An Inventory of the Historical Monuments in Buckinghamshire, Volume 2, North. Originally published by His Majesty's Stationery Office, London, 1913.
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(O.S. 6 in. (a)iv. N.W. (b)iv. S.W. (c)iv. S.E.)
c(1). Parish Church of St. James, stands at the S. end of the village; the walls are of limestone rubble, with roughly squared blocks of stone in the S. aisle, and much ironstone in the S. porch; the walls of the tower and the dressings of the chancel are of ashlar. The roofs are covered with slate and lead. The Chancel and probably an aisleless Nave were built c. 1170, and the North and South Aisles were added in the 13th century; at the end of the century the North Chapel or vestry was added and the E. wall of the chancel re-built. The S. aisle was lengthened one bay towards the W. early in the 14th century. The N. aisle and N. chapel were widened early in the 15th century; the West Tower and spire were added a little later; the nave arcades were re-built and the North and South Porches added at the end of the same century. In the 19th century the spire was almost entirely re-built, and the whole building was considerably restored in 1904–1905.
The church is a large building of elaborate detail, and the spire is an uncommon feature in Buckinghamshire; the 12th-century work is of great interest, although it has been much restored.
Architectural Description—The Chancel (41½ ft. by 19 ft.) has an E. window of five lights, all modern, except the internal splay and rear arch, and the external label, which are of late 13th-century date. In the N. wall, about 7 ft. from the E. end, high up, is an oblong socket, possibly for the beam at the back of an altar: W. of the socket, also high up, is a window of c. 1170, much restored and now opening into the N. chapel; it has a wide splay and round head, externally chamfered, and the voussoirs are carved with three leaves; the internal label and string-course are modern, probably copies of the original work: under the window is a late 13th-century doorway, much restored: at the W. end of the wall, opening into the N. aisle, is a late 13th-century arch, widened towards the W. at a later date; it is of obtuse two-centred form, and of three chamfered orders; the chamfered jambs have semi-octagonal pilasters with crudely moulded capitals. The S. wall retains almost entirely the 12th-century design, considerably restored; it has an external arcading of six bays, separated by half-round columns, which are carried up to the roof, and have enriched capitals and moulded bases; the coping of the wall projects and is supported in each bay by the columns and by three grotesque corbels; in each bay but the westernmost is a shallow recess with a round head and a continuous edge-roll which has moulded bases; five of the recesses each contained originally a round-headed window similar to that in the N. wall, with a moulded external sill-course, carried under the windows and broken round the columns and edge-rolls; in the third and sixth bays the sill-course has been removed: the easternmost, second and fourth windows remain, but are almost entirely restored; the window in the third bay was replaced in the 14th century by a window of two lights under a two-centred head, now completely restored. In the fifth bay the recess has no edge-roll, and the window is blocked; below the sill-course is an original doorway with a round head of two orders and a moulded and enriched label; the outer order has zig-zag ornament and formerly rested on circular shafts, of which only the capitals remain, and are much defaced; the inner order has a continuous edge-roll and a form of horse-shoe ornament. The recess in the sixth bay was completely destroyed in the 13th century, when a low-side window with a two-centred head was inserted; the lower part of the window has an internal rebate for a shutter, added at a later date. All the arcading has been considerably restored, and the capitals of the columns are modern; at the S.E. corner the original work was destroyed when the E. wall was re-built late in the 13th century, and the off-set buttresses are also of the 13th century. The 12th-century chancel arch is semi-circular, of one square order on the E. side, and of four square orders on the W. side; the innermost order rests on half-round engaged shafts having enriched scalloped capitals with enriched abaci, which have been cut to fit a screen; the other orders have smaller three-quarter round shafts, which have enriched capitals, with the abaci continued from the inner shafts; the moulded bases are much defaced. The North Chapel or Vestry (23 ft. by 10½ ft.) has, in the E. wall, a late 13th-century window of three uncusped lights under a two-centred head. In the N. wall are two windows, each of two lights, of