Roll A 1b: (i) Dec 1326 - Oct 1327

Calendar of the Plea and Memoranda Rolls of the City of London: Volume 1, 1323-1364. Originally published by His Majesty's Stationery Office, London, 1926.

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, 'Roll A 1b: (i) Dec 1326 - Oct 1327', in Calendar of the Plea and Memoranda Rolls of the City of London: Volume 1, 1323-1364, (London, 1926) pp. 11-37. British History Online [accessed 24 May 2024].

. "Roll A 1b: (i) Dec 1326 - Oct 1327", in Calendar of the Plea and Memoranda Rolls of the City of London: Volume 1, 1323-1364, (London, 1926) 11-37. British History Online, accessed May 24, 2024,

. "Roll A 1b: (i) Dec 1326 - Oct 1327", Calendar of the Plea and Memoranda Rolls of the City of London: Volume 1, 1323-1364, (London, 1926). 11-37. British History Online. Web. 24 May 2024,

In this section


Supplementary membr.1

Schedule of contents of each membrane of the Roll.

Suppl. membr. 2

No date

The oath (fn. 1) taken by divers persons to maintain the commonalty of the realm; to protect Isabella, Queen of England, and Edward, eldest son of the King and heir-apparent of the Realm of England; to aid them in their cause against Hugh le Despenser the younger and Master Robert de Baldok their enemies and the latter's adherents; to give good counsel; to safeguard the liberties of the City; and to maintain whatever had been done by reason of that quarrel. (F)

30 Dec. 1326

The oath taken before the several Aldermen in their Wards on Tuesday before the Epiphany [6 Jan.] Ao 20 Edw. II [1326-7] to keep the peace, to seek no redress except by process of law, to bring offenders before the Mayor and Sheriffs, and to report at the Guildhall the names of those unwilling to take the oath. (F)

20 Jan. 1327

The oath (fn. 2) taken by the Archbishop of Canterbury and other Bishops mentioned below on Tuesday before the Feast of St Vincent [22 Jan.] to safeguard Isabella, Queen of England, and Edward, now King of England etc. (F)

12 Jan. 1327

Note (fn. 3) that on Monday before the Feast of St Hilary [13 Jan.] Ao 20 Edw. II [1326-7] letters were sent by Richard de Betoyne, Mayor, the Aldermen and Commonalty of London to the Archbishops, Bishops, Earls, Barons and other great men, asking whether they were willing to be in accord with the City and to swear to maintain the cause of Queen Isabella and Edward her son, to crown the latter, and to depose his father for his frequent offences against his oath and his Crown.

13 Jan. 1327

On Tuesday the Feast of St Hilary [13 Jan.] the lords mentioned below came to the Guildhall, and in the presence of the Mayor, Aldermen and a great Commonalty took the oath as follows.

Oath to safeguard Isabella, Queen of England, and Edward, eldest son of the King of England and heir-apparent, in their cause against Hugh le Despenser the younger and Master Robert de Baldok, to give good counsel, to safeguard the liberties of the City, to maintain whatever had been done by reason of the quarrel with the said Hugh and Robert, and to keep the ordinances made, or to be made, in the present Parliament by the peers of the land. (F)

15 Jan. 1327

Earls: Thomas, Earl Marshal; Edmund, Earl of Kent; John, Earl of Hereford; John, Earl of Warenne—these were sworn at the Guildhall on Thursday after the Feast of St Hilary [13 Jan.], and all the knights of their retinue (retinencia).

13 Jan. 1327

Barons: Roger de Mortuo Mari, Hugh Daudele, John de Claveringe, Robert de Morle, Richard de Grey, Henry de Percy, Peter de Maulee, Robert de Lisle, William de Roos, William le Latimer, Henry Fitz Hugh, William de Kyme, Giles de Badlesmere, John Mautravers, Thomas Wake de Lydel, John de Moubray, Thomas Tregoz, Thomas de Veer, Hugh de Nevil, John de Charleton, Robert de Kendale, Maurice le Brun, Richard de Grey, Robert de Mohaut.

Knights and Serjeants of the Court (servientes de Curia): John de Beek, Nicholas de Greye, John de Wrokeshale, Bartholomew de Burghwassh, Robert de Watevill, Robert de Neyvill, John de Moun, Philip de la Beche, John de la Becche, Ralph de Bolmere, John de Wylington, John de Weston, Robert de Ethingham, John Mauduyt, William de Faucomberge, Richard de Perers, Giles de Trompeton, Robert de Asphalle, Edward, Roger and John, sons of Roger de Mortumere, Gilbert de Aton, Walter de Norwyco, Edmund Passelewe, John de Motford, Humfrey de Waleden, Thomas de Cobeham, John de Cobham, junior, William de Wolvertone, junior, John de Wysham, Geoffrey de Hautevill, Nicholas Gentil, Thomas de Nereford, William de Bayhuse, Robert de Reppes, John de Mereworth, Henry de Sothull, Richard Plays, Alan Talbot, Thomas de Poninges, Henry de Mountfort, John de Ifeld, Philip de Neyvill, Robert de Esden, John Claver, William de Wauncy, Thomas Gobyon, Benet de Cokfeld, Robert de Malmesbury, Warisius de Valoynes, Nicholas Kyriel, Adam de Swylington, Walter Beauchamp, John de Seint Maur, John de Blokesham, Robert de Leukenore; [the following six persons are noted as Serjeants] John de Denham, William de Denham, Gilbert de Toutheby, John de Bever, John de Cauntebreg and Thomas Bacoun; Richard Talbot, John de Clynton, William Lovel, Roger de Bilneye; [the following four persons are noted as Justices] John Bourser, Geoffrey le Scrop, John de Stonore and Robert de Malberthorp; Ralph de Bockyng, Nicholas de Eton, Walter Waldeshef, Stephen de Abyndon of London.

Knights of the Shires: Robert Baynard, John de Clivedon, Andrew de Seintliz, Matthew de Bassingburn, Simon de Drayton, John de Warblyngton, Roger Pichard, Robert de Davyntre, Roger de Cheyne, Richard de la Ryvere, Brian de Bowyz, John de Beaumond, Roger Ragoun.

Archbishops and Bishops: Walter, Archbishop of Canterbury; Alexander, Archbishop of Dublin; John, Bishop of Winchester, Treasurer of England; Roger, Bishop of Salisbury; John, Bishop of Bath and Wells; John, Bishop of Chichester; John, Bishop of Llandaff; William, Bishop of Norwich, King's Chancellor; Roger, Bishop of Chester; John, Bishop of Ely; Henry, Bishop of Lincoln; the Bishop of Rochester; Thomas, Bishop of Worcester; the Bishop of Hereford.

Abbots: The Abbots of Westminster, St Albans, Waltham [non venit nec juravit], Bury St Edmunds, Peterborough.

Priors: The Priors of Bermondeseye, St Mary de Suthwerk, Holy Trinity in London.

