An Inventory of the Historical Monuments in the City of Cambridge. Originally published by Her Majesty's Stationery Office, London, 1959.
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(30) Jesus College stands to the N.E. of the centre of the City, on the N. side of Jesus Lane and adjoining Midsummer Common on the S.W. It occupies the buildings of the Benedictine nunnery of St. Radegund. The nunnery was suppressed in 1496 on the petition of John Alcock, Bishop of Ely 1486–1500, and replaced by the college of St. Mary the Virgin, St. John the Evangelist and St. Radegund, commonly called Jesus College. The foundation charter of the College is dated 12 June 1496 and John Sherman, the 17th-century historian of the College, says that Alcock had begun the adaptation of the buildings to their new use in the same year (MS. Historia Collegii Jesu Adornata Studio J. Sherman Collegii Praesidentis etc., in the College). The first Master was appointed and the first Fellows admitted before the bishop's death in 1500; one of the Fellows, W. Plumme, was appointed by him to supervise the building-work, for which he was excused all other duties.
The nunnery was founded during the episcopacy of Nigel at Ely (1133–69). The year is not certainly known, though probably c. 1133–8. Between 1159 and 1161 King Malcolm IV of Scotland gave the nuns land on which to build their church and the oldest part of the College Chapel, which is contrived within the conventual church, the N. transept, may be equated with that date. The church is cruciform with a central tower. In c. 1200 the nave of seven bays with N. and S. aisles was built and an aisle added on the E. of the N. transept. During the first half of the 13th century the chancel was rebuilt, replacing, no doubt, a shorter 12th-century chancel. Early in the second half of the 13th century funds for the church fabric were being collected and probably the rebuilding of the crossing and tower was then begun; authority to collect more money was granted to the nuns in 1268, and in 1277 Roger Skerning, Bishop of Norwich, issued an indulgence for contributions towards the costs of rebuilding following upon the fall of the tower.
Differences of detail in the crossing and lantern confirm the implication of the documentary evidence that the work proceeded intermittently throughout the second half of the century, as funds became available, and in reparation of the damage caused by the fall, which appears to have involved the eastern half of the tower. During the earlier part of the same period a large S. chapel was added, entered through an arcade of two bays in the S. wall of the chancel and a single arch of wide span in the E. wall of the S. transept. Shortly afterwards an arcade of two bays was opened through the N. wall of the chancel into an extension of the N. transept aisle. The S. chapel and the additions E. of the N. transept were destroyed when the church was converted to college use. At an unknown date a sacristy with a room above was built adjoining the eastern half of the N. wall of the chancel; the statutes of Bishop Stanley of Ely, 1506–15, mention a chamber on the N. side of the high altar set apart for the use of distinguished guests; the building was subsequently destroyed but the foundations were uncovered in 1894.
Despite substantial endowment of the nunnery, by the end of the 13th century poverty is implied by the omission of the community from the Taxation of Nicholas IV, presumably in consequence of the damage to the church sustained in that period. The buildings were again damaged by fire and storm towards the end of the 14th century and there is evidence of financial embarrassments in the last quarter of the 15th century, but the preservation of the Benedictine plan after the change of use in 1496 and the survival of most of the buildings to the present day show Bishop West's and Sherman's statements that the College was built by Alcock from the foundations upwards to be incorrect (Nicholas West, Bishop of Ely, 1515–33, in the Statutes drawn up c. 1520; Sherman op. cit.). Moreover, repairs are known to have been put in hand in the mid 15th century.
In adapting the church for the College Chapel, in addition to the destruction of the two buildings noted above, Alcock removed the N. and S. aisles of the nave, walled up the nave-arcades and built a cross-wall in the third bay, retaining only the eastern part of the original nave as the nave of the Chapel; the retention of nave accommodation was, no doubt, necessary for parochial purposes, which the Chapel continued to serve at least until 1555. The western part he refaced with brick and divided into three storeys with accommodation for students in the E. part and some rooms of the Master's Lodge in the W., an alteration that involved the destruction of the greater part of the arches here of the nave-arcades. Further, the Chapel walls were raised, the building was re-roofed and the upper stage of the tower added. Part of the cost of the alterations to the nave was borne by Sir John Rysley. The Chapel was restored between 1660 and 1662 in consequence of the damage done to it by Dowsing; later alterations and restorations are described below.
Rysley also paid for rebuilding the Cloisters which, with the claustral buildings, lay to the N. of the church. They now comprise Cloister Court. The walks were extended to the S. to cover the site of the former N. aisle of the church but were still incomplete at Rysley's death in 1512. The arcades were rebuilt between 1762 and 1765. The main clunch walls of the E., N. and W. claustral buildings were retained by Alcock and surviving features show them to have been in the main of the early 13th century; evidence of earlier work is inconclusive. He raised them to the height of the Chapel, and refaced them in brick.
The East Range, which extended N. some 40 ft. beyond the N. range, contained the Chapter House, as shown on the plan, the dorter, and the rear-dorter at the N. end. The dorter extended over the Chapter House but in all probability not so far as to adjoin the N. wall of the transept, which contains three original windows, now blocked, and a loop-light in the upper part of the N. wall of the N.E. stair-turret. By the insertion of new floors, staircases and partitions, the range was converted to contain three storeys of chambers. Conversion included demolition of nearly all of the Chapter House except the W. wall and one pier but the plan of the building has been revealed by excavation; in 1893 the early 13th-century arcaded entrance was found in situ built up in the W. wall of the range.
The North Range contained the refectory raised on a low undercroft, with a passage, still known in the 17th century as the 'dark entry', on the E. in continuation of the E. walk of the Cloister; the passage is now blocked and divided into service-rooms. When converted into the College Hall, the refectory was re-roofed and new windows were inserted in the side walls; the present wainscoting was set up in 1703.
The West Range contained a passageway, called in the early Bursar's Rentals the 'entry', through into the Cloister; it survives but is blocked. It is possible that the range stopped at the wall in line with the S. wall of the refectory and that the Kitchen was where it still is, to the N.W. of the refectory, but standing almost free. During the alterations made in c. 1500 the intervening space appears to have been built up and the room so formed on the ground floor, now the Pastry, served the College as a Buttery until 1579–80 when a new Buttery was made below the Hall. Parts of the S. end of the range, which may well have contained the Prioress's lodging, with the adjoining rooms in the nave of the conventual church and in the S. range of First or Outer Court, now form the Master's Lodge. The old Library, which from the earliest days of the College occupied the whole of the centre part of the second floor, was refitted by Dr. Boldero during his Mastership, 1663–79.
