Trinity Hall

An Inventory of the Historical Monuments in the City of Cambridge. Originally published by Her Majesty's Stationery Office, London, 1959.

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'Trinity Hall', in An Inventory of the Historical Monuments in the City of Cambridge, (London, 1959) pp. 245-254. British History Online [accessed 12 April 2024]

Trinity Hall

Trinity Hall Arms

(41) Trinity Hall stands between Trinity Lane, formerly Milne Street, and the river and is bounded on the N. by Garret Hostel Lane and on the S. by Clare College. Henney Lane, formerly alongside the N. range of the present Front Court, was the N. boundary until 1545; thereafter it was closed and absorbed in the northern extension of the site.

The Hall of the Holy Trinity for scholars of canon and civil law was founded by William Bateman, Bishop of Norwich. He issued his statutes in January 1350 and in the following months obtained Royal Licences to acquire houses and the land for the College. The smaller site was wholly acquired by 1354, rather more than the southern half by purchase in 1350 from the Chapter of Ely, being the area comprising the hostel and grounds bought by Prior John Crauden (1321–41) for Ely monks studying in Cambridge.

The date of the commencement of building is unrecorded but Richard de Bury is known to have been employed as master-carpenter in 1352. Completion was perhaps retarded by Bateman's death in January 1355. He left only a Master, three Fellows and three scholars, for whom presumably the Ely hostel was available. Before 1374 the Hall and an E. range of chambers had been built, for in that year a contract was made between the Founder's executor, Simon Sudbury, Bishop of London, and John de Mildenhale, carpenter, of Cambridge, for the timber-work of offices and chambers; the work for the former is specified 'pro domibus' (Kitchen-offices etc., since remodelled,) 'construendis a boriali fine Aule—versus boream usque ad venellam communem vocat Heneylane', and, for the latter, to be similar in form and quality to that of the 'camerarum orientalium habitacionis dicti mansi'. This last was perhaps the East Range, subsequently rebuilt, of the present Front Court. The extent of the work specified in Mildenhale's contract points to the North Range of Front Court, which retains 14th-century features, as the chambers built in c. 1374. The Master's Lodge occupied the S. end of the Hall range and was presumably of the date of the Hall.

Licence was obtained from the Bishop of Ely in 1352 to build a Chapel, and reference to the 'chapel built' within the College occurs in 1366 in a petition to the pope for permission to celebrate therein (Granted, Avignon. Cal. Pap. Petitions, edn. W. B. Bliss, I, 533). The building has undergone much alteration but a piscina discovered in situ in 1864 is of the 14th century. The rest of the South Range may conjecturally be attributed to the same century.

The Court, now Front Court, thus completed, was the inner court of the College; the original entrance court, now South Court, adjoined it on the S., having a Gatehouse and Porter's Lodge in the E. range. This last, after the duplication of entrance to the College by the provision in 1742 of an entry through the E. range of Front Court, was rebuilt in 1872–3 by Alfred Waterhouse, the mediaeval entrance archways being re-erected in Garret Hostel Lane. The W. range of the same Court consisted of a S. extension of the Master's Lodge, probably of the late 16th century as described below, and older buildings.

During the Mastership of Dr. Harvey (1560–84) the College buildings, according to Dr. Caius, were extended and made more ornamental and ample. It was probably in this period or soon after that the N. range of Library Court, containing the Library on the first floor, was added and the storey built above the Butteries and Kitchen that incorporated the Combination Room; an early memorandum of uncertain date and authorship transcribed by Warren dated the second to 1563 (A. W. W. Dale, Warren's Book (1911), 65). The crow-stepped gables of these two additions are shown in Loggan's engraving of the College; their uniformity one with another and with those of the S. and W. extensions of the Master's Lodge suggests that all were works of much the same time. Loggan also shows the battlements of the wall closing Library Court on the W., now demolished, that carried a wall-walk providing direct access from the W. wing of the Master's Lodge to the Library.

During the 18th century a gradual but almost entire remodelling of the College buildings was effected and the appearance of Front Court completely altered. In 1702 sporadic insertion of sash-windows began, but the more wholesale changes were financed by Sir Nathaniel Lloyd (Master 1710–35). In March 1727–8 Christopher Cass, mason of London, agreed to replace the eaves of the N. range with a stone cornice and parapet-wall and to make two Classical doorcases of Ketton stone. He completed the work by July. In 1729 similar works on the Chapel range, with the Ketton stone cases for two windows and four round windows, were undertaken and alterations to the interior of the Chapel begun. By December 1730 the present ceiling, panelling and paving had been inserted in the Chapel, the former panelling being removed to the Antechapel. The cost, excluding extras not specified in the contract, was £923; the bill for extras, £63, includes the names of the following: James Jones, painter, Barker, carver, Mines, plasterer, and Carter and Essex, joiners. The bills are receipted by John Ogle for Cass and Partners, the principal partner being Andrews Jelfe, mason. The same year, 1730, the Combination Room, now and since 1890 a Library-annexe, was refitted and refurnished.