the same date and design as that in the E. wall, but re-set; in the eastern window round heads have been added under the pointed heads of the lights: W. of the windows is a rough doorway with a wooden frame, probably inserted in the 18th century. On the S. wall, towards the W. end, are the remains of one and a half bays of the original N. arcading of the chancel, formerly external and similar to the S. arcading; the half-round engaged columns have been cut back, but one original capital and several grotesque corbels remain in situ; the eastern recess contains the original N. window and the late 13th-century N. doorway of the chancel. In the W. wall, opening into the N. aisle, is a rough doorway with a flat head. The Nave (63½ ft. by 25 ft.) has several late 15th-century gargoyles under the plain parapet; one is carved as the Warwick badge, and another as a man's figure wearing a liripipe hat or turban, a pleated tunic and trunk-hose; others are carved as grotesque birds. The N. and S. arcades are of late 15th-century date, and each of four bays; the two-centred arches are of two chamfered orders, carried on slender piers, each with two semi-octagonal pilasters which have moulded capitals and bases; the outer order is continuous. At the E. end of the S. wall is a slight projection, forming part of a stair-turret (see S. aisle); in the splayed face of the projection is the doorway of the rood-loft. The clearstorey has, on each side, four windows of late 15th-century date, each of two cinque-foiled lights with a quatrefoil under a four-centred head and an external label with large stops, carved as grotesque heads, some having liripipe hoods. The North Aisle (E. bay 19 ft. wide, rest 17½ ft. wide) extends one bay E. of the nave, the W. half of the bay being filled by a burial vault, originally erected c. 1700, and re-built in the 19th century. In the E. wall, high up, is a 16th-century window of two uncusped lights under a flat head. In the N. wall are four windows: the two eastern are of early 15th-century date, and each of five cinque-foiled lights with cusped tracery under a square head and label: the third window is of late 13th-century date, re-set, and of two uncusped lights with uncusped tracery in a two-centred head; the rear arch and internal label are moulded, and the splay has shafts with moulded capitals and bases; set in and above the external label are three 12th-century grotesque head-corbels: the fourth window is a 13th-century lancet, re-set, externally chamfered and rebated, and with an indented label: between the two western windows is a doorway of early 14th-century date, re-set; the jambs and two-centred head are continuously moulded. In the S. wall, at the E. end, over the arch opening into the chancel, are some of the 12th-century corbels and remains of the capitals of the N. arcading of the chancel, formerly external. In the W. wall is a 16th-century window of three uncusped lights under a flat head; N. of the window are remains of a circular opening of uncertain date, now blocked, and only internally visible; above the window, on the N. side, is a 12th-century corbel, built into the wall. The South Aisle (14 ft. wide) has, at the N.E. corner, a 15th-century square turret with a staircase leading to the roof of the nave, and formerly also to the rood-loft; the turret has a plain parapet and a string-course with carved grotesque animals at the angles. In the E. wall of the aisle is a 16th-century window of three uncusped lights under a flat head; the rear arch is two-centred, and is possibly all that remains of an opening of earlier date. In the N.E. corner, opening into the turret, is a 15th-century doorway with moulded jambs and a four-centred head, from which the mouldings have been cut away. In the S. wall are three windows; the easternmost is of the 15th century, and of three cinque-foiled lights with uncusped tracery under a flat head; the middle window is of the 14th century, and of two trefoiled lights with a quatrefoil in a two-centred head; the third window is of mid 13th-century date, and of two lancet lights externally chamfered and rebated, and with a moulded rear arch which has shafted internal jambs; W. of the third window there is a straight joint in the walling: between the two western windows is the 15th-century S. doorway, which has a two-centred head of one chamfered order and a moulded label. In the W. wall is a 16th-century window, similar to the window in the E. wall, but of cruder workmanship. The West Tower (16½ ft. by 15½ ft.) is of five stages with a moulded plinth, a stair-turret in the N.W. corner, square buttresses, an embattled parapet, and a stone spire of moderate height; under the parapet is a string-course set with small grotesque beasts, and with a large projecting gargoyle on each wall; the