(Willis and Clark in their account of the College used the terms Outer Court and New Court for First and Second Courts and, to avoid confusion, these names have been employed in the following description).
First or Outer Court is open on the W. The Gatetower in the S. range, perhaps on the site of the nuns' outer gate, retains no structural evidence of earlier date than the period of Bishop Alcock's conversions. The South Range, E. of the Gatetower, incorporates part of a conventual building, probably of the Guest Hall of the nunnery, but almost completely remodelled by Alcock as a two-storey building; it now forms part of the Master's Lodge, as it may have done from the first. The rest of the range, W. of the Gatetower, shown by Loggan as a two-storey building with attics, was built as a Grammar School sometime between 1503 and 1507. The School was suppressed in 1570 and handed over to the use of the College. Between 1718 and 1720 the range both E. and W. of the Gatetower was heightened by the addition of a third storey and the westernmost wall was rebuilt; in 1950 the W. part was badly damaged by fire and has subsequently been extensively remodelled internally. The North Range, containing sets of chambers, was built between 1638 and 1641.
In 1791 sash-windows were inserted in all the windows of the two upper floors along the whole of the S. front of the College W. of the Chapel, but in 1880 and 1886 these were replaced by the present windows in the late 15th-century style and the ground-floor windows were altered perhaps simultaneously. Apart from these changes and the lowering of the Hall windows in 1801, the 18th and 19th-century alterations to the earlier buildings, other than those already described, were not extensive, except to the inside of the Chapel and to the Master's Lodge.
In the Chapel, between 1789 and 1792 a flat plaster ceiling was inserted over the chancel and a partition-wall with a central doorway flanked by Ionic pilasters was built up under the E. arch of the crossing. At the same time most of the stall-work of Alcock's time was removed, some being transferred to Landbeach church. During the restoration begun in 1846 by Salvin the 18th-century partition-wall and the W. gallery in the chancel, containing the Master's pew, were removed together with the blocking of the arcades in the N. wall of the chancel and in the E. wall of the N. transept; a Vestry and Organ-chamber were built on the foundations then discovered of the older buildings previously in the N.E. angle between chancel and transept. This work was completed by the end of the year, when Salvin was superseded by Pugin.
The removal of the blocking of the arcades had weakened the N.E. pier of the crossing and an attempt to provide adequate abutment was made by replacing the blocking with low screen-walls in the chancel-arcade and heavy traceried stone screens in the transept-arcade and by the introduction of a diagonal buttress. At the same time the E. wall of the chancel was rebuilt, the present lancet-windows, to a design based on fragments of 13th-century windows found in the wall, replacing the five-light E. window of Alcock's period. In the chancel the inserted plaster-ceiling and the low-pitched late 15th-century roof above were removed and replaced by a new open timber roof of steep pitch. A flat ceiling over the crossing, below the lantern, also was removed. Most of the woodwork, including the screen, stalls and organ-case, the lectern and the glass in the E. windows were designed by Pugin at this time, and in 1849 the building was reopened for services after an expenditure of nearly £5,000.
Between 1850 and 1858 the windows in the N. and S. walls of the chancel were restored and filled with glass by Messrs. Hardman from designs by Pugin; that of the Adoration of the Magi and Christ among the Doctors, in the 15th-century S. windows, exhibited at the Great Exhibition of 1851, has been removed in the present century.
G. F. Bodley carried out further restorations from 1865–9, the tower being refaced and strengthened by the rebuilding in part of the N.E. buttress and the addition of two more diagonal buttresses, on the S.E. and S.W. He rebuilt the blocking of the arch in the E. wall of the S. transept, retaining and resetting the two late 15th-century windows, and replastered the interior of the transepts and nave, adding panelling in the latter. The cost of Bodley's restorations approached £3,000. Between 1873 and 1877 the transept and nave windows were filled with glass designed by Madox Brown and Burne-Jones and made by Morris, Faulkner & Co. who also directed the painting of the ceilings of the nave and crossing by Leach. In the period from 1934 to 1938 the exterior was in part refaced and much of the Romancement rendering added in 1815 removed.
Considerable alterations to the Master's Lodge were made in 1886 when a new main staircase was inserted and a porch and a two-storey bay-window were added. During the alterations the 13th-century shafted N. jamb of the W. doorway to the priory church was found, but no further record of it was made.
After the completion of the N. range of Outer Court in the 17th century no extensive additions to the College buildings were made until the 19th century. In Second or New Court, N. of Cloister Court, a range of chambers, in continuation of the E. range of Cloister Court, was added in 1822; in 1869–70 the N. range was built to the designs of Alfred Waterhouse who, in 1875, added a block on the N. side of the Hall range incorporating a new great stair to the Hall.
Later 19th-century and modern additions include a range on the E. side of Chapel Court built in 1884 from the designs of Carpenter and Ingelow who also built the Tutor's House adjoining and another house, now containing the College offices, W. of the N. range of New Court. In 1922–3 a block of offices designed by Morley Horder was added on the N.E. of New Court on the site of minor buildings of c. 1870. In 1928–30 Horder added ranges on the E. side of Chapel Court S. of the range built in 1884, and on the S. side of the same Court, returning a short distance on the W.
The Gateway to the College from Jesus Lane, with piers built in 1703 by Grumbold and wrought-iron gates of c. 1725, opens into a passageway known as the 'Chimney' leading to the Gatetower and bounded on the E. by the wall of the Master's Garden, built in 1681–2, and on the W. by the wall of the Fellows' Garden, built in 1608–9.
At Jesus College the adaptation in the late 15th century of the nunnery of St. Radegund to collegiate use without extensive demolitions has resulted in the survival to the present time of the almost complete layout and much of the fabric of a Benedictine nunnery built mainly in the 12th and early 13th centuries. Not only does it retain more of the original buildings than any other college with a like history, but it is the earliest example in Cambridge of this process of appropriation.