Priests and Clerks: Robert Milys, William de Coshale, Master Es' de Powell, Roger de Waltham, William de Everdon, William de Fulburne, William de Stowe, Richard de Wottone, Richard de Chestre, Master Gilbert de Middelton, official of Canterbury, Adam de Lymbergh, Master Robert de Norton, Dean of the Arches, Master Richard de Gloucester, Master Laurence Fastolf, Master William de Maldon, Master Richard de Radeswell, Master John de Everdon, Dean of St Paul's, Master William de Meleford, Master Gerard Cosaunce, Master William de Braye, Master John de Elham.

Barons of the Cinque Ports: William le Serjeant of Hastynges, John Athelard of Wynchelse, Robert Athelard, Stephen Athelard, Peter Barde, Thomas Aspillon, John Gernon, Stephen de Padyham, John de Upton, John de Wylhope, William Hurtyn of Dover, Hugh Chaumpeneys, John Moys of Sandwich, Robert Marchaunt, John de Hamptone, John atte Hole, Robert Brounyng, Robert Fraunceys, Raulyn Nute, Hugh le Goldesmethe, John Birchet, James de Forde, William Gaylard, Richard Goldyng, Adam Steffan, Robert Norkyn, Alexander Hurtyn, Thomas le Rede, Adam Byndere, Thomas de Hethe.

From Bury S t Edmunds: Peter de Bradfeld, Geoffrey de Ormesby, Thomas de Batesford, John atte Grene, Richard de Ayssh.

Burgesses of S t Albans: Stephen Gomage, Roger de Essex, Master John Baldewyn, Gilbert de Hertford, John de Hertford, John de Brockelee, Robert le Goldesmythe, Philip Aleyn, Roger de Tangton, John de Dygoneswell, William le Purser, John Makery, John Stercope. (L)

Suppl. membr. 2b

The first Proclamation after the beheading of the Bishop of Exeter (Walter Stapleton) (fn. 4).

No date: circa Nov. 1326

First, that the King's peace be maintained.

That the King's "places " be open to do right to all manner of men, and that the judges and ministers, clerks, serjeants and attorneys thereof come and go without peril of body or goods, and that no one disturb them under penalty of forfeiture to the King.

That all manner of men, merchants, strangers, denizens (privees), victuallers and others come and go in safety, as they were wont to do according to the liberties of the City of London.

That, in order to avert perils and slanders from so good a City, which is a mirror to all England, no man of whatsoever condition be so bold as to rob or "riffle" or take goods against the will of the owner, in the City and outside, under penalty of life and limb.

That each Alderman keep watches in his ward as before ordained; and that no man go armed by night or day, save officers and other good men of the City assigned by the Mayor and Aldermen in their wards to keep watch and preserve the peace, under penalty of forfeiture of arms and imprisonment at the King's pleasure.

That no man of whatsoever condition do wrong or calumny or seek vengeance by reason of any past quarrel, but those that feel themselves aggrieved shall sue by way of law, and according to the usages of the City, under penalty of forfeiture to the King and City.

That certain men of each mistery (fn. 5) be chosen by the assent of the same misteries to come to Guildhall, where the Mayor and Aldermen, together with them, shall treat and ordain on the needs of the City in salvation of all men, denizens and strangers, dwelling or repairing thither, and that the matters thus ordained by them shall be shown to the Commonalty before they be completed (supplies).

That the good men of the City, who have their apprentices, hired men or servants, working with their hands or trading, shall cause them to work or trade as they were wont to do, and inform the Mayor, officers and other good men of the City of any that be rebellious, who shall be duly punished as a warning to others.

That the good men of the City and others of the land, except John de Charleton (fn. 6), lately dwelling in the City, and the common enemies of the land, be free to enter the City in safety, in order to be in accord with the good men of the City for the common profit of the King and the land. Those that are in discord with others shall use their diligence to make accord, and if they cannot do so, it shall be lawful to them to depart without molestation of person or goods.

That strangers coming in the company of the Queen and Edward, the King's eldest son, to succour the land, be treated with courtesy in London, and that all men of London warn their households so to behave towards denizens and strangers, that the City may be honoured by their good manners.

That no one under pain and forfeiture do anything to another against the King's peace, and that none attack others or seize lands, goods or chattels, on the ground that they belong to the King's enemies, but if any person be found within the City, who was a notorious adherent or helper of those enemies, a citizen may cause him to be arrested and may keep him and his goods in custody, but without wasting those goods.

That, whereas Master Geffrey Lescrope, at the request of the Queen, is directed by letter under the Common Seal to come to the City of London on business touching the realm, it is forbidden under penalty of life and limb to molest or disturb him or any of his men in coming, going or staying.

That all the streets and lanes in the City and suburbs be cleansed and delivered of rubbish, timber and other hindrances, and that pentices and jetties be so high that men may ride beneath without hindrance, and that if any be ruinous and dangerous, they be removed.

That no one, denizen or stranger, do against the Ordinances of the Staple until Parliament (tanque au parlement). (F)

12 Jan. 1327

Proclamation made on Monday after the Feast of the Epiphany [6 Jan.] Ao 20 Edw. II [1326-7].

That no one take any manner of goods to the use of any man, against the will of the owner, but that goods pass by reasonable and friendly bargain between seller and buyer. Any man making prises against the will of the sellers shall be punished as an offender against the peace with the penalties prescribed in the statutes thereto relating, which statutes the King wills to be observed in all points.

That no one, in the place where he is lodged either by delivery (of the Marshal (fn. 7) ) or otherwise, shall for any reason enter the room or private house of his host, or break open boxes or other private possessions, under colour of seeking oats (aveyne), and if any one do so, he shall be treated as a thief and robber.

The King has commanded that his Great Seal, which by his orders is in the custody of the Queen, shall be open, as it has been for some time (fn. 8), and that law shall be done to all, and that the peace be maintained; that no one by reason of past events shall take another man, unless he be an officer assigned to do so by process of law; that anyone who wishes to complain of another shall be heard and aided by the law; that no one shall take vengeance on another for any reason; and that no one shall oust another from his house without delivery of the Marshals or of the officers of the City of London. (F)

11 Dec. 1326

Proclamation made on Thursday after the Feast of the Conception B.M. [8 Dec.] Ao 20 Edw. II [1326] by assent of the Commonalty, that no one molest the magnates and other men of the commonalty of the realm, who have been summoned to the Parliament at Westminster for the morrow of the Epiphany [6 Jan.]. Merchants are to be allowed free entry to the City with their goods, so long as they do nothing contrary to the City's rights. Citizens who have fled may return in peace, except John de Charleton (fn. 9). Any man having a complaint against another must deliver it by bill to the Mayor between now and Christmas, and speedy justice will be afforded to him. Offenders against the peace to be committed to prison, there to remain until the Commonalty ordains what shall be done with them. (F)

