Sectional Preface: The University

Pages lxxii-lxxxviii

An Inventory of the Historical Monuments in the City of Cambridge. Originally published by Her Majesty's Stationery Office, London, 1959.

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The early history of the University in Cambridge is no part of the present enquiry any more than a detailed examination of academic organisation is appropriate to it, but, at the risk of over-simplification, some brief definition of University, hostel, hall and college must be attempted if an understanding is to be had of the different buildings that comprise Cambridge University and are included in the following Inventory; further, the development of the Cambridge college plan is only intelligible in relation to the measures taken here to house scholars, from the time of the first definite evidence of the provision of endowed accommodation to the foundation of the colleges in the form we know today.

The mediaeval University consisted of a corporation of men who were qualified, by possession of a degree, to teach. They lectured in the public schools to students who, seeking instruction, came to lodge in the towns where the schools were. The corporation, which comprised the ruling body, at first required only a building for meetings and ceremonies, a library, and schools for teaching. At Cambridge, though a distinct academical organisation is traceable earlier, lack of University buildings in the second half of the 13th century is evidenced by the use of St. Benet's church for assemblies; again one or other of the friars' houses and Great St. Mary's church were also used for ceremonies, the latter until the Senate House (Monument (16)) was built in the 18th century. (fn. 1) The original hired Schools were by Great St. Mary's but the Regent House, which incorporated a chapel, and the Schools Building (Monument (17)) were provided in the late 14th and 15th centuries, though subsequently entirely occupied by the University Library. These have been superseded by, again, the Senate House, the modern Arts Schools, numerous lecture-rooms and laboratories, etc., and the modern University Library, this last releasing the Schools Building once again in part for its earlier purpose. Until the 14th century the University at Cambridge was small, indeed the Papal Bull of John XXII of 1318 (fn. 2) erecting it into a Studium Generale is worded in the form of a new creation. It was the 15th century that saw its greatest early growth in numbers, partly as a result of the transference to it of Royal and other patronage from Oxford, as the foundation of King's College attests, Cambridge being the resort of orthodoxy from Wycliffite heresy. Apart from the Schools and the rebuilding by the University of Great St. Mary's church (Monument (53)) no other University building exists to attest this growth and increased affluence. But the accounts of those later University buildings included in the Inventory, by their dates, extensions and architectural pretensions, reflect the subsequent increases in numbers and intellectual growth of the University. It will be seen that before 1850 the essential University buildings had been supplemented by the following discrete special-purpose buildings, etc.: Cockerell Building at the Schools (Monument (17)), the Fitzwilliam Museum, the Observatory, the Botanic Garden etc. (see p. lvii), and the University Press; to these may be added, in so far as older buildings are concerned, the conversion after 1850 of part of the Schools and the Old Court of King's College into administrative offices. (For other modern conversions involving older buildings, see Monuments (71, 97, 240, 241).)

The mediaeval University, as a body, did not undertake to provide for the students' board and lodging, any more than the University does today; in this sphere it only exercised supervisory powers to prevent the exploitation of students by excessive rents, to order the houses where they dwelt, and to protect their morals. Some of the scholars lodged with the townsfolk, an arrangement revived and now obtaining in Cambridge; others rented houses amongst themselves, appointing one of their number the principal, or, again, an M.A. might rent a house and run it as a boarding-house as a private venture. In Cambridge usage Hostel and Inn have been applied to these houses ('hospitia seu literarum diversoria'). They were not endowed and gradually passed from independence and self-government into the charge of principals under University or college authority (fn. 3); after flourishing contemporaneously with the colleges, which they far outnumbered, by the end of the 16th century all had been either suppressed or absorbed by the colleges. None of their buildings survives, and, though the inmates ate together, no other evidence exists to suggest that the structural arrangement possessed a collegiate character, except possibly at St. Benet's Hostel and Physick Hostel, where it may have developed after annexation. Dr. Caius, writing in 1573, remembered twenty such establishments; his account epitomises their status and ultimate history: 'Neither Inns nor Hostels were endowed with any landed property. Each student lived at his own charges, not on the charity of the community. Now, however, they are all deserted, and given back into the hands of the townspeople, with the exception of St. Thomas, which belongs to Pembroke Hall; St. Bernard and St. Mary, which belong to Corpus Christi College; St. Augustine, which belongs to King's College; and those of Gerard, Oving, St. Gregory, Physick, St. Margaret, and St. Catharine, which belong to Trinity College'. (fn. 4) In several instances the annexation of these hostels, by gift or purchase, may be shown to have affected the planning-development of the colleges involved, for example at Pembroke College (Monument (33)) where possession of the site of St. Thomas's Hostel enabled the 17th-century chapel to be built S. of the original court, or at Trinity College (Monument (40)) where inter alia Physick Hostel influenced the arrangement of Great Court; indeed, the siting of the Senate House itself may be traced to the purchase by the University in 1673 of the St. Mary's Hostel site from Corpus Christi College. The Oxford usage of Hall for 'hospitia' does not apply in Cambridge: Clare Hall, Gonville Hall, Trinity Hall, etc., are colleges, but the history of this use is involved and will be found set out in some detail by J. W. Clark in The Architectural History of the University of Cambridge, etc. (fn. 5) Bearing in mind that 'college' properly belongs to a Society of people, not to the buildings it inhabits, and that the charters of the early colleges at both Universities refer to the buildings arbitrarily as house ('domus') and hall ('aula'), it is perhaps enough, in explanation of the varied designations and of the looser use of the word college, to quote from two mid 14th-century Cambridge college documents: licence was granted to the Countess of Pembroke for a scholars' house ('domus scolarium'), the Society in subsequent documents being termed 'the college of the hall of Valense Marie'; the foundation-deed of Trinity Hall reads 'that the college of scholars be called the college of scholars of the Holy Trinity of Norwich, and that the house ('domus') which the aforesaid shall inhabit, be named the Hall ('aula') of the Holy Trinity of Norwich'. King's College was the first at Cambridge to be unequivocally so named from its inception.

The colleges, in the inclusive sense, were essentially foundations created and endowed in the main by private benefactors. Each contained living accommodation and accommodation for corporate assembly for students who could not, without help, attend the University, and each was governed by its own statute code, usually given by the founder. Such were the advantages and amenities the colleges offered that in time paying students sought, and more often after the Reformation were granted, admission. Older, past students were also on occasion admitted as pensioners. A circumstance, further to the normal living requirements, that affected the Collegiate plan, as will be shown, was the arrangement whereby, in addition to the students attending the lectures and disputations organised by the University, they also held disputations within the college buildings.

