • 35. Macleane and Morgann, who had special responsibilities for American affairs, jointly filled the position formerly held by Roberts.
  • 36. Appointed in place of Shelburne's three former Assistant Under Secretaries, Morin, Macleane and Morgann.
  • 37. Before the appointment of Knox there was only one Under Secretary in the Colonial Department.
  • 38. For Clerks generally, see pp. 16-18.
  • 39. For Senior Clerks, see p. 39.
  • 40. Evans, Principal Secretary, 193.
  • 41. Trumbull Add. MS 113; BM Add. MSS 40785, 40786.
  • 42. BM Loan 29/162; SP 34/12 f. 165; Sunderland MS D 1/36.
  • 43. Stanhope MS 76.
  • 44. MSS Rawlinson C 367, 123.
  • 45. Petition of E. Maskelyne (SP 36/43 ff. 19-21).
  • 46. Shelburne MS 134 p. 108.
  • 47. PRO 30/47/31/1-7.
  • 48. Shelburne MS 134 pp. 119, 147.
  • 49. Changes in salary arrangements in the Southern Department 1769-70 and the Northern Department 1770-6 may be studied in FO 95/591/1 ff. 5-6.
  • 50. Tweeddale MS Acc. 4862 Box 160/1 Bundle 4.
  • 51. Spector, American Department, 62 n. 2; T 1/579 Schedule 2.
  • 52. 4 Geo. III, c 24, ss 1, 6.
  • 53. Shelburne MS 134 pp. 101-3; 9 Geo. III, c 35, s 5. For the distribution of these sums amongst Clerks, see FO 95/591/1 ff. 5-6; Spector, American Department, 62 n. 2.
  • 54. 'Writing Clerk'.
  • 55. Possibly Chief Clerk.
  • 56. Began service as 'Extraordinary' Clerk.
  • 57. Probably Private Secretary to Carteret rather than Clerk.
  • 58. Not a salaried Clerk.
  • 59. Described in 1749 as 'Assistant Secretary'.
  • 60. For a discussion of the origin and development of this office, see pp. 13-16.
  • 61. 1st Rept. on Fees, 6.
  • 62. Tweeddale MS Acc. 4862 Box 160/1 Bundle 4; Spector, American Department, 51.
  • 63. See p. 34.
  • 64. This remained the case in 1786 (1st Rept. on Fees, 4).
  • 65. CHOP 1760-5, 302-3. Before 1770 these two Senior Clerks were attached to individual Secretaries regardless of the departments for which they had responsibility. The Secretaries in question were: Halifax 1763-5, Seymour Conway 1765-8, Weymouth 1768-70. From the appointment of Sandwich in 1770 the Northern Department was invariably the one to which two Senior Clerks were attached.
  • 66. For the salaries of Clerks generally, see pp. 33-4.
  • 67. Evans, Principal Secretary, 193.
  • 68. LS 13/231 pp. 13-14.
  • 69. Trumbull Add. MS 113.
  • 70. BM Add. MS 40785 ff. 20, 34.
  • 71. 1st Rept. on Fees, 7, 24-5, 32. The following deputies can be identified: Ancell, Brooke, Crowder, Longmore, Mitton, Phipps and, possibly, Evans and Pearson.
  • 72. Trumbull Add. MS 113; 1st Rept. on Fees, 24-5, 32-3; Tweeddale MS Acc. 4862 Box 160/1 Bundle 4; Spector, American Department, 51.
  • 73. Trumbull Add. MS 113. It is possible that the Hill who was Necessary Woman to Shrewsbury in 1698 was identical with the person of the same name who was serving in some capacity in Nottingham's office in 1689 (LS 13/231 p. 14).
  • 74. BM Add. MS 40785 ff. 20, 34.
  • 75. Tweeddale MS Acc. 4862 Box 57/1b.
  • 76. Trumbull Add. MS 113; BM Add. MSS 40785, 40786.
  • 77. BM Loan 29/162; Sunderland MS D 1/36; Stanhope MS 76; MSS Rawlinson C 367, 123; PRO 30/47/31/1-7.
  • 78. Shelburne MS 134 p. 119.
  • 79. Spector, American Department, 51.
  • 80. Evans, Principal Secretary, 200; CSPD 1699-1700, 330.
  • 81. CTB, xxi, 517; AO 1/219/426.
  • 82. LC 3/63 p. 49; LC 3/64 p. 57.
  • 83. 16th Rept. on Finance, 320.
  • 84. FO 366/671 p. 144.