2 Jan. 1327

Proclamation made on Friday before the Feast of the Epiphany [6 Jan.] Ao 20 Edw. II [1326-7], encouraging victuallers to return to the City and promising them that no one shall be allowed to take their goods without payment. No one shall take lodgings in the City or suburbs by force or by delivery of the Marshals (fn. 10), against the will of the owner. The bearing of arms is forbidden, except to the officers of the City assigned by the Mayor and Aldermen to keep watch in the Wards, and to the Hainaulters (Henuers (fn. 11) ) of the Queen, who are accustomed to go armed in the manner of their country. Foreigners coming to the City in the retinue of the Queen must be treated with courtesy, and no molestation offered to those persons summoned to Parliament. Persons offending against the peace shall be arrested by men of the venue and taken to the houses of the Mayor and Sheriffs. (F)

Membr. 1 (3)

No date

Letter from the Bailiffs and Commonalty of Canterbury to the Mayor, citizens and Commonalty of London, disavowing the action of certain persons, who were spreading false reports and endeavouring to engender enmity between the two cities. (F)

Formal reply to the above. (F)

No date

Letter from the Mayor and Barons of Winchelsea to the Mayor and citizens of London, repeating a former application for the return of some salt, which had been illegally taken, by way of custom due to the Queen, out of the ship "La Blythe," whereof Richard Large was master, belonging to Robert, son of John Alard, a baron of Winchelsea, although the Barons of Winchelsea were by charter quit of such customs. (F)

13 March 1327

Reply to the above, setting forth that the salt had been taken in lieu of a payment of 2d for every sieve of 5 quarters, due to the Queen Hithe (fn. 12) from every stranger, whether belonging to the Cinque Ports or not, and that it had always been paid by merchants of Sandwich, Dover and other places without a murmur. Dated 13 March 1326[–7]. (F)

12 March 1327

Letter from the Mayor and Commonalty of London to the Bailiffs and good men of Sandwich, desiring them to restore to Walter de Mordon 130 tuns of woad-ashes (cendres de weyde (fn. 13) ), bought by him at La Swyne, which had been taken from his ship by Adam le Bakere, William Metacre and other men of Sandwich. Dated 12 March 1326[–7]. (F)

18 March 1327

Letter from the Mayor, Aldermen and Commonalty of London to the Bailiffs and Commonalty of the town of Southampton, desiring them to see justice done to John de Belton, whose ship "La Margarete" had been taken from him, being afterwards found at Hamele in the possession of Robert Richard of Chalk. When the above John had recovered his ship by process in the Common Bench, a certain John le Fleming of Southampton had despoiled the ship of its gear and boat, and had prosecuted him in a court of law. Dated 18 March 1326[–7]. (F)

18 March 1327

The same to the Mayor, Bailiffs and Commonalty of the town of Sandwich, notifying them that the above John de Belton having refitted his ship, after it had been despoiled by John le Fleming and others (as set out in the previous letter), and having laden it with wood for Yarmouth, had arrived at Sandwich harbour, when the ship was arrested by Robert Richard of Chalk, and the goods and chattels in it carried away by men of their bailiwick, and the said John, the master and the seamen made their escape with difficulty by land with only the clothes they wore. The said John had been accused of having stolen the ship by night at Southampton, but though he had shown the officials at Sandwich his papers and also the King's writ for the surrender of the vessel, they had told him that if he brought a thousand writs, he should not have the ship. Thereupon he had appealed to the Constable of Dover, and the latter had adjudged the ship to him and had ordered the Mayor of Sandwich to deliver up his goods. In the absence of the said John, however, the Mayor had given up the ship to the aforesaid Robert, and had detained the complainant's goods. They are desired to see justice done. Dated 18 March 1326[–7]. (F)

6 April 1327

Letter from the Mayor, Bailiffs and Commonalty of Southampton, in answer to the above letter, informing the Mayor etc. of London that they had examined John le Fleming, who said that he was willing to make amends, if he had done wrong, and to submit to the award of arbitrators chosen by the Mayor etc. of London. Dated 6 April 1327. (F)

Membr. 1 (3) b

23 April 1327

Letter from the Mayor, Aldermen and Commonalty of the City of London to King Edward III, praying that English, Irish and Welsh merchants dealing in wool, woolfells, leather, skins, and tin, might be compelled to stay the full term of forty days (fn. 14) in other Staple towns, as in the City of London, instead of the limited term of fifteen days. Dated 23 April Ao 1 Edw. III [1327]. (F)

No date

Letter from the same to Queen Isabella on the same subject. (F)

No date

Letter from the same to John [Hotham], bishop of Ely, Chancellor, desiring his good offices with the King in certain matters which Reginald de Conduit, John Hautein, Stephen de Abyndon, and Robert de Ely, citizens, would lay before him. (F)

22 May 1327

Letter from the same to the Mayor, Bailiffs and Barons of Rye, praying them to restore to Adam Lucas the toll they had exacted from his barley, garlic, onions and onion seed (oygnonet). Dated the morrow of the Ascension [21 May] 1327. (F)

Note of a similar letter sent to the Barons of Winchelsea. (L)

20 May 1327

Letter from the same to the Mayor, Bailiffs and Echevins of Boulogne, praying them to obtain the restoration to Adam Hurel and John Genge of their ship "La Blithe " of London, of which Giles Trifle was master. This vessel, which was worth £40 and had a cargo of wool value £100, had been seized by Frenchmen from Calais, "Whytesande (fn. 15) " and Boulogne, on its way to Antwerp. Dated the eve of the Ascension [21 May] 1327. (F)

Note of similar letters having been sent to the Mayor and Bailiffs of Wissant and Calais. (L)

Membr. 2 (4)

20 July 1327

Copy of certain enrolments in the Husting of Common Pleas held on Monday the Feast of S t Margaret [20 July] Ao 1 Edw. III [1327]

The King's writ to the effect that the City's action, in having furnished him with a contingent (fn. 16) to aid him in an expedition against Scotland, should not be drawn into precedent or be prejudicial to the franchise of the City. (L)

Certificate by the Mayor and Aldermen, who had examined the body and stature of Ralph, son and heir of Robert le Chandeler, that he was of full age and capable of disposing of rents and tenements. (L)

At this court Brother William de Horton, Prior of the New Hospital without Bishopsgate (fn. 17), complained by John de Appletone, his attorney, that Thomas de Cauntebrigge, tenant of a messuage in St Vedast Lane in the Parish of St John Zacarias, on which the Prior had an annual rentcharge of 16s, had stopped up the door whereby the Prior had access to distrain him for any arrears. The Sheriffs were ordered to make an inquiry on the spot and remove any obstruction. (L)

22 July 1327

Proclamations made on Wednesday the Feast of St Mary Magdalene [22 July].

Whereas it had been granted for the benefit of merchantstrangers in the City of London that they might trade together so long as it pleased the good men of the City, it was now agreed by the Mayor, Aldermen and Commonalty that no merchant-stranger should in future trade with another within the liberty of the City, but should buy and sell according to ancient custom and not otherwise, under penalties attaching thereto. (F)

Proclamation against cutting and carrying off the standing corn of the Bishop of London. (F)

July 1327

A list of questions as to customs and procedure in the City of London sent by the Mayor and burgesses of Oxford in July 1327, because it was laid down in their Charter that they should be of one and the same law and custom as the citizens of London (fn. 18).

