An Inventory of the Historical Monuments in Buckinghamshire, Volume 1, South. Originally published by His Majesty's Stationery Office, London, 1912.
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(O.S. 6 in. (a)xli. S.W. (b)xlvi. N.W.)
a(1). Parish Church of St. Peter and St. Paul, stands on the N. side of the village. The walls are of flint, the greater part covered with rough-cast; the dressings are of limestone. The chancel and nave are roofed with lead and the N. transept with tiles. The chancel and Nave were built probably late in the 12th century, but the Chancel may have been re-built c. 1330 and the nave lengthened in the 15th century. The North Transept was built apparently in the 14th century, and re-built in the second half of the 16th century; the South Porch was added also in the 16th century. In 1893 the North Aisle was built, and the Bell-turret is also modern.
The two brass effigies of early 15th-century date, on the chancel arch, with inscriptions in French, are of unusual interest.
Architectural Description—The Chancel (28 ft. by 15 ft.) has an E. window of three lights and tracery; the inner jambs are partly of the 14th century, the rest is modern. In the N. wall is a window of c. 1330, of two lights and tracery in a pointed head, and a 15th-century window of two trefoiled lights and tracery in a square head; both windows have moulded external labels. In the S. wall are two windows similar to the 14th-century window in the N. wall, but the eastern window was heightened in the 15th century, and the sill has been carried down to form a sedile; between the windows is a doorway, with chamfered jambs, probably also of the 14th century; the head is modern. The chancel arch is probably of late 12th-century date, but appears to have been re-set; it is pointed and of two orders, the inner square, the outer of three rolls, forming a cheveron moulding on the soffit; the jambs, of one order, have each, on the W., a keeled edge-roll with a moulded base and square capital with carved foliage; a squint N. of the arch is probably mediæval. The Nave (64 ft. by 20 ft.) has a N. arcade of four bays, all modern except the easternmost bay, which opens into the transept, and is of c. 1340; it is of two chamfered orders with chamfered jambs; the inner order springs from a moulded corbel with a head-stop in the E. jamb; a similar corbel has been moved from the W. jamb to the modern W. respond: E. of the transept arch is the upper doorway of the former rood-loft, probably of the 15th century, and re-cut in the 16th century. In the S. wall are four windows; the easternmost, of c. 1330, resembles the S.E. window of the chancel, and was also heightened in the 15th century; the second, of c. 1360, is of two trefoiled lights with a quatrefoil in a two-centred head, and a moulded external label; the third is a 15th-century window of two cinque-foiled lights and tracery under a segmental head, and the fourth is a 13th-century lancet, possibly re-set; the inner jambs and rear arch appear to have been re-cut and restored: the S. doorway, of late 12th-century date, has a moulded two-centred arch, enriched with dog-tooth ornament; the semi-circular inner order is modern, and the jambs have modern shafts; the W. capital is probably original, but has foliage of a later date. In the W. wall the 15th-century doorway has moulded jambs, two-centred arch and label; the W. window, also of the 15th century, is of three lights and tracery under a four-centred head; the moulded jambs are repaired with cement: over it is a small round-headed window, possibly of c. 1180, re-set, and now blocked. The North Transept (20 ft. by 15 ft.) has an E. window, probably of the 16th century, of two uncusped lights under a square head with a moulded external label. In the N. wall is a late 16th-century window of three lights under a four-centred head with a moulded external label; the mouldings of the inner jambs are continued in the flat oak lintel; over this window a small trefoiled light of the 15th century has been re-set. The W. arch, opening into the N. aisle, is modern. The North Aisle (34 ft. by 11 ft.) is modern, but has three old windows re-set in the N. and W. walls: the middle window in the N. wall is of the 15th century, and of two cinque-foiled lights; the jambs and square head are moulded; the westernmost window, also of the 15th century, is of two cinque-foiled pointed lights under a square head, and has moulded jambs. The window in the W. wall is probably of the 14th century, and partly restored; it is of two trefoiled ogee lights with a quatrefoil under a pointed head, with a moulded external label. The South Porch has a rectangular light in each of the side walls, with old stones in the inner jambs; the entrance has a 15th-century four-centred arch of two chamfered orders; the jambs are modern. The Roof of the nave is of five bays, of late 15th-century date, and has tie-beams with curved braces, carved spandrels, and original stone corbels, carved as angels holding shields, or as human heads; the westernmost corbels are plain and of later date than the others. The 16th-century roof of the transept has a moulded middle tie-beam, and over it a foliated board, possibly an old bargeboard re-used; the rafters are ceiled with plaster.