Throughout the Middle Ages other classes of colleges existed, the main being the secular chapters of priests and the societies of resident chantry-priests, but the colleges early associated with the two Universities, which in origin were of the chantry-priest type to which a condition of learning was attached, have by their lone survival attracted the generic name of them all. (fn. 6)

Apart altogether from the great architectural interest of the academic secular colleges described in the following Inventory, their distinction and historical significance are not fully understood unless the fact is recognised that this class of 'college' has, in the words of Professor David Knowles, 'been the only one to survive in its original habitat. Alone and almost by accident it escaped dissolution under the Tudor monarchs and remained, with its shadow of a common life and with its society of celibate clerical Fellows, almost till within living memory the sole surviving relic of the monastic Middle Ages still recognised by the English Church and State'. (fn. 7)

The first recorded instance in Cambridge of an immediate practical solicitude for students occurs in 1280 when Hugh of Balsham, Bishop of Ely, obtained letters patent from the king 'to introduce into the dwelling place of the secular brethren of his Hospital of St. John studious scholars living after the rule of the scholars in Oxford called Merton'. (fn. 8) Walter of Merton's scheme of 1264 did not tie his scholars to any centre of study, indeed properties in Cambridge were bought (see Merton Hall, Monument (292), sold to Merton in 1270–1), yet his statutes of 1274 places them in Oxford, with a rule and an endowment. Bishop Hugh's endeavours afforded lodging but no specific rule nor endowment until in 1284, as a result of dissension in the Hospital, he moved the scholars into two 'hospitia' he acquired by the church of St. Peter outside Trumpington Gate (now St. Mary the Less or Little St. Mary's), endowing them with inter alia these two houses and the impropriation of the church. The significance of Hugh's foundation is that it was endowed, the endowment was independent of any religious house, and the scholars were secular, thus differing fundamentally from either the hostels or from earlier benefactions in the form of endowments of studentships given in trust to religious houses. Dying in 1286, Balsham left his college of Peterhouse 300 marks and with this a site S. of St. Peter's was bought and the hall and buttery, of which parts survive (Monument (34)), were built upon it in c. 1290 for the use of his scholars. Here then for the first time in Cambridge were grouped the three elements, the place of worship, the hall, and the living accommodation, that were to comprise, though generally more formally arranged, the elements of all the colleges, where the original plan is known, subsequently founded in Cambridge.

Edward II supported scholars, 'children of our chapel at the University, Cambridge,' certainly from 1317, living in hired hostels, though the community was virtually refounded by Edward III in 1337, increased to thirty-two scholars and given a house to be called King's Hall. Nothing of this house remains, but parts of early extensions begun in 1375 survive in 'King's Hostel' at Trinity College (Monument (40)).

Michaelhouse, founded by Hervey de Stanton, Chancellor of the Exchequer to Edward II, was opened in 1324. He had begun by buying for it the advowson of St. Michael's church. None of the domestic buildings of Michaelhouse survives except, by the inference of planning disposition, fragments of walling incorporated in the E. range of Great Court at Trinity College (Monument (40)). But the parish church of St. Michael remains largely as Stanton rebuilt it for his college and is of much liturgical interest, and, indeed, significance, in the development of the college chapel plan; its special dual purpose, collegiate and parochial, is discussed below. Both King's Hall and Michaelhouse were absorbed by Trinity College in 1546.

Of the original buildings of University Hall founded by the University in its corporate capacity in 1326 and refounded by Lady Elizabeth de Burgh as Clare in 1338 nothing remains, but an early 17th-century sketch-plan in the College Muniments of the college as it then was shows it to have been arranged round, and to have enclosed, a rectangular courtyard. (fn. 9) How many of these buildings were original it is now impossible to conjecture, for the College was entirely rebuilt in the later 17th and 18th centuries, but the next four colleges founded in rapid succession about the middle of the 14th century, Pembroke 1347, Gonville 1348, Trinity Hall 1350, Corpus Christi 1352, all retain sufficient of their original buildings, in particular Corpus Christi College, to show that the typical Cambridge enclosed courtyard plan had become the accepted form. Thus Clare House may well have been a precursor of it. With the emergence of a recognisable plan and the increasing incidence of surviving structures, realms of conjecture are left and it becomes possible to review architectural developments objectively.

University Buildings

The University Buildings show a remarkable stylistic diversity. Only one, the old Schools Building, is in the main mediaeval and it possesses none of the Gothic elaboration in silhouette and detail of Edward Blore's revived Gothic Pitt Building of 1833 at the University Press. The original Schools Building is a severely functional solution to practical needs and based upon the courtyard layout that was the Western European mediaeval conception, of ancient derivation, of the form any group of greater buildings should take. Built between c. 1350 and c. 1475, it contained the Regent House, and the Divinity, Canon Law, and Civil Law Schools. Only the main room, the Regent House of c. 1400, contains original stonework elaboration of any note, in the carved roof-corbels, which have much character. A monumental external effect was however essayed in the Gatehouse to the E. range, now re-erected at Madingley Hall; but this was the private benefaction of Bishop Thomas Rotherham and the latest work in the group, of the eighth decade of the 15th century, after a rapid increase in the importance of the University, as noted above. The E. range was rebuilt in 1754–8 to the designs of Stephen Wright and has the decorative grace and inconsequence of the rococo in the façade towards Senate House Yard, while devoid of the more fanciful rococo forms. Senate House Yard, though possessed of spaciousness and an unpremeditated beauty in the asymmetry of the University buildings beside it, is one of the scenes of architectural lost causes in Cambridge. The first comprehensive scheme for the development of the area to contain University buildings was mooted by Bishop Cosin shortly after the Restoration; it seems the buildings would have owed something to Nevile's ranges of his court at Trinity College and the elevations of Clare College, with arcaded walks and embattled ranges. Wren submitted a masterly design in depth for the Senate House with a library annexed in about 1675, which was to be linked to the Schools where Wright's building now stands. (fn. 10) Nicholas Hawksmoor's town-planning scheme for this area and King's College (fn. 11) shows an enclosed court-yard occupying the whole of Senate House Yard. None of these proposals progressed beyond the paper stage. James Gibbs' Senate House begun in 1722 and finished in 1730 is the only range completed of his total design, (fn. 12) which is described in the Inventory (Monument (16)). James Burrough and James Essex in 1752 produced a design (fn. 13) for a new E. range to the Schools, continuing the architectural treatment of the Senate House, but the Duke of Newcastle imposed upon the University the design by Wright, who had been his architect at Claremont and was to be retained for Clumber. Nevertheless Wright's building opposite and balancing Gibbs' Senate House was never built. (fn. 14) Subsequently for the S. range in 1785 Matthew Brettingham (fn. 15) and in 1791 John Soane (fn. 16) submitted designs; neither proceeded nor did Robert Adam's more grandiose scheme of 1788 (fn. 17) and the site remains vacant. Schemes for rebuilding the old Schools as the University Library succeeded little better but the completed range of C. R. Cockerell's great quadrangular building is token of the quality of the whole; if completed the Library would have been one of the outstanding neo-Classical works of the age. The grandeur of this range of 1840 is the intellectual impact of his synthesis of Roman forms and personal originality of invention, while that of Basevi's Fitzwilliam Museum, of the same decade, is the result of a more direct derivation of Roman forms, though again used with a sure appreciation of scale, and of splendour. J. C. Mead's Observatory of 1822–3 is a restrained exercise in the Greek style applied wholly inappropriately to a modern scientific building, necessitating ingenious adaptations of the stylistic repertory and the addition of a dome. The building is remarkable also for the fineness of the mouldings of the stonework, a tour de force of their kind. Blore's Pitt Press has a Gothic Tower of colossal size in relation to the building, in which it is centred in a plan of wholly Classical conception, but a further visual expedient to point its scale has been destroyed by much enlarging the slit-windows of the abutting buildings.

