An Inventory of the Historical Monuments in Buckinghamshire, Volume 2, North. Originally published by His Majesty's Stationery Office, London, 1913.
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(O.S. 6 in. (a)xiii. S.W. (b)xiii. S.E. (c)xviii. N.W. (d)xviii. N.E.
a(1). Parish Church of St. Peter and St. Paul, on Castle Hill, was re-built in the 19th century on the site of the church built in 1777–81, N.N.E. of the site of the former building. The following fittings have been preserved.
Fittings—Books: In nave—at W. end, in locked case, Bible in Latin, manuscript, said to be of c. 1320 or earlier; given by John Rudying to Buckingham in 1471, taken away, and subsequently restored to the parish. Chests: In N. aisle—(1) with panelled front, ends and lid, one lock, 17th-century; (2) with front and ends having bolection-moulded panelling, lid plain, three locks, inscribed '1690 William Howard, Edward Snoxell, C.W.' Painting: In vestry— on board, dated 1685, and recording charities of 1661 (?) and 1679. Seating (see Plate, p. 48): In S. aisle—at E. end, two desks made up of four bench-ends, with elaborately traceried panels and carved poppy-heads, 15th-century; third desk, made up of bench-end with cinque-foiled panel, dated 1626, in front a quartered shield of Ingoldsby, (1) ermine a saltire engrailed, (2) three bars in chief three rings, (3) a fesse with three martlets (?) thereon in a border engrailed, (4) ermine a dance; on the back Ingoldsby impaling a blank. Miscellanea: In vestry—fragments of worked stone, possibly of reredos or tomb, including part of moulded capital, carved foliage, with traces of red and blue paint, 15th-century.
The Churchyard is on the site of the former castle; the churchyard of the original church exists S. of the present building.
a(2). Chapel of St. John the Baptist and St. Thomas of Acon, afterwards used as the Royal Latin School, stands in a lane 250 yards N.N.E. of the parish church. The walls are of limestone rubble, the roofs are tiled. The chapel was built apparently late in the 12th century, and retains a doorway of that date, but was entirely re-built c. 1475. It was converted into a school in the 16th century, and a dwelling house was built at the N. end, but was burnt down and re-built in 1690, and subsequently much altered. The chapel was re-roofed in the 18th century and again restored in 1857 and 1875.
The chapel is especially interesting on account of the 12th-century doorway (see Plate, p. 24).
Architectural Description—The Chapel (38 ft. by 16½ ft.) is rectangular, with the altar originally at the S. end; over the S. end is a modern bell-cot, without a bell. The S. window, probably of late 15th-century date, is of four trefoiled lights and tracery under a four-centred head and a label with shapeless stops; the tracery is modern. In the E. wall, high up, are two modern windows. In the W. wall are four windows; the southernmost is of late 15th-century date, and of two trefoiled lights with a sexfoil under a four-centred head, and a moulded external label; at the N. end of the wall are two modern windows, one above the other; over the upper window is a short length of original string-course with dog-tooth ornament, and two shorter lengths, copies of the other; the late 12th-century doorway, almost in the middle of the wall, has jambs of two square orders, with angle-shafts which have moulded bases, capitals carved with foliage, and abaci with zig-zag and foliated ornament; the shafts and bases are modern, the capitals much worn; the head is semi-circular and of two orders; the inner order has a shallow fillet ornament in the shape of pointed horse-shoes, repaired or re-tooled; the outer order has cheveron moulding, and the label plain dog-tooth ornament on both edges; over the doorway is a small modern window. In the N. wall are two plain square-headed doorways, now blocked; between them is a modern recess. The Roof of the chapel is of four bays, constructed in 1776, partly of 15th-century timbers said to have been taken from the old parish church; the truss against the S. wall has a partly moulded tie-beam and traces of arched braces below it; the truss is arched below the hollow-chamfered collar-beam; part of another truss is moulded.
