BHO

Loughton

Pages 181-184

An Inventory of the Historical Monuments in Buckinghamshire, Volume 2, North. Originally published by His Majesty's Stationery Office, London, 1913.

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Citation:

In this section

161. LOUGHTON.

(O.S. 6 in. xiv. N.E.)

Ecclesiastical

(1). Parish Church of All Saints, on the N.E. side of the village, is built of stone rubble with stone dressings, partly covered with cement. The roofs are covered with lead, except that of the chancel, which is tiled. The Nave is probably of the 12th century; there is no detail by which an exact date can be assigned to the Chancel, but it is probably of the 13th or 14th century. The South Aisle and Chapel were added c. 1480, but the South Porch, opening into the nave, at the W. end of the aisle, is apparently of a little earlier date; the walls were heightened when the aisle was added; the West Tower was built probably at the same time as the porch. The chancel was considerably restored late in the 17th or early in the 18th century, and the whole building was restored in the 19th century.

Architectural Description—The Chancel (20 ft. by 13 ft.) has an E. window of two wide uncusped pointed lights, probably of the 17th or 18th century. In the N. wall, at the W. end, is a rectangular low-side window, now blocked, and only visible outside. In the S. wall, opening into the S. chapel, is a two-centred arch of two chamfered orders with semi-octagonal responds which have moulded bases and capitals, all of c. 1480. The chancel arch is modern. The Nave (40 ft. by 19 ft.) has, in the N. wall, two windows, the eastern window is of three trefoiled lights under a two-centred head; it is of the 15th century, considerably restored, the tracery being entirely modern; the western window is a wide single light with chamfered jambs and rounded head, the upper part covered with cement; it is possibly of the 14th century, restored in the 17th or 18th century: between the windows, visible only outside, is a blocked doorway, probably also of the 14th century, with chamfered jambs and two-centred head. In the S. wall is an arcade of two bays of the same date and detail as the S. arch of the chancel; the octagonal column and semi-octagonal responds have moulded bases and capitals; the arches are two-centred; at the W. end of the wall is a window similar to the N.W. window, but with a plain label which has one carved head-stop, and is apparently of the 14th century; the 15th-century S. doorway has double-chamfered jambs and drop arch. The South Chapel and Aisle (36 ft. by 8½ ft.) and the S. porch have a moulded embattled parapet and four S. buttresses, all of the 15th century. In the E. wall is a late 15th-century window of three cinque-foiled lights and tracery under a four-centred head, with a moulded label which has head-stops. In the S. wall are three windows, of the same date and design as that in the E. wall, but each of four lights; between the two eastern windows is a small doorway with chamfered jambs and three-centred head. The South Porch has a 15th-century outer entrance with moulded jambs and four-centred arch under a square head with small trefoiled panels in the spandrels; above it externally can be traced the outline of the gable which existed before the S. aisle was built; in the upper part of the wall is a stone inscribed 1826, probably the date of a restoration of the church. In the W. wall is a plain rectangular light. The West Tower (11 ft. by 9 ft.) is of three stages, with diagonal buttresses at the W. angles; in the S.E. angle is a staircase, rising only to the top of the first stage; the parapet is embattled. All the detail is of the 15th century, partly restored. The two-centred tower arch is of four moulded orders; on the E. side is a moulded label with plain stops; below each stop is a 15th-century head-corbel, found loose in the church, and recently inserted in its present position; the massive jambs have each three slightly projecting segmental shafts, with chamfered bases and heavily moulded capitals. In the S. wall, opening into the stair-turret, is a small doorway with chamfered jambs and four-centred head; the spandrels are carved. The W. doorway and window are partly blocked by a large buttress built against the middle of the W. wall; the doorway has moulded jambs and four-centred head with traceried spandrels containing plain shields: the mouldings of the doorway are continued in the jambs and drop arch of the window, which was originally of three cinque-foiled lights and tracery with a moulded external label; the middle light is now blocked by the buttress. The second stage has, in the S. wall, a rectangular window containing two quatrefoils. In each wall of the bell-chamber is a window of two trefoiled lights; only the outer order of the jambs and heads and the moulded labels over the S. and W. windows, are original. The Roof of the S. chapel and aisle is of the 15th century, much restored; it is flat-pitched, with large moulded beams, wall-plates and rafters; at each intersection of the beams is a boss, carved with foliated ornament or arms, the fifth from the E. end having a shield of Boteler; some of the bosses are modern. The S. porch has a 15th-century flat ceiling with large moulded beams and joists.