College Buildings

The fragmentary structural remains of the original buildings of the four earliest colleges, or such information as survives regarding them, have been briefly reviewed above. The late 13th-century hall and buttery of Peterhouse are the most important survivals of these though they are much altered and restored; together they are self-contained in a single long rectangular block in a way that suggests the contemporary existence of a detached or nearly detached kitchen, an arrangement traceable at both Jesus College, as St. Radegund's nunnery, also in the 13th century, and Trinity Hall in the 14th century (see diagrams, p. lxxxi). Of the four colleges founded between 1347 and 1352, the latest, Corpus Christi, retains its 14th-century enclosed court remarkably little altered; this however, unlike Pembroke, Gonville and Trinity Hall, does not include a chapel in its surrounding buildings, St. Benet's church being impropriated to the College and served and used by its members. The earliest of the four, Pembroke, founded 1347, has always been named the first Cambridge college to incorporate a private chapel within its walls, but Urban V's sanction to build is dated 1366 while the papal permission to Trinity Hall to celebrate in the 'chapel built' there is dated the same year. However, both chapels, though they survive, are altered and refaced almost out of recognition as mediaeval buildings; only that at Trinity Hall retains 14th-century material visible in situ. Of the later 14th-century chapel at Gonville Hall again only the walls survive concealed behind 18th-century refacing.

Thus by the end of the 14th century had evolved the Cambridge college plan, as surviving examples show, consisting of ranges of buildings including a gateway, a chapel, a hall and buttery, a kitchen and sets of chambers totally enclosing a roughly rectangular court, but only a synthesis of the plans of Pembroke, Gonville, Trinity Hall and Corpus Christi would show the total development. Pembroke lost two original ranges, including the hall range, almost within living memory, and all had already been altered and wholly refaced; Gonville retains only two ranges even more altered internally than those at Pembroke and wholly refaced; Trinity Hall has lost one original range and the rest are refaced towards the court and elsewhere; the Old Court of Corpus Christi alone retains its original aspect except in the rebuilt W. half of the S. range, but it never included a private chapel. Thereafter in the 15th century the buildings of King's College in the enlarged scheme proposed, Queens' College and St. Catharine's College were devised and Peterhouse was enlarged in conformity with this developed plan-form, the court of the last being almost certainly enclosed on the E. side by older buildings. Early in the 16th century Christ's and St. John's Colleges were similarly arranged and the enclosure of Magdalene College First Court was completed late in the same century. Of these buildings, the great court of King's College was completed only on the N. by the Chapel until the 19th century; Queens' College Front Court survives almost unchanged; St. Catharine's has been entirely rebuilt to a larger scale; and the 15th-century ranges of Peterhouse have been extensively refaced. Of Christ's College much survives but largely refaced and in part rebuilt; the north range of the First Court of St. John's, a building antedating the foundation of the College, has been destroyed and the S. range remodelled; on the other hand, First Court of Magdalene College after being refaced with Roman cement in the 19th century is now being stripped and restored to a semblance of the court shown in Loggan's engraving of the College.

It may be noted that the college entrances earlier than 1425 that survive are without accentuation. Those through the N. ranges of Corpus Christi College and Peterhouse, both approached through gateways below the galleries connecting college and adjacent church and thus seemingly important, if not the main entrances, are entirely simple; the architectural stress at Pembroke College is a later elaboration. King Edward's Tower at Trinity College, formerly the gateway to King's Hall, begun in 1428 and finished in 1432, is the first instance in Cambridge of architectural emphasis upon the entrance, marking the gatehouse with a tower, that is a feature of the colleges at Cambridge, in contradistinction to those at Oxford. Royal patronage of King's Hall is perhaps explanation enough for the expression of pomp; certainly it explains the splendour proposed though only partly realised for Henry VI's gatetower, begun in 1441, to the original court of King's College, the first to present an elaborate architectural show to the street, the former Milne Street, one of the main streets through the town. The E. face of the same gatetower is plainer, and the front of Queens' College gatetower, of 1448, has close affinities with it; evidence exists to suggest that both were built under the direction of the same master-mason, Reginald Ely. (fn. 18) Further, the two colleges, King's and Queens', so closely connected dynastically, one patronised by Henry VI, the other by his wife, show idiosyncratic similarity in the square salient turrets on the external angles of the courts, as occur at Queens' College, and as described in Henry's 'will' for King's College. Great Gate at Trinity College, built for King's Hall, begun in c. 1490 but only continued up into a tower between 1529 and 1535, is the most monumental expression of the gatetower feature at Cambridge; entirely different in character is the gatehouse of Jesus College of c. 1500, which is an example of building virtuosity, slender and fanciful as against four-square and prosaic. The apotheosis of the gatetower comes at Christ's College and St. John's College early in the 16th century where a heraldic display implicit with personal allusion heightens the pomp in an uninhibited Tudor manner; and very splendid the effect is. Later in the same century, with the architectural grammarian's growing concern for punctuation rather than traditionally correct phraseology, or perhaps because of an early romanticism, towers were built to accentuate passage ways between internal courts, examples are the Gate of Virtue of 1565 at Gonville and Caius and the Shrewsbury Tower begun in 1598 at St. John's College. The foregoing are the precursors of the architectural contrivances of the 17th-century masons forming elaborate frontispieces to gateways of the type that are so notable on the E. range at Clare College. Those at St. Catharine's of c. 1675 and on the W. range at Clare, of c. 1710, are closer to classical rule, whereas the pedimented entrance to Emmanuel is an entirely classical conception. With the early 19th-century Gothic revival the towered gatehouse is reintroduced, at Corpus Christi College New Court and at Trinity College New Court, both begun in 1823, and, in a hybrid form, at Sidney Sussex in 1831–32. The gatehouse and screen at King's College are an entirely original and apt invention though interpreted in Tudor-Gothic forms.

The introduction of the private college chapel within the college buildings has been reviewed historically above. The college chapel plan in Cambridge never developed the architecturally distinctive form of the Oxford chapel-and-antechapel plan as typified by that at All Souls College, though indications of it, in an incipient form, survive at Little St. Mary's, a parish church used for collegiate purposes, rebuilt in c. 1350 (see below, p. lxxxvii); St. John's College Chapel of 1863–69 is a 'foreign' incursion. Antechapels there were at Cambridge but normally within the rectangular chapel block; some are large in proportion to the size of the chapel proper, at King's College and Christ's College, perhaps because disputations were held in them, others, generally those built or contrived at a later date, are little more than vestibules. Yet at King's College Henry's 'will' envisages a separate room set aside for disputations, the first so specified, while the size of that at Christ's College may be due to the space required above for the Foundress' pew which, on the analogy of that for Bishop Fisher at St. John's College, (fn. 19) may have contained an altar. The similarity of the two foundations, Christ's and St. John's, of the Lady Margaret and their original buildings is too well known to require further stress here.

That the college chapels included chantry-chapels is evident from King's College Chapel; if this be considered an exotic then the old chapel of St. John's College with its four known chantry-chapels is less so. It may well be that the W. vestry at Christ's College contained a chantry, for the chapel glass showing Henry VI, the Foundress, her son and daughter-in-law is believed to have come from the windows in it. A building serving a similar purpose may have originally existed on the N.W. of the old chapel at Queens' College (see p. 169b).