It was answered that bakers were not allowed to sell in their houses or in front of their ovens, but only from boxes or baskets in the market. If convicted of selling in their houses before the Sheriffs at their Halemot, they were amerced. They paid an earnest (gersumam) on taking up a standing in the market and a toll of one halfpenny a basket. Whitebakers were not allowed to bake tourtebread (fn. 19), nor tourtebakers white bread.

Persons failing to come before the Mayor on summons were distrained and sequestrated till they appeared.

There were no tallages in the City, but distresses taken for not contributing to aids could be sold, unless they were acquitted within fifteen days. Persons hindering the collectors might be committed to prison.

No damages were given to persons recovering debts in the Chamber of the Guildhall or in the Husting, but they might sue to have all the goods and chattels of the debtor to satisfy the debt, and half his lands and tenements, if the goods did not cover the debt.

Distresses taken from foreign defendants who eloigned themselves were valued in the Sheriffs' Court and delivered to the plaintiffs, under security to restore them, if the defendants subsequently appeared and proved that no debt was owed.

No answer was given for the present to the question as to whether persons having lands within the city, which they had demised for life, could devise the reversion, and as to how the tenants could be forced to attorn to the devisee. (L)

Membr. 2 (4)b

3 Nov. 1324

Royal Commission to Hamo de Chigwell and John Gisors to see that no one made use in the City of false measures, which did not correspond with the standard measures of London (fn. 20) approved for the whole kingdom, under penalty of fine; the fines so levied to be paid into the King's Exchequer. Dated at Mortelake, 3 Nov. Ao 18 Edw. [II] [1324]. (L)

Membr. 3 (5)

No date

Letter from the Mayor and Commonalty of the City of London to the Steward and Bailiffs of the Bishop of Winchester for the Fair of St Giles of Winchester, notifying them that the Sheriffs of London had attached a sum of £65, due at Winchester Fair from John Sok to Walter de Werft, merchant of "Lovaygne" in Brabant to satisfy a certain Henry Wymond for another debt of £74 15s owed to him by the said Walter and John Knikhals. The Steward etc. are requested to see that the above John receives back his bond from Walter. (F)

6 Aug. 1327

Answer of the Mayor and Aldermen of the City of London to the Mayor and Echevins of the town of Crotoye, touching the conditions under which a certain ship called "Seint Jak de Crotoye (fn. 21) " would be delivered to William de Cauntepye, its owner. This ship had been captured at sea by men of Bayonne, and subsequently arrested at London, as a reprisal for goods attached from London citizens in France, at the suit of the said William. He may have his ship again on payment of £80 damages. Dated 6 Aug. 1327. Note that it was sealed with the Mayoralty Seal. (F)

7 Aug. 1327

Writ of Edward III to the Sheriffs of London for two representatives of the City to attend a Parliament (colloquium) summoned to Lincoln on the morrow of the Exaltation of the Holy Cross [14 Sept.], to deal with the threatened Scottish invasion. Dated at Stanhope, 7 Aug. Ao 1 Edw. III [1327]. (L)

2 Sept. 1327

Return to the above writ under the Common Seal, notifying the appointment of Bennet de Fulsham and Robert de Kelseye. Dated 2 Sept. (L)

A note to the effect that Richard de Betone, Mayor, accompanied the City's representatives, Bennet de Fulsham and Robert de Kelseye, bearing letters to the King, the Queen and members of the Council, praying that the Bench and Exchequer (fn. 22) might remain in London, and that he returned with the King's answer, as recorded at the foot of the membrane. (L)

27 May 1326

Letter from the Mayor, Aldermen and Commonalty of the City of London to the Provost and good men of La Rochelle, certifying that certain ships laden with wine from Rochelle, called "La Edmond de Loundres," Martin Squirel of London, master, "La Michel de Briggewater," Richard Gode, master, and "La Anne de Wynchelse," Stephen le Wertere, master, and belonging to John de Oxenford, Adam de Excestre and other vintners, had duly arrived at "la Pole" in the Thames and there discharged their cargoes. Dated 27 May Ao 19 Edw. II [1326]. Note that it was sealed with the Mayoralty Seal. (F)

10 Sept. 1327

The King's answer under the Privy Seal, notifying the City that owing to the dangerous condition of affairs in the North, it was impossible to remove the "King's places" back to Westminster for the present. Dated at Nottingham 10 Sept. (F)

Membr. 3 (5)b

26 Aug. 1327

Answer of the Mayor, Barons and Commonalty of the town of Rye to letters from the Mayor etc. of the City of London relating to toll illegally exacted from the merchandise of Adam Lucas. Justice will be done if the latter will sue those who tolled him in Rye. Dated the third day after the Feast of St Bartholomew [24 Aug.] 1327. (F)

No date

Answer of the Mayor and Barons of Winchelsea on the same subject, to the effect that a certain Simon Birchet of Winchelsea and his companions in time of war had captured a ship of Abbeville, containing the merchandise above mentioned, as belonging to their enemies. They were willing to do right in their court, if Adam Lucas would sue Simon Birchet or any other by name. (F)

3 Sept. 1327

The above answers not being deemed satisfactory, the Mayor, Aldermen and Commonalty unanimously agreed that withernam (fn. 23) should be taken from the men of Winchelsea and Rye and their goods, as occasion served. This judgment was delivered on Thursday before the Feast of the Nativity B.M. [8 Sept.] Ao 1 Edw. III [1327]. Note that thirteen casks and two pipes of red wine and one cask of white wine, belonging to Richard Selern of Winchelsea, were seized as withernam. As he did not sue for their return, they were valued at £23 6s 8d and delivered to the above Adam Lucas, upon his giving security to answer therefor quo et quando. (L)

Membr. 4 (6)

22 May 1327

Another letter from the Mayor etc. of the City of London to the Bailiffs and good men of Sandwich, praying that the woad taken from Walter de Mordon might be restored to him. Dated the morrow of the Ascension. (F)

18 June 1327

Letter from the Mayor of London to John (Hotham), Bishop of Ely, the King's Chancellor, setting forth that William de Cauntepye of Croteye had been robbed of a ship by Reymond de Spyan of Bayonne and others on the high seas, that the ship had been brought to "la Pole" of London, and by procuration of Hugh le Despenser the younger had been presented colourably to the late King, who returned it to Reymond, and that the above William had been unable to recover it by process of law; that thereupon he applied to the King of France, by whose orders the bailiffs of "Seint Walri (fn. 24) " had seized three ships belonging to English merchants, viz. Aleyn Gille, Robert le Ropere and Adam Strangewere of Middelton, who in their turn attached the ship found in the Pool of London. The Chancellor is desired to assist the English merchants to recover their property. Dated 18 June. (F)

Note to the effect that the above letter was written by the express desire of Alan Gille and Robert le Ropere, who brought witnesses before the Mayor and Aldermen to prove that their complaint was true. They were examined in the presence of Hugh de Waltham, Common Clerk, and Andrew Horn, Chamberlain. (L)

25 June 1327

Letter to the Chancellor praying him to assist Stephen Aleyn, who as the result of a petition to the last Parliament had been allowed to prosecute his suit against the Abbot of Fiscamp (fn. 25) in the Chancery. Dated the morrow of the Nativity of St John [24 June]. (F)

