An Inventory of the Historical Monuments in Buckinghamshire, Volume 1, South. Originally published by His Majesty's Stationery Office, London, 1912.
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(O.S. 6 in. (a)xlii. S.E. (b)xlvii. N.E.)
b(1). Parish Church of Holy Trinity, stands at the E. end of the village; the walls of the nave, S. aisle, W. tower and the porches are covered with rough-cast; the chancel and the S. chapel are partly of flint, partly of brick; the S. chapel is partly cemented; the roofs are tiled. Early in the 14th century the church probably consisted of Chancel, Nave and West Tower; the South Aisle, and possibly the South Chapel, were built about the middle of the same century, the clearstorey and a new roof were added to the nave early in the 15th century; the North Porch was built in the 15th century, but altered at a later date, and there appears to have been also a S. porch of the 15th century. In the 18th century the walls of the chancel and S. chapel were re-built above the level of the window-sills, the South-West Vestry was added, the South Porch was apparently re-built, the roof of the S. aisle was heightened, enclosing the clearstorey, the E. arch of the aisle was widened and the windows altered. The upper part of the tower is modern, but was apparently formerly of the 15th century.
The 15th-century roof of the nave is worthy of note; among the fittings the 17th-century brasses are especially interesting.
Architectural Description—The Chancel (33 ft. by 13½ ft.) has a modern E. window; the N. doorway and window, the arch opening into the S. chapel, and the chancel arch are all of the 18th century. The walls are 2 ft. 2 in. thick below the level of the window-sills and 1 ft. 7 in. thick above them. The South Chapel (15½ ft. by 12 ft.) has an 18th-century window in the S. wall, which is gabled; all the walls are of the same thickness as those of the chancel. The Nave (57½ ft. by 20½ ft.) has, in the N. wall, two windows, the eastern is modern, the western was inserted late in the 15th or early in the 16th century, and is of two trefoiled lights and tracery, in a square head, with an external label; between the windows is an 18th-century doorway. In the S. wall, opening into the aisle, are three two-centred arches, probably of the 14th century, but the easternmost arch was widened towards the W. in 1733; it is of two chamfered orders, the original stones having been re-used, and retains the original E. jamb; the other arches are separated by 9 ft. of walling, and are of two chamfered orders dying into square jambs; they are probably of clunch, but have been much whitewashed. The clearstorey has three windows on each side, of two trefoiled lights under square heads; the N.W. window is modern, the others are of the 15th century; those on the S. side now open into the aisle; on both sides of the S. wall, above the middle arch, are the marks of a cross-gable; the jambs of the window, where they come below these marks, have been restored. The South Aisle (9½ ft. wide) has, in the S. wall, three windows; the eastern and western are modern, and form semi-dormers; the middle window is lower than the others, and is of the 14th century, of two trefoiled ogee lights under a square head, with a semi-quatrefoil in the central spandrel; the S. doorway, between the eastern and middle windows, is of the 18th century, or modern. The West Tower has no external divisions, the W. angles have diagonal buttresses and the E. angles square buttresses on the N. and S. sides; the plain parapet is modern. The tower arch is of small span, lancet-pointed and of one chamfered order, with square jambs which have moulded imposts; it is of early 14th-century date, repaired with Roman cement. The lancet window in the W. wall has rebated jambs and head; below it is an 18th-century doorway, blocked, and above it, on the first floor, is a rectangular wood-framed window. The bell-chamber is lighted by modern windows of two lights under square heads, probably copies of the original windows, of which fragments remain in a garden S. of the church. The North Porch has plain rectangular windows on each side, apparently old, but repaired. The outer doorway has a heavy oak frame with a flattened three-centred arch of three chamfered orders under a square head with traceried spandrels, the detail is similar to that of the roof of the nave, and probably also of early 15th-century date; the heavy framework possibly indicates that it was part of a timber porch of earlier date than the existing walls. The South Porch was apparently re-built in the 18th century; over the entrance is part of a moulded beam, which probably belonged to the 15th-century porch. The early 15th-century Roof of the nave has six traceried trusses, with heavy cambered tie-beams; the braces below them form four-centred arches with tracery in the spandrels; above the tie-beams are queen-posts, with traceried spandrels, and with curved braces between them forming arches; below the collar-beams the purlins have curved wind-braces; the ceiling between the timbers is plastered. The trusses are set on corbels with moulded abaci; two of the corbels have shields charged with the arms—two bars in chief three scallops, and others are carved with heads. The roof of the S. aisle has five old trusses, altered to suit the altered pitch of the roof; on the S. wall the curved braces are moulded. The N. porch has an old roof of plain timbers.
