An Inventory of the Historical Monuments in Buckinghamshire, Volume 2, North. Originally published by His Majesty's Stationery Office, London, 1913.
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(O.S. 6 in. (a)xxiii. S.E. (b)xxviii. N.W. (c)xxviii. N.E)
c(1). Parish Church of St. Mary, at the S. end of the village, is built of stone; the roofs are tiled, except that of the nave, which is covered with lead. The Nave is probably of pre-Conquest date; the West Tower was built slightly earlier than the South Aisle, which was added in 1350–60. In the 15th century windows were inserted in the clearstorey over the S. arcade, and the nave was re-roofed. In 1872–3 the Chancel was re-built, some of the old detail being re-used, the North Vestry and South Porch were added, and the whole building was restored.
The church is especially interesting on account of the early date of the nave. The 14th-century windows of the S. aisle are noteworthy.
Architectural Description—The Chancel (35 ft. by 18 ft.) is modern, except the window in the N. wall and the two windows in the S. wall which are of the 15th century, re-used and much restored; they are each of two cinque-foiled lights with tracery in a two-centred head. The Nave (64½ ft. by 23 ft.) has a moulded parapet, probably of late 15th-century date. In the N. wall are two 15th-century windows, much restored; the eastern is of three trefoiled ogee lights with tracery, and the other of three cinque-foiled lights with tracery; each window has a two-centred head: the 15th-century N. doorway has moulded jambs and two-centred head; the jambs are almost completely restored and the label is modern: above the doorway is a small window with a semi-circular head and deep internal and external splays, apparently of pre-Conquest date, but the stonework outside has been much restored and the flat sill is modern. The 14th-century S. arcade is of five bays; the two easternmost bays are lower than the others and lean towards the S.; the square piers have moulded angles, square bases and coarsely moulded capitals; the two easternmost capitals have been re-cut; the responds are similar to the piers; the two-centred arches are of two chamfered orders: in the E. respond is the blocked doorway of the staircase to the former rood-loft, with part of the two bottom steps visible, and one jamb of the upper doorway. The clearstorey has, on the S. side, three 15th-century windows, each of three cinque-foiled lights under a square head, all partly restored externally; between the two eastern is a small quatre-foiled circular window, of the 14th century, and further W. are traces of a similar circular light. The South Aisle (9 ft. wide) has, in the E. wall, a 14th-century circular window with elaborate tracery. In the S. wall are three windows; the easternmost and middle windows are of the 14th century, each of two cinque-foiled ogee lights and tracery in a two-centred head; the westernmost window is of two cinque-foiled ogee lights under a square head, and is probably of early 15th-century date, but has been restored: between the two western windows is the 14th-century S. doorway with moulded jambs and two-centred head, which is enriched with large four-leafed ornament, and has a moulded label with damaged head-stops. The West Tower (11½ ft. by 11 ft.) is of two stages, the lower stage being of two storeys; the lower part has angle buttresses and the upper part shallow diagonal buttresses; the parapet is embattled. The staircase is in the thickness of the wall at the S.W. angle, but rises above the roof of the tower. The two-centred tower arch is of mid 14th-century date, and of three chamfered orders dying into plain square jambs. The W. window is of late 14th-century date and of two cinque-foiled lights with tracery in a two-centred head. All the other detail of the tower is of mid 14th-century date. In the S. wall, opening into the staircase, is a doorway with chamfered jambs and shouldered head, and in the same wall near the top of the ground stage, is a small lancet light under a square head with sunk spandrels. The bell-chamber has, in each wall, a window of two trefoiled ogee lights and tracery in a two-centred head, all restored. The flat-pitched Roof of the nave is of seven bays, with moulded tie-beams, ridge, purlins and wall-plates and curved wall-brackets, all of late 15th-century date, except two of the tie-beams, which are modern.
Fittings—Bells: six and sanctus; 3rd, by Anthony Chandler, 1675; 4th, by James Keene, 1622; 5th, by James Keene, 1625; 6th, by Robert Newcombe, 1590. Chest: In vestry—with moulded panels, late 17th-century. Doors: In S. aisle—in S. doorway, of studded battens on heavy framing of small square panels, probably 14th-century. In tower—in doorway of staircase, of plain battens with strap-hinges and vertical iron bands, probably mediæval. Glass: In S. aisle— in tracery of S.E. window, representation of head of Christ, fragment only, probably 14th-century. In tower—in heads of lights and tracery of W. window, fragments of canopy work, etc., 14th-century. Monuments and Floor-slabs. Monuments: In S. aisle—on S. wall, at E. end, (1) of Sir Robert Lee, 1616, and Luce his wife, daughter of Thomas Pyggott, kneeling figures of man in armour and woman in ruff and loose robe, eight sons and six daughters, with inscription and four shields of arms; on S. wall, at W. end, tablets, (2) to William Barker, rector of the parish, 1669; (3) to John Dummer, rector, 1694; (4) to Richard Harris, rector, 1613, and Alicia his wife, 1593. Piscina: In S. aisle—in S. wall, with chamfered jambs and cinque-foiled head having pierced spandrels, remains of circular basin, 14th-century, restored.