26 June 1327

Letter to the Bailiffs and good men of Donewych in favour of Alan Aunore, fishmonger, who had been mulcted of 73s 11d by them. Dated 26 June. (F)

26 June 1327

Letter to the Burgomasters and Echevins of Caleys desiring them to assist John le Clerk of Northall to recover the goods —comprising stock-fish, heavy goods (avoyr de poys) and armour—which had been taken out of his ship in "le streem" of Flanders, on its way from that country to England, by men of Calais. Dated 26 June 1327. (F)

23 June 1327

Certificate that Poucheus Portinari of Florence was a freeman of the City of London, and as such ought to pass free of toll in England. Dated Tuesday the eve of the Nativity of St John [24 June] Ao 1 Edw. III [1327]. (L)

9 July 1327

Letter from the Mayor, Aldermen and Commonalty to the King, praying him to assist Stephen Aleyn to recover certain goods stolen from him at Kaus (fn. 26) in Normandy Ao 13 Edw. II. These goods had been loaded in a ship of London called "La Margarete," of which John Thorn was master, to be carried from Normandy to England, and had been unloaded at Kaus, to which place the ship had been pursued by Flemish pirates, and while the goods lay on the bank, they had been carried off by men of the seignory of the Abbot of Fiscamp, and placed in his cell of St Walrik. The King is begged to instruct the Chancellor to make execution of a writ of arrest formerly granted against the Abbot. Dated on Thursday after the Feast of St Thomas the Martyr [7 July]. (F)

A note to the effect that the above letters on behalf of Stephen Aleyn and Alan Aunore, as well as a letter directed to the King touching men-at-arms for the war with the Scots, were sealed with the Common Seal on Thursday after the Feast of the Translation of St Thomas [7 July] 1327, in the presence of the Mayor and others. (L)

Membr. 4 (6)b

29 April 1327

The King's writ requiring an armed force from London to be sent to Newcastle-on-Tyne for service against the Scots. Dated at Nottingham, 29 April Ao 1 Edw. III [1327]. (L)

May 1327

Covering letter under the Privy Seal directed to the Mayor, Sheriffs and Commonalty to the same effect. Dated at Nottingham, 2 May. (F)

20 July 1327

Answer of the Mayor and Barons of Sandwich to the letter of the Mayor etc. of London, suggesting that Walter Mordon should recover the woad he had lost by action at law. Dated the Feast of St Margaret [20 July] 1327. (F)

23 July 1327

Letter acknowledging receipt of the above. Dated the morrow of the Feast of "la Maudeleyne" [22 July]. (F)

12 July 1327

The King's writ to the Mayor and Sheriffs of London, commanding them to make careful inquiry from foreign merchants and merchants of the City as to the alleged seizure of the ship of William Cauntepy, called "La James de Crotoy" by Reymund Spian of Bayonne and others, and the seizure by order of the King of France, by way of retaliation, of three vessels belonging to Alan Gille, Robert le Ropere, and Adam Stranswere. Dated at Topclif, 12 July Ao 1 Edw. III [1327]. (L)

23 July 1327

Letter from the Mayor and Echevins of the town of Crotoy and of Mayoc to the Mayor and Echevins of London, desiring them to assist William de Cauntepy in the recovery of his ship "seint Jak du Crotoy." Dated the morrow of "la Magdalainne " [22 July]. (F)

Note to the effect that the above letter and a copy of the reply were delivered to Adam Gille on Sunday before the Feast of St Martin [11 Nov.], to be returned before Christmas. (L)

Membr. 5 (7)

No date, circa Sept. 1327

Letter from the Mayor, Aldermen and Commonalty of the City of London to the King, acknowledging his expressed willingness that the Bench and Exchequer should return to Westminster, if it were not that their being at York drew a large concourse of people thither and helped to defend the Northern Marches. They pray the King that both may return to Westminster as soon as possible. (F)

No date

Letter from the same to Queen Isabella, desiring her to use her influence with the King that the Bench and the Exchequer might remain at Westminster, as in times past. (F)

No date

The same to Henry (de Burghersh), Bishop of Lincoln, the King's Treasurer, desiring his good offices with the King in certain matters concerning the City, of which the bearer would inform him. (F)

Note that similar letters were sent to John, Bishop of Ely, the King's Chancellor, to the Earls of Norfolk, Kent, Lancaster and Surrey, as well as to Roger Mortimer and others. (L)

18 Sept. 1327

Acquittance to Richard de Rothinge, Sheriff, from the Mayor, Aldermen and Commonalty, on receiving from him the sum of £100, which ought to have been paid to the City by Robert de Hasseleshawe, Provost of Wells (fn. 27), who was a prisoner in the custody of the Sheriff, and made his escape. Dated 18 Sept. Ao 1 Edw. III [1327]. (F)

A note of how the above £100 was expended, viz. To John de Gisors, Reginald de Conduit, John Hauteyn and others chosen by the Commonalty to go to Kenilworth at the time when Edward II surrendered his crown about the Feast of St Hilary—£50 for expenses. To Richard de Betoyne, Mayor, in August 1327, when he went to the King at Nottingham to ask that the Bench and Exchequer might not be removed from Westminster—£20 for expenses. To Robert de Kelseye, when he attended the Council at Lincoln at the Feast of the Exaltation of the Holy Cross [14 Sept.]—£10 for his expenses. His companion on that occasion, Bennet de Fulsham, paid his own expenses. To Anketin de Gisors and John de Causton, Aldermen, and Thomas de Chiggwell, commoner, who afterwards went to Lincoln to attend the King's Council —£20 for their expenses. (L)

24 Sept. 1327

Letter from the King to the Mayor, Aldermen and Commonalty of the City touching the removal of the Bench and Exchequer to York. The matter had been fully discussed at Lincoln, and the removal regarded as necessary. They should however he brought back to Westminster as soon as the country became more settled. Dated at Lincoln, 24 Sept. Ao 1 Edw. III [1327], under the Privy Seal. (F)

23 Sept. 1327

The King to the Mayor, Aldermen, Sheriffs and Commonalty of the City to the same effect. Dated at Lincoln, 23 Sept. By the King and his Council. (L)

23 Sept. 1327

The King to the Sheriffs of London, commanding them to provide casks, boxes and other necessaries for transporting to York the rolls, tallies, writs, fines and other memoranda of the Exchequer and the Bench; the Treasurer and Barons of the one, and William de Herle, Chief Justice of the other, having been ordered to move their departments thither. Dated at Lincoln, 23 Sept. Ao 1 Edw. III [1327]. (L)

Membr. 5 (7)b

21 Sept. 1327

Note that on Monday the Feast of St Matthew the Apostle [21 Sept.] John Hauteyn, mercer, and Henry Darci, draper, were elected Sheriffs at the Guildhall (fn. 28) by the Mayor, Aldermen and Commonalty, viz. by twelve, eight or six men chosen from each ward. On Wednesday the morrow of St Michael [29 Sept.] the Sheriffs rode to the outer gate of the Tower and were received into office by Nicholas de Redinge, deputy of Thomas de Wake, the Constable, according to the terms of the King's writ following. (L)