Cole in 1745 records the ashlaring of the entire Court since 1741, and describes the Hall as new, 'built from the ground in the place where the old one stood', James Burrough being the architect. But William Whiting of Cambridge had contracted in 1743 for the Hall and Butteries, and it is clear from the contract, 'to build with the best Ketton ashlar at 6 ins. thick', and from the account given by William Warren (Collectanea ad Collegium sive Aulam Sanctae Trinitatis, etc.) that refacing, not rebuilding, was involved. The interior of the Hall was remodelled, the offices altered and the whole range re-roofed. Bills of quantities were to be supplied to Burrough and, in view of the design and uniformity of all the Court fronts, and Cole's statement, it is reasonable to attribute the total undertaking to him. Essex sen. was again party to a contract for the woodwork in both E. and W. ranges. A design, known from an engraving dated 1743, signed by James Burrough, 'Architect', and drawn by James Essex, jun., shows that Library Court was to be rebuilt on an impressive scale; but a bequest of £20,000 for the purpose was declined because of conditions attaching to it, and the scheme abandoned. Nevertheless, the refacing of the W. side of the Hall range, so far as it was completed, was in commencement of this new design.

In addition to the 19th-century alterations already described, the E. range of Front Court was gutted by fire in 1852 and rebuilt by A. Salvin. The Chapel was extended eastwards in 1864 by incorporating in it the Treasury adjoining on the E.; the window, already blocked, between the former Master's pew over the Ante-chapel and the Chapel was removed and the opening filled, and, in 1876–7, the walls were painted and the windows filled with stained glass; subsequently the former pew was opened out to form an organgallery. The original Master's Lodge in the S.W. angle of Front Court, with the 16th-century extensions to S. and W., was improved in 1804 and 1822; the work is unspecified, but the sum spent, £3,300, shows it to have been very extensive. The S. wing, with the rest of the W. range of South Court, was rebuilt in 1823, being completed in 1824 when Sir T. Le Blanc, Master, advanced £1,200 at 4½% to pay the cost. In 1852 the Lodge was enlarged, in part rebuilt and the interior considerably altered under the supervision of Anthony Salvin, and again altered and refronted in 1890–2, with the result that few ancient features survive. In this last period the College Hall was extended southward by incorporating in it the Master's original Parlour and room above in the S.W. angle of the Court, and the new Combination Room formed W. of the W. range of South Court instead of over the Butteries. At the same time an open timber roof was substituted for the 18th-century plaster ceiling in the Hall.

Latham Building, containing chambers, was built N.W. of the Library Range in 1889–90 to the designs of G. H. Grayson and E. A. Ould. Ranges in continuation of it were added in 1909 and 1927 beside Garret Hostel Lane and extending S.W. to the river. In 1928 to 1929 the interior of the N. range of Front Court was completely stripped of floors and partitions and replanned; the N. and S. walls were repaired and a number of mediaeval features exposed or restored. The 14th-century Kitchen, after extension in 1877, was remodelled and again extended northward in 1934. North Court is bounded on the W. by the extension just mentioned and by a contemporary range on the E., to make way for this last the Tutor's House built in 1882 being demolished; the N. range linking the two was built in 1952 and adjoins Garret Hostel Lane.

Trinity Hall possesses in Front Court the largest enclosed court on the Cambridge collegiate plan built before the end of the 14th century and the earliest of the kind to include a chapel. Little remains visible of the original buildings, which were largely refaced in the mid 18th century. This refacing extending throughout Front Court is in the Classical style; the design, probably by James Burrough, is small in scale and unspectacular, but harmonious and pleasing. The Elizabethan Library retains the original fittings and is important as an almost unaltered building of the period. The Chapel contains a remarkable plaster ceiling of 1730, and a rococo wall-monument of 1747 of accomplished design and workmanship. The fireplace and panelling of 1730 in the Library-annexe are notable.

Architectural Description—Front Court (114 ft. by 79 ft.), originally the inner court, is bounded on the E. by a range containing the main entrance to the College and sets of chambers, on the S. by a range containing the Chapel in the W. half and chambers in the rest, on the W. by the Hall range, and on the N. by a range of chambers. The walls, except where otherwise described, are faced with Ketton stone ashlar and the roofs are slate-covered.

Trinity Hall, Plan

The East Range is of three storeys. The original range, probably built in the third quarter of the 14th century, was entirely refaced between 1741 and 1745. In 1852 it was burnt out and rebuilt at a cost of about £4,800 to the designs of Salvin who retained the former stone surrounds of the openings to the entrance-passage. He also reproduced the 18th-century two-storey W. front, adding a third storey above the cornice. The 18th-century E. entrance has a semicircular arch on plain responds, with moulded archivolt and imposts, keystone, probably of 1852, carved with a bearded mask and a shell above, and panelled spandrels, all flanked by plain pilasters with console-brackets supporting a pedimented entablature; set in the arch-tympanum is an 18th-century wrought-iron grille with an applied cartouche displaying the arms of the College. The W. front of 18th-century character incorporates reused ashlar and dressings of this date; it is generally similar to the E. front of the W. range opposite, described below, but with 19th-century arched doorways at each end. The 18th-century central archway to the entrance-passage has a semicircular head and flanking pilasters with console-brackets supporting a pedimental entablature. The interior of the range is of 1852 and later.