  • 85. For the London Gazette, see Evans, Principal Secretary, 291-6; Nelson, Home Office, 146-9; J. G. Muddiman, The King's Journalist (London 1923), 174-93; L. Hanson, Government and the Press (Oxford 1936), 84-93; P. Fraser, The Intelligence of the Secretaries of State 1660-88 (Cambridge 1956), 47-56; P. M. Handover, The History of the London Gazette 1665-1965 (London 1965).
  • 86. Hist. MSS Comm. Portland, viii, 187-8; House of Lords MSS, new ser., v, 467-8. The annual allowance of £100 which the Under Secretaries received from the profits of the Gazette was probably paid to them in respect of this function (BM Loan 29/162).
  • 87. Letters patent of 7 May 1719 (C 66/3531). In 1828-9 the question of the right of nomination to the writership was the cause of a lengthy dispute between the Home and Foreign Offices. Peel, the Home Secretary, finally prevailed and nominated Gregson (FO 366/413).
  • 88. The printing of the Gazette was undertaken by Thomas Newcombe 1665-88, Edward Jones 1688- 1706, Jacob Tonson 1707-10, Benjamin Tooke 1710-14 and Jacob Tonson from 1714. From 1716 to 1810 the printing and publishing were in the hands of patentees. Patents were granted as follows: to Samuel Buckley 16 April 1716 for 40 years (C 66/3514), to Edward Owen 26 March 1756 for 40 years (C 66/3651), to Edward Johnston 28 Nov. 1793 for 14 years from 1796 (C 66/3885). In 1811 Robert George Clarke was appointed Printer (FO 366/413). On his death in 1839 he was succeeded by Francis Watts.
  • 89. TM 27 June 1848 (T 29/522 pp. 443-4), 8 Aug. 1848 (T 29/524 pp. 162-4), 13 Oct. 1848 (T 29/526 pp. 215-22). The office of Superintendent was instituted 1839 and held by Francis Watts (1839-54), Thomas Lawrence Behan (1854-69) and Thomas Walker (1869-89).
  • 90. All Souls MS 204 f. 81c; BM Add. MS 41806 f. 64; Trumbull Add. MS 113.
  • 91. BM Loan 29/162; Correspondence of Richard Steele, ed. R. Blanchard (London 1941), 201; J. Swift, Prose Works, ed. F. Ryland and others (London 1898-1922), ii, 309, 374.
  • 92. SP 35/19 ff. 154-65; letters patent to Buckley of 7 May 1719 (C 66/3531).
  • 93. 1st Rept. on Fees, 27, 29.
  • 94. A. Grey, Debates of the House of Commons 1667-94 (London 1769), vi, 161; All Souls MS 204 f. 81c; BM Add. MS 41806 f. 64; Trumbull Add. MS 113; BM Loan 29/162; SP 34/12 f. 165.
  • 95. For some account of this office, see Thomson, Secretaries of State, 136, 140-1.
  • 96. Letters patent to Waite 10 Feb. 1743 (C 66/3612).
  • 97. Nelson, Home Office, 59.
  • 98. CTBP 1742-5, 396; AO 3/789.
  • 99. AO 1/2324/62; AO 3/1102.
  • 100. For this office, see 1st Rept. on Fees, 34; Evans, Principal Secretary, 21, 170-3; Nelson, Home Office, 145-6.
  • 101. By letters patent 24 Jan. 1722 Lee, who had been appointed during pleasure in 1718, received a new grant of the office for life (C 66/3547).
  • 102. Ibid.
  • 103. For this office, see J. Otway-Ruthven, The King's Secretary and the Signet Office in the 15th Century (Cambridge 1939), 89-105, 156; Evans, Principal Secretary, 19-21, 170-3.
  • 104. Letters patent to Henshaw, 4 May 1693 (C 66/3364).
  • 105. SP 44/123 p. 275; SP 44/124 pp. 30, 114. For this office after 1782, see Nelson, Home Office, 57-9; D. M. Young, The Colonial Office in the Early 19th Century (London 1961), 21, 74-5, 268, 269.
  • 106. HO 82/3; the Colonial Office became responsible for paying the salary of the Interpreter from 5 Jan. 1804 (CO 701/1 p. 48).
  • 107. CO 701/2 pp. 29, 109; CO 701/3 p. 62. Between 1854 and 1917 an Interpreter of Oriental Languages was attached to the Foreign Office. This post was held by John William Redhouse 1854-92 and Charles Wells 1892-1917 (Foreign Office List (1892), 179; ibid. (1893), 216; ibid. (1918), xxiv).