Among the mediaeval private college chapels only that at King's remains without alteration or refitting so complete as to alter entirely the original appearance; Jesus College chapel, a most notable building of the 12th and 13th centuries, being an adapted monastic church (see Religious Houses, p. lxx), is extraneous to the development under review. The seven surviving mediaeval and early 16th-century college chapels, excluding Jesus College, are those of Trinity Hall (between 1352 and 1366), Pembroke (between 1366 and 1398), now the Old Library, Gonville (between 1353 and 1393), King's (1446–1515), Queens' (1448), now the War Memorial Library, Magdalene (late 15th century, after 1470) and Christ's (1505–11).

King's College Chapel is one of our great national possessions; though nearly seventy years in building, it is structurally, except in the form of the vaults and uppermost parts and in the elaboration of the Antechapel, exactly, so far as it is possible to be certain, as the Founder intended it to be. Begun by Henry VI, continued under Edward IV, Richard III and Henry VII and completed under Henry VIII, it is one of the group of latest English Gothic buildings in the high Perpendicular style, which includes also Eton College Chapel, St. George's Chapel, Windsor, and Henry VII's Chapel at Westminster, sponsored by Royalty and, even where not Royal works, built and embellished either by or in consultation with the king's workmen. (fn. 20) King's College Chapel was financed at first by payments from the revenues of the Duchy of Lancaster and from confiscations of alien priories, then by subscriptions and subventions from the Royal Treasury and gifts from Henry VII. As the Statutes of King's College were modelled upon those of New College, Oxford, so in some respects the architectural design for the Chapel appurtenances was reminiscent of New College in the provision of a western cloister dominated by a bell-tower; these were never built, and the Chapel itself far surpassed the model and had in Cambridge no exemplar and no successor. Henry VI was explicit in his wish for a chapel building that would inspire by a nobility of form unconfused by elaboration of detail; and there is nothing tentative about the design, it is one of maturity, yet the source is obscure. It may be observed that, had the building been completed with a two-centred vault and the high E. and W. gables this would have necessitated, then the design would have resembled that of a gigantic casket-reliquary, of the late mediaeval form. This may or may not be significant, but Henry VI's mysticism and regard for iconographical allusion are matters of history. The Chapel fittings illustrate in a remarkable way the transition from the Gothic to the Renaissance styles, and the change is illustrated in its tentative beginnings in the structure itself, by the soaring perpendicularity of the wall-bays and the static four-centred form of the early 16th-century vault.

The only mid 16th-century chapel is that of Trinity College, a product initially of the counterReformation, which owes perhaps something to the style of King's College Chapel but is a very much lesser architectural achievement. (fn. 21) The late 16th-century Puritan chapel at Emmanuel College, oriented N. and S., survives but is now a dining-hall. The four 17th-century chapels are of much stylistic as well as historical interest. Peterhouse chapel is of Laudian inspiration, begun in 1628 though not completed until c. 1665; it was however consecrated in 1632 and subsequent work involved in the main facing the brickwork with ashlar. It exhibits a remarkable combination of Gothic, Classical and contemporary 17th-century details. The W. front may well be a product of c. 1630, with a use of brickwork with stone dressings that the later ashlaring preserved, the brickwork alone being faced; it includes Classical columns, strapwork, arches of Tudor form, pinnacled Gothic niches with shell-heads, and a coping of Flemish Mannerist silhouette. The other fronts echo this cross-breeding, but the detail is more of the Restoration in character. It may be observed that John Cosin, who had held livings in Durham, was Master 1635–44, and again in 1660 when he became Bishop of Durham; the very extensive work undertaken in that diocese under his aegis shows a similar fusion of styles, developed in great elaboration. The siting of the Chapel and its flanking arcaded walks linking it to the N. and S. ranges of Old Court are repeated at Emmanuel College. The 17th-century chapels at Pembroke College and Emmanuel College were both designed by Wren; the former was his first completed work, 1663–5, the W. front being reminiscent of a design illustrated in Sebastian Serlio's Architecture (see below, p. 153). Emmanuel Chapel, 1668–77, is of a more robust design, typical of the period, than the more scholarly design for Pembroke, being nearer the 'artisan' work exemplified by the Halls of the City Companies built after the Great Fire of London, but it was built shortly after Wren's return from Paris and the way the roofs of the flanking ranges are hipped back from the Chapel-block is from the French rather than the English repertory. That the whole scheme with its arcaded walks was a copy, in general terms, of that at Peterhouse is shown beyond reasonable doubt by personal and official relationships: Dr. Matthew Wren, Master of Peterhouse, 1625–35, later Bishop of Ely, 1638–67, and so Visitor of Peterhouse, was the uncle of Sir Christopher Wren. Matthew had also paid for the Chapel at Pembroke. William Sancroft, to whom the scheme of the new Emmanuel Chapel was due, had become chaplain to Cosin in 1660, the year the latter was again Master of Peterhouse, was Master of Emmanuel 1662–4 and in the latter year became Dean of St. Paul's where Christopher Wren was already consultant. St. Catharine's College Chapel was built at the end of the century, 1694–7. Only the pedimented E. end of the structure is of any involved architectural elaboration and the January 1696–7 abstract of accounts includes for 'finishing down the pediment... at last'; in 1696 the advice of William Talman, Comptroller of the King's Works 1689–1702, was sought about the chapel, possibly about this.

Surprisingly only two Colleges contain 18th-century chapels, Clare and Sidney Sussex, and of these the second has been so much remodelled that it is superficially a modern creation. Clare College Chapel is an important work of 1763–9 by Sir James Burrough and James Essex, the amateur architect and the builder-architect. It is, broadly speaking, of Roman temple form outside, pseudo-peripteral, with square pilasters, and of some restraint in design. The interior is more adventurous in form showing a dramatic contrast in space-shape between the octagonal domed Antechapel and the segmental barrel-vaulted rectangle of the Chapel proper. The decoration is original and has already some of the delicacy and flatness typical of the new neo-Classicism. Burrough had died in 1764, and the design of the plasterwork may reasonably be attributed to Essex; thus the date of completion, 1769, puts Essex in a new light in relation, chronologically, to the Adam brothers and their work. The structural remodelling in the 18th century of the Chapels of Christ's College and Gonville and Caius College gives them a superficial appearance of that age, the first by James Essex in 1766, the second by John James between 1718 and 1726. The grotesque buttresses to the latter would gain elegance and purpose by replacement of the features, probably urns, that must once have crowned them. The remarkable 18th-century fittings in many of the Chapels are reviewed separately below.

Corpus Christi College Chapel is an early 19th-century Gothic-Revival building of some elaboration by William Wilkins, sited in a lay-out of entirely Classical formality. Only the W. front survives unaltered. The interior has been spoiled by removal of the plaster ribbed vault. The post-1850 Chapels of St. John's and Queens' Colleges are both of note.

The College Halls, Screens, Butteries and Kitchens at Cambridge follow the general arrangement familiar at Oxford and in the greater mediaeval and 16th-century houses. They are a very much closerknit service at Cambridge than at Oxford, most being all on the same floor and contained in the same range. Only the Halls at Corpus Christi, Gonville and Caius, and Jesus College are on the full first floor.