The nuns' church survives largely intact and is of much interest. It is further distinguished for the high quality, almost without exception, of the fittings; amongst them, the piscina, a fragment of Alcock's woodwork, part of the 13th-century effigy of a priest, the Rustat monument and the mid 19th-century woodwork designed by A. W. Pugin are notable; a 14th-century painted wax candle is a remarkable survival. The S. front of Bishop Alcock's Gatetower shows very elaborate brick and stonework of much inventiveness; his refacing of the ranges is an early example of the use of yellow brick. The N. front of the 17th-century N. range of First or Outer Court is an unusual composition achieved with the simplest of forms. The old Library and the deal-panelled Conference Chamber in the Master's Lodge are rooms of much character.
Architectural Description—The original walls of the Chapel, where exposed, are generally of rubble with freestone dressings and with much modern ashlar facing, those of the claustral buildings, of clunch. The late 15th-century and later work is mostly of yellow and red brick with Weldon and Ketton stone dressings. The roofs are covered with tiles, slates and lead.
First or Outer Court (130 ft. by 129½ ft. average) is approached through the Gatetower which stands off-centre in the S. range. The Gatetower (11¾ ft. by 21½ ft. internally) is of three storeys; the walls are of red brickwork in an indeterminate bond but including some English bond and with a network diaper of yellow headers in the upper stage and the parapet-wall on the S.; the dressings are of stone. The exact date of the building is not known but it was probably begun during the lifetime of the founder, Bishop Alcock, who died in 1500, and not finished until or shortly after the completion of the range adjoining on the W. between 1503 and 1507. It has been presumed to occupy the position of the outer gate to the nunnery. Sash-windows were inserted in the S. front in 1791 and replaced by the present windows of Tudor style in 1880.
The building has a moulded plinth and stepped embattled parapets on the four sides; it is divided externally into three stages by moulded strings, the ground stage being sub-divided into two. The S. front (Plate 129), flush with the adjoining buildings, has stone quoins the full height. The S. archway, with moulded jambs and four-centred head (p. 394), has a crocketed ogee label continued up to finish in a corbel-bracket at the base of a niche in the third stage and flanked by pinnacled standards rising from the label-stops to the height of the second string; the conspicuous bonding-stones of the standards reiterate the quoin treatment. The label-stops are carved with John Alcock's rebus, the E. a cock on an orb, the W. an eagle. In the tympanum between the arch and label is traceried panelling enclosing the Royal arms of Henry VII; over the haunches of the arch are shields-of-arms of Bishop Alcock on the E. and the See of Ely on the W. The archway is hung with a contemporary oak door, restored, in two leaves, one containing a wicket, and each of four linenfold panels in the breadth and height. On the first floor are two windows of 1880 with the first string stepped up between them; the second string steps down to line with the base of the niche. This last has small side-standards and a three-sided canopy with crocketed finials and a domical ogee head surmounted by Alcock's rebus of a cock; in it is a 19th-century statue of the founder. Flanking the niche are two windows of 1880, and beyond them, set nearly flush with the wall-face, two tall crosses now faced with cement.
The N. side is of red brick up to the second string; the top stage and parapet are of yellow brick, which is returned on the other two sides. The N. archway (p. 394) is of similar form to that in the S. wall but with a simple label with weathered carved stops; the E. was of two beasts, the W. the figure of a man holding his legs. On both the first and second floors is a central window of two lights with a label, the lower with four-centred openings in a square head, the upper with four-centred openings and a pierced spandrel in a four-centred head. The enriched chimney-stacks shown by Loggan surmounting the E. and W. sides have been removed.
The Interior of the Gatetower has a late 19th-century timber panelled ceiling over the gatehall and a doorway and window of the same age to the Porter's Lodge. A room on the first floor is lined with mid 18th-century fielded panelling and contains a flat stone fireplace-surround with moulded edges. The rooms on this floor and the top floor retain 18th-century panelled doors, two with old brass rim-locks. The top-floor room is now an annexe to the War Memorial Library further W. and has in the E. wall a stone doorway with square jambs and four-centred head now to a small cupboard but formerly opening on a staircase to the room, now the Drawing-room, in the Master's Lodge; in the W. wall are two similar doorways, the N. to the adjoining range and the S. to the vice giving access to the roof.
The South Range (Plate 135) E. of the Gatetower is described below with the Master's Lodge. The part W. of the Gatetower is of red and yellowish brick, mostly in English bond, with stone dressings; the roofs are slate-covered; it is of three storeys and the exteriors of the N. and S. sides and the W. end are similar in detail. Built as a Grammar School sometime between 1503 and 1507, it was originally of two storeys with attics. Catherine, widow of Sir Reginald Bray, was a substantial contributor to the building fund. The School was suppressed by Queen Elizabeth's Commissioners in 1570 and thereafter the building was used by the College. In 1718 a third storey was added, in place of the attics, which has to some extent destroyed the accentuation of the Gatetower in the design of this range (see Loggan's engraving of c. 1688); at the same time the W. end was rebuilt and new fireplaces and stacks inserted beside the old W. staircase instead of in the end wall; the interior was also to some extent refitted. The windows on the two upper floors on the S. have a history similar to that of the S. windows in the Gatetower.
In 1950 a fire destroyed the roof and gutted the third storey and in 1951 the interior was redesigned to include chambers on the two lower floors and a library, as a 1939–45 War Memorial, occupying the whole of the top floor; consequent removal of the plaster revealed squared clunch filling in the walls with brick linings to the window-splays and, further, indications that the upper part of the W. wall of the Gatetower was contemporary with, perhaps even later than, the original gabled end of the range.
The S. front is faced with red brick up to the original parapet-string level, with much 19th-century patching; the third storey, of 1718, is of mottled yellow and pink brick. The building has a moulded plinth, strings at first and second-floor levels and a plain parapet-wall; of the six regularly-spaced windows on each floor, the easternmost on the ground floor has been blocked and is now concealed behind a low modern addition to the Porter's Lodge. The original ground-floor windows and the first-floor windows of 1880 are all of two lights with four-centred openings in square heads with labels; the second-floor windows, also of 1880, have four-centred heads.