  • 108. T 52/33 p. 87; T 52/60 p. 355; TM 14 May 1784 (T 29/55 p. 239).
  • 109. T 52/33 p. 87; CO 701/2 pp. 29, 109, 142; CO 701/3 p. 62.
  • 110. CTBP 1735-8, 37. For this Office, see Ellis, Post Office, 129-30, 133; 16th Rept. on Finance, 311, 324.
  • 111. Order in council 21 June 1797 (PC 2/148 pp. 504-5). Between 1806 and 1809, however, the emoluments formerly attached to the office were shared by three persons, two of whom were Clerks on the establishment of the Foreign Office (Public Record Office Handbook No. 13: The Records of the Foreign Office 1782-1939 (London 1969), 11).
  • 112. T 53/41 p. 466.
  • 113. T 53/43 p. 377; PRO 30/8/83 pt. i, Todd to Newcastle, 6 Jan. 1761; L. B. Namier, The Structure of Politics at the Accession of George III, 2nd ed. (London 1960), 193-4.
  • 114. Correspondence of George III, ed. Sir J. Fortescue (London 1927-8), iii, 38; 1st Rept. on Fees, 27.
  • 115. T 53/45 p. 461; Grenville Papers, ed. W. J. Smith (London 1852-3), i, 180-1.
  • 116. Ellis, Post Office, 130, 133-4; L. B. Namier, The Structure of Politics at the Accession of George III, 2nd ed. (London 1960), 193; BM Add. MS 38339 f. 143.
  • 117. It may be significant that it was in 1807 or 1808 that an official with active functions and the title of Translator of the Spanish, Portuguese, Italian and Danish Languages was appointed and attached to the Foreign Office (Public Record Office Handbook No. 13: The Records of the Foreign Office 1782-1939 (London 1969), 11).
  • 118. For these offices, see Ellis, Post Office, 66-8, 127-34, 138-42.
  • 119. CTB, xvi, 243.
  • 120. Ibid. xxx, 56.
  • 121. In 1762 the salary formerly paid to G. W. Neubourg was granted to the younger J. E. Bode, a Clerk in the secret department of the Post Office (PRO 30/8/232, Bode memorial, May 1786).
  • 122. Corbiere's salary was transferred to the Post Office on 29 March 1722 (T 29/24 pt. ii, 156). The last payment to the elder E. Willes was for the quarter to 25 March 1722 (T 53/29 p. 339). Until 1760 the Secretary of the Post Office paid these salaries out of secret service money issued out of the surplus revenue of that office; thereafter from secret service money issued to him at the Exchequer (Ellis, Post Office, 66-7).
  • 123. From 1745 to 1760, however, it appears to have been the invariable practice for alterations in the payments made out of the Post Office secret service money to be the subject of Treasury warrants to the Secretary.
  • 124. T 53/45 p. 461. For the office of Translator of Southern Languages, see p. 50.
  • 125. CTBP 1735-8, 37. For the office of Translator of the German Language, see p. 49.
  • 126. Lovell, who was one of the Decipherers in 1844, appears to have been a nephew of the younger F. Willes (Ellis, Post Office, 131).
  • 127. BM Add. MS 45520 ff. 53-4.
  • 128. CTB, xvi, 243; ibid. xxiii, 189-90.
  • 129. Ibid. xxvii, 88.
  • 130. Ibid. xxx, 252; T 53/29 p. 339.
  • 131. CTB, xxx, 56; ibid. xxxi, 7; T 53/29 p. 51; T 29/24 pt. ii, 156.
  • 132. Commons Journals, xxiv, 331.
  • 133. T 53/41 pp. 466-7.
  • 134. T 53/43 p. 491; T 53/45 p. 45.
  • 135. PRO 30/8/83 pt. ii, Todd to Newcastle, 6 Jan. 1761.
  • 136. L. B. Namier, The Structure of Politics at the Accession of George III, 2nd ed. (London 1960), 193; BM Add. MS 38339 f. 143.
  • 137. BM Add. MS 45519 ff. 58-9.
  • 138. Ibid. 38357 ff. 62-4, 180-2, 38358 ff. 24-6.
  • 139. Ibid. 51463 ff. 30, 31, 51464 f. 110.
  • 140. Ibid. 45520 ff. 53-4.