The South Range of Front Court has, near the middle, a passage through to South Court. It is of one and two storeys with attics under a continuous roof. The S. side is of brick rough-cast, and with stone dressings. The Chapel was built in the second half of the 14th century and the rest of the range presumably at the same time; as described in greater detail above, the former was remodelled inside in 1729–30 and the whole refaced, towards the Court, between 1741 and 1745. The Treasury, W. of the passage, incorporated into the body of the Chapel in 1864, was once entered from the Chapel and was perhaps originally a sacristy.

The N. side has horizontal features continued from the E. and W. ranges, except that the plat-band is discontinued at the Chapel. In the roof are nine flat-topped 18th or 19th-century dormer-windows. The three bays centred on the passage project slightly. The semicircular-headed archway to the passage is rusticated; of the three windows on the first floor, the westernmost is blocked behind the sashes. E. of the projection are four regularly spaced windows on each floor and a doorway, shown on the plan, now blocked internally, which formerly opened on a staircase. The doorway has an architrave, pulvinated frieze and pedimented cornice, and is hung with an 18th-century door of six fielded panels. The S. side of the range seen from Trinity Lane has three windows on each floor. With the exception of those last described, which have semi-circular heads, all the windows mentioned above are similar to those described on the W. side of Front Court.

The Chapel (54 ft., including the Ante-chapel 13½ ft., by 18½ ft.) is divided on the S. into four bays by mediaeval buttresses of four stages with gabled heads. The body of the Chapel is lit by two mid 18th-century semicircular-headed windows on each side; those on the N. have moulded architraves with plain impost-blocks and pedestal-like sills, all within a shallow casement-moulding with moulded surround and plain sill; those on the S. have architraves and plain imposts and sills. The N. doorway to the Ante-chapel has an architrave and panelled frieze with console-brackets supporting a pedimented cornice; all except the architrave is of the 19th century. In the opposite wall are two mid 18th-century round windows with moulded stone surrounds. The organ-gallery is lit from each side by a window contemporary with, and similar to, the main S. windows of the Chapel but considerably smaller. In the S.E. bay is a round window, as before, but blocked, on the ground floor and, above, a rectangular area of exposed brickwork in a flush stone frame. The S. archway to the through-passage is similar to that at the N. end and above it is a modern window.

In the interior, the Sanctuary represents the E. extension of 1864 and is demarcated by a flat panelled plaster ceiling; similarly the Master's pew at the W. end, latterly converted, has a flat ceiling. The main plaster ceiling (Plate 227) of 1730 is of segmental-barrel form. It has a continuous and unbroken entablature at the wall-head, duplicated on the end walls and turned below the vault, consisting of a frieze of Greek wave ornament and a dentil-cornice. The surface is divided into five panels in both length and width by broad bands of key ornament, with rosettes at the intersections. In the panels are cartouches containing painted shields-of-arms alternating, in the two rows of panels on either side, with large open sunflowers. The modelled enrichments are all coloured and gilded against a white ground. The arms are, from N. to S. and E. to W., of (a) the College impaling Dalling, (b) See of Norwich impaling Bateman, (c) Goodknape, (d) Spicer, (e) See of Norwich impaling Nykke, (f) Moptyd, (g) the College impaling Hewke, (h) See of Canterbury impaling Sudbury, (i) the College impaling Mowse, (j) Dunne, (k) tierced in pale, See of Winchester, Gardiner, the College, all in a Garter, (l) Busby, (m) the College impaling Harvey, (n) See of Canterbury impaling Parker, (o) the College impaling Eden. All the cartouches with the arms of bishoprics are surmounted by mitres. (For the woodwork, see Fittings.)

The Ante-chapel has in the S. end of the W. wall a mediaeval doorway with chamfered jambs and two-centred head; before the southward extention of the Hall it opened to the Master's Lodge.

Fittings—Brasses and Indents. Brasses: In Chapel—towards E. end, (1) of John Cowell, LL.D., 1611, Master, Regius Professor of Law, Vicar-General of the Province of Canterbury, rectangular inscription-plate with shields-of-arms of the College and Cowell in the upper corners, in black marble slabs; in floor of N. stalls, (2) of Thomas Eden, LL.D., [1645], Master, rectangular inscription-plate, second plate above with achievement-of-arms of Eden. In Ante-chapel—on panelling on S. wall, (3) of Daniel Darnelly, M.A., 1659, Fellow, inverted T-shaped inscription-plate with achievement-of-arms of Darnelly; (4) of Laurence Moptyd, S.T.B., 1557, Master of Corpus Christi College, rectangular plate with black-letter inscription; in floor, (5) of Walter Hewke, [1517, Master], figure of priest in cope over habit of Doctor of Canon Law, with lead inlay, head restored 1895, cope with Majesty on the morse and the Apostles on the orphreys, two scrolls and inscription-plate with blank for year of death; Hewke's will of 1 May 1517 reads 'and my gravestone that is ready bought and paid for—with the image and the scriptures made thereon'; (6) of Thomas Preston, LL.D., 1598, Master, set up by his wife Alice, figure of man in civil dress, top of head missing, with inscription-plate and shield-of-arms of Preston, with lead inlay, all reset, another plate and the indent perhaps of this brass are said to be under the stalls (Mon. Brass Soc., Trans. II, 275); (7) priest in academic dress (B.D.?) with indent of inscription-plate, early 16th-century, perhaps recut. Indent: see (6) above.