Fittings—Gallery: at N. end, modern, incorporating in front six bench-ends, probably from the old parish church, (1) and (6) evidently of the same date, each with plain shield in front, (1) inscribed 'Thomas Grove Gent', (6) inscribed 'Anno 1652'; at the back, (1) carved with three hearts, (6) with a heart and initials 'A.G.'; the other four bench-ends have each a cinque-foiled panel with foliated cusps, a rose and thistle carved in the spandrel (except in that of (5)), head with foliated edging, poppy-head finial, and shield with arms relating to various members of the family of Ingoldsby of Lenborough; (2) shield in front, ermine a saltire engrailed for Ingoldsby, shield at the back, the same impaling a blank; (3) shield in front, the same as (2) impaling a fesse in a border gobony (?); (4) shield in front, the same as (2) impaling a cheveron between three roundels, possibly intended for a cheveron engrailed between three crescents, for Sir Richard Ingoldsby, d. 1635, and his wife, Elizabeth (Palmer); shield at the back, the same as (2), impaling a lion rampant for Sir Richard Ingoldsby, d. 1656, and his wife, Elizabeth (Cromwell); (5) shield in front, the same as (2) impaling two coats, one above the other, the upper coat ermine a fesse checky, the lower, party cheveronwise three elephants' heads for Francis Ingoldsby, d. 1579, and his two wives, Anne (Crispe) and Dorothy (Saunders); the spandrel above the tracery of (5) inscribed '1626', evidently the date of (2–5). Locker: in E. wall, near S. end. plain, square. Piscina: in W. wall, near S. end, with trefoiled three-centred head, moulded jambs, no basin, late 15th-century, much damaged.
Condition—Good, substantially; now the property of the National Trust.
(For account of the bridge between Thornborough and Buckingham, see Thornborough).
a(3). Castle Hill (Fortified Mount), situated in the middle of the town, now consists of an oval hill with a steep scarp on all sides except the N.; on that side there are faint indications of a ditch separating it from the town. A bend in the river Ouse forms a peninsula on the S.W. During recent building operations in Well Street traces of masonry were found at the foot of the scarp.
Church Street, W. side
a(4). The Market Cross, remains, in the old churchyard, about 200 yards S. of the church, consisting of the base and the stump of the shaft, which is decorated with four-leafed flower ornament; they are, apparently, of late 14th-century date, and are not in situ.
a(5). Stone, at Barton's Hospital, about 100 yards S. of the church; the present building is modern, but re-set in one wall is an old stone recording that the original almshouses of 1431 were re-built in 1701.
a(6). House, No. 20, 100 yards S. of the church, is of two storeys and an attic, built of stone, probably late in the 16th or early in the 17th century; the front is covered with modern plaster. The roof is tiled. At the back are three small gables, each gable having two windows, one above the other. At the S. end is an original chimney stack of brick with two square shafts set diagonally, restored at the top. Interior:—On the ground floor are some chamfered beams in the ceilings and an open fireplace, partly blocked. On the first floor is a 17th-century door of panelled oak.
a(7). The Vicarage, about 130 yards S. of the church, is a house of two storeys. The original walls are probably all of stone rubble, but are partly covered with rough-cast; the other walls are of modern brick; the roofs are tiled. It was built probably at the end of the 16th or beginning of the 17th century, but has been much altered and enlarged. The plan was originally of the H type, with a small central block, facing approximately W.; the S. wing contains a drawing room, the central block a hall and staircase; the N. wing contains the domestic offices, and has a modern continuation towards the W.; between the wings, on the E. side, is a modern addition of two storeys. The wings are gabled at each end, and the central block is ridged from N. to S. Interior:—In the ceiling of the hall is an original moulded beam; the drawing room has a large mantelpiece of black marble of late 17th-century date, which has a projecting cornice or shelf with enriched mouldings supported on consoles; the opening has an architrave carved with a cherub's head and swags of flowers and fruit.