The N. front is very similar to the S. front but with seven openings on each floor; of these, the second and sixth on the ground floor are doorways, insertions of c. 1570, with chamfered jambs and semicircular moulded heads with restored labels; the remainder are windows of two lights, except the easternmost single-light window on the ground floor. The latter window and the remainder on the same floor are similar in detail to those at the same level in the S. wall; those on the upper two floors are similar to the uppermost windows in the S. wall. All the openings on the ground and first floors are original, but restored, and the second-floor windows are probably of 1880. The W. end, rebuilt in 1718, is of brick in Flemish bond with stone quoins and a low parapeted gable; the windows were altered in 1791 and 1880 and are similar to those on the S.
The Interior of the W. part of the S. range seems originally to have had the ground floor divided into seven bays by stop-chamfered ceiling-beams supporting stop-chamfered joists, and fireplaces against the two end walls. The W. staircase, now removed, may have been contemporary with the building or a later 16th-century insertion. The central chimney-stack, which incorporated a garderobe on the first floor on the N., was introduced probably soon after the suppression of the School in 1570, and the E. staircase still later. In 1718 the W. stack was moved, as described. The timbered ceiling survived the fire of 1950 but the W. staircase was largely destroyed and entirely demolished in 1951; in the same year staircase 'A' was rebuilt and a new stair made from the first floor to the Library.
On the ground floor, in the W. timber-framed partition of the old W. staircase, reset blind against the chimney-stack, is an early 16th-century oak doorway with stop-moulded jambs and four-centred arch in a square head with leaves and roses carved in the spandrels; the head is only 3½ ft. above the floor. In the central chimney-stack on both the ground and first floors are contemporary clunch fireplaces with chamfered jambs and four-centred or flat heads; those in the E. side are blocked; the upper part of the stack was demolished down to the second-floor level in 1951. The W. stack was demolished down to the first-floor level at the same time. Two of the first-floor rooms are lined with mid 18th-century fielded panelling. The ceiling was divided into seven bays in the length by cambered and chamfered tie-beams that survived the fire but have now been cased and concealed; mortices in the soffits suggest that they had curved braces and formed part of a large open timber roof, but it is doubtful if they were in situ. Many of the rooms retain 18th-century panelled doors with brass rimlocks. Hung on the wall of staircase 'A' is a large oval oak panel carved in high relief with a fleet of square-rigged ships; it is reputedly Portuguese, of the first half of the 19th century.
The North Range of Outer Court is of three storeys. The walls are of red brick in irregular bond with Weldon stone dressings and quoins; the roof is slate-covered. The first stone was laid in 1638 and the building seems to have taken about five years. Christopher, 1st Lord Hatton, gave all the freestone and Sir Anthony Cage gave thirty loads of timber. The costs, excluding the stone and timber, were £1,544. The style of the opposite range was followed with fidelity on the S. side, with only minor differences. The regular spacing of the openings is shown on the plan, and the same arrangement is followed on the upper floors, windows taking the place of the doorways. The doorways are similar to those opposite (p. 85); the windows have segmental openings in square heads on the ground and first floors and four-centred openings in elliptical heads on the second floor. The three lead rainwater heads the downpipes are old. At the E. end the range overlaps the E. range and the two are linked by a short return, closing the angle of the Court and preserving the uniformity of the two fronts; the linking building is shown by Loggan and is probably contemporary with the N. range but the archway through to New Court was rebuilt in 1869–70. The N. side of the range is divided into five bays by four chimney-stacks of triangular projection with stone quoins to the salient angle; the parapetwall is continued round them and they support 18th or early 19th-century shafts, set square. The nine windows, as shown on the plan, are arranged uniformly on each floor and are similar to those at the same respective levels in the S. wall. The E. and W. ends have low-pitched parapeted gables; in the former are two single-light windows on each floor, the northernmost on each of the two upper floors being blocked; in the latter is a two-light window on each of the two upper floors. All the rainwater heads and down-pipes are like those described on the S.
The Interior of the N. range, which has been more or less altered and refitted in the 18th, 19th and present centuries, is divided into four sets of rooms on each floor. They are approached by two original dog-legged staircases with moulded grip-handrails against the containing walls and timber-framed partitioning dividing the flights from one another. On each floor are exposed chamfered ceiling-beams and many of the rooms retain 18th-century two, four and six-panelled doors. Off staircase 'D', on the ground floor, the set of rooms on the E. was converted in 1912 into the Reading-room but has now been returned to the original use; the original fireplace in the N. wall is blocked but the moulded E. jamb and part of the head are visible; the outer plank door is old. In the main room on the W. is an early 19th-century reeded fireplace-surround. On the first floor the main room on the E. is lined with mid 18th-century fielded panelling and, with the two small rooms adjoining it on the E., has a simplified wood cornice. The outer doorways of the E. sets off the same stair on both the upper floors have 18th-century architraves and cornices and are hung with doors composed of eight fielded panels. On the second floor, both the main rooms and the small S.E. room are lined throughout, and the small S.W. room is partly lined, with fielded panelling, all of the mid 18th century. Off staircase 'C', on the ground floor, the E. set of rooms has been converted into a Junior Common Room. On the first floor, the W. set has an old plank outer door and the fireplace in the main room has an early 19th-century reeded surround with square blocks at the angles and a shelf with reeded edge. On the second floor, the timber-framing of the original partitions dividing up the E. set of rooms is exposed; the main room in the W. set has a fireplace-surround similar to that in the room below but with acanthus-leaf roundels on the angle-blocks.
Cloister Court (53½ ft. by 63¾ ft. in the clear), occupying the position of the nuns' cloister but extended some feet to the S. over the site of the destroyed N. aisle of the priory church, is approached from Outer Court by a passageway through the W. claustral range. The covered walks (8½ ft. wide) are continuous round the four sides; the external walls are of clunch with a facing of light red brick and the roofs are lead-covered. The earlier walks were rebuilt at the expense of Sir John Rysley and were still incomplete at his death in 1512; they are shown in Loggan's engraving of the College. Between 1762 and 1765 the external walls were again rebuilt and remain; they have a moulded plinth and renewed moulded fasciaboard below the eaves and contain in the N. and S. sides four and in the E. and W. sides five tall openings rising from ground level with continuously moulded stone jambs and four-centred arches. The cambered open timber roofs of c. 1500 (p. 396) survive largely intact except in the N.W. angle where the roof is entirely of the late 19th century; they have roll-moulded tie-beams, ridges, plates and rafters arranged as shown on the plan. The two S. bays of the W. walk were probably not always roofed, to allow access to the external doorway above to the Conference Room, and the timbers are later insertions; the ridge and rafters in the southernmost bay are unmoulded, the rafters in the next bay ogee-moulded and the two S. ties chamfered only on the inward-facing sides.