Condition—Good; much restored.
c(2). The Rectory, house and outbuilding, about 250 yards N.W. of the church. The House is of two storeys with basement and attic; the walls are of stone and brick; the roofs are tiled. It was built probably in 1551, the date on a doorway re-set in a modern addition. The plan was originally L-shaped, the wings extending towards the N. and E.; in the 18th century the S. front was re-faced and a W. wing was added, making the plan T-shaped; additions have been made recently on the N. side of the E. wing, and a small modern addition of one storey on the S. side of the 18th-century wing connects it with the outbuilding.
The doorway, dated 1551, and a staircase of the 17th century, are worthy of note.
The E. end, and a gable visible above the modern additions on the N. side of the E. wing, are of original stone, the E. end having a chamfered plinth; the E. wall of the N. wing also has a stone plinth, and the gabled N. end is of stone with brick quoins and coping; a window on the first floor has stone splays, apparently original. The rest of the building is of 18th-century and modern brick, with some stone in the S. front. The modern S. addition has, re-set in the E. wall, a doorway with a wood frame and four-centred head; the spandrels are carved and one bears the date 1551.
Interior:—Some of the ceilings have old beams, and many of the floors have old oak boards. In the attic is an original door of moulded battens. The back staircase, from the ground floor to the attic, is of the 17th century, and has plain newels, large moulded handrails and turned balusters.
The Outbuilding, S.W. of the house, was built of stone, probably also in 1551, but has been restored with 17th-century and modern brick.
Condition—Good, much restored and altered.
c(3). The Manor Farm, 100 yards N.W. of the church, is a house of two storeys and an attic; the walls are timber-framed, with filling probably of brick, but are covered with plaster and yellowwash; the roofs are tiled. It was built about the middle of the 17th century on an L-shaped plan, the wings extending towards the S. and E.; on the S. side of both wings are modern additions.
The 17th-century staircase is worthy of note.
The only original work visible externally are two or three angle-posts where the plaster has fallen off the walls, and a chimney stack over the E. wing, which has two square shafts set diagonally on a square base, all of brick.
Interior:—Some of the rooms retain large ceiling-beams, oak floor-boards and wide fireplaces with moulded jambs and four-centred heads, now partly blocked. In the attic is a peculiar ogee-shaped doorway, with a door of the same shape, made of battens with moulded edges. The staircase is original; from the ground floor to the first floor it has square newels with turned tops and pendants, a moulded handrail and turned balusters on both sides; from the first floor to the attic it is plainer and has plaster filling instead of balusters; a short wide flight of steps from the landing to the N.E. room on the first floor is of detail similar to the lower part of the staircase.
Condition—Fairly good; exterior spoilt by plaster.
The village is of square plan, with the church and Manor Farm on the S. side, the Rectory on the W. side, and the school and the Bell Inn on the N. side. All the buildings described are of two storeys or of one storey and an attic; all, except one, are of the 17th century, and many are of rectangular plan. The walls were originally timber-framed, but most of them have been much restored with modern brick. Many of the roofs are thatched.
c(4). Cottage, on the N. side of the churchyard. The plan is L-shaped; the small S. wing is of rough stones. The central chimney stack is partly modern and partly covered with cement.
c(5). Farmhouse, about 100 yards N. of the church. It was built late in the 16th or early in the 17th century. The walls retain some original plaster filling; part of the S. front is of stone. The central chimney stack has been restored.
c(6). House, about 170 yards N.W. of the church. The front is of 18th-century red and blue bricks; at the back the timber-framed wall retains the original brick filling, and part of the W. end is also of 17th-century brick. The roof is tiled.
c(7). Cottage, about 200 yards N. of the church. Some of the brick filling in the walls is original. The central chimney stack is of late 17th-century brick.
c(8). Cottages, a row, N. of (7).
c(9). House, now several tenements, about 50 yards N.E. of (8). The brick filling in the walls is set in herring-bone pattern and is almost entirely of early 17th-century date. The roofs are tiled. The plan is T-shaped, the central wing projecting towards the E. The original central chimney stack has grouped square shafts.
a(10). Cottages, 80 yards E. of (9). They form a rectangular range, running E. and W., with a small wing projecting towards the N. The walls are almost entirely of modern brick, but a little original brick filling remains, set in herring-bone pattern.
Road on N. side of the Village, N. side
a(11). Cottage, now two tenements, 300 yards N. of the church. The central chimney stack has grouped square shafts built of 17th-century brick.
a(12). The Bell Inn, house and barn, about 40 yards W. of (11). The House is almost entirely covered with cement. The central chimney stack is rectangular, with projecting nibs at the sides, and is of late 17th-century brick.
Interior:—The ceiling-beams are now encased, and there is one wide fireplace, partly blocked.
The Barn, at the back of the inn, has 17th-century timber-framing, on a stone base; the brick filling is of later date. The roof is thatched.
Condition—Of house, good; of barn, fairly good.
a(13). House, adjoining the school, nearly opposite to (12). The walls are almost entirely modern, but the central chimney stack is of late 17th-century date and has grouped square shafts built of brick. The roof is tiled.
b(14). Folly Farm, about 2/3 of a mile S.W. of the church, is a two-storeyed house of central chimney type, built of timber and brick probably in the middle of the 17th century. The S. wall is covered with rough-cast; a low addition has been made on the N. side, and farm buildings have been added on the E. side; the roofs are tiled. Inside the house are some old iron fire-dogs.