buttresses are panelled at the top and surmounted by finialled pinnacles of considerable height; from the pinnacles spring the pierced flying buttresses of the octagonal spire, which has crocketed angles and, in four sides, small dormer windows, some of them with tracery. The whole tower is of the 15th century, except the spire, which is almost entirely modern. The tower arch is of three chamfered orders; the two outer orders are continuous; the innermost order of the jambs has engaged round shafts with moulded capitals and bases. The W. doorway is of two moulded orders, the inner order two-centred, the outer square; above the doorway is a window with an original opening, but modern mullions and transom. The ground stage was originally vaulted, but only the wall-arches and the spring of the vaulting remain. The third stage has, in each wall, a window of two trefoiled lights under a square head. In each wall of the fourth stage is a quatrefoil opening set in a square reveal; that in the N. wall is covered by the clock. The bell-chamber has, in each wall, coupled windows, each of two cinque-foiled lights with a quatrefoil in a two-centred head; the heads are enclosed by a square label. The North Porch (10 ft. by 9½ ft.) has a plain parapet. All the detail is of late 15th-century date. The outer entrance has continuously moulded jambs and straight-sided four-centred head; over it is a species of knot carved in stone. The South Porch (9 ft. by 8½ ft.) also has a plain parapet. The outer entrance is of late 15th-century date, but has been much restored; the jambs are square; the pointed head, of one heavy chamfered order, is of ironstone. The Roof of the nave (see Plate, p. 41) is low-pitched, and probably of late 15th or early 16th-century date; it is of six bays with seven trusses, which have plain chamfered tie-beams, roughly cut, with curved struts under the beams; three of them have been strengthened with extra pieces under the ends; above the beams are plain king-posts and curved struts; the two eastern bays were restored in 1770, as recorded on the easternmost tie-beam; the purlins and ridge are chamfered, some of the rafters are original and are roughly stop-chamfered; all the trusses, except the S. end of the easternmost truss, had stone corbels, but only three of them remain; they are carved as angels, each holding a musical instrument or a shield. The roofs of the N. chapel and N. aisle are modern, except a moulded 15th-century principal in a line with the E. wall of the nave, which has mortice holes in the soffit, probably for a former partition or screen. The N. porch has a low-pitched 15th-century roof, with moulded ridge and cross principals; the W. wall-plate is dated 1765, probably recording a restoration of the roof.
Fittings—Bells: six, 5th by Robert Atton, 1626. Brasses and Indents. Brasses: In N. chapel—in slab of Purbeck marble, (1) to —Troughton, and his wife, daughter of —Hampden, inscription in English verse, composed by their son Richard Troughton, probably late 16th or early 17th-century. In nave—at E. end, in grey stone slab, (2) indents of man in armour and two women in pedimental head-dresses, from the mouths of the women brass scrolls inscribed with prayers, partly broken, in the upper corners of slab two shields of lead charged with a fesse (of brass) with three boars' heads thereon, indent of inscription plate, probably of c. 1530, lower part of slab cut away; at W. end, in slab of Purbeck marble, (3) of Mary, daughter of Thomas Birchmore, 1602, tapering plate with figure of child in Elizabethan dress, Latin inscription in Roman capitals. Indents: In chancel—in grey stone slab, (1) figure of priest, and inscription plate, late 15th or early 16th-century, on slab two incised 18th-century inscriptions; (2) half-figure of priest, and inscription plate, late 15th or early 16th-century, on slab incised 18th-century inscription; in large slab, (3) full-length figure of priest in Mass vestments, his head resting on cushion, under cinque-foiled and sub-trefoiled ogee canopy with crockets and finials, flanked by buttresses with crocketed pinnacles, marginal inscription with (?) symbols of the Evangelists, at the four corners, late 14th or early 15th-century; (4) of civilian in hood and gown, under crocketed canopy, flanked by buttresses with crocketed pinnacles, marginal inscription, slab in two pieces, shortened by some inches, top of head of figure missing, probably early 15th-century. Doors: In S. aisle—at foot of stair-turret, plain oak, with strap-hinges, 15th-century. In tower—at foot of stair-turret, with plain strap-hinges, mid 15th-century. Glass: In N. aisle—in tracery of two eastern windows in N. wall, white with yellow foliage, in one of the lights small fragment, all 15th-century. Lockers: In chancel—three, all rebated for