Communion-table: of oak, with plain top, moulded bearers and turned legs, c. 1600, with modern heightening. Doors: see Screen. Gallery-front: See Screen. Lectern: Fitted to E. desk-end of upper S. stalls, wrought-iron hinged scroll-work bracket with smaller scrolled supports to bookrest, c. 1730 (Plate 273).

Monuments and Floor-slabs. Monuments: In Chapel—on N. wall, (1) of Thomas Eden, LL.D., 1645, Master, Chancellor of the diocese of Ely, Commissary of Westminster and Bury St. Edmunds, etc., black marble inscription-tablet in alabaster frame with gadrooned capping surmounted by urns and a cartouche with the painted arms of Eden, set up by the Master and Fellows c. 1708. On S. wall, (2) of Sir Nathaniel Lloyd, LL.D., [1741], Master, King's Advocate, white marble tablet with pedimented cornice and cartouche with the painted arms of Lloyd quartering Cadwgan Bacchew in the tympanum, urns, black marble shelf, shaped brackets, and apron inscribed with year of production, 1736; (3) of John Andrew, LL.D., 1747, Fellow, Master of the Faculties, Chancellor of the diocese of London, etc., white marble wall-monument (Plate 203), with portrait bust in half relief in an oval framed by palm-branches and surmounted by a cartouche with the painted arms and carved crest of Andrew, shaped inscription-plaque below with rococo border, all against black marble backing, the figure in informal dress and turban, signed 'Rt. Taylor, Fect.'. In Ante-chapel—on W. wall, (4) of the Rev. Joseph Jowett, LL.D., 1813, Fellow, Regius Professor of Law, white marble tablet with black marble shelf, capping and pedimental top. Floor-slabs: In Chapel—towards E. end, (1) of Robert King, 1676, Master, Chancellor of the diocese of Ely, of black marble, damaged, with achievement-of-arms of the College impaling King; in floor of N. stalls, (2) of Walter Hewke, [1517], Master, small white marble diagonal slab, laid down 1730, damaged and partly obscured; in floor of S. stalls, (3) of Sir Nathaniel Lloyd, 1741, Master 1710–35, of white marble. In Ante-chapel—(4) of the Rev. Joseph Jowett, LL.D., 1813, Regius Professor of Law, of Purbeck marble.

Painting: see Reredos. Panelling: In Ante-chapel—lining walls to a height of approximately 6¼ ft., plain panelling in three heights with entablature with panelled frieze, early 17th-century, removed from the Chapel in 1730, that on S. wall subsequently adapted as mount for brasses, on E. wall heightened to ceiling with 17th-century panelling and 18th-century cornice. See also Screen. Paving: of black and white marble squares laid to pattern, 1729–30, except in later extension of Chapel. Piscina: in S. wall of Chapel, behind hinged panel, with moulded jambs, cinque-foiled ogee head, sill, with octofoiled dishing to drain, cut back to wall-face, late 14th-century. Reredos: of oak, painted and gilt centrepiece with fluted Ionic pilasters on pedestals supporting an entablature with dentil-cornice and open pediment; the pedestals with wreaths on the dies and linked by a frieze carved with an open book, inscribed with a text from Luke xxii, 19, in Greek, vine swags, flowers and wreaths, all above a panelled dado; short flanking lengths with tall plain panels and sham doorways, all of 1730, reduced in height and reset against new E. wall in 1864. Painting in centre, the 'Presentation in the Temple', on canvas, given by John Chetwode, LL.D., Fellow, c. 1730, bought by his father, the Dean of Gloucester, in Flanders (Warren's Book, 71).

Screen, Panelling and Stalls (see plan): Screen dividing Chapel from Ante-chapel, incorporating Master's and Vice-Master's stalls, of large plain panels with continuous cornice of bold projection surmounted by modern gallery-front of fielded panelling; six-panel enriched door to doorway with architrave in centre; the two stalls with semicircular-headed recesses set in slightly projecting casings, with panelled responds, imposts and archivolts, the projections being continued upwards to form a duality in the design by forward returns of both the main cornice, over shaped side-brackets, and the gallery-front, and further accentuated by elaborate carved and coloured modern achievements-of-arms of Lloyd (Master 1710–35) and Geldart (Master 1852–77) on the cornice projections. The imposts are continued outwards from the recesses and returned along the side walls of the Chapel to form the cornice of plain panelling behind the upper N. and S. fixed benches. All the upper desks have shaped ends, panelled fronts and fixed lower benches. The foregoing, 1730, unless described otherwise, and excluding some 9 ft. of panelling, desks and seating extended eastward in 1864; desks to lower benches also modern. Stalls: see Screen. Miscellaneous: Loose fragment of vaulted nichecanopy, probably mediaeval, doubtless that found 10 ft. up in the centre of the E. wall when the latter was demolished in 1864 (Warren's Book, 75).