20 Sept. 1327

Writ to Thomas Wake, Constable of the Tower, commanding him to receive the Mayor and Sheriffs into office, in accordance with the charters of the City, in the absence of the King and the Barons of the Exchequer from Westminster, where the Mayor and Sheriffs were usually admitted. Dated at Lincoln, 20 Sept. 1327. (L)

23 Sept. 1327

Writ to the Sheriffs appointing Master John de Everdon, John de Bourser, Hamo de Chigwell and John Devery to assess and tax the twentieth of the moveable goods of the inhabitants of the City, for assisting the King in his war with Scotland, in accordance with the grant made by Parliament. Dated at Lincoln, 23 Sept. Ao 1 Edw. III [1327]. (L)

No date

Letter from the Mayor and Commonalty of the City of London to the King deprecating the imposition of an extraordinary loan on wool, leather and woolfells in the Port of London, because none of the merchants of the City had been consulted before the King or his Council; though the writ asserted that foreign and native merchants desired to make such an aid. (F)

Cedula attached to membrane

2 July 1327

The King's writ to the collectors of the custom on wool etc. in the Port of London and other places on either side of the Thames as far as Gravesend, to the effect that merchants had complained that it was very inconvenient to take their wool etc. to the Staple towns, which in many cases were distant from the sea. Though the King had forbidden the export of such wool etc. before they had been taken to such towns, nevertheless, in order to meet their wishes and in consideration of the fact that they had proffered him a loan for the war in Scotland, he had ordained, by the advice of his Council, that until Christmas merchants might freely buy their wool etc. both in Staple towns and elsewhere, and export them from any port where the King's custom-officers were stationed, provided that they paid there the extra loan of 1 mark on each sack of wool, 1 mark on each 300 woolfells, and 20s on each last of hides, for which they would receive the King's letters patent, sealed with the Cocket, as evidence of the loan. Dated at Overton, 2 July Ao 1 Edw. III [1327]. (L)


19 Aug. 1327

Further writ reproving the collectors for delay and demanding immediate compliance with the writ of 2 July. Dated at York, 19 Aug. 1327. (L)

Membr. 5 (7) b continued

23 Sept. 1327

The King's writ forgiving the citizens of London all arrears of the extraordinary loan on wool, leather and woolfells aforesaid, provided that they pay what is due in future. Dated at Lincoln, 23 Sept. Ao 1 Edw. III [1327]. (L)

3 Oct. 1327

The King's writ to the Sheriffs of London notifying the adoption of a new Great Seal, differing from the old one both in circumference and in modelling. An impression in white wax was being forwarded for exhibition in the City. Dated at Nottingham, 3 Oct. Ao 1 Edw. III [1327]. (L)

Membr. 6 (8)

18 Sept. 1327

Letter from the Mayor, Aldermen and Commonalty of London to the Mayor and Barons of Winchelsea, complaining that the merchandise of John de Oxenford, Stephen de Bercote, Bartholomew de Honylane, Thomas de Hamelden, William le Gaugeour, John de Honylane, and Ralph de la Pole, citizens of London, had been seized on its way to Gascony. Dated 18 Sept. (F)

No date

Reply to the above, explaining that no redress had been given to Robert, son of John Alard, for the loss of his salt on board the "Blithe," which had been taken in London for custom, and that the Mayor etc. of London had taken certain wines from John de Iham and Richard Salern in satisfaction of the grievance of Adam Lucas of London; wherefore the burgesses of Winchelsea had taken the merchandise of John de Oxenford and the others by way of reprisal. (F)

No date

Another letter from the Mayor etc. of Winchelsea to the Mayor etc. of London, complaining that Robert, son of John Alard, had been arrested and charged by Hamo de Chiggwell with unlawful possession of goods claimed by Adam Lucas. (F)

23 Sept. 1327

Memorandum that on Wednesday before the Feast of St Michael [29 Sept.] Ao 1 Edw. III [1327] there came certain men of the mistery of Pouchmakers (bursarii) before Hamo de Chiggwell, deputy of Richard de Betoyne the Mayor, bringing breech-girdles (braels) and pouches falsely made and lined with flocks (pilis). The said breech-girdles and pouches were ordered to be burnt at the Cross in Cheap (fn. 29). (L)

A note to the effect that Adam de Wyndesore and John de Berkyng were attached to answer Henry le Joygnour, Sergeant of Queenhithe, on a charge of having given him a beating on Monday the Feast of St Matthew [21 Sept.] Ao 1 Edw. III [1327]. They were committed to prison, but afterwards released on bail. (L)

10 Oct. 1327

Letter (fn. 30) from the Mayor, Aldermen and Commonalty of London to the Mayor and Barons of Winchelsea, explaining that their treatment of Robert, son of John Alard, had no reference to the claims made by Adam Lucas. A toll of salt was taken from the above Robert in accordance with the rights appurtenant to the Queenhithe. These rights were established in 1244 at an inquiry held before the Itinerant Justices at the Tower, and subsequently the Queenhithe was leased to the City for £50 per annum, which rent belonged to the Queen. Dated 10 Oct. (F)

Membr. 6 (8)b

3 Oct. 1327

Proclamation made on Saturday after the Feast of St Michael for the keeping of the King's peace. Night-walking after curfew and the carrying of arms are forbidden. No taverns are to remain open after curfew. Aggrieved persons must not form covins, but complain to the Wardens of their misteries, or sue at law. No one is allowed to leave the City to maintain quarrels; the sheriffs of the neighbouring counties have been warned to arrest citizens found so doing. The Wardens of the misteries must keep their men at work and report any rebellious behaviour to the Mayor and good men of the City. All men of the fealty of the King must keep the peace and the articles of this proclamation, and assist in bringing offenders to justice. (F)

No date

Letter from the Mayor, Aldermen and Commonalty of London to the Prior of Merton, complaining that Henry atte Frith, a woolman of London, had been attacked by the men of the Prior and Thomas de Codyngton, when passing through Ewelle, and his goods taken away from him. (F)

A similar letter was sent to Thomas de Codyngton.