Condition—Good; much altered.
a(8). The Manor House, 220 yards S. of the church, is of two storeys, built probably in the 16th century, and timber-framed, now partly re-faced or re-built with brick and some stone rubble, and partly covered with rough-cast. The roofs are tiled. The original plan was apparently L-shaped, with the wings extending towards the S. and W. The S. end of the S. wing has been re-built and lengthened towards the E., and there is a small modern addition on each side of the W. wing. At the N. end of the S. wing is an original chimney stack (see Plate, p. 74), with one sharply twisted shaft; the other shaft is of the 18th century; in the W. wing is also an original stack. Interior:—On the ground floor, a room N. of the entrance hall has a carved mantelpiece of late 17th-century date, now painted, and a floor paved with stone. Part of the first floor is carried on heavy chamfered beams; at the top of the back staircase in the W. wing are some late 17th-century turned balusters, not in situ; some of the doors in the W. wing are of 17th-century moulded battens, but are probably not in their original position.
Condition—Fairly good; much altered.
a(9). Cottages, two, at the corner of the street, S.E. of the Mitre Inn, are each of two storeys, built probably late in the 17th century, at right angles to each other, forming an L-shaped block. The walls are timber-framed and covered with plaster in front; the original wattle and daub filling is visible at the back. One chimney stack is original.
a(10). The Mitre Inn, 500 yards S.S.W. of the church, is of two storeys and an attic, built probably late in the 17th century, subsequently altered and enlarged. The front of the house is faced with stone and covered with plaster; the back is of timber and brick with some stone; some of the windows have original casements and old glass; the porch is of oak, and the entrance has a four-centred head with twisted half-balusters at the sides, under a square frame. One chimney stack is original. Interior:—In the ceilings are some stop-chamfered beams, and there is one wide fireplace, partly blocked.
a(11). Wellhouse of St. Rumbold's Well, about 600 yards W.S.W. of the church, is a small one-storeyed building of stone rubble; a stone in the gable of the E. wall is carved with the initials and date 'WLM1623' under a small arch with pilasters. In the N. wall is a doorway with a four-centred arch and sunk spandrels in a square head.
a(12). House, now several tenements, on the E. side of Rumbold's Lane (see Plate, p. 112). It was built apparently early in the 15th century, but a chimney stack is dated 1709, and the walls have been re-faced with modern brick; only a little timber-framing remains in the middle of the building, and at the N. end is an early 15th-century angle-post, of oak, carved with three quatrefoils; the projecting edge is also carved, but the design is almost obliterated; at the back is a post of similar shape, without carving.
Well Street, E. side
b(13). The Woolpack Inn, 100 yards E. of the church, is of three storeys, the upper storey partly in the roof. It was built probably early in the 17th century, but has been enlarged and almost entirely re-faced with modern brick, and partly covered with plaster. The roofs are tiled. The central chimney stack is of thin bricks, with one square shaft set diagonally. Interior:—The ceilings have chamfered beams, and there is an open fireplace, partly blocked.
b(14). House, now a shop, at the N. end of the street, 150 yards N.E. of the church. It is probably of late 16th or early 17th-century date; the walls are entirely covered with cement; in front the upper storey projects. Interior:—On the ground floor the ceilings have chamfered encased beams; on the first floor is visible a shaped post, part of the original timber-framing. The fireplaces are partly blocked, and two old battened doors remain.
These buildings are almost all of the 17th century, and of two storeys; the walls are timber-framed, with brick or plaster filling, considerably restored, and many of them whitewashed. Almost all the buildings have original chimney stacks. The roofs are thatched or tiled.
b(15). House, now a shop, in the middle of the square, 350 yards N.E. of the church. It is of two storeys and an attic. The walls are entirely covered with cement. Two window frames on the first floor, and one in a dormer are of wood, with iron casements, probably original.
b(16). House, now a shop, in an alley at the N.W. corner of the square, 300 yards N.N.E. of the church. It is of two storeys and an attic. The front is covered with cement. A covered passage on the W. side of the building has original timber-framing in the walls, and a stop-chamfered beam across the roof.
b(17). Cottage, adjoining (16) on the N. side. It has a central chimney stack.
b(18). Cottage, adjoining (17) on the N. side. Part of the walling is of stone rubble. The front has been re-faced with timber and brick, probably of the 18th century.
b(19). Cottage, adjoining (18), on the N. side. Interior:—Two rooms have exposed joists and beams in the ceilings.