  • 141. For this office, see F. S. Thomas, Notes of Materials for the History of Public Departments (London 1846), 41-3, 111-44, 170-1; 30th Rept. of the Deputy Keeper of Public Records, 212-93; 1st Rept. on Fees, 33; Nelson, Home Office, 143-5.
  • 142. By letters patent 13 Dec. 1722 Howard, who had been appointed during pleasure in 1714, received a new grant of the office for life (C 66/3551).
  • 143. By letters patent 23 Sept. 1800 Bruce, who had been appointed during pleasure in 1792, received a new grant of the office for life (C 66/3963).
  • 144. J. Wace, one of the Clerks in the Secretaries' offices, acted as Deputy Keeper from at least 1718 until 1745.
  • 145. Royal warrant 4 March 1800 (SP 45/75). The establishment made provision for a Deputy or First Clerk, a Second Clerk, a Third Clerk, a Housekeeper and a Messenger. These subordinate officials have not been included in the lists. Details of their appointments and remuneration may be found in the establishment books of the State Paper Office 1800-54 (ibid.).
  • 146. Letters patent to Raymond 20 July 1640 (C 66/2873), to Williamson 31 Dec. 1661 (C 66/2980).
  • 147. SP 45/75.
  • 148. For this office, see 1st Rept. on Fees, 34; Nelson, Home Office, 144.
  • 149. Order in council 21 Oct. 1795 (16th Rept. on Finance, 34); TM 28 July 1796 (T 29/69 p. 303).
  • 150. Ellis, Post Office, 133; 1st Rept. on Fees, 34.
  • 151. For these offices, see 1st Rept. on Fees, 34-5; Nelson, Home Office, 143-5.
  • 152. Treasury constitutions 22 July 1763, 12 June 1765 and royal warrant 26 June 1789 (T 54/39 pp. 181-6, 492-3; T 52/78 pp. 55-7).
  • 153. Royal warrant 7 March 1800 (T 52/85 pp. 473-4).
  • 154. Royal warrant 16 July 1764 (T 52/56 p. 99).
  • 155. Royal warrant 26 June 1789 (T 52/78 pp. 55-7).
  • 156. Ellis, Post Office, 133; 1st Rept. on Fees, 34-5.
  • 157. For these offices, see J. Otway-Ruthven, The King's Secretary and the Signet Office in the 15th Century (Cambridge 1939), 106-42, 157-9, 180-9; Evans, Principal Secretary, 194-209; Nelson, Home Office, 153-6; Rept. of Committee on the Signet and Privy Seal Offices 1849 (HC 1849, xxii); HO 39/6, 12.
  • 158. With the single exception of Nicholas who was admitted a Clerk of the Signet to Charles II in exile in 1655 without a patent and was allowed to retain office at the Restoration, to the prejudice of the existing reversioners (CSPD Addenda 1660-85, 471; CSPD 1660-1, 304).
  • 159. After the Restoration there were three cases in which reversioners did not come into possession: Robert Reade (27 Nov. 1638), George Castle (17 Dec. 1645) and Nicholas Oudart (28 April 1662).
  • 160. Six further reversions were, however, granted: C. and T. Delafaye (1720), Wilkinson (1767), Morin (1767), Wilmot (1783), Bentinck (1801) and Gage (1803).
  • 161. Chamberlayne, Present State (1682), pt i., 194.
  • 162. As early as 1692 the younger Trumbull was formally authorised to act by deputy (Trumbull Add. MS 90) but this appears to be an isolated case.
  • 163. 57 Geo. III, c 63, ss 1, 2.
  • 164. 2 & 3 Will. IV, c 49, s I.
  • 165. Treasury warrants 16 April 1833 (T 54/56 pp. 260-2), 7 Dec. 1846 (T 54/58 p. 401). The fees of the abolished clerkships were carried to the consolidated fund.
  • 166. 14 & 15 Vict., c 82, ss 3, 5.
  • 167. Household Ordinances (Society of Antiquaries of London 1790), 406.
  • 168. Treasury warrant 2 Feb. 1825 (T 54/55 pp. 187-8).
  • 169. See Signet Office Apportionment Book 1834-51 (SO 5/43).
  • 170. Deed of 26 April 1814 (HO 39/6).
  • 171. Windebanke, a papist, never succeeded in making good his claim to be admitted although his legal title to office continued to be recognised in patents until 1674. The duties of this clerkship were in fact undertaken by Bere who was provisionally admitted a Clerk at the Restoration and confirmed in his position by order in council 3 Sept. 1662 (PC 2/56 p. 123).
  • 172. Usually described as 'Clerk of Dispatches'.