No less than ten mediaeval and early 16th-century College Halls survive, including that at Christ's rebuilt in the late 19th century more or less in the original form with the old materials; the others are at Corpus Christi, now the Kitchen, Emmanuel, Gonville and Caius, now a Library-annexe, Jesus, Magdalene, Peterhouse, Queens', St. John's, prolonged in the 19th century, and Trinity Hall. That at Emmanuel is contrived in the nave of the church of the Dominicans, that at Jesus, though remodelled in c. 1500, perpetuates the nuns' refectory. Contemporary Butteries, or structural evidence of their form, survive at Christ's, Magdalene, Peterhouse and St. John's. Kitchens have in the main been enlarged or rebuilt, particularly in modern times; but apparent evidence for early detached, or nearly detached, Kitchens, survives at Jesus, Peterhouse and Trinity Hall (see diagram). It will be seen that the 13th-century Kitchen at Jesus College was only integrated into the W. range of Cloister Court by the building of a W. wall, in c. 1500, to enclose the open re-entrant now the Pastry. At Peterhouse, a single 13th-century structural unit contains the Hall and Buttery; W. of it is a narrow 15th-century addition, which, so far as the evidence survives to show, seems originally to have been complete in itself, and W. again a later 15th-century Kitchen. The addition does not appear large enough ever to have been itself the kitchen, nor to have contained fireplaces, and it implies a detached, or partly detached, kitchen at least 14 ft. from the Hall unit. A similar example of this otherwise inexplicable arrangement survived until 1731 at Trinity Hall. Here also Hall and Buttery seem to have been a unit and the buildings northward from it whether attached or detached to have been later, as the building-contract of 1374 suggests, 'pro domibus construendis a boriali fine Aule' northward as far as Henney Lane. Again the narrow enclosed space between Hall unit and Kitchen occurs; though refacing has concealed all original wall-faces, it was demonstrably only one storey high, while the eccentricity of the Kitchen suggests a different building phase.

Trinity Hall, Plan in 1731

A late 16th-century Hall survives at Sidney Sussex College though much remodelled in the 18th century when the Buttery and Kitchen were reorganised. Hall, Buttery and Kitchen of the early years of the 17th century survive little altered at Trinity College and are remarkable; the Hall of 1604–5 was based for size upon that of the Middle Temple in London; the Buttery, though in part remodelled in the 18th century, retains evidence of its original form, as indicated on the hatched plan (in pocket at end of Part II); and the Kitchen was a separately roofed rectangular block placed to the S.W. because of the exigencies of earlier buildings due S. of the Buttery; the original lay-out is preserved in a Smithson drawing (R.I.B.A. Drawings AE5/28) and shows inconsiderable differences from the present lay-out. Late 17th-century Halls survive at Clare and St. Catharine's Colleges. At Downing and King's Colleges are 19th-century Halls, Butteries and Kitchens, both by William Wilkins, which show a break from traditional planning, though not as fundamental as the round hall proposed by Robert Adam for the latter in 1784. (fn. 22) The Hall at Downing is a neo-Greek building with service doorways in the N. wall and a Kitchen away to the N.W., an arrangement facilitated by the free site. At King's College the Hall is a Gothic-Revival building of so strict a symmetry that the oriel-window is in the middle of the N. wall; the western Screen also was duplicated at the E. end. Thus the oriel is divorced from its purpose of lighting the high table; the eastern Screen did however serve the functional purpose of enclosing a passage from Great Court to the proposed Library S. of the Hall range. A service-passage and the Kitchen stand S. of the Hall. The remarkable 18th-century fittings in many of the College Halls are reviewed separately below.

The College Library has been fully treated by Robert Willis and J. W. Clark (Arch. Hist. of the University of Cambridge, III, 387–471) and more than a brief consideration of the architectural qualities of the Library buildings in Cambridge would be superfluous here. Perhaps most noticeable is the resort to makeshift arrangements for housing books revealed by the College histories, due no doubt to the smallness of private libraries before the Reformation and their rapid growth with the development of printing. The number of pre-1850 buildings or rooms of architectural pretensions almost certainly devised for this special purpose and still so used without extensive alteration is small. It includes the Libraries at Queens' and Jesus from before the Reformation, Peterhouse and Trinity Hall of the later 16th century, St. John's, Clare and Trinity of the 17th century, Corpus Christi, King's and Sidney Sussex Colleges of the 19th. At Pembroke the old chapel was fitted as a Library late in the 17th century, but this has been largely supplanted by a separate Library building of the late 19th century. At St. Catharine's, rooms were remodelled and refitted for a Library between 1736 and 1763. The original Library at Christ's College has been extended and altered out of recognition. At Magdalene College the Pepys' Building antedated the gift of the Pepys Library. The fittings, often of a different date from the building in which they stand, are reviewed separately below (see p. cxiv).

The two pre-Reformation Libraries are contrived within domestic ranges, and to them must be added the original Library of c. 1515 with a remarkable roof (fn. 23) at St. John's College now converted into chambers. Similarly integrated into the college buildings are the later Libraries of Clare and Sidney Sussex. At both Peterhouse and Trinity Hall the 16th-century Library is the raison d'être for the building, as it is at St. John's and Trinity in the 17th century and King's College later. At Corpus Christi College the Library range is one of the ranges in the original nucleated design of New Court, closing it on the S. By far the most important architecturally of these buildings are the St. John's and Trinity College Libraries. The first, of 1623–5, was built at the charge of John Williams, Bishop of Lincoln, Lord Keeper of the Great Seal; plans were drawn for it and the choice of Gothic-style windows was deliberate, as 'most meet for such a building', though for the rest the details are Classical and Jacobean (see diagram, p. 197). The window-tracery is of 14th-century inspiration, though not a copy, and may be compared with that at Wadham College, Oxford, 1610–13, where use is made of an exotic Jacobean 'Gothic' in the domestic buildings and an accurate Perpendicular in the Chapel: a conscious discrimination again suggesting revival and not survival of the older styles. Instances of true revived Gothic use at so early a period are remarkable.

Trinity College Library, begun in 1677 and finished structurally in c. 1695, is, like King's College Chapel, one of our great national possessions. Sir Christopher Wren was the architect; his earlier design and changed siting for the executed design are described in the Inventory. Consisting of a great first-floor Library on an open colonnaded undercroft, it realises the proposal made as early as the 16th century for a great library similarly disposed to stand either in Great Court immediately W. of Great Gate or close W. of the Chapel. (fn. 24) Though informed by his French experience, Wren's building is essentially Roman.

Of the later apartments perhaps the Library of Corpus Christi College is the most notable, being a long room, designed by William Wilkins in the early Tudor-Gothic style, with a continuous, panelled four-centred plaster vault.

Graphic Chart Showing the Provision of Living Accommodation in the Colleges in Relation to the Number of Students in Cambridge from 1550 to 1850 Matriculation figures taken by permission from J. A. Venn, Oxford & Cambridge Matriculations 1544–1906 (Cambridge 1908)

Before completing the account of the main collegiate elements with a description of the ranges of Fellows' and undergraduates' rooms, it is appropriate to observe a development in the College courtyard plan that evolved in Cambridge in the 16th century. The emergence of the court enclosed by ranges on four sides has been described above. In 1565 Dr. Caius began the building of his eponymous Court at Gonville and Caius College, which, on grounds of health, he left open on one side bounding it only with a low wall, so that fresh air could circulate freely, particularly to the small enclosed court of Gonville Hall. The reason is stated clearly in his Statutes. Whether a standard or a fashion was thus set, several Societies subsequently followed the lead: at Emmanuel College, Front Court and New Court were both left open on one side, similarly at Jesus College in Outer Court, possibly also in part in First Court at Magdalene College, at Pembroke in Ivy Court, and at Trinity College in Nevile's Court; the pierced Chapel range at Peterhouse, which probably replaced solid older buildings, follows the same notion. Second Court of St. John's College of 1598–1602 is wholly exceptional in being totally enclosed at this period. The later three-sided Court of St. Catharine's is due to other causes. Not unexpectedly 19th-century eclecticism employed both dispositions: the New Courts at Corpus Christi College and Trinity College are enclosed, Gisborne Court at Peterhouse is three-sided. First Court at St. John's College was hybridised in 1869. The open lay-out of Downing College was and remains, so far as the modern buildings will allow, an exotic Grecian idyll.