The West Range of Front Court is of one storey and of two storeys with attics under a continuous roof. This last is covered with slates on the E. and tiles on the W. The Hall and perhaps some 15 ft. of the range to the N. of it was built between the foundation of the College and 1374. Refacing and reconstruction of the interior have left no original features, but a plan of 1731 reproduced by Willis and Clark (IV, 9, Fig. 1) shows the earlier arrangement of the offices; for analogies with the Hall and offices at Peterhouse see Preface p. lxxx. In c. 1374 the N. part of the present Buttery and the Kitchen were built, probably as a single storey extension to the Hall-block. Probably between 1560 and 1584 the second storey was added, which contained the Combination Room. Between 1743 and the end of the summer of 1745 the range was refaced on both sides in Ketton stone ashlar and the interior remodelled. Sir Nathaniel Lloyd (died 1741) left £3,000 for the purpose; £2,264 was spent on the Hall, £679 on the Buttery etc., the rest, supplemented by his executors, being expended on the N. and S. ranges. The Hall was extended to the S. in 1890–1, the 18th-century plaster ceiling destroyed except for the cornice, and the 18th-century panelling of the dais reset round the new dais. Work of 1934 included, in addition to remodelling the Buttery and Kitchen, the incorporation in the Library-annexe, formerly the Combination Room, of the first-floor rooms and corridors immediately N. of the Hall.

The E. side of the W. range is symmetrical, of seven bays, with a plain plinth, a plat-band at first-floor level, a simple dentil-cornice and parapet-wall. The parapet-coping is pedimental over the centre three bays. In the tympanum is a reset cartouche flanked by scrolls carved and painted with the College arms; it was formerly on the street-front of the E. range. The central archway to the screens-passage has a semi-circular head, flanking pilasters and scroll-brackets supporting a pedimented entablature. The windows, as shown on the plan, and those on the first floor, regularly spaced over the openings below, are uniform, with moulded architraves to rectangular openings, and contain double-hung sashes; two on the ground floor are blocked behind the glass. The three dormer-windows, in the N. part of the range, are flat-topped and of the 19th century or modern. In the middle of the roof is an octagonal timber cupola with lead-covered dome, pineapple finial and weather-vane; it rises from a panelled base and has at the corners attached Corinthian columns on pedestals supporting a mitred entablature with dentil-cornice; in each side is a semicircular-headed window and, above, a pierced roundel within a wreath. The cupola is contemporary with the remodelling of the range, 1743–5.

The W. side of the range is of eight bays, of which seven bays were refaced in the 18th century and are similar in detail to those of the E. side. The N. bay extends behind the Library range and is obscured and penetrated on the ground floor by a later passage to the Junior Combination Room. The projecting eighth bay at the S. end is modern and has a gable extending over the Master's Lodge adjoining on the S.W. The refacing is all that was carried out of the Library Court designed by Burrough and Essex. The W. archway to the through-passage and the flanking bays completed were to be central in a symmetrical composition, with projections beyond and wings running westward on the extremities. The return of the cornice for the S. projection remains in the head of the modern S. bay. On the N., the E. end of the brick S. wall of the Elizabethan Library was demolished to allow the refacing to be continued beyond it as far as the Kitchen, no doubt the supposition being that the old Library range would soon be demolished.

The projection of the Hall chimney-stack, though not shown on Burrough's elevation, was retained and the 18th-century main cornice returned and pedimented across it; the two diagonal shafts rise from a rectangular base above parapet-level and finish with a cornice-like capping. The four dormer-windows, similar to those on the opposite slope of the roof, are again restricted to the N. part of the range. The 16th-century brick W. wall of the Kitchen, visible only from the N.W., has stone quoins at the N. angle and ends in a stepped gable largely rebuilt in modern times. In the lower part is an 18th-century window with semicircular head; in the gable are 16th-century one and three-light windows, both with four-centred openings in square heads and all much renewed.

The Hall (24½ ft. by 66¼ ft. including the screens-passage 7 ft. wide) is of six bays and open to the late 19th-century hammer-beam roof. At the wall-head the mid 18th-century plaster cornice with acanthus enrichment survives though cut into for the later roof. Close to the S. end of the E. wall, about 13 ft. from the ground, is a small mediaeval loop-light in a splayed recess with high semicircular head; it formerly opened between the Master's Lodge and the Chapel. The S. end wall is lined to three-quarters of the height with mid 18th-century panelling divided into three bays by coupled and attached Corinthian columns and flanking pilasters, all on pedestals, supporting an entablature with enriched architrave and modillion-cornice; the entablature is segmentally pedimented over the middle bay and contains in the tympanum the College arms on a carved and painted cartouche flanked by laurel branches. In the middle bay is a large painted portrait of Sir Nathaniel Lloyd, reputedly after one by James Thornhill, in an eared and enriched frame with a carved shell and scrolls above and foliage pendants at the sides. In the side bays are doorcases with eared architraves and, above, panels with enriched framing and segmental heads; the doors are of six panels. The panelling returns 6 ft. along each side wall to end in a pilaster. The stained pine panelling lining the side walls to half their height is of the date of the foregoing, with a narrow entablature carved with wave ornament on the frieze; it is one panel high, above fixed benches. The matching panelling of oak was installed when the Hall was lengthened in 1890–1. The mid 18th-century fireplace (Plate 277) has white marble slips, a pine eared architrave and side scrolls, a pulvinated frieze carved with leaves and an enriched cornice; in the overmantel scrolled pilasters supporting a return of the panelling-entablature flank a central wreath tied with ribbons and garlands.