Fittings—Brasses: In the S. chapel—(1) of Elizabeth Rok, 1540, shrouded figure, the end of the shroud over the head broken, part of scroll over head, inscription in ornamental border containing initials IRE; (2) of John Pen, 1597, and Ursula his wife, date of her death not filled in, man in armour with ruff and sword, only upper part of both figures remaining, six sons, inscription with Latin verse, and shield bearing arms of Penn impaling Waleston; (3) of Susan, wife of Sir Henry Drurey, 1640, figure of woman with inscription, shield bearing arms of Drury impaling Stewkley, lozenge with the same arms, and two mantled helms with crests; (4) of John Pen, 1641, and Sarah, his wife, daughter of Sir Henry Drury, two figures, man in armour, five sons and five daughters, with inscription, and arms, Penn impaling Drury. In S. aisle—at E. end, (5) of William Pen, 1638, and Martha his wife, 1635, man in armour, woman in loose dress and ruff, one son in armour, two daughters, with inscription and shield bearing arms of Penn impaling Waleston. Font: stem and base, Purbeck marble, 12th-century, cup-shaped bowl covered entirely with lead, probably 16th or 17th-century, all standing on a circular platform formed of a ring of clunch, probably 12th-century, with a filling of red brick and cement, possibly formerly the base of a pillar. Monuments: In chancel—on N. wall, (1) to William Penn, 1693, white marble tablet, with inscription and arms. In nave—on N. wall, (2) to Daniel Baker, 1700, and another, 18th-century, large tablet, white marble. In S. aisle—(3) stone coffin, long stepped cross in relief on the coped lid, head of cross worn away, probably early 13th-century. Plate: includes silver-gilt cup and cover paten of 1597.
a(2). Putnam Place, 3/8 mile N.W. of the church, now divided into dwellings for farmlabourers, is a house of two storeys, built of red and black glazed bricks; the E. wall is covered with cement; the roofs are tiled. It is probably of 15th-century origin, and traces remain of the original hall with open roof; late in the 16th or early in the 17th century an upper floor was inserted in the hall, the central chimney was added, and attics were built; the house was much altered and the outer walls were encased in brick c. 1680; the attics were disused after that date, no windows having been provided for them, but the staircase was allowed to remain. The plan is of slightly modified H-shape, facing W.; the N. wing projects only towards the E.; a rectangular block was added at the S. end of the building in the 18th century. W. Elevation:—Both wings and the 18th-century addition are gabled; the late 17th-century gables were probably curvilinear, like those at a house on the S.W. (see (3)), but are now plain; the windows have wood mullions, some of c. 1680 and some modern. The E. Elevation has three gables, opposite those on the W.; a small two-storeyed porch near the S. end is probably modern; the windows are mullioned. At the N. end of the building is a projecting chimney stack of c. 1680; the windows on both floors W. of the stack are blocked; on the E. of the stack is a small window. The S. end is covered by the 18th-century addition. The central chimney stack is of late 16th or early 17th-century brick. Interior:—On the ground floor are some late 17th-century doors, and a large fireplace, partly blocked. The extent of the mediæval hall is shown by moulded beams forming wall-plates from wing to wing on the E. and W. walls of the main block; in the middle is a truss of the original roof, with a cambered tie-beam, and perhaps originally with curved braces; old trusses also show at the sides of the wings and in the gabled ends; the beams of the E. wall have been cut away to make room for the windows in the gables.
a(3). House, now two cottages, probably a former lodge of Putnam Place (see Plate, p. xxx.), 5/8 mile W.N.W. of the church, is of two storeys and an attic, of red and black bricks; the roof is tiled. It was built probably c. 1680, when Putnam Place was altered. The plan is rectangular, facing W. and at the back are modern additions. The front has two curvilinear gables and plain string-courses, a central doorway and mullioned windows, all original, except the window N. of the doorway; two windows on the first floor are blocked; the N. end has one gable, similar to those on the W., and an original projecting chimney stack; the S. end is gabled and has mullioned windows. Inside the house are old beams in the ceilings, and an original fireplace partly filled in.
b(4–5). The Crown Inn, on the N. side of the road, N.E. of the church, and a Cottage, opposite the inn, are each of two storeys, built in the 17th century, but entirely re-faced with modern brick. The roofs are tiled. Both buildings have original chimney stacks.
b(6). Cottages, in two blocks on the E. side of the road, E. of the church, are all of two storeys, built in the 17th century, re-faced with modern brick, or brick and flint. Only the chimney stacks are original.