Fittings—Bells: three, 1st, 1640, 3rd, 1618, both by Henry Knight. Bracket: on N. wall of chancel, small, moulded and carved, probably 14th-century. Brasses: In chancel— of Bartholomew Typping of 'Checkers', 1632, rectangular plate with figures and inscription, above it smaller plate with shield of arms and crest; (2) of Martha, wife of Bartholomew Tipping, 1632, plate with figure and inscription, and smaller plate with arms and crest; on N. jamb of chancel arch, (3) of Roberd Morle, 1410, figure in plate armour, mail hauberk, and bascinet with aventail and plate gorget, feet and right leg broken off, inscription in French; on S. jamb of chancel arch, (4) of Robert Morle, 1415, figure and inscription similar to that on N. jamb, feet broken off. Easter Sepulchre: see Locker. Font and Cover: bowl of limestone, apparently originally circular with moulded rim, early 13th-century, re-cut late in the 15th or early in the 16th century to an octagonal form with moulded lower edge, bell stem and moulded base; oak cover, flat with moulded vertical handle in centre, probably 17th-century. Glass: in N.W. window of chancel and in W. window of nave, fragments. Locker: in N. wall of chancel, with rebated jambs and sill of limestone, 14th-century, trefoiled ogee head of clunch, probably added early in 15th century and locker used as Easter sepulchre. Monuments and Floor-slabs. Monuments: In chancel—on N. wall, (1) to Bartholomew Tipping, founder of the Free School in the parish, 1680, inscription in elaborate border with arms over it, of marble; in floor, on N. side, (2) coffin lid, with stem of incised cross, head and base hidden or missing, mediæval. Floor-slabs: In chancel—(1) to Bartholomew Tipping, 1680; (2) to Elizabeth Whistler, sister of Bartholomew Tipping, 169¾, partly hidden by the choir-stalls; (3–4) two slabs, probably 17th-century. Piscinæ: in chancel, with cinque-foiled arch under gabled head having tracery and crockets, flanked by pinnacles on head corbels, sexfoil basin, mid 14th-century: in E. wall of N. transept, with cinque-foiled pointed head, sexfoil basin, shelf at back, 14th-century. Plate: includes cup and cover paten of 1574 and paten of 1684. Recess: E. of piscina in chancel, small, square. Miscellanea: on ledge of S.E. window of nave, two fragments of shafts, one with foliated capital, early 13th-century, the other with moulded capital, probably also 13th-century, with three lines of colour decoration of later date on the back, both have been re-used.
The Green, N. side from W. to E.
a(2). House, of two storeys, built of timber and brick probably early in the 17th century, but almost entirely re-built in the 18th century; the original walls remain at the back. The roof is tiled.
a(3). House, of two storeys, built probably late in the 17th century, and now much altered. The S. front is covered with plaster, and the other walls are of red brick with black headers. The roof is tiled.
a(4–5). Houses, two, adjoining, on the E. side of the S. entrance to the churchyard, are two-storeyed rectangular buildings. The eastern house has a plastered front, and was built late in the 16th or early in the 17th century; the western house has a modern front of flint and brick; the back is timber-framed with brick filling set in herringbone pattern; at the W. end the ground floor is of modern brick and the first floor is similar to the back. The roofs are tiled. The two chimney stacks are built of thin bricks.