The Court is bounded on the S. by the priory church, retained by Bishop Alcock for the use of the College, and which now accommodates the Chapel and a large part of the Master's Lodge. The walls of the church are of rag-stone rubble with some clunch, refaced with Roman cement in 1815 by John and Peter Bernasconi and later largely refaced in ashlar and regular coursed rubble; the dressings are of freestone. The roofs are covered with tiles and lead. The general history of the building has been given above.
The Chapel now comprises the eastern arm, the crossing and tower, the N. and S. transepts and the E. third of the nave of the mediaeval church. The 13th-century Chancel (64 ft. by 23¼ ft.) has been almost entirely refaced externally in the 19th and the present centuries; it has a moulded plinth, angle-buttresses and N. and S. parapet-walls projecting on arcaded corbel-tables. In the E. wall is an internal wall-arcade of five bays with lancet-windows in the middle and end bays which replace the five-light window inserted by Alcock and restored by Essex late in the 18th century; the design is based upon fragments of 13th-century dressings discovered when the entire E. wall was taken down and rebuilt under the supervision of A. W. Pugin between 1846 and 1849. The arcade has shafted jambs with moulded caps, bands and bases and moulded two-centred arches. Above is a round cinque-foiled light flanked by quatre-foiled and diapered roundels and in the gable a small light with two-centred head.
In the N. wall is a lofty arcade of five and a half bays containing lancet-windows in the five full bays (Plate 137) and all of the second quarter of the 13th century; the arches are moulded and two-centred and the bays are divided and flanked by clustered jamb-shafts with moulded caps, bands and bases; the side-shafts stand on a continuous sill at a slightly lower level than the sill of the E. windows and the shafts on the face are continued down in front of the wall below the sill to a chamfered stone bench; this last, towards the E. end, is level with the Sanctuary floor. The blocking of a N. doorway shows in the outer face of the wall below the centre window and, further E., high up, is a blocked squint with a modern semicircular head. In the W. half of the same wall is a later 13th-century arcade of two bays with two-centred arches of two hollow-chamfered orders separated by a band of dog-tooth ornament and with a moulded label; the central pier is quatrefoil on plan and the responds are semi-octagonal; they have moulded capitals and bases and chamfered plinths, but the base and plinth of the E. respond are now hidden. Across the openings are screen-walls inserted during Pugin's restoration.
In the E. half of the S. wall is a pierced wall-arcade of four bays similar in design to that opposite, but at a slightly higher level and with all the jamb-shafts stopping at sill-level. Contemporary with it in the wall beneath, beginning below the E. jamb of the second window and continuing westward, is a low wall-arcade of seven bays (Plate 137), very extensively restored; the moulded trefoiled arches with moulded label spring from the moulded caps of detached shafts with moulded bases standing on a chamfered wall-bench. The easternmost bay is nearly double the width of the others and the bench is stepped up twice within it. Thus the eastward end of the arcade would serve the purpose of sedilia; immediately adjoining on the E. is the piscina (see Fittings). Further to the W. are two windows of c. 1500, partly restored, each of three cinque-foiled lights in a four-centred head with a label; these are set in the blocking of a 13th-century arcade of two bays; the line of the two-centred arches of the arcade and the octagonal central pier and semi-octagonal E. respond, both with moulded caps and bases, have been uncovered and left visible outside; projecting from the central pier are the bonding-stones of a screen-wall. High up in the blocking of the W. arch is the doorway with four-centred head, now blocked and only showing outside, to the former W. gallery; the stone frame was partly destroyed by the insertion of the adjoining angle-buttress, but a flanking Doric column, part of the entablature and one finial survive. It is of the first half of the 17th century.
The Central Tower (Plate 136) is of three stages. The crossing (23¼ ft. square) and lantern (Plate 138) are of the second half of the 13th century and incorporate 12th-century reused material, perhaps of the older tower; the third stage is of c. 1500 and part of the work begun by Bishop Alcock. The four two-centred arches of the crossing are equal in size; they are of three orders, the inner and outer chamfered and the centre moulded, the soffits of the centre order of the N. and W. arches being carved with dog-tooth ornament; of the moulded labels, those in the crossing meet on grotesque stops in the N.E., S.E. and S.W. angles. The responds of the E., N. and S. arches are semi-octagonal and of the W. arch semicircular, all flanked by keel-shafts and with continuous moulded capitals, varying slightly in profile, and moulded bases on chamfered sub-bases; on either side of the keel-shaft in the S.W. angle of the crossing is a band of dog-tooth ornament and similarly in the N.W. angle an extra moulding.
In the second stage, which is open to the crossing, the arcade of the lantern is of four bays on each side with moulded two-centred arches, each pair of arches being contained within a moulded two-centred wall-arch with a label; the triple attached shafts have moulded caps and bases, those in the angles and in the centre of each wall, from which spring the containing arches, being larger and with extra moulding between the shafts; all stand upon a continuous moulded string with a corbel below in the centre of each wall. In the spandrel of the W. pair of arches in both the N. and S. walls, and in the spandrel of each of the two pairs in the W. wall, is a pierced quatre-foiled roundel; centrally between the wall-arches at haunch-level in each wall, except the E., is a pierced trefoil. In addition to these variations, all the mouldings of the arcade on the E., the mouldings of the easternmost arch on the N. and all the mouldings of the three E. bays on the S. differ from the rest and indicate a rather later date. Behind the arcade is a narrow wall-walk. In the rubble outer wall of the walk, in the centre of the N., S. and W. sides of the tower is a semicircular-headed window, at the S. end of the E. wall a doorway with similar head and in the E. end of the N. wall a blocked opening to a vice; these features and the external facing of the whole of this stage have been renewed, preserving or reproducing the shafted western angles and the creases in the N., S. and W. walls of the former high-pitched roofs of the two transepts and the nave.