The mid 18th-century Screen, of pine, is divided into three bays by panelled pilasters on pedestals supporting a return of the panelling-entablature surmounted by the balustraded gallery-front. In the middle bay is a semicircular-headed doorway with moulded archivolt, a cartouche on the key-block, and panelled responds with moulded caps and bases; the spandrels contain carved scrolls and the tympanum is filled by panelling; the contemporary wrought-iron gate is now at the entrance to the Fellows' Garden. The side bays contain eared and rectangular panels. The gallery-front, with turned balusters, is divided into three bays by pedestals with panelled dies. Access to the gallery is through a central doorway in the N. wall now and since 1952 approached by a narrow staircase from the Buttery-passage; the door-case has an eared architrave flanked by panelled pilasters with console-brackets supporting an entablature with segmental pediment. The Screens-passage is lined with pine panelling in two heights of panels, with a dado-rail and cornice and panelled pilasters at each end on the S. In the N. wall are two semicircular-headed timber archways similar to the one in the Screen but with plain key-blocks and spandrels and open tympana; all three are flanked by panelled pilasters.

The Buttery and Kitchen and ground-floor offices N. of the Hall retain no ancient features. On the first floor, the old Combination Room, now part of the Library-annexe, was to some extent remodelled and the approaches to it improved in 1730 and 1731, the present oak panelling and fireplacesurround being installed, and new furniture provided, all at a cost of £419 defrayed by Dr. John Chetwode. The fielded panelling, in two heights divided by a moulded dado-rail, has a cornice against the ceiling carved with elaborate acanthus enrichment. The fireplace-surround (Plate 276) on the W. wall is of white marble, with a square opening flanked by pilaster-strips carrying console-brackets supporting an entablature and blocking-course; surmounting the last are two scrolls in the form of a pediment crowned by a shell and framing in the tympanum a cartouche carved with the College arms and flanked by foliage. The oak overmantel contains an enriched, eared and scrolled panel shaped to the pediment just described and with a cartouche containing the Founder's arms below a mitre superimposed on the top horizontal mouldings; below the cartouche is a scroll inscribed with the date 1731 in Roman numerals. Opposite Bateman's arms, on the E. wall, is a carved achievement-of-arms of Chetwode supported by manheaded bulls, which was set up by the College in 1734 at a cost of £5 10s. The rest of the Library-annexe to the S. is lined with fielded panelling with dado-rail and cornice; it is of pine and of the mid 18th century, made up with modern work. The same room contains four oak bookcases with panelled ends and cornices; they consist of parts of cases from the old University Library made up with much modern work.

The North Range of Front Court is of two storeys with attics. The N. wall is of clunch rubble faced, on the lower part, with old red brick. The roof is slate covered on the S. slope, tiled on the N. It is probably the range built c. 1374, and until 1545 bordered Henney Lane. The original outer walls only survive. The S. wall was refaced towards the middle of the 18th century, as already described, and during the same century sash-windows were inserted in the N. wall, involving mutilation or removal of earlier openings. In 1928 and 1929 the surviving mediaeval features in the N. wall were restored and stone-mullioned two-light windows substituted for most of the sash-windows; in the same years the interior of the building was entirely demolished, except for the central chimney-stack, and redesigned by Montague Wheeler.

The S. side maintains the 18th-century design of the rest of Front Court; the horizontal features are continued from the E. and W. ranges; the doorways are similar to the one, now blocked, across the Court; the windows are uniform with those in the adjoining ranges. The fenestration shown on the plan is preserved on the first floor, the blank wall-spaces over the doorways being elaborated by foliage pendants. The blank space opposite the early chimney-stack is decorated with a swag on the ground floor and a cartouche with the carved and painted arms of the See of Norwich impaling the Founder surmounted by a mitre on the first floor. At the W. end of the first floor and extending behind the E. wall of the W. range is a late 14th-century window of two lights with trefoiled openings and sunk spandrels in a square head with double-chamfered reveals and sill; this was revealed in situ in 1928–9 and left exposed, but blocked. On the roof are twelve modern flat-topped dormer-windows.