Condition—Fairly good, much altered and restored.
a(6). Cottages, a row of small tenements, possibly of late 17th-century date. They are of two storeys, built of flint rubble and brick with brick dressings. The roof is tiled.
a(7). House, built in the 17th century, but much re-built and altered in the 18th century. It retains at the back a little original timber-framing and some windows, possibly also original, with iron casements.
S. side, from E. to W.
a(8–9). Cottages, six in a row, forming two blocks, each of two storeys. The walls are of red brick; the roofs are tiled. The three cottages at the E. end were built possibly c. 1625, the others late in the same century. The door and window frames, of solid wood, are original, and the windows have iron casements; the three western cottages have mullioned and transomed windows.
a(10). House, a small rectangular building of two storeys, probably of the 17th century, but much re-built. The walls are timber-framed with plaster and brick filling; a few patches of the filling, set in herringbone pattern, are probably original. The roof is tiled. At the E. end of the house the gabled upper storey projects, and retains the original timber-framing which forms a cambered tie-beam and a rough queen-post truss.
a(11). House, now two tenements, about 1¾ miles S.E. of the church, is of two storeys and an attic. It was built c. 1680, of red brick with blue headers; the roof is tiled. The S. front has a plain string-course between the two storeys, and a timber porch with two shaped brackets; the entrance door is original, and has bolection-moulded panels, and contemporary furniture; the door frame, with that of the door at the back of the house, is moulded. There are two original chimney stacks. The parlour has a large chamfered ceiling-beam and exposed joists; the open fireplace is original. Some of the battened doors are also original, and one has an old iron handle. The staircase is of c. 1680, and the upper part has flat balusters and a plain handrail.
a(12). House, S. of (11), is of two storeys, built possibly in the 16th century, but entirely re-faced with brick, probably late in the 17th century. The roof is tiled. The plan is rectangular with a staircase wing at the back. On the N. front the two windows on the ground floor are each of five lights with moulded mullions and frame, and a square label of brick; a window of two lights on the first floor, and another at the E. end of the house have similar detail. The central chimney stack is of 17th-century brick. Inside the house are two large fireplaces with four-centred arches; some of the doors are also original, of battens, with ornamental hinges. The two rooms on the ground floor have each a moulded beam in the ceiling.
Condition—Of exterior, good; of interior, poor.
a(13). House, S. of (12), is a small rectangular building of one storey and an attic, probably of early 17th-century date. The N. front is timber-framed, with brick and some plaster filling; the back is of flint with brick dressings, and has been restored; the ends are of flint, brick and timber. One window at the back has a moulded frame and mullion. The central chimney stack and the projecting stack at the W. end are built of thin bricks.
a (14). Dell's Farm, about 2 miles S.E. of the church, is of two storeys and an attic. The W. front is of red and blue bricks of c. 1680; the other walls, built of brick and timber, and flint with brick dressings, are possibly of earlier date. The roofs are tiled. Two chimney stacks are built of thin bricks. Inside the house are some wattle and daub partitions, old ceiling-beams and oak floor-boards. A wide fireplace has been partly filled in. One staircase has old square newels with moulded tops, and another retains part of the original central newel.
Condition—Of exterior, good; of interior, poor.
b(15). Keynsham's Farm, on Cadmore End Common, 3 miles S.E. of the village, is of two storeys, and was built of brick and timber probably in the 16th century; the E. front was refaced with red and blue bricks c. 1680, and the house was lengthened towards the S. in the 19th century. The roofs are tiled. The plan is L-shaped, the longer wing projecting towards the S., the shorter wing towards the W., and there is a small staircase wing in the internal angle. The two rectangular chimney stacks, one with moulded top, and both with two square shafts, set diagonally, are of original thin bricks. The living room has an open timber ceiling with a massive main beam, and a wide fireplace, partly filled in. In the parlour one wall is covered with oak panelling of early 17th-century date.