BHO

Turweston

Pages 301-302

An Inventory of the Historical Monuments in Buckinghamshire, Volume 2, North. Originally published by His Majesty's Stationery Office, London, 1913.

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Citation:

In this section

209. TURWESTON.

(O.S. 6 in. xii. N.E.)

Ecclesiastical

(1). Parish Church of the Assumption of the Blessed Virgin, stands in the village, and is built of stone rubble with stone dressings. The roof of the nave is covered with lead, the other roofs with slate. The Nave is of the 12th century, and c. 1190 the North Aisle was added; about the middle of the 13th century the Chancel was re-built and the South Aisle added; c. 1360 the S. aisle was widened and the W. bay of the S. arcade re-built; the N. aisle was widened probably at the same time. During the 19th century the West Tower was entirely re-built, the whole church was restored, windows were inserted in the clearstorey, and the North Vestry, South Chapel and South Porch were built.

The 12th-century N. arcade of the nave is especially noteworthy. Among the fittings is a well engraved brass of a priest of early 15th-century date.

Architectural Description—The Chancel (26 ft. by 13 ft.) has an E. window of c. 1470, of three trefoiled lights and tracery in a segmental pointed head with a moulded external label. In the N. wall, near the E. end, is a 13th-century lancet window with hollow-chamfered external jambs and head; further W. is a modern arch opening into the vestry. In the S. wall is a lancet window similar to that in the N. wall; a modern arcade of two bays opens into the S. chapel. The 13th-century chancel arch is two-centred and of two hollow-chamfered orders, with a chamfered label on the W. side; the jambs have half-round attached shafts and moulded capitals; the bases have been almost entirely destroyed. The South Chapel (14½ ft. by 10½ ft.) is modern, but re-set in the E. wall is a 14th-century window of two trefoiled ogee lights and tracery in a two-centred head with a moulded external label: the external stonework has been much restored. The Nave (32½ ft. by 18½ ft.) has N. and S. arcades of two bays. The N. arcade, of c. 1190, has shafted responds and pier with moulded bases; the larger shafts have foliated capitals of different designs, and the smaller angle-shafts have plain capitals; a chamfered and grooved abacus is carried across all the capitals; the semi-circular arches are of two square orders, with grooved and chamfered labels in the nave. The 13th-century E. bay of the S. arcade has a shafted E. respond and pier, with moulded capitals and remains of plain chamfered bases; the arch is semi-circular and of two chamfered orders; the 14th-century W. bay has a W. respond with hollow-chamfered angles and a moulded capital which rests on a modern attached shaft; the two-centred arch is of two chamfered orders; both the arches have plain chamfered labels in the nave and aisle. The clearstorey has, on each side, two modern windows. The North Aisle (12 ft. wide) has, in the E. wall, a recess, originally a window, now blocked and covered with cement. In the N. wall are two modern windows. In the W. wall is a small deeply splayed window of the 12th century, with rebated jambs and semi-circular head; the position of the window, towards the S. end of the wall, indicates the middle of the original width of the aisle. The South Aisle (11½ ft. wide) has, in the E. wall, a modern arch opening into the S. chapel. In the S. wall are two windows of c. 1360, each of two trefoiled ogee lights and tracery in a two-centred head with a chamfered external label; the internal splays and rear arches of both windows are modern, and the original stonework of the eastern window has been re-cut: between the windows is a modern doorway. In the W. wall is a small 13th-century lancet window, now out of centre with the aisle on account of the 14th-century widening. The West Tower (10 ft. by 9 ft.) has been entirely re-built; re-set in the S. wall of the second stage, is a plain window, probably of the 16th century; it is of two uncusped lights under a pierced semi-circular head. The low-pitched Roof of the nave is apparently of early 16th-century date, and is of three bays; the four trusses have moulded tie-beams with curved struts and spandrels filled with cinque-foiled tracery; in the middle of the soffit of each tie-beam is a carved boss; the rafters are plain, and the ceiling between them is plastered.

Fittings—Bells: two; 1st by Robert Atton, 1625; 2nd by Robert Atton, 1626, badly cracked; in the bell-frame, some old timbers. Brasses: In chancel—on N. side, (1) of a priest in Mass vestments, no inscription, early 15th-century; on S. side, (2) of Thomas Grene (or Greve), Joan and Agnes, his wives, figures of man in civilian dress, one woman with veil head-dress, the other with long hair, c. 1470. Monuments: In N. aisle—on E. wall, (1) of Symon Heynes, 1628, kneeling effigies of a man and woman, with child in cradle, under small Corinthian order; inscription, and arms of Heynes. In tower—on N. wall, (2) to William Harris, 1674; on S. wall, (3) to George Harris, 1689. Piscinae: In chancel—with two-centred head, moulded jambs, quatrefoil basin, probably late 13th-century, basin partly destroyed. In N. aisle —in E. respond of arcade, small rough recess, no basin. Plate: includes cup of 1684. Recess: In chancel—in N. wall, for tomb, with moulded jambs and ogee arch having crocketed label, on each side tall gabled and crocketed pinnacle, with head of trefoiled ogee panel of former buttress, late 14th or early 15th-century, finial and part of label modern. Sedile: In chancel—ledge of S.E. window carried down, with stone seat.

Condition—Good.

Secular

(2). The Manor House, 200 yards N. of the church, is of two storeys, built early in the 17th century. The walls are of stone and have been re-faced, and the building has been considerably altered and enlarged. The roofs are covered with slate. The plan was probably originally L-shaped, with the wings extending towards the N. and E. The E. wing contains a large room, with a smaller room on the E. side. In the N. wing are the hall and staircase, with another room W. of the hall. On the S. front is a doorway, with moulded jambs and depressed head of stone; some of the windows have moulded stone mullions and labels.

Interior:—Many of the rooms and passages are lined with oak panelling, almost entirely of the 17th century. The large room in the E. wing has, at each end, an early 17th-century fireplace; one of them has an overmantel of carved oak with twisted pilasters; the other is of stone, with moulded jambs and depressed four-centred head: the room at the E. end of the wing has also a 17th-century stone fireplace and carved oak overmantel. The staircase is of oak, and apparently of late 17th-century date, with moulded rails, carved balusters and a flat-headed newel post. On the first floor, one room has a carved oak overmantel of the 17th century, and two fireplaces, recently uncovered, are of the same date, and have moulded jambs and depressed four-centred heads, of stone.

A House, now two tenements, in the grounds, is of two storeys and an attic, built of stone probably c. 1638, the date on a tablet in front of the house; it was much restored in 1873. In front the windows are original and have moulded stone heads, jambs and mullions, and the lower windows have labels with return stops. The dormer windows are modern. The chimney stacks are original, considerably restored.

Condition—Of both houses, good; much restored and altered.

Monuments (3–6)

These buildings are all of the 17th century and of two storeys. The walls generally are of stone; the roofs are tiled or thatched. Each cottage has one original chimney stack of brick.

(3). Cottage, 80 yards S. of the church. There is some brick in the gables at each end of the building. The casement windows are old.

(4). Cottage, 50 yards S.W. of (3). Some of the windows are old; on the N. side one window is blocked. The central chimney stack is entirely original, and the base of the stack at the E. end is old. Interior:—There are some original beams in the ceilings, and one room has a wide fireplace, partly blocked.

(5). Cottage, 100 yards S.W. of (4). Some of the windows are old; two modern bay windows have been added in front. The original chimney stack has a stone base. Interior:—There is one wide fireplace, now blocked.

(6). Cottage, 40 yards W. of (5).

Condition—Of all, fairly good.