The N. side (Plate 114) has, from E. to W., after the modern doorway into the E. range: two modern windows with two more above them on the first floor, the western one on each floor having an earlier, perhaps original, relieving-arch; a tall transomed window of two cinque-foiled lights in a square head, the upper part of the late 14th or 15th century and blocked, the lower part modern, and a modern window above it on the first floor. The gyp-room behind the staircase is lit by a modern lancet-light inserted in an old, probably original, recess with two-centred head and rebated for a door; above is a window with square head and chamfered reveals perhaps of the 16th or 17th century lighting the stair, and on the first floor a small 14th-century pierced quatrefoil, now blocked, cut in a single stone. Continuing westward are two modern windows, the western with an old relieving-arch, and a modern doorway; above them are three restored mediaeval windows, the first of two four-centred lights with sunk spandrels in a four-centred head, c. 1500, the second of two two-centred lights with a cusped spandrel in a depressed two-centred head, late 14th or early 15th-century, the third as the second but with acutely pointed lights and normal two-centred head, late 14th-century; both the second and third have segmental rear-arches and rebates for shutters, the second retaining the hinge-pins. The next two ground-floor windows, though much restored are of 16th or 17th-century origin; over the second is an old relieving-arch; above them on the first floor, rather more to the W., are two modern windows; traceable in the walling E. of the E. reveals of these last are respectively the E. jamb of one and the E. jamb and part of the head of a second mediaeval window; at an equal spacing westward is an area of patching. The ground-floor window E. of the next doorway is modern. The 16th-century doorway has chamfered jambs and four-centred head; the features over it are similar to those opposite the E. staircase and lit the pre-existing staircase, but the rectangular light is now blocked. Of the remaining three windows on the ground floor and three on the first floor, all are modern except the more westerly upper two. These last are of the 18th century and fitted with double-hung sashes; the more easterly one has old relieving arches above and below and a wrought-iron balcony, perhaps of the late 18th century. None of the relieving-arches mentioned above, except the upper one last described, relates structurally to the present opening below.

The interior of the N. range, though remodelled, retains a number of ancient features in situ in the outside walls and others reset in different rooms. In the N.E. ground-floor room is a small wall-recess similar to that described above but unaltered, originally a cupboard or perhaps a garderobe. In the main room W. of the E. staircase is a restored mediaeval stone fireplace with chamfered jambs corbelled out to a chamfered segmental head. In the W. end of the S. wall of the same room is a cupboard contrived in a blocked mediaeval window, the W. splay being original; close W. of this, in the adjoining room, is a similar feature, the original E. splay and part of the chamfered rear-arch surviving.

On the first floor, Dr. Eden's Room (Plate 275), the large room between the E. staircase and the old chimney-stack, has an open timber ceiling of c. 1500 in three bays; the main beams and the joists are moulded, with die-out stops. The walls are lined with oak panelling of c. 1600 formerly in the adjoining room on the W., the Mathematical Lecture Room, and now incorporating much modern material; it is six panels in height, with a frieze of arabesque and, on the E. and W. walls, carved pilasters of c. 1625. The clunch fireplace is modern but incorporates 14th-century corbelling taken from the W. fireplace below. The oak overmantel of c. 1625, also from the adjoining room, is divided into two bays by coupled Roman Doric banded columns on pedestals supporting an entablature with carved brackets in the frieze; the pedestals are supported on similar brackets and linked by a band of carved foliage ornament; the bays are filled with panelling framed in a geometrical pattern. Over the E. doorway is a plaster panel, cut from the ground-floor room below, with restored painting of the achievement-of-arms of Redman quartering Aldeburgh.

The westernmost room on the first floor was sashed and refitted between 1725 and 1730 by Dr. Dickins (Regius Professor of Law, 1714–55); the two sash-windows in the N. wall and the fittings survive. The walls are lined with oak fielded panelling with dado-rail and simplified dentil-cornice; the doors are of six panels and fitted with brass rim-locks. Over the fireplace are two panels, the upper bolection-moulded and containing the shield-of-arms carved in bold relief of the Regius Professorship impaling Dickins with the date 1730 in Roman numerals on a scroll below. The fireplace has a rectangular opening and moulded marble slips. Flanking the chimney-breast are fitted bookcases with glazed doors.

Before the modern alterations, the timber-framed partitions retained many traces of 15th and 16th-century painted decoration, some of stylised patterns, others simulating wood panelling.

Library Court (68 ft. by 76 ft.) next W. of Front Court is now open to the W.; the Hall range is on the E., the Library range on the N., and the Master's Lodge on the S. The Library range is of two storeys; the walls are of red brick, in part in English bond, with stone dressings, and the roofs are tilecovered. On the ground floor is the Junior Combination Room, with a Fellow's set adjoining on the W.; the Library occupies the whole of the first floor. It was built and fitted probably towards the end of the Mastership of Dr. Harvey in 1584 or soon afterwards. The E. end of the S. wall was demolished to allow the 18th-century facing of the Hall range to be continued beyond, and the end refaced in brickwork on the cant. The interior of the ground floor was remodelled in 1863 and again in 1935; formerly it contained two sets of chambers entered from a S. doorway and with fireplaces in the N. wall.

The S. side of the Library range has on the ground floor five two and three-light stone-mullioned windows with four-centred openings and sunk spandrels in square heads. The fourth window from the E. is of the 19th century and set in the patching of a destroyed doorway; the other windows are entirely renewed externally. The eight one and two-light windows lighting the Library are similar in form to the foregoing and similarly renewed, except the sills, which appear to be original. Between the sixth and seventh windows is a doorway with chamfered jambs, four-centred head and brick relieving-arch which opened from the wall-walk described above; it is blocked behind the door, this last being original, of oak, with applied mouldings and original wrought-iron furniture.

The N. side has four one and two-light windows on the ground floor and eight to the Library, all of similar form to those in the wall opposite. On the ground floor the first is modern, the second and third are restored and the fourth appears to be original. The two doorways are of the late 19th century but replace original windows. The upper windows retain only the original sills. Corbelled out from the upper part of the wall are two chimney-stacks; that to the E. is destroyed above eaves-level; that to the W. continues up to a stepped base but is mostly rebuilt.