Most of the three-sided courts named above were extensions of older nucleated courtyard buildings and thus these and subsequent enlargements involve some consideration of the fluctuation in the number of students in residence over the years. Figures are only ascertainable with some degree of accuracy from c. 1550 and these are shown in the accompanying graph (fn. 25); evidence of earlier growth is afforded by the makeshift arrangement of inserting garret rooms in the roofs of college buildings, for instance at Corpus Christi College in the reign of Henry VIII. It will be seen that from 1550 to 1570 the numbers had more than doubled; the lower figure was probably due to the expulsion and non-admission of the religious orders and the rapid increase to the arrival of a different class of students, children of an improving national economy and of the Renaissance. The return of confidence and the Marian exiles is clearly marked and the stature of the Puritan movement in Cambridge in Elizabeth's reign is indicated by the foundation of Emmanuel College.

The notable fact that the University was larger in the first forty years of the 17th century than it was to be in the succeeding two hundred years is reflected in the building programme of which evidence survives in the College buildings today. (fn. 26) The three-sided court extensions already mentioned and the single ranges extruded from, or freestanding close by, the early nuclei, for example in Walnut Tree Court at Queens' College and Fellows' Building at Christ's College, are the visible evidence of the provision of extra accommodation in the first half of the 17th century. The second period of growth, particularly between 1820 and 1830, is even more marked, by whole four-sided courts of rooms, for then there was also a drive to bring students from lodgings into the colleges. (fn. 27) The aspect of the buildings of these two periods differs fundamentally; the first is in the main plainly functional and of brick, the second architectural, if functional, and of stone or rendered to simulate stone.

The 'Brick Buildings', as indeed some of them are named, occur, or occurred, inter alia at Christ's c. 1613 (demolished), Emmanuel 1633–4, Gonville and Caius 1618 and 1619 (both demolished), Jesus 1638–41, Pembroke 1614–16 extended 1670, 1659–61, and 1664–6, Peterhouse 1632 (demolished), Queens' 1616–19, St. Catharine's 1634–7, St. John's 1598–1602 and 1669–73, Trinity (Bishop's Hostel) 1670, though these at St. John's and Trinity are of some architectural elaboration, and Sidney Sussex c. 1630; Emmanuel, as has been noted, and Sidney Sussex Colleges were themselves founded in the early phase of this growth, and Nevile's extensive rebuilding in stone at Trinity College is part of the same, though to some extent no doubt the outcome of a personal predilection for improvement and, in Nevile's Court of c. 1610, for effect. The last equates with those other stone-built ranges of chambers of the same century designed with an eye to effect: Fellows' Building of 1640–5 at Christ's College, one of the most original buildings for its date in England, and Pepys Building of c. 1675 at Magdalene College. It may be noted that the later buildings in this list show in their composition and elaboration a growing individualistic concern with 'architecture' that coincides with an increased, if temporary, access of confidence after the Restoration; St. John's Third Court, Bishop's Hostel at Trinity College, and Pepys Building at Magdalene College are cases in point.

The early 19th-century 'stone' buildings, at Christ's 1823, Corpus Christi 1823–7, Emmanuel 1824–5, Jesus 1822, King's 1824–8, Peterhouse 1825–6, St. John's 1826–31, and Trinity 1823–5 are identifiable by their revived Gothic or Tudor-Gothic garb. The stylistic preoccupation, from which the neo-Grecian of Downing College 1807–21 is conspicuously absent, is a part of the Romantic movement, though the use, or apeing, of stone may derive as much from the picturesque theory that red brick was unacceptable as from a nostalgic vision of fair cities of England's youth.

From the accession of James II to c. 1805 the University was at a very low ebb, thus the buildings of this period are few; but they exhibit high standards of design, being devised as grand architectural features. Ranges of chambers are under discussion here, but this observation is equally true of the communal College buildings in Cambridge. They represent a changed conception: previously, while the collegiate arrangement was necessarily functional, the buildings were conceived as a lay-out, as ranges enclosing spaces; subsequently the buildings were conceived as monumental features in space. Gibbs' Building, begun in 1724, at King's College is an illustration of the latter though originally part of a greater scheme. Infinite variation must qualify an analysis of this nature, but the attached Chapel at Clare College and the attached Burrough's Building at Peterhouse in their self-contained unity of architectural composition show the general validity of it. An early instance of the changing conception is Fellows' Building at Christ's College, 'of exact architecture' as John Evelyn described it, (fn. 28) a unified structure freestanding well away from the original courtyard ranges. Per contra King's College Chapel was the focal point in a courtyard of much magnificence and to some extent fragmented in overall design by the cloister and tower intended to stand detached at its western end.

The evolution of the accommodation for students in the Cambridge colleges has received detailed examination elsewhere. (fn. 29) The following is in the main a brief analysis of the architectural aspect of the domestic ranges; but, first, reference should be made to the mediaeval set of chambers at Magdalene College restored, without significant renewal, to their original form since Willis and Clark wrote. It is a very remarkable survival, which is described and planned in the Inventory. The large common room, with its lavatory and garderobe, has three small studies opening from it. In default of the Buckingham College statutes, the arrangement can be illustrated by those for King's College of 1443; here the Founder places 'at least two Fellows or scholars in each of the upper chambers, three in each of the lower chambers; each occupant is to have a separate bed; one of the Fellows is to be older than the others and is to exercise authority over his chamber-fellows and to report on their manners, conversation and progress in their studies'. It is an arrangement continued after the Reformation and described, for example, in the contracts for the 'Brick Buildings' at Gonville and Caius College of 1618 and 1619 demolished in 1868 (their plans had previously been recorded by Professor Willis). (fn. 30)

Prior to the 17th century the ranges of chambers were normally two storeys high, but the demand for accommodation, provided in the 16th century by contriving garret rooms as noted above, seems subsequently to have been met by building higher, either in two storeys with well-lit attics or in three storeys. But three-storey buildings did occur earlier. The most notable of these was the old court of King's College where, although royally sponsored and of superior design and quality, the site was so restricted that high buildings were inevitable; the range at King's Hall of three storeys with attics shown on Hamond's view of Cambridge lying between King Edward's Tower and 'King's Hostel' may have contained chambers and was therefore perhaps another example, while the lofty buildings at Jesus College of c. 1500 may also have had an external cause, being contrived within the small claustral buildings of St. Radegund's nunnery. Of the foregoing examples only those at Jesus College still stand. For the rest, mediaeval and early 16th-century two-storey ranges survive at no less than eleven of the Colleges: Corpus Christi, Pembroke, and Trinity Hall of the 14th century, Gonville, Jesus, Magdalene, Peterhouse, Queens', and Trinity of the 15th, and Christ's and St. John's of the 16th, all more or less altered. Late 16th and 17th-century ranges survive at Christ's, Clare, Emmanuel, Jesus, Magdalene, Pembroke, Queens', St. Catharine's, St. John's, Sidney Sussex, and Trinity. Ranges of the 18th and first half of the 19th century are at Christ's, Corpus Christi, Downing, Emmanuel, Gonville and Caius, Jesus, King's, Peterhouse, Queens', St. Catharine's, St. John's, and Trinity. Generally the ranges are one room in thickness though sub-divided in depth to provide bedrooms or gyp rooms by partitioning. The S. range of Third Court of St. John's College, of 1669–73, seems to have been the first to have been designed two rooms thick. Thereafter this 'doublepile' arrangement was adopted at Emmanuel c. 1720, King's 1724, Queens' 1756, St. Catharine's 1757, and more generally in the 19th century.