High Street, N.W. side
b(20). House, now two tenements, Nos. 36 and 37, 100 yards S.W. of (18). It was built probably in the middle of the 16th century, but has been much altered and enlarged. In front the wall is covered with cement and the upper storey projects; on the S.W. side is a covered passage with a partition of old timber-framing. At the back, part of the wall is of stone, and the projecting chimney stack is of stone with a square shaft of very thin bricks. Interior:—On the ground floor the ceilings have moulded crossway beams dividing the whole length and breadth of the building; one fireplace is original and has a four-centred head, apparently of stone, now painted. On the first floor the ceilings have plain joists.
b(21). Cottages, a range of four, Nos. 27–30, 500 yards N.E. of the church. In front the upper storey projects slightly, the ends of the joists being visible. At the back the wall is covered by modern additions. Interior:—Some of the rooms have chamfered ceiling-beams, and there are a few old doors.
b(22). House, now a shop and dwelling house, about ¼ mile N.E. of the church. It is of two storeys and an attic. In front the wall is covered with cement, and there are two small original dormer windows. At the back the wall is hidden by modern additions. The chimney stack at the N.E. end has two square shafts set diagonally; that at the back also has two square shafts.
b(23). House, at the E. corner of Meadow Row. The block facing the High Street was built probably early in the 16th century, and in front is covered with cement; the wing facing Meadow Row was added in the 17th century; it has been re-fronted with modern brick, and other modern additions and alterations have been made. Interior:—On the ground floor of the original block, the room in front, now divided, has two large intersecting moulded beams in the ceiling, moulded wall-plates and joists with stops, all now varnished; in the same room is an original wide fireplace, but the stop-chamfered lintel is possibly modern. The two rooms in the wing at the back have remains of early 17th-century panelling, now painted, and one room has a cupboard door of similar panelling, and a wide open fireplace.
b(24). Stone, at Christ's Hospital, about 350 yards N.E. of the church. The almshouse was founded in 1597 and was possibly on the site of a hospital founded in 1312; it was re-built in 1897, but re-set in one wall is an old stone inscribed, 'Christ's Hospital.'
Market Hill, S.E. side
b(25). House, now two shops, Nos. 1–2, 100 yards N.E. of the church, is partly of two storeys and an attic, partly of two storeys. The plan is L-shaped, the internal angle facing E.; the main block, facing the street, was built c.1500, and possibly formed several tenements; the ground floor is pierced by an archway; the wing at the back was added c. 1625, when a chimney stack and staircase were inserted in the main block, which was subsequently much altered. The street front has been re-faced with brick; the original entrance of the archway is of heavy moulded timbers; the outer member of the lintel is square, the inner forms two very flat and canted four-centred arches springing in the middle of the lintel from a pendant with a carved rosette on the soffit; the spandrels are traceried. An original chimney stack N.E. of the archway has two shafts set diagonally on a square plinth; the 17th-century stack is of brick and has strip-pilasters. The 17th-century wing has a lower storey of stone rubble and an upper storey of timber and brick.
Interior:—Three rooms have panelling of early 17th-century date; on the ground floor the room S.W. of the archway, now a shop and parlour, has elaborate panelling of c.1625, divided into bays by Ionic pilasters, and the frieze has arches carved in the panels; a room in the wing at the back has panelling, apparently re-set; the third panelled room is on the first floor over the archway, and has also an original fireplace with moulded jambs and four-centred head of stone. The early 17th-century staircase in the original block has a moulded handrail and turned balusters and newels.
Condition—Good; much altered.
b(26). Cottage, now three tenements, on the N.E. side of Meadow Row. Interior:—The ceilings have chamfered beams and open rafters; the fireplaces are partly blocked.
North End Square
b(27). Cottage, on the E. side of the square, at the S. end, about 600 yards N.E. of the church. The original chimney stack in front is partly of stone; that at the N.W. end is of old thin bricks. Interior:—On the ground floor the open timber ceiling has a heavy chamfered beam, and there is a large open fireplace with corner seats.
b(28). Cottage, now two tenements, N. of (27). Interior:—The ceilings have chamfered beams and open rafters.
b(29). Cottage, now two tenements, on the N. side of the square. The roof is partly of corrugated iron.
a(30). Castle House, in West Street, 250 yards N. of the church, is of two storeys and an attic. The walls are partly of brick, and partly covered with plaster; the roofs are tiled.