Fittings—Bells: six; 4th inscribed in black-letter 'Hec Nova Campana Margareta Est Nominata', 5th inscribed in black-letter 'Sit Nomen Domini Benedictum', both by Henry Jordan, 15th-century; 6th by Bartholomew Atton, 1590. Brackets: In S. chapel—on E. wall, level with sill of window, two, each carved with head, late 15th-century, defaced. Brasses and Indents. Brasses: In chancel—on N. side, (1) of Hugh Parke, M.A., S.T.B., rector of the parish, half-figure of priest in Mass vestments, inscription in black-letter, early 16th-century; in middle of floor, (2) to Felice Crane, 1622, inscription, and two shields with arms, above inscription indent of third shield, below inscription, cut in the stone, inscription to Robert Crane, D.C.L., etc., undated (see Monument (3)). Chest: In tower—a 'Poor Man's Chest', of wood, iron bound, some bands with ornamental ends, one lock, hasps for two padlocks, in lid two slits for money, one covered by hasp, probably 16th-century. Glass: In nave— in frame on N. wall, a few fragments, red, date uncertain. Monuments and Floor-slabs. Monuments: In chancel—on N. wall, (1) to Mary, daughter of Sir Thomas Tresham, of Newton, Norfolk, wife of John Crane of Loughton, 1624, slab of grey marble in frame of white marble, with enriched mouldings and cornice, below cornice two shields with arms, achievement of arms at the top; (2) to Felice, daughter of George Moorton of Moorton, wife, first of William Mortoft of Ittringham and afterwards of John Crane of London, 1622, slab of grey marble in frame of white marble, with skulls, inscription and two shields with arms in spandrels, lozenge with arms at the top; on S. wall, (3) to Robert Crane, D.C.L., Fellow of Trinity College, Cambridge, son of John Crane, 'Chiefe Clerke of the Green Cloth to King Charles the Second', 1672, also to John Crane, 1660, slab of grey marble in white marble frame with scroll top, containing shield with arms of Crane. Floor-slab: In chancel—to Mary, wife of John Crane of Loughton, 1624, and to her husband John Crane, chief clerk of the Green Cloth to Charles II., 1660, inscription and arms. Plate: includes stand paten of 1685, two cups, originally of 1685, re-made in 1865, all the gift of Dr. Brattell, rector. Miscellanea: In S. chapel—loose, two wood panels, carved with grotesque human figures, etc., early 17th-century; scratched on stone in buttress, E. of porch, sundial.

Condition—Good.

Secular

(2). House, N.W. of the churchyard, is of two storeys, built probably early in the 17th century, of stone rubble, except the upper storey on the N.E. front, which has been re-faced with brick; the roof is tiled. The plan is rectangular, facing N.E., and at the S.E. end is a projecting chimney stack of stone with two square shafts, set diagonally, of thin bricks.

Condition—Fairly good.

Monuments (3–6)

These buildings are all of two storeys, and, except one, were built in the 17th century. They were originally timber-framed, but have been restored with brick; three of them have thatched roofs.

(3). Cottage, in Pitcher Lane, about 220 yards S.S.E. of the church. The front has been re-faced with 18th-century brick. At the W. end the brick filling in the wall is original, and there is a chimney stack also of 17th-century brick. Inside the building is an open fireplace with a chimney corner seat.

Condition—Poor.

(4). Cottage, formerly an inn, now two tenements, 330 yards S. of the church. It was built late in the 16th or early in the 17th century on an L-shaped plan, the wings projecting towards the S. and E.; in the 18th century a third wing was added at the back of the E. wing; in the 19th century the E. end of the E. wing fell down and was re-built with brick; the original walls are on stone foundations and the 18th-century addition is of stone. The E. wing is covered with plaster on the N. front, but at the gabled W. end it has brick filling set in herring-bone pattern; it also has an original central chimney stack of brick. Inside the building are stop-chamfered ceiling-beams.

Condition—Poor.

(5). Cottage, on the W. side of the road, about 250 yards S.W. of the church. It has been partly re-fronted with modern brick; the roof is covered with corrugated iron. The plan is rectangular, facing E.; at the N. end and at the back are modern additions. The central chimney stack is covered with cement and is of modern brick at the top. Interior:—One room has a large open fireplace and an open timber ceiling with a stop-chamfered beam.

Condition—Fairly good.

(6). House, with Smithy, N. of (5). The plan was originally rectangular, facing E., but in the 18th century a wing, built of stone, was added at the N. end, projecting towards the E., and making the plan L-shaped. The wing has been refronted with modern brick, and the brick filling in the other walls is also modern. At the back is a 17th-century outbuilding of one storey, now connected with the house; the walls are timber-framed with modern brick filling.

Condition—Fairly good.