The exceptional arrangement of Cloister Court of Queens' College is worthy of further comment. The 15th-century range by the river, originally freestanding well W. of the nucleated college buildings and only slightly later, is unique at this period in Cambridge; its arcaded walk and the later 15th-century arcaded walks linking it to the Hall range are no more than open corridors, equating with the walks contrived within the claustral ranges in friars' houses (fn. 31) rather than with the great cloisters familiar to us, for example, in the secular cathedrals. Thus 'Cloister Court' is strictly a misnomer, if scenically justified. The date 1537 hitherto suggested for the remarkable timber-framed structure later imposed upon the N. arcaded walk is too early; a limit is set by the window of c. 1565 in the W. range completely masked by the structure; further, the detail is more appropriate to the reign of Elizabeth I, though the silhouette of timber towers and cupolas, now destroyed but portrayed in Loggan's engraving of the College, may indeed derive from the jeu d'esprit and pageantry of Henry VIII's Nonsuch Palace. It is however a part of the President's Lodging, and this element in the college buildings is discussed in the following Section.

Again, the history, position and development of the Master's Lodge in the Colleges is examined fully in the Architectural History of the University. (fn. 32) The Master's Lodging was until the late 17th century placed in close proximity to the dais-end of the Hall, with easy access between them, as originally at Christ's or Pembroke, at Peterhouse, Queens' or Trinity, etc., and even with small windows opening from it to the Hall, as at Christ's and Queens'. At Jesus and originally at Magdalene (as Buckingham College) the monastic origin accounts for a direct relationship with the Chapel rather than with the Hall, the Master succeeding to the prior's or prioress' lodging. The mutation of the Master's accommodation and interchange of rooms from College to Master and Master to College is a most striking feature of the history of the Lodge, and continues, for instance at Jesus, but the rebuilding of St. Catharine's begun in 1674 seems to provide the earliest example of the siting of the Lodge well away from the Hall; the accommodation of the Master in the new south range of Clare College built in 1640–42 was a temporary measure. The Lodge eventually completed at Clare early in the 18th century was some distance from the Hall and thereafter the tendency was to house the Master further away until in modern times new Lodges are completely detached at a considerable distance from the College buildings: an intermediate stage is exemplified at Corpus Christi, Downing and King's Colleges, and the latest stage at Magdalene, where is the first of the remote freestanding Lodges, Pembroke, St. John's, etc. The early 18th-century Lodge of Peterhouse was a later 18th-century acquisition when the idea of hieratic isolation was taking root.

A few of the more noteworthy Lodges may be mentioned. At Christ's College the Master's Lodge was originally in the E. courtyard range, between the Chapel and the Hall. The first-floor rooms were reserved for the use of the Foundress, the Lady Margaret, and had windows to both Chapel and Hall; they were given distinction by fireplaces elaborated with heraldic badges, whilst more personal heraldry embellished the outside of her oriel-window over the entrance doorway. A hanging pentice gave access to the pew over the Antechapel. The Lodge of the Lady Margaret's other foundation, St. John's College, was similarly placed; but it was demolished in the 19th century and the oriel similar to that at Christ's reset in the new Lodge away to the N.W. On the Foundress's death, rooms in the old Lodge were reserved for her confessor and executor, Bishop Fisher, as they had been for her at Christ's. (fn. 33) The Master's Lodge at Trinity College and the President's Lodge at Queens' College are of great size and splendour and comprise buildings of many different dates; they occupy a large proportion of the courtyard buildings of the respective Colleges and are interesting expressions of the expansive way of life of the 18th-century 'heads' At King's College the design of the Provost's Lodge, by William Wilkins, derives from a synthesis of the great 16th-century East Anglian houses, like East Barsham, and in this context may be noted the simple and entirely contemporary design of the extension to the Master's Lodge at Gonville and Caius College by Wilkins' father, William Wilkins, sen. The Master's Lodge at Downing College takes the outward form of a Greek temple, of an Ionic order based upon that of the Erechtheion, and, improbably, balances the Hall and Combination Room opposite similarly housed. The Master's Lodge at Peterhouse is a notable building but originated as a domestic dwelling and will be found described with 'Houses', below.

Collegiate Parish Churches

Several of the Cambridge parish churches were appropriated to the Colleges for ritual use and not solely as a means of increasing college revenues. Four are of interest in an architectural context: St. Benet, used by Corpus Christi College, St. Edward the Martyr by Clare Hall and Trinity Hall, St. Mary the Less by Peterhouse and St. Michael by Michaelhouse. Of these St. Mary's and St. Michael's were rebuilt in this connection and show adaptation of plan to collegiate use; the ancient church of St. Benet was retained throughout, with only minor additions; St. Edward's was enlarged by the addition of small collegiate side-chapels, for both Clare Hall and Trinity Hall had chapels of their own within the colleges.

The church of St. Michael, which was being rebuilt by Hervey de Stanton, founder of Michaelhouse, in 1326–7, is a most important example of special-purpose planning to meet the liturgical requirements of collegiate and parochial worship (see plan, p. 284). The chancel is greatly enlarged at the expense of the nave, for the use of the collegiate choir; the S. chapel is elaborated at the E. end, suggesting a parochial side altar; the nave remains the space for preaching and disputations. It is of interest to note in the nave with its aisles the effect of the ante-chapel plan typical of the later collegiate chapel development largely confined to Oxford, where a ritual division of a simple rectangular plan, as elaborated here, developed as a choir or chancel with an ante-chapel at right angles to it, in the form of a transept. Notable in this context is the fact that, omitting the possibly chance conformity of Merton College Chapel of c. 1290 with the latter plan, New College, Oxford, was the first probably consciously so planned in 1380–86, that is, some sixty years after St. Michael's. The significance of this is reinforced by the form adopted for St. Mary the Less when rebuilt for collegiate purposes in c. 1350 (see plan, p. 281); here the structural evidence gives every appearance of the intended provision of a 'transeptal' ante-chapel across the end of the great collegiate choir, in fact the Oxford plan in embryo.

At both St. Benet and St. Mary the Less a two-storey building links church and College (see plans, pp. opp. 50 and 158, 264, 281); each building has or had a vaulted gateway to the college on the ground floor and a gallery on the first floor, the latter providing covered approach to an upper apartment flanking the church chancel and overlooking it through large window-openings; thence stairs lead down into the church. Thus the apartments were probably pews, and it is reasonable to suppose they held altars.