doors, one retaining iron hook for hinge. Monuments and Floor-slabs. Monuments: In chancel—under the communion table, (1) part of heavy oak coffin, in one piece, dug up in the churchyard. In S. aisle—on sill of S.E. window, (2) stone coffin-lid, with raised ornament, half worn away, 13th-century, found under the floor of the church. In S. porch—set in W. wall, (3) octagonal stone, with cross in relief in round sunk panel, probably part of a coffin-lid, 13th-century. In tower—(4) stone coffins, two, probably 13th-century, found under the floor of the church. In churchyard—E. of chancel, (5) gravestone to Joane, wife of John Reeve, 1646. Floor-slabs: In chancel—on N. side, (1) to Basill, son and heir of Sir Nathaniel Brent, 1695; (2) to Elizabeth, daughter of Thomas Golding of Poslingford, Suffolk, 1693. In nave—under E. arch of N. arcade, (3) part of slab, name illegible, 1694; at W. end, (4) to John Newman, 1716, and Ann his wife, 1696. In N. aisle—at W. end, (5) part of slab, inscription in Latin, partly missing, to Mary, wife of —Castell, chemist, daughter of John Ha . . . [of] Huntingdon, probably 17th-century. Paintings: In nave—on wall of stair-turret, representation of the Warwick badge, a bear and ragged staff, white, on red background, with yellow foliated ornament, in mouth of bear scroll with traces of black-letter inscription, 15th-century; on same wall, above former rood-beam, figure, white, on blue background, 15th-century; on E. respond of S. arcade, traces of colour, red; in roof, at E. end, on second truss, remains of colour, red and black; on tie-beam quatre-foiled circles in white line, on king-post black cheveronny lines on white ground, late 15th or early 16th-century. Piscinae: In chancel—in range with sedilia, with shafted E. jamb and detached shaft next to sedilia, moulded bases and capitals, two-centred trefoiled head, early 14th-century, sill and label with mask-stops, modern, no basin. In N. chapel—at E. end of S. wall, with chamfered jambs and semi-circular head, carved flowers at springing, and foliage in the spandrels, circular fluted basin, partly 12th-century material, re-used. In S. aisle—at E. end of S. wall, with stop-chamfered jambs and two-centred head, no basin, 13th-century, in one jamb a shaped stone, 12th-century, re-used. Plate: includes cup of 1621, inscribed 'Hanslope 1623'. Recesses: In N. aisle—in N. wall, with stop-chamfered jambs and chamfered drop arch, probably 14th-century, label apparently cut away. In S. aisle—in S. wall, with shafted jambs, moulded bases and capitals, two-centred arch of two orders, the inner order cinque-foiled and chamfered, the outer moulded and with band of dog-tooth ornament, plain two-centred label, c. 1260, label damaged. Sedilia: In chancel —in range with piscina, three seats under trefoiled arches, separated by detached shafts with moulded bases and capitals, early 14th-century, labels and one shaft with base modern. Stoup: In N. aisle—on E. side of N. doorway, with trefoiled head and deep circular basin, 15th-century, projection of basin cut off. Tiles: In S. aisle—on sill of W. window, cemented together in three slabs, fragments with different designs, a horse, a fleur de lis, etc., 14th or 15th-century, much worn. Miscellanea: S. aisle—on external jamb of S.W. window, sundial, fragment; on buttress near the same window, sundial, traces. In N. chapel— leading to the Manor pew, stairs, of oak, in two small flights, with twisted balusters, moulded handrail and plain newels, c. 1700.
Condition—Fairly good; much restored in parts; roofs of chancel and nave leak.
Homestead Moats (2–4)
c(2). In Hanslope Park.
c(3). At Ivy Farm, 700 yards S.E. of the church, fragment.
a(4). At Gordon's Lodge, about 2½ miles N.W. of the church.
c(5). Rectory Farm, house and moat, 80 yards S. of the church. The House (see Plate, p. 61) is of two storeys and an attic, built of stone c. 1600, enlarged and restored with modern brick. The roofs are tiled. The original plan is L-shaped, with the wings extending towards the S. and W.; the angle between them is filled by a 19th-century addition. The N. front is of modern brick. At the S. end of the S. wing is a large original gable with chamfered coping; on the ground floor is a window of moulded stone and of four lights with an external label; on the first floor is a similar window of four lights, with a moulded transom; the attic is lighted by an original window of three lights, similar to that on the ground floor. On the E. side of the house, on the ground floor, is an original window of one light, with moulded jambs and head; on the first floor are two windows similar to that on the ground floor, but both are blocked and one of them is of two lights with a moulded mullion; two large projecting chimney stacks are of stone, with shafts of modern brick.