No date

Letter from William Prodhomme, William Haunsard, Martyn, servant of Sir Hamo de Chigwell, William Lambyn, William Cros, Adam Pykeman, John Oliver, John de Belton, Henry Prodomme (sic), John Habelond, John Yon, Gilbert Cros and Thomas de Shene, complaining that they had been interfered with by the commonalty of Great Yarmouth (fn. 31) under the leadership of Robert de Ely, who treated them as villeins (qe nous tenent e dient qe sumes vileyns), threatened them, and said they should have no herring from Yarmouth unless it was carried in carts. (F)

No date

Letter from the Alderman and burgesses of St Edmunds (fn. 32) touching an outrage committed by the monks in that town on the Feast of St Luke [18 Oct.] when many women and children, who were attending service in the church, were imprisoned by them in their close. When the burgesses came to demand their release, the monks had assaulted them with arrows, stones and engines of war, killing many of them. Thereupon the commons had risen and had burnt a great part of the Abbey, though the church was fortunately saved by the efforts of townsmen and monks. The writers beg for the advice and support of the Mayor, Aldermen and Commonalty, as from one "commune" to another, whose interests were the same. (F)

29 Oct. 1327

Letter from the Mayor, Aldermen and Commonalty of London to the Bailiffs and good men of Great Yarmouth, desiring to know the cause of the recent disturbance there, and why merchants of London had been prevented from loading and unloading their merchandise, and storing it in their houses in Little Yarmouth, according to ancient custom. Dated 29 Oct. (F)

Membr. 7 (9)

29 Oct. 1327

Letter from Hamo de Chigwelle, Mayor, etc. to Robert de Ely, reminding him that he was a citizen of London, and charging him not to abet the men of Great Yarmouth, in their interference with London merchants trading in Little Yarmouth. Dated 29 Oct. (F)

18 Oct. 1327

The same to Stephen (de Gravesend) (fn. 33), Bishop of London, remarking on his continued absence from London, and assuring him that the greatest friendliness had been displayed towards him at the last meeting for the election of a Mayor. Dated 18 Oct. (F)

A note to the effect that the above letters were sealed with the Common Seal on Saturday the eve of All Saints (1 Nov.), by assent of the Mayor, Sheriffs and other Aldermen. (L)

No date

Letter from the Mayor and Barons of Winchelsea to the Mayor etc. of London, acknowledging their letter brought by Geoffrey Botele and John Wantenge; but inasmuch as the matter concerned the common weal of all the Cinque Ports and not that of Winchelsea alone, they promised to send another reply as soon as they should have taken counsel together. (F)

No date

Proclamation inviting the Bishop of London to the City and forbidding any one to offer any insult to him or his followers. (F)

31 Oct. 1327

Proclamation against shooting pigeons and other birds, perched on St Paul's or on the houses of citizens, with stonebows and arbalests, because the missiles frequently broke the windows and wounded passers-by. (F)

Published on Saturday, the eve of All Saints (1 Nov.) by the assent of the Mayor, Hamo de Chigwell, and the Aldermen.

7 Nov. 1327

Letter from the Mayor, Aldermen and Commonalty of London to the Sheriff of Essex and Hertford with regard to disturbers of the peace throughout the country, who professed to belong to the City of London. The Sheriff is desired to take such into custody, and to let the Mayor know their names, as the City has no desire to protect them. Dated 7 Nov. (F)

Similar letters under the Common Seal sent to the Sheriffs of Surrey and Sussex, Kent and Middlesex.

2 Nov. 1327

Letter from the Mayor and Barons of Winchelsea to the Mayor etc. of London touching the toll on salt taken at Queenhithe from Robert, son of John Alard. They have received the Mayor's letter showing that such customs were already taken before the war between King John and his barons, to which they reply that their own barons were exempted from such tolls by Edward the Confessor, William the Conqueror and other kings, and they have no intention of surrendering their rights. They complain further of tolls on fish-panniers taken by the fermors of Southwark and the collectors of Bridge Street. Dated at Winchelsea on All Souls Day. (F)

Note that other letters from the Cinque Ports: Romney, Sandwich, Dover, Hastings, Rye and Hythe, on the same matter, have been placed on the File of Letters. (L)