The church of St. Edward the Martyr was appropriated to Trinity Hall in 1446. The Societies of both Trinity Hall and Clare Hall had previously used the church of St. John, which was demolished to make way for King's College Chapel. The two chapels at St. Edward's (see plan, p. 272) are additions, involving removal of the easternmost bay of both the N. and S. aisles, and stylistically of the mid 15th century. (fn. 34) Parish records show that the chancel and N. chapel belonged to Trinity Hall, the S. chapel to Clare Hall.

Collegiate Miscellany

Entering none of the above categories of College buildings but of much interest as typifying the tastes and predilections of their age are the two architectural conceits: Dr. Caius' Gate of Honour at Gonville and Caius College, 1573–5, and the Fountain at Trinity College, begun 1601–2. The first culminates the students progress through the College, from his entry by the Gate of Humility, on through the Gate of Virtue, and out by the Gate of Honour, thence to the Schools. Whilst this symbolism is characteristic of the late 16th century, perhaps to Caius' sense of occasion may be attributed the festal and triumphal aspect of the Gate of Honour, a mélange of forms and features traditional and new, English and Roman, originally whitened, coloured and gilded, miniature though it is. It is perhaps significant that a possible source for the design is the engraving of the 'Arch triumphal de la Nation d'Espagne' put up in Antwerp in 1550 for the festivities in connection with the visit of the Spanish prince. (fn. 35)

Trinity Fountain is the only surviving early 17th-century fountain of great size and elaboration in England. It may be compared with that in the Hatfield drawings, (fn. 36) possibly for Hampton Court and by the younger Cure, a tall two-stage hexagonal building of a stricter Classicism but with resemblances. These structures perhaps derive from the monastic lavatories, which were often of some elaboration and placed freestanding in the cloisters; the diversion therefore of the Franciscans' conduit to supply Trinity Fountain is fortuitously entirely apt.


  • 1. At Great St. Mary's Bachelors incepting in Divinity preached; Congregations were held, until the Schools were built; University documents were stored; disputations were held and degrees conferred, until the Senate House was built. It was used to the end of the 19th century for sessions of the Bishop's Consistory Court.
  • 2. Cal. Papal Registers [Letters] II, 1305–42, p. 172; H. Rashdall, Universities of Europe in the Middle Ages (ed. Powicke and Emden, 1936), III, 283, n. 1.
  • 3. Colleges owned hostels even in the 14th century, but as investments, not with the aim of control, beyond a tenancy agreement; though graduates of owning colleges would probably receive preference as principals, and give appropriate loyalty.
  • 4. J. Caius, Historiae Cantebrigiensis Academiae (1574, London), 46–52.
  • 5. R. Willis and J. W. Clark, op. cit., I, xvii.
  • 6. passim, Prof. David Knowles and R. N. Hadcock, Mediaeval Religious Houses.
  • 7. ibid., 44.
  • 8. Documents relating to the University and Colleges of Cambridge (1852), II, 1.
  • 9. See also, plan of Cambridge by John Hamond, 1592, in J. W. Clark and A. Gray, Old Plans of Cambridge 1574 to 1798 (1921).
  • 10. Wren Society, V, 31, pls. xiii–xiv.
  • 11. B. M. King's Maps and Plans, VIII, 4.
  • 12. J. Gibbs, Book of Architecture (London, 1728), pl. xxxvi. The share James Burrough had in the design is assessed in H. M. Colvin, Dictionary of English Architects, 108.
  • 13. 'Design for the Publick Library at Cambridge', eng. Fourdrinier.
  • 14. 'The Regent walk, and General plan of the new Building at Cambridge', eng. Fourdrinier.
  • 15. Univ. Accts., 1784–85.
  • 16. University Record Office, Soane drawings.
  • 17. Soane Museum, Adam Drawings, Vol. 31, 11–21; A. T. Bolton, Architecture of Robert and James Adam, II, 176, 178.
  • 18. Arthur Oswald in C.A.S. Procs., XLII (1949), 8–26.
  • 19. College Inventories of 1546–59 mention a chamber over the chapel containing an altar of wood.
  • 20. See e.g. A. Oswald in J. Harvey, English Mediaeval Architects, 284 a.
  • 21. A small but remarkable feature not normally seen is a classical pediment over the doorway from the stair-turret to the roof.
  • 22. Soane Museum, Adam Drawings, vol. 31, 1–10, 17, vol. 36, 5; A. T. Bolton, Architecture of Robert and James Adam, II, plan 174.
  • 23. Compare the roof at Layer Marney illustrated in N. J. Hone, Manor and Manorial Records (1906), 30.
  • 24. See plan produced in Willis and Clark, II, facing p. 465.
  • 25. Copied by kind permission from J. A. Venn, Oxford and Cambridge Matriculations 1544–1906 (1908), W. Heffer & Sons, Cambridge, reprinted from 'The Oxford and Cambridge Review'. The accuracy of Dr. Venn's figures for matriculations cannot be claimed for the list of buildings and conversions included in the table shown opposite in correlation with his graph, the documentation of such being often lacking in detail, if indeed it exists. That the provision of accommodation would reflect the intake of students is self-evident, yet some attempt at illustration of the fact may be of interest though the picture presented must be treated with reserve in regard to detail.
  • 26. The rise in intake of students at Cambridge during the Civil War (see graph) reflects a false prosperity; it coincides with the establishment of the Royalist headquarters in Oxford, the investment of that city by the Cromwellian army, and the Parliamentary visitations. Thus the flow of students was temporarily almost entirely to Cambridge.
  • 27. Notably the Napoleonic Wars had no obviously deleterious effect upon the increase in intake of students that began in c. 1805 and was accelerated by University reforms shortly after; but the spate of building in the bad times economically of 1820–30 may have been the result of high agricultural prices and enforced saving over the preceding period.
  • 28. Diary of John Evelyn, 1 Sept. 1654 (ed. E. S. de Beer, Vol. III (1955), 140).
  • 29. Willis and Clark, III, 297–327.
  • 30. Willis and Clark, III, plans p. 309.
  • 31. E.g. the house of Greyfriars at Walsingham, founded in 1347–8 by Elizabeth de Burgh; A.R. Martin, Franciscan Architecture in England (1937), 124–37.
  • 32. Willis and Clark, III, 328–53.
  • 33. Bishop Fisher in his second code of Statutes for St. John's College, 1524, 'I reserve for my own use those chambers which have been built for the Master, as the Foundress in her gracious kindness allowed me to do at Christ's College, which she also built. After my death however the Master may retain possession of the upper chambers for his own use', Early Statutes of the College of St. John etc. (ed. J. E. B. Mayor, Cambridge 1859), 273.
  • 34. The side windows have been renewed but repeat an individual design that occurs in Reginald Ely's side-chapel windows in King's College Chapel. Ely was a parishioner of St. Edward's. Similar window-tracery occurs at Burwell, 1454–67, where over the chancel-arch are decorative features similar to some on Ely's gatetower to the old court of King's College (see A. Oswald in J. Harvey, English Mediaeval Architects, 96, 98, 99).
  • 35. Cornelius Scribonius, Le Triumph d'Anvers, 1550; J. Summerson, Architecture in Britain 1530–1830, 114.
  • 36. Photostats of Hatfield Coll. in B.M., MSS. Dept., Facs. 372 (Vol. I, 11 (f. 13): 'Plat of a fountaine', n.d.).