The third, belfry, stage is of rubble, with 19th-century embattled parapet of Ketton stone ashlar and old gargoyles at the angles. In each face is a restored window of c. 1500 of three lights with vertical tracery in a two-centred head with a label.
The North Transept (Plate 136) (23 ft. by 26 ft.) was built about the middle of the 12th century and in c. 1200 the arcade to an E. aisle was inserted. The E. and W. walls were heightened probably c. 1500 and then, or soon afterwards, the E. arcade was blocked and the aisle demolished. At the time of the restorations of 1846–9 Professor R. Willis made careful drawings of details then revealed and subsequently covered or destroyed; these show that the sills of the three original windows in the N. wall, blocked in c. 1500 if not earlier, were stepped up in the thickness of the wall from 7½ ft. above floor-level on the S. side to nearly 14 ft. on the N. side.
The restored arcade of c. 1200 in the E. wall is of two bays with two-centred arches of two orders, the inner chamfered, the outer slightly chamfered on the E. and keel-moulded on the W.; the label, on the W., is semi-hexagonal in section with a wheel-stop at the S. end and dying into the splayed angle of the transept on the N. and into a 19th-century niche over the centre pier. The responds are square, with renewed imposts, and the pier is round, with moulded capital and base but with the W. sector of the capital cut back and subsequently replaced by a moulded corbel now supporting the niche; Willis's drawings show that the corbel existed before the niche. Filling each bay is a heavy stone screen, added by Pugin primarily to provide structural support, and each with three cinque-foiled lancet-lights with pierced spandrels in a two-centred head, the northernmost with a transom and one of the lights below lengthened to form a doorway. Above the arcade is a string in part forming the sill to an original arcaded wallwalk of five round-headed bays; the back wall of the centre and end bays is pierced by clearstorey windows. The arches of the arcade are of one moulded order springing from slender trefoiled shafts and shafted responds with moulded caps and chamfered bases. The windows, now opening into the vestry, have chamfered and rebated reveals and semicircular heads; below the windows on the E. face of the wall is the chamfered weathering to the former aisle-roof.
The N. wall is divided into three stages by a continuous semi-hexagonal string some 7½ ft. above floor-level and a weathered offset at approximately 25 ft. In the W. half of the first stage is a restored doorway now blocked, with square jambs and shouldered lintel. In the second stage are three lofty 12th-century windows, now blocked, but with the continuous roll-moulded splays and semicircular rear-arches visible in the Chapel; part of the E. reveals and sills of the E. and W. windows and the springing of the latter window are also visible in the first-floor rooms of the range adjoining the transept on the N. In the centre of the third stage is a blocked opening similar to the windows below but smaller; flanking it seem to be faint traces in the undulations of the wall-face of the original gable-end of the transept. The E. end of the wall is splayed, the splay dying out at the level of the offset, and contains, below a semicircular-arched squinch, the renewed doorway to the circular stair to the E. wall-walk.
The W. wall contains, in the S. end, a doorway of c. 1500 with moulded and shafted jambs (p. 393), a moulded and four-centred arch in a square head with traceried spandrels and a label and a segmental rear-arch; the latter has pierced traceried spandrels and a panelled soffit. In the upper part of the wall are two windows of c. 1500, each of three cinque-foiled lights in a four-centred head with a label. In situ, between and flanking these windows, outside, are remains of the shafted reveals and semicircular heads of three original windows blocked and in part destroyed when the later windows were inserted, and revealed again in 1882.
The South Transept (Plate 136) (23½ ft. by 25¾ ft.) was largely refaced outside with ashlar between 1936 and 1938 except in the lower parts of the S. and W. walls. Across the full width of the E. wall is a large 13th-century arch, now blocked, which formerly opened into the S. Chapel; it is two-centred and of two moulded orders with a label; the responds are semi-octagonal, with moulded caps and bases. The blocking, which contained two windows of c. 1500, was entirely rebuilt by Bodley, 1865–9, who reset the two windows; these are each of three cinque-foiled lights in four-centred heads with labels. The S. wall has a low-pitched parapeted gable and contains a large window of c. 1500 of five cinque-foiled and transomed lights with vertical tracery in a four-centred head with a label. In the W. wall are two windows similar to those opposite.
The Nave (33¾ ft. by 24 ft.) comprises two and a half bays of the seven bays of the nave of c. 1200 of the priory church, the remaining four and a half bays being divided off for the domestic use of the College. This alteration was part of Alcock's adaptation of the building financed in part by Sir John Rysley, which also involved the demolition of the N. and S. nave-aisles and the building of new lateral walls. The width of the N. aisle has been discovered by excavation, but not of the S. aisle. In the 19th century the E. respond and the first five piers of the N. nave-arcade were found in situ built up in Alcock's N. wall but the arches had been largely destroyed to make way for the new windows in the Chapel and the extra storeys further W.; the base of the W. respond was seen by Professor Willis. The survival of only the E. respond, the first two piers and the fifth pier of the S. arcade has been ascertained, but they are now concealed.
The nave of the Chapel has been refaced in ashlar in the present century. The N. doorway is of c. 1500 with moulded jambs and four-centred arch in a square head with traceried spandrels; the two windows above are of the same date, of four lights and similar in detail to those in the E. and W. walls of the S. transept. Close to the E. end of the N. wall, inside, is a straight joint rising from the floor to the level of the cap of the tower-arch marking the arris of the E. respond to the N. nave-arcade. The N. side of the respond and of five of the nave piers has been uncovered and left visible from the S. walk of the Cloister. The respond is semi-octagonal and the piers are round and octagonal alternately, with moulded capitals and bases and all of c. 1200; Professor Willis recorded the existence of about 3 ft. of the arch-mouldings from the springing but these, with one exception, are no longer visible. In the S. wall are two windows similar to those opposite and the S. doorway of c. 1500, provided for the use of the parishioners, has moulded and shafted jambs and a four-centred arch in a square head with traceried spandrels and a label; the segmental rear-arch in a square head with traceried spandrels has the soffit panelled. The piers of the S. arcade, according to Willis, were also round and semi-octagonal alternately. The features of the western part of the mediaeval nave, other than those already mentioned, are described with the Master's Lodge.