  • 1. This oath appears from its form to have been drafted about the same period as the other oaths, possibly for the burgesses in Parliament.
  • 2. Printed in Chron. of Edw. I and Edw. II, p. 323, where it is said to have been sworn on 13 Jan. in the Guildhall. This statement appears to be a confusion of two separate meetings—those on 13 Jan. and 20 Jan. The French Chronicle, p. 58, tells us that on the latter occasion the Archbishop of Canterbury preached at the Guildhall, after which he and seven other Bishops took the oath. Note that Edward III is "now King."
  • 3. At the Parliament held by adjournment on 7 Jan., a great number of London citizens flocked to Westminster, where their presence is said to have intimidated the assembly. Anglia Sacra, i, p. 367. The Londoners, according to William de Dene (ibid.) were anxious to secure immunity for the murder of Walter Stapleton, Bishop of Exeter, committed on 15 Oct. 1326, when the London mob rose on behalf of the Queen. The majority of the persons who swore the oath at Guildhall were then attending Parliament, but there is nothing in the Parliamentary writs and returns to explain the presence of 30 burgesses from the Cinque Ports, 5 from Bury St Edmunds and 13 from St Albans; in fact no returns exist for these boroughs, nor are they included in the writs de Expensis. See Parliamentary Writs, vol. ii, pt. ii, pp. 350-366.
  • 4. Walter Stapleton, Bishop of Exeter, who was King's Treasurer from 18 Feb. 1320 to 3 June 1325, shared in the unpopularity of the favourites of Edw. II. On 30 Sept. 1326, six days after Queen Isabella had landed with her force in Suffolk, he was responsible for the publication of bulls of excommunication against the King's enemies. When the City rose on 15 Oct. he was caught making his way to sanctuary at St Paul's, dragged from his horse and beheaded in Cheap. French Chronicle, p. 52. See also article in Dictionary of National Biography.
  • 5. Notable as an early experiment in electing the Common Council from the misteries. It was repeated in 1351 and 1352. Cal. of Letter Books, F, p. 237, G, p. 3. The system was tried from 1376 to 1384 (ibid. H, pp. 36, 227) when election by the Wards was reintroduced.
  • 6. John de Charleton, citizen of London, appears in the Close Rolls as Mayor of the Staple, or Mayor of the merchants of England from 1318 to 1326. His house was robbed during the rising in Oct. 1326. French Chronicle, p. 53. One reason of his unpopularity in London is probably to be found in a Royal precept to the collectors of customs, dated 30 June 1326, that they were to allow no wool to leave the kingdom without letters testimonial from Charleton, to the effect that it had been bought in one of the Staple towns. Cal. Close Rolls, 1323-7, p. 585. This precept was annulled on 18 Feb. 1327, on the complaint of Richard de Betoyne, then described as Mayor of the Staple. Ibid. 1327-30, p. 54. See also correspondence below on pp. 52-3, 56-9.
  • 7. The power of the King's Marshal to billet members of the Household and others in private houses was jealously watched by the citizens. In the early 12th century a citizen charged with having slain a man belonging to the Court of the King or of the barons, who had billeted himself upon the citizen by force, was allowed to clear himself by swearing with six of his kinsmen that he had killed the intruder on this account. Liebermann, Gezetze der Angelsachsen, p. 673; Borough Customs, i, p. 47. Forcible billeting, "per liberacionem marescalli," was forbidden by the Charter of Henry II. Lib. Cust. i, p. 32. Nevertheless it continued and many lodgings were commandeered by the Marshals at the Coronation of Edw. II. Riley's Memorials, p. 64. A compromise seems to have been adopted whereby the Marshal's officers were accompanied by officers of the City, the allocation of lodgings being made by joint agreement.
  • 8. The circumstances of the surrender of the Great Seal, closed under the Privy Seal, by Edw. II on 20 Nov. 1326 to the Bishop of Hereford, who delivered it to the Queen at Martley on the 26th, are set out at length in Parliamentary Writs, vol. II, pt. ii, pp. 349-350. Edw. II agreed that it should be opened and used not only for preserving the peace but for other documents at the discretion of the Queen.
  • 9. See p. 16, n. 1.
  • 10. See p. 17, n. 1.
  • 11. Isabella was accompanied in her descent on England by John, brother of the Count of Hainault, and a force of 2757 Germans and Hainaulters. Walsingham, Historia Anglicana, I, p. 180.
  • 12. Recorded in A.D. 1244 before the Itinerant Justices at the Tower as being "the ancient customs," to which all men of the Cinque Ports, as well as others, were liable. City's Iter Roll AA, membr. 6 b. See below, p. 34.
  • 13. Cf. Cal. of Early Mayor's Court Rolls, p. 216, n. 2.
  • 14. A writ of 1 May 1327 to the Mayor and Sheriffs of London, Newcastle-on-Tyne and other Staple towns stated that this apparent discrimination against London was due to an error in a writ of the late King. In order to remove the ambiguity, the term of forty days is made obligatory on all Staple towns. Cal. Close Rolls, 1327-30, p. 116.
  • 15. Wissant, near Boulogne.
  • 16. See pp. 28, 41 for the King's writs requiring the force. The names of 100 horsemen are set out on membr. 9 (11), each man being supplied with 100s. In addition, 100 foot-men were sent. The compiler of the Annales Paulini says of the expedition, " sed proh pudor, nil boni ibi facientes sine honore revertuntur." Chronicles of Edw. I and Edw. II, 1, p. 333. An interesting account of the unsuccessful attempts of the English to bring the Scots to action is given in J. Barnes, History of Edward III, pp. 8-16.
  • 17. Otherwise known as St Mary Spital, a hospital for poor brothers of the order of St Augustine, under a Prior and Augustinian Canons, with lay brothers and sisters to tend the sick. It was founded by Walter Brune and Roesia his wife in 1197. Tanner's Notitia Monastica, p. 312.
  • 18. See p. 7, n. 3.
  • 19. Tourte or trete: coarse brown bread. See Riley's Glossary in Lib. Cust. 11, and the City's Liber de Assisa Panis.
  • 20. In accordance with the Great Charter of 1215, in which it was granted (c. 35) that there should be uniform measures of wine, beer and corn, i.e. the London quarter, and one width of cloth; and so also with weights as with measures.
  • 21. Cf. Cal. Close Rolls, 1327-30, p. 186, where a writ of 19 Nov. 1327 deals with the same matter. See also pp. 26-27, 29. Le Crotoy is a small port at the mouth of the Somme.
  • 22. The Exchequer and the Common Bench had already been moved to York from 1298 to 1305, when Edw. I was attempting to subjugate Scotland. Edw. III revived his grandfather's policy of dominating Scotland, and for a while York seemed likely to become the administrative and judicial capital of England. The King's claim to the French throne and the beginning of the Hundred Years' War in 1338 resulted in the return of the Exchequer, followed by the Common Bench, to Westminster. See T. F. Tout, The Beginnings of a Modern Capital (Raleigh Lecture), pp. 13-14.
  • 23. Withernam is the taking or reprisal of other cattle or goods, in lieu of those that were formerly taken or esloined, or otherwise withholden. Jacob's Law Dictionary.
  • 24. St Valery-sur Somme.
  • 25. Sc. Fécamp.
  • 26. The modern St Valery-en-Caux, a village about 18 miles N.E. of Fécamp in Normandy. A writ was issued 27 Aug. 1320 to arrest goods of the Abbot and his men in England till restitution was made. Cal. Close Rolls, 1318-23, p. 259. On 18 July 1327 the Abbot appointed attorneys in Chancery to show cause why execution of arrest should not be made. Ibid. 1327-30, p. 210. The same ship was captured in 1321 near "Ravenser Rode," over against the town of Saltfleetby by subjects of the Count of Hainault (ibid. 1318-23, p. 398), and Stephen Aleyn was still endeavouring to obtain compensation in 1328—an illustration of the difficulties of trade at the time. Ibid. 1327-30, pp. 392-3, and below, pp. 60, 76.
  • 27. Cf. Cal. of Letter Book E, p. 222; Riley's Memorials of London and London Life etc. pp. 167-8. Robert de Hasseleshawe, Provost of Wells, was an assessor and collector of the sixth granted in the Parliament of York, 1322(Cal. of Letter Book E, p. 176), and a commissioner for supplying corn and victuals from the City for the Scottish war in 1323. Cal. Close Rolls, 1318-23, p. 636. He had been imprisoned in the City on charges brought by divers persons, and agreed to pay the Commonalty £100 for his release, on condition of answering any complaints at law, but escaped without paying.
  • 28. In accordance with a writ of 4 July 1315, ordering that the elections be made by the aldermen and others of the more discreet and powerful citizens, and that no one take part unless specially summoned, "according to ancient custom." Rymer's Foedera, vol. 11, pt. i, p. 271.
  • 29. See Cal. of Letter Book E, p. 223.
  • 30. The letter quotes the proceedings at the Iter of 1244 as recorded in the City's Iter Roll AA, membr. 6 b. See above, p. 19.
  • 31. This is one of many letters and writs recorded here and in the Close Rolls relating to a quarrel between the men of Great Yarmouth and the men of Little Yarmouth and Gorleston. Apparently citizens of London had curing-sheds in Little Yarmouth and suffered from a quarrel which was not their own.
  • 32. This letter refers to the most serious of the many quarrels between the townsmen of Bury St Edmunds and the monks of the Abbey, all of which owed their origin to the aspiration of the town for municipal freedom and independence from the Abbot's jurisdiction. Already in January of this year the townsmen had broken into the Abbey and carried away a great quantity of valuables, including Royal charters, deeds and recognizances. Further disturbances occurred after Easter. On the present occasion the riots lasted for five days, 18-22 Oct., and the Prior was imprisoned till he had granted a charter of freedom. Next year the Abbot was seized at his manor of Chevington, concealed for awhile in London, and finally carried abroad to Brabant. The citizens of London sympathized with the townsmen; Hamo de Chigwell (Mayor 1319-20, 1321-3, 1323-6, 1327-8) was afterwards accused and convicted of complicity in the latter events. See Cals. Close and Patent Rolls, passim; Chron. of Edw. I and Edw. II, 1, pp. 245, 333, 345, 346; R. Yates, History of Bury S t Edmunds, pp. 124-34.
  • 33. Stephen de Gravesend was temporarily unpopular with the Londoners, because of his attempts to mediate between Isabella and Edward II. In the rising of 18 Oct. 1326 his life was in danger. He disagreed with the other Bishops at the Parliament of Westminster, 7 Jan., and did not take the oath at the Guildhall. Anglia Sacra, 1, p. 367. Subsequently he took up the cause of Lancaster and Kent against Mortimer and befriended Hamo de Chigwell.