(7). Manor House (see Plate, p. 61), 400 yards W. of the church, is of two storeys; the walls are of stone; the roofs are tiled. The original house was probably timber-framed, built late in the 15th or early in the 16th century on a rectangular plan, facing S., and consisting of a Great Hall with a solar on the W.; the timber-framed gable at the E. end of the hall, originally external, is visible in the present roof-space; c. 1580 the building was re-modelled by Valentine Pigott (d. 1595), whose initials, with those of his wife Anne, are carved on the S. porch, which was added at that time, the house being lengthened towards the E., and the original walls encased in stone; probably the upper floor was inserted in the hall at the same date. A low wing was added at the back in 1615, the date recorded on a stone tablet re-set in the E. wall, but it was subsequently altered, probably in the 18th century. The building was completely restored and the windows were altered in 1912.

The house is an interesting example of domestic architecture of c. 1580, with remains of earlier date. The late 16th-century mural paintings (see Plate, p. 178) are noteworthy.

S. Elevation:—The S. porch is gabled and of two storeys; the outer entrance has a four-centred arch in a square head with spandrels carved with foliage and the initials 'V. P.' and 'A. P.'; the jambs have carved stops and the label is moulded; the inner doorway has a plain oak frame: on the first floor is a window of three lights with moulded stone jambs, mullions and lintel, and a moulded label which is much damaged: the main block has, on each floor, three windows E. of the porch and one W. of it; the easternmost window on the ground floor is of stone with a much worn label; the other windows have brick jambs and rough oak lintels of the 18th century, and modern wood frames. W. Elevation:—On the ground floor is a stone window, of four lights, now blocked, and on the first floor is visible the outline of another window. Above the gable is a chimney stack having two shafts set diagonally and re-built with modern brick. E. Elevation:—A large chimney stack of stone projects from the end of the main block; the three diagonal shafts are of brick, partly of the 16th century and partly modern. N. Elevation:—The main block has a projecting chimney stack of the 16th century, except the top, which is of modern brick.

Interior:—On the ground floor the ceiling in the original hall has moulded beams of the 16th century, and in the N. wall is a moulded stone fireplace of the same date, with a four-centred arch in a square head; in one of the partitions inserted in the hall is a stop-chamfered oak door-frame of the 17th century. On the first floor are two door-frames similar to that on the ground floor: the room at the E. end has a 16th-century stone fireplace with a flat four-centred arch in a square head; the adjoining room has remains of late 16th-century paintings on the walls, until recently covered with whitewash: that on the E. wall has been almost entirely exposed and is in fairly good condition; the design is in black line on white plaster and is divided into three bays by vertical lines and zig-zag ornament; in each bay is a roundel enclosing a head wearing a quilted hat and a ruff; the roundels have angels as supporters, above which are cupids on horseback, and foliage ornament; the frieze has figures of half-seraphs, halffoliage and other ornament, and rectangular panels with inscriptions; only one inscription, 'Feare God', is completely exposed. The roof over the original hall is of three bays, irregularly spaced, and probably altered in the 18th century; the intermediate trusses are of queen-post type with curved struts to the straining-beams, and a tie-beam with curved struts is visible at the E. end. The timber-framing of the gable at the E. end is also of queen-post character; some of the struts remain, and mortices for others; the gable has lath and plaster filling partly covered with plaster; the purlins are chamfered, and those at the E. end have wind-braces; traces of former laths remain on the rafters above the present ceiling. The room E. of the hall, now ceiled at the wall-plate level, was formerly ceiled up to the collar-beams, and half the original ceiling-joists remain in situ.

Condition—Fairly good; recently restored; since date of visit the paintings have been concealed by canvas and wall paper, and the arched fireplace on the ground floor has been filled in again and plastered.

(8–9). Cottage and House, each of two storeys, built of stone early in the 17th century: the roofs are thatched. The Cottage, now two tenements, 400 yards W.S.W. of the church, on the W. side of the green, is of L-shaped plan, with the wings projecting towards the S. and W. The E. front retains a window with a moulded frame of wood. In one chimney stack are some old bricks. Interior:—On the ground floor are two open fireplaces, partly blocked, and some of the ceiling-beams are original. The House, on the S. side of the green, about 350 yards S.W. of the church, is of rectangular plan, facing E. The central chimney stack is of stone at the ridge-level of the roof, with two shafts set diagonally and built of modern brick; another stack, at the S. end, is partly of old brick. Interior:—One room has a large open fireplace and open timber ceiling.

Condition—Of cottage and house, fairly good.

(10). The Talbot Inn, on the main road, about 800 yards S.S.W. of the church, is of two storeys, built of brick probably late in the 17th century, but considerably altered, and partly re-faced with modern brick. The roofs are tiled. The plan is L-shaped, with the wings projecting towards the N. and W., and with a small modern addition on the N.E. Two of the chimney stacks are original. Interior:—In the tap room is a wide open fireplace with a cambered and stop-chamfered wooden lintel.

Condition—Good.