Of the Moat only fragments remain, in a field S.E. of the house.
Condition—Of house, fairly good; walls cracked and weak in places, particularly at the S.E. end, where there is some ivy on one of the chimneys; there are two bolts in the S.W. wall.
These buildings are nearly all of two storeys, and of the 17th century, altered at later dates. The walls are of stone; the roofs generally are thatched. Many of the plans are rectangular.
Main street, N.E. side
c(6). House, at the corner of Newport Road, about 100 yards E.N.E. of the church. In front are four original windows with stone frames and labels; the mullions are missing; between the two upper windows is a tablet bearing the initials and date 'H.H.A. 1624.' At the N.W. end of the building is an original window, now blocked. At the back are modern additions.
A malthouse, N. of the house, is of early 17th-century date, built of stone, and now used as a lumber room.
c(7). Cottage, now three tenements, 400 yards N. of the church. The plan is L-shaped. Some of the windows have old metal casements. The chimney stacks are of 17th-century brick.
c(8). House, about 300 yards N.W. of the church. Some of the windows have old casements. Two of the chimney stacks are of the 17th century; one of them has two square shafts of brick on a stone base. The house has been enlarged at the back. Interior:—The ceiling-beams are original; and there are wide fireplaces, now blocked.
c(9). House, about 180 yards N.N.W. of the church. The front is gabled, and has a doorway of moulded oak with a depressed head and a nail-studded oak door; two of the windows have stone labels; in the head of the gable are the initials and date 'H.N.—A.N. 1646.' In the S. wall is a window with a moulded frame. Two of the chimney stacks are original. Interior:—In the ceilings are chamfered beams, and there is one wide fireplace.
c(10). The Green Man Inn, about 100 yards N. of the church, is of two storeys and an attic. The roof is tiled. At the back is an addition built of modern brick. In front, on the ground floor, the windows have original stone labels. At the back is a window of two lights, now blocked. Interior:—On the first floor are three oak-panelled doors of early 17th-century date; the upper panels of two of them are carved with a semi-circular pattern and leaf ornament. The floorboards and the treads of the stairs are of old oak. In the attic is an old door of oak battens with strap-hinges.
c(11). House, now two tenements, opposite to the Greyhound Inn, and 1 mile E. of the church, is of two storeys and an attic, facing E. Many of the windows are original and have stone mullions; the N. and E. windows have labels. At the back a window, on the first floor, is blocked, and a small outbuilding has been added. The central chimney stack is original. Interior:—In one tenement there is an open fireplace.
c(12). Tathall End Farm, house and dovecot, 400 yards N. of (11). The House is of two storeys and an attic; the roof is tiled. It was built possibly in 1602, the date inscribed on the dovecot; the date 1625, inscribed on a stone in the S. gable of the house, probably records a slight extension, which is also indicated by a change in the masonry at the S. end. The N. and S. gables have chamfered copings and shaped kneelers; in the N. gable is an original window of two lights, with jambs, head and mullion of moulded stone; over the same gable is an original chimney stack of stone, with two square shafts having moulded caps, set on a rectangular base moulded at the top. Two other chimney stacks have original bases of stone and shafts of modern brick.
Interior:—On the ground floor the ceilings have chamfered beams with moulded stops, and many of the floors are of old oak boards; in one room is a large open fireplace. On the first floor, at the N. end, is an original fireplace with moulded jambs and depressed head, of stone, now partly blocked. In the attic are visible the roof-trusses, of large timbers pegged together; the truss over the staircase has a collar-beam with curved chamfered brackets, and was apparently originally open to the first floor.