b(7). Cottage, further S. on the E. side of the road, is of two storeys, built in the 17th century and re-faced with modern brick. The roof is tiled, and the chimney stacks are original.
b(8). Parsonage Farm, about ¾ mile S. of the church, is of two storeys, built probably c. 1600, of brick and timber, slightly restored; the back has been considerably altered. The roofs are tiled. The plan is of half-H shape, the wings projecting towards the S., and the W. wing also projects slightly towards the N. At the E. end of the N. front the upper storey projects and is supported on brackets; the ends of the wings are gabled. At the E. end of the building is a projecting chimney stack of thin bricks, the upper part of the shaft is restored; the chimney stack over the W. wing is also of thin bricks and has three square shafts, restored at the top.
b(9). House, now two tenements, at Forty Green, about 1 mile S.S.E. of the church, is of two storeys, built of timber and brick probably early in the 17th century, and much restored in the 18th and 19th centuries. The roofs are tiled. The plan is L-shaped, with an 18th-century addition at the N.E. corner. At the N. end is a projecting chimney stack of thin bricks. Inside the house the constructional timbers are visible, and there are two large open fireplaces, now partly blocked.
b(10). Egham's Farm, about 1¼ miles S.E. of the church. The original farm-house is no longer used as a dwelling; it is of two storeys, built late in the 16th or early in the 17th century, of brick and timber, partly restored with modern brick. The roof is tiled.
b(11). Orchard Cottages, two, about 1 mile S.E. of the church, are of two storeys, built of brick and timber late in the 16th or early in the 17th century, now much restored with modern brick. The roofs are tiled. The chimney stack of one cottage has square shafts of thin bricks.
b(12). Baylin's Farm, 1 mile S.E. of the church, is a house of two storeys, and timber-framed with brick filling; the roofs are tiled. It was built probably early in the 16th century, on an L-shaped plan, with the wings extending towards the N. and W.; in the 17th century a room was added on the E. side; in the 18th century the building was much restored, and further additions were made in the 19th century. The S. front retains a little original timber-framing, and some 17th-century brick, but has been much re-built with 18th-century brick; the doorway has an original four-centred head, with sunk spandrels. On the E. side the N. end has original timber-framing with filling of thin bricks, and at the S. end the lower storey is of 17th-century brick, and there is a projecting chimney stack of very thin bricks, probably original. The W. side is modern, except the gable at the end of the W. wing, which is of thin bricks, with an original two-light window, now blocked. The N. side of the W. wing also has a gable of thin bricks, restored at the top and covered with plaster. Interior:—On the ground floor the dining room, in the W. wing, has large intersecting moulded beams and joists in the ceiling, all now covered with whitewash; the fireplace is partly blocked. The drawing room is lined with panelling of various dates, chiefly of the 17th century, all painted. Three doors, in four-centred openings, are original, of wide battens with strap-hinges. The staircase has, on each side, a handrail on brackets, probably of the 17th century. On the first floor the roof-timbers are visible, the trusses have curved struts and wind-braces.
The walls surrounding the garden on the S. side of the house are built of flint and thin bricks, probably of the 17th century; the E. wall has buttresses of 18th-century brick, and a small building at the S. end is modern; the W. wall now forms the side of a barn. In the wall adjoining the house are two small niches with arches of thin bricks.
Condition—Of house, fairly good, some parts poor; of garden walls, poor.
b(13). Red Lion Cottage, behind the Red Lion Inn, 11/8 miles S.E. of the church, is of one storey and an attic, built of brick and timber in the 17th century, much restored with 18th-century and modern brick. The roof is tiled. The large central chimney stack has square shafts of thin bricks, restored at the top. Inside the building are old beams and a wide fireplace, partly filled in.
b(14). Seagrave's Farm, 1⅓ miles E. of the church, is a two-storeyed house, now two tenements, built in the 17th century, and timber-framed; the brick filling is entirely modern, and the front has been re-faced. The roof is tiled. The central chimney stack has square shafts built of thin bricks.
Condition—Good, much restored.
a(15). House, now two cottages, 'Ivy Cottage' and 'The Forge', on the W. side of the road, in Penn Street, is of two storeys, built of brick and timber probably in the first half of the 17th century, restored with modern brick; the S. wall is of flint with brick quoins. An E. wing, of brick, was added in the 18th century. The roofs are tiled. In the S. wall is a blocked window of four lights with brick jambs. The central chimney stack is of thin bricks with square shafts. Interior:—One room has a massive ceiling-beam supporting large chamfered joists, and there are two wide, open fireplaces.
Condition—Of Ivy Cottage, ruinous; of the Forge, fairly good.