The Roof of the chancel was built between 1847 and 1849 and designed by Pugin who is reputed to have reused much of the material of the pre-existing roof; it is of steeply-pitched trussed-rafter type and ceiled below with panels, forming a semidodecagon with moulded ribs and carved bosses at the alternate intersections; the painting is of the mid 19th century and with IHS in roundels in the ten eastern panels. The open timber Roof of the N. transept is of c. 1500, of low pitch, and divided into three bays by cambered and moulded tie-beams, with moulded ridge, purlins and plates and all coloured, or re coloured, in the 19th century. The Roof of the S. transept is similar to that just described but much restored in 1867 and with carved demi-angels holding shields and books on fasciaboards fixed to the wall-plates, perhaps in 1867. The Roofs of the crossing, restored by Pugin, and the nave, restored in 1867, were both panelled in the latter year and painted under the supervision of the Morris firm. They were repaired and the paintings cleaned and restored between 1954 and 1956.
Fittings. Bells: two, 1st with the date 1659 and initials C.G. (Christopher Gray of Ampthill, Bedfordshire, who was paid £6 15s. for it); 2nd with the date 1848, black-letter inscription and founder's name, Taylor of Loughborough. Brasses and Indents. Brasses: In N. transept—in floor, (1) of John Charles, son of the painter John Constable, 1841, plate with black-letter inscription, shield-of-arms of Constable below. In S. transept —on S. wall, (2) of Lionell Duckett, S.T.B., 1603, Fellow, inscription-plate and shield-of-arms with crest, of Duckett quartering Kendall, (unidentified 11), Windesore, Bellingham, Burnishead, and impaling Dacre, in stone frames with strapwork apron, side-scrolls and cresting; in floor, (3) of William Pearce, 1820, Master, Dean of Ely, inscription in Roman letters separately inlaid. Indents: In N. transept—in floor, (1) of small inscription-plate. In S. transept—in floor, (2) of inscription-plate and shield-of-arms; (3) of Johannes de Pykenham, 'magister sacre Theologie quondam prior hujus loci', c. 1300, with marginal inscription in Lombardic letters and indent of small rectangular inscription-plate, presumably from elsewhere.
Coffin-lids: In S. transept—set in floor, (1) coped stone with half-round ridge-rib (Plate 140), with two small incised formy crosses and inscribed in large Lombardic capitals 'Moribus ornata jacet hic bona Berta rosata'. [Bertha de Lindsey (?)], 13th-century, and with date 1261 added in arabic numerals probably early in the 17th century; loose—(2) fragment, with branched shaft perhaps of central cross, 13th or 14th-century; (3) fragment, with foot of central cross, 13th or 14th-century. See also Monument (3). Communion-table: of oak, with heavy moulded top, substructure with shaped posts at the extremities on plinths projecting forward to support kneeling angels and linked by pierced window-traceried panelling, designed by A. W. Pugin, 1847–9.
Desk (Plate 32): of oak, with sloping book-rest, shaped ends with foliage poppy-heads, panelled front and back and kneeler, with strapwork-ornament and bosses on the panels and ends, the latter with wrought-iron lifting handles, bought in 1636 and of that period, with 19th-century kneeler and candle-branches added. Doors: In S. door of nave—of oak in two heights of four panels each, the upper carved with linenfold, the lower plain restorations, and all in moulded framing, with original wrought-iron furniture, ring-handle on circular plate with indented edge, keyhole-plate with trefoiled cresting, c. 1500. The remarkable door to the vestry in the S. transept of Ely Cathedral removed from Landbeach church is in all probability from the College. Frontal: of green velvet said to be from hangings from the old Houses of Parliament, with applied embroidery bands and panels of the sacred monogram and symbols of the Evangelists, made up in the 19th century.
Glass: In chancel—in E. window, figure-subjects in small roundels alternating, in the centre light, with diagonal panels of stylised foliage, in the side lights, with pointed ovals containing angels carrying scrolls, all against a foliated background, in N. lancet, reading upwards, the Agony in the Garden, Christ before Herod, the Flagellation, Judas and the Elders; in centre lancet, the Last Supper, the Crucifixion, the Deposition, the Entombment, the Maries at the Sepulchre; in S. lancet, the Betrayal (Plate 36), Pilate washing his hands, Christ mocked, Christ with the Cross, angels' scrolls inscribed with text from Philippians ii, 10, 11, designed by A. W. Pugin, made by Messrs. Hardman of Birmingham in 1849 and inserted in 1850, the gift and in memory of Dr. French, Master; in cinque-foiled light above, the Agnus Dei adored by angels, by the same designer and maker, inserted in 1849, the gift of John Sutton, Fellow-Commoner. The other lancet-windows in the chancel were filled between 1852 and 1858 with glass also designed by Pugin and made by Hardman. Lectern (Plates 11, 139): of brass, with turned stem supported on the back of four lions, gabled book-rest surmounted by the figure of St. John the Evangelist, and two large candle-sconces springing from the stem, designed by Pugin, 1847–9, being a free adaptation of the lectern in King's College Chapel, with the addition of sconces deriving from Flemish examples.