The W. end has stone quoins; the stepping of the gable has been rebuilt. On the ground floor are two two-light windows; these and the four-light W. window of the Library are as those already described, but the last is larger, has an original label and retains the old sill; below the sill is a rectangular stone panel carved with the arms and crest of the College, with modern colouring.

The E. end has a rebuilt stepped gable merging at the apex into the stepped gable of the Kitchen already described. In the upper southern part is a blocked doorway with defaced chamfered jambs and four-centred clunch head; it retains the original door with a geometrical pattern of panels formed by applied mouldings. Only the top part of this feature is visible, from the Library-annexe; it was probably the original entrance to the Library from the College, before the floor-levels were altered presumably in the 18th-century remodelling of the Hall range.

Trinity Hall Library

The Library (Plate 275) (64 ft. by 20 ft.) has a plain flat segmental plaster ceiling. Standing at right angles to the walls down either side of the room are five late 16th-century bookcases alternating with six contemporary benches, all the ends being tenoned into continuous timber sills. The bookcases have panelled plinths to the fronts, one shelf, and sloping bookrests with an enriched rail at the apex; the shaped and gabled ends terminate in square posts on carved brackets, the posts having a cornice-like capping and tall turned finials. Applied to one of the posts is a carved shield-of-arms of the College impaling Eden. In the gable-ends are original wrought-iron lock-plates for hasps hinged to the ends of the rods for the book-chains; the plates are decorated with the crescent charge from the arms of the College. The benches have seats divided by a central panelled back; the shouldered ends terminate in rounded poppy-heads carved with rosettes. The pair of cases at the W. end, uniform with the others, are of the early 19th century. In the W. window are four original heraldic quarries, three of the College arms and one of Stokes with the crest of an arm with bedell's staff in hand (Matthew Stokes, esquire-bedell, died 1591).

The Master's Lodge has undergone so many alterations and part rebuildings that it now has the appearance of a modern building, externally and internally, except for a small late 16th-century gabled bay towards the N. end of the W. front, overlooking the Fellows' Garden. This is of rubble and rough ashlar, of two storeys and projecting slightly from the rest of the refronting of 1891; the gable has shaped kneelers and a chimney-stack at the apex. On the first floor is a three-light clunch window, now blocked, with square head and label, all much weathered except the mullions, which are modern. The gable may be seen in Loggan's engraving of the College.

South Court (56 ft. by 54 ft. average) formerly the entrance court, is bounded on the N. by the Chapel range, on the E. by the range rebuilt in 1872–3, on the W. by the range described below, and on the S. by a modern single-storey range against the wall to Clare College. The West Range is of three storeys; the walls are of grey brick and the roofs are slate-covered. It was built in 1823 in place of the former S. wing of the Master's Lodge and miscellaneous buildings; in it are sets of chambers. The five-sided bay-window on the N.E. is a modern addition. The side to the Court has a plain parapet-wall, stone copings and stone sills. The doorways and sash-hung windows have plain brick arches, semicircular and flat respectively. The interior is quite plain. In a niche in the passage from the Hall to the Combination Room is a marble bust by Nollekens of Lord Mansfield.

In the Fellows' Garden, the N. boundary-wall leading W. from Library Court is of red brick on a stone rubble base and probably of the 17th century. In the gateway in the modern S. return at the E. end is the mid 18th-century wrought-iron gate removed from the Hall screen; it has a semicircular head, plain uprights and scroll-work. The W. boundary-wall is of like character and date to the N. wall; the apparent heightening is in fact in part a filling-in, in part a rebuilding, of the embattling shown by Loggan. Towards the N. end of the wall, on the river side, are two stone panels with shields-of-arms of Newman with a motto below and the College in a strapwork frame; a third panel between them is inscribed 'Anno Domini 1619'; these were reset here in 1708 and came from the summer-house, where they seem to be shown by Loggan.

The Boundary-wall to Garret Hostel Lane, extending some 13 yards W. from the modern N. range of North Court, is presumably that built in 1545 after the land N. of Henney Lane was acquired; it is of much-weathered clunch ashlar later repaired and heightened in brick. Further W., reset in 1890 in the N. wall of the new buildings backing on the lane, is the late 14th-century main entrance to the College formerly in the E. range of the old entrance court, now South Court; it consists of a large archway flanked on the E. by a small archway; both have moulded jambs and four-centred heads of two moulded orders, but the outer order of the large archway has been almost cut away for a rebate. The small archway retains the original, though restored, door; it is nail-studded, in four vertical panels, with a wicket with two-centred head in the E. part and lattice framing at the back.

The Boundary-wall between the yard of the Master's Lodge and Clare College, extending some 18 yards, with a short N. return at the W. end cut down to resemble a buttress, is of clunch rubble with a plinth of old bricks and a modern coping. It is all remaining of the building shown here by Loggan which may have antedated the foundation of the College.

In North Court, next N. of Front Court, reset over the first-floor doorway at the head of the modern steps against the W. wall is a small 17th-century cartouche carved with the arms of the College.