The Dove-cot, at the N. end of the house, is a square building with walls of stone rubble; the roof is tiled. In the E. wall, over the doorway, is a stone inscribed 'T.B. 1602.' Interior:—On the upper floor the walls are lined with recesses and ledges for the doves.
c(13). The Manor Farm, about ¾ mile S.E. of the church. The house is partly of three and partly of two storeys. The 17th-century building is rectangular, but an E. wing was added in the 18th century, making the plan T-shaped, and in the S.E. angle between the wing and the main block is a low modern addition. The roofs are covered with tiles and slate. The original part of the house, on the S. front, is gabled and has three stone-mullioned windows, one on each floor; in the W. wall are five mullioned windows, now blocked; in the E. wall, at the N. end, is a window, now blocked, and a doorway; the rest of the wall is covered by the 18th-century and modern additions.
c(14). Green End Farm, ½ mile W. of the church. The house is of two storeys, with a cellar, and was built late in the 16th or early in the 17th century. The roofs are covered with tiles and slate. The plan is now T-shaped; the central wing projects towards the S., with an addition, possibly of late 17th-century date, on the E. side; the plan was probably originally H-shaped, with a former S. wing which has been pulled down. The central wing, or original hall, contains, at the N. end, a small entrance lobby with a staircase; in the transverse wing is the kitchen and another room, sub-divided by modern partitions. Many of the windows are original, with stone mullions and labels. N. Elevation:—The small porch is of stone, and the entrance doorway has an old wooden frame under a depressed head: on the ground floor is a window of three lights; on the first floor one window is of three lights, two of them being blocked; in the other window the mullions are missing. W. Elevation:—The end of the transverse wing is gabled, and has on the ground floor a window with plain metal casements; the central wing has two mullioned windows. S. Elevation:—The central wing is gabled; on the ground floor is a straight joint, probably marking the position of a former doorway, and towards the E. end is a doorway with a frame of moulded oak; on the first floor is another doorway, indicating the existence of the former S. wing. The later addition has a doorway with a panelled oak door, much repaired. E. Elevation:—The roof is brought low down, and at the N. end of the central wing is a doorway with an original door of panelled oak, inserted under the label of a former window. A window on the ground floor of the transverse wing has had the mullions removed. The chimney stacks are of stone and much restored.
Interior:—The staircase, in the entrance lobby, has newel posts and balusters apparently of c. 1700. The hall has, in the S. wall, a fireplace with moulded stone jambs and carved spandrels under a square head; in the E. wall, now opening into the E. addition, is a doorway with an old oak frame, and in the same wall is a mullioned window of three lights, now blocked; in the ceiling is a massive beam slightly moulded at one end. The kitchen has a large open fireplace, with a rounded arch, and in the ceiling is a large beam similar to that in the hall. The staircase to the cellar retains an old newel-post. On the first floor are two early 17th-century doors with oak panels.
Part of the wall surrounding the house is probably contemporary with it, and has a moulded stone coping.
Condition—Fairly good; the N. front is in bad repair.
c(15). Hales Folly Farm, 1,150 yards N.W. of the church. The plan of the house is L-shaped, the wings extending towards the N. and W. with a modern extension in the angle between them. The S. front was re-faced with brick in 1751, as recorded on a tablet in the wall. The roofs are covered with tiles and slate. The chimney stacks are of 17th-century brick. Interior:—Some of the ceilings have original beams: the open fireplaces have been partly blocked.
c(16). Cottages, a range of three, on the N.E. side of the road, 1,600 yards N.W. of the church. One chimney stack is original, and has a stone base with two square shafts built of brick, and set diagonally. Interior:—Some of the rooms have chamfered ceiling-beams, and there is one large open fireplace.
c(17). House, on the S.W. side of the road, 300 yards N.W. of (16). The plan is T-shaped; some of the old casement windows remain, and one chimney stack with a stone base is original; the roofs are tiled. Interior:—The ceiling-beams are original, and there is a wide fireplace with a wooden lintel, partly blocked.
b(18). Pindon Manor, at Pindon End, about 1½ miles W.N.W. of the church, is a house of two storeys and an attic; the walls are of stone; the roofs are tiled. It was built on a rectangular plan, facing S., c. 1656, the date inscribed on a tablet at the back of the house; two wings projecting towards the N. were added probably in the 18th century, making the plan of half-H shape. Nearly all the windows in the main block are original, of four, three or two lights, and of stone. The S. front has a gable at each end; the doorway in the middle is original and has moulded stone jambs and square head. In the E. wall is visible the straight joint between the original block and the wing. In the W. wall one window has an old metal casement. At the back the original block is gabled, and in the head of the gable is the stone dated 1656. The chimney stacks are partly of old stone.
Interior:—The walls on each side of the entrance hall are very thick and probably contain old fireplaces.
Condition—Good; much altered internally.