The building is of especial interest as it incorporates the remains of a large house of c. 1500.
The present house consists of the S. and W. ranges of a building of four ranges surrounding a courtyard; the W. range was built probably c. 1500, and contains the greater part, if not the whole, of the original hall, which appears to have been on the first floor; c. 1620 the ground floor was made into the Great Parlour, and a ceiling was inserted in the hall. The S. range is probably on the site of the solar range, but was re-built early in the 18th century; c.1835 the N. and E. ranges were destroyed, and towards the end of the 19th century the house was restored and altered.
Elevations:—The S. Range, facing the street, is of the 18th century, with a modern addition at the back. The W. Range, is covered with modern plaster, and has a modern lean-to addition on the E. side. In the W. wall are two windows of late 15th or early 16th-century date, and each of two transomed cinque-foiled lights with tracery under a square head; the jambs, mullions and head are moulded outside and rebated for shutters inside. At the N. end of the range is a modern bay window, in which is inserted a stone inscribed with the initials and date 'WLM1623' set in a circle.
Interior:—On the Ground Floor the Great Parlour is of three bays; at the S. end is a fireplace of oak dated 1619; the overmantel rests on twisted Corinthian columns and is of two stages; the lower stage is divided by square baluster pilasters into three bays of carved panels; the upper stage is divided into two bays by pairs of Doric half-columns ornamented with arabesques; the panels have each two round arches, all richly carved: near the N. end of the E. wall is a late 15th or early 16th-century doorway with jambs and two-centred head, continuously moulded on the E. side. The ceiling is partly of c.1500 and partly modern; the wall-plates and beams are chamfered; the cross-beams have angle-bracketing with tracery in the spandrels, and moulded corbels. On the First Floor a room in the W. range is lined with plain panelling of early 17th-century date, and has a panelled frieze carved with arabesques. A room in the S. range has early 17th-century panelling re-set. In the Attic are visible the remains of three trusses of the roof of the hall, much defaced and cut for a passage through the attic; they are of queen-post type, with cambered and moulded beams, purlins, etc., curved wind-braces and angle-bracketing; the collar-beams have curved and cusped struts.
The E. wall of the garden is of stone rubble and in it is a stone similar to that in the bay window, inscribed 'WLM1623', (for William and Mary Lambard).
c(31). House, 300 yards E. of the Church of the Holy Trinity, is of two storeys, and of central chimney type, built probably early in the 17th century, of brick, with a moulded brick string-course between the storeys. The roof is covered with slate. Two of the windows have old metal casements. The central chimney stack has two square shafts on a brick base. Interior:—On the ground floor there is a wide open fireplace.
c(32). Barn, 100 yards W. of Gawcott Church, is of the 17th century, and timber-framed with brick filling; the ends are weather-boarded. The roof is thatched.
c(33). Cottages, two, 100 yards N.W. of Gawcott Church, are each of two storeys, built probably late in the 17th century, and timber-framed with brick filling, partly re-faced with modern brick. The roofs are thatched. Some of the windows have old metal casements.
d (34). Manor Farm, at Lenborough, about 1 mile E. of Gawcott Church, is a house of two storeys, built of stone with some brick, in the 17th century. The roofs are tiled. The plan is of half-H shape, the main block facing S., the wings projecting towards the N.; on the ground floor the narrow space between the wings is filled by a covered passage. The S. front has a moulded plinth; at the back the gabled ends of the wings are built of thin bricks, and there are two gabled dormer windows. The chimney stacks are original.
d(35). Lenborough Farm, about 1 mile S.E. of (34), is a house of two storeys, built of stone, probably late in the 17th century; the walls have been heightened with brick. The roof is covered with slate. The plan was originally L-shaped, the wings projecting towards the N. and E., but is now rectangular, a modern addition having been built in the angle between the wings. One chimney stack is of 17th-century brick.