Monuments and Floor-slabs. Monuments: In N. transept—on W. wall, (1) of William Beadon, 1789, white marble oval tablet with foliated corbel and surmounted by urn and swags; (2) of John Alty, M.A., 1815, Fellow, white and black marble rectangular tablet, by Tomson, Cambridge. In S. transept—by E. wall, (3) two much damaged freestone fragments of effigy of priest, with canopy, carved in high relief on coffin-shaped slab; upper half only of figure (Plate 140) holding open book with both hands, face destroyed, with remains of attached foliated circular side-shafts to canopy; canopy with cinque-foiled opening in two-centred head under a straight-sided crocketed gable flanked by pinnacles with conical spires, late 13th-century. On W. wall, (4) of Edmund Boldero, S.T.P., Master, 1679, black marble rectangular tablet; (5) of William Pearce, S.T.P., Dean of Ely, Master, 1820, black and white marble rectangular tablet, by Haselgrove, Cambridge. In nave—on N. wall, (6) of Marmaduke Ramsay, 1831, white and black marble tablet with triangular head containing carved profile portrait in a roundel, by Theakston, London; (7) of Edward Daniel Clarke, LL.D., Professor of Mineralogy, 1822, black and white marble stele-shaped tablet containing profile portrait, by Flaxman, R.A., sculptor; on S. wall, (8) of William Mathew, LL.B., Fellow, 1797, black and white marble oval tablet; (9) of Joseph Studholme, M.A., Fellow, 1832, black and white marble tablet; (10) of Charles William Atkinson, 1815, black and white marble rectangular tablet, by Tomson; on W. wall, (11) of Tobias Rustat, Yeoman of the Robes to Charles II, 1693–4, white marble wall-monument (Plate 142) with inscription-cartouche bordered by garlands of fruit and flowers and surmounted by two cherubs holding aside draperies to reveal an oval medallion containing a portrait-bust carved in high relief, and with a crowning cartouche containing the carved arms of Rustat. Outside—on W. wall of N. transept, (12) of William Hustler, M.A., Fellow, University Registrary, 1832, black and white marble tablet. Floor-slabs: In chancel—(1) Charles Ashton, S.T.P., Master, 1752; (2) William Saywell, S.T.P., Master, 1701; (3) Joseph Sherman, S.T.P., President, 1671; (4) Tobias Rustat, Esq., 1693; (1)–(4) small marble squares set diagonally; (5) William Cooke, LL.D., Chancellor of the Diocese of Ely, Rector of Harlton, President, 1707, large stone slab with defaced achievement-of-arms. In crossing—(6) of Robert Tyrwhitt, M.A., Fellow, ; (7) William Pearce, S.T.P., Dean of Ely, Master, 1820; (8) East Apthorpe, S.T.P., Fellow, 1816; (6)–(8) small white marble squares set diagonally. In N. transept—(9) Sir Thomas Darcy, 1683, black marble, with achievement-of-arms of Darcy; (10) John Sherman, 1667; (11) Adam Smith, 1826; (12) Thomas Cautley, M.A., 1835; (13) John Newel, 17[6?]2; (10)–(13) of stone, small; (14) Susanna Maria, wife of Lynford Caryl, S.T.P., Master, 1775; (15) Lynford Caryl, S.T.P., Master, 1781; (16) East Apthorp, S.T.P., Fellow, 1816; (14)–(16) of black marble, large. In S. transept—(17) Stephen Hall, S.T.B., Fellow, Canon of Ely, 1661, provided by John Pearson, Master; (18) the Rev. Robert Tyrwhitt, M.A., ; (19) Robert Paynell, M.A., vicar of Comberton, 1677, with shield-of-arms of Paynell; (20) John Paine, 1680, with achievement-of-arms of Paine; (21) William Davy, M.A., Fellow, 1667, provided by Edmund Boldero, S.T.P., Master; (22) Edward Daniel Clarke, LL.D., Fellow, 1822; (23) William Hustler, M.A., Fellow, University Registrary, 1832; (17)–(23) of black marble, large. In nave—(24) William Hustler, 1832; (25) Edward Daniel Clarke, 1822; (26) Lynford Caryl, 1781; (27) Susanna Maria Caryl, 1775; (24)–(27) paving stones. In Cloister—in S. walk, (28) Thomas Dickes, M.A., Fellow, 1845, of stone.
Organ and Organ-case. Organ: designed by John Sutton, Fellow-Commoner, and built by J. C. Bishop, 1847, incorporating two 17th-century stops, Stopped Flute and Stopped Diapason, made by Father Smith, the first from Durham Cathedral, the original keyboard surviving but no longer used (Alan Gray in Cambridge Review, 28 Oct. 1927). Organ-case (Plate 22): of oak, with pierced traceried cornices, traceried panelling and shaped folding doors painted on the inside with choirs of angels holding scrolls inscribed with the Te Deum, designed by A. W. Pugin, 1847–9. Paintings: In chancel —on S. wall, the Last Supper, framed painting on canvas, N. Italian, first half of 17th century. In nave—on N. wall, the Presentation in the Temple, by Jouvenet, presented in 1796 by Dr. Pearce, Master, and until the 19th-century restoration of the Chapel hung over the altar. Panelling: see Stalls. Piscinae (Plates 27, 137): In chancel—in S. wall, of clunch, in two bays with moulded intersecting semicircular arches springing from detached side-shafts and a central shaft of Purbeck marble with foliated caps, moulded bases and central bands, the last continued as the moulded edge to the renewed sill containing two sex-foiled dishings to drains and with a plain wall-face below, all within a rectangular moulded frame with dog-tooth enrichment, in the arches the individual mouldings intersect one another, early 13th-century, discovered in 1815 and subsequently restored.
Screen (Plate 139): In E. arch of crossing—of oak, with wide central bay flanked on W. face by three bays to each side, with ribbed cove, carved bressummer and brattishing, central bay containing doorway with crocketed ogee head and pierced tracery above, side bays with close panels above and below a moulded dado-rail both with window-tracery, the door in two leaves with inscribed middle rail and carved close panels below and open traceried panels above fitted with wrought-iron grilles, the carvings below including the Agnus Dei, St. Michael, symbols of the Evangelists, pelican in piety, etc., E. side of central doorway with pierced traceried spandrels and reveals elaborately carved with Alcock's rebus, mitres, cyphers, etc., designed by A. W. Pugin, 1847–9. Seating: In nave—incorporated in front pair of mid 19th-century benches, four moulded and shaped bench-ends with poppy-heads and pedestal-like forward extensions surmounted by carvings of Bishop Alcock's rebus, a cock on a globe, the poppy-heads carved with seated figures, one of a bishop, the rest of Doctors of Divinity (Plate 141), one holding a scroll, two with hands broken off, c. 1500. In the same benches, six misericordes carved with fruit and seed-pods against foliation and with flanking rosettes, c. 1500. See also Stalls. Sedilia (Plate 137): see Architectural Description. Stalls (Plate 139): In chancel—of oak, arranged as shown on the plan, with shaped and moulded armrests, misericordes carved with moulded brackets and flanking flowers, and panelling against the side walls and against the E. side of the screen divided into bays by moulded framing and surmounted by a cornice with carved paterae and brattishing, each bay enriched with window-tracery with crocketed finial, the design being derived from fragments of the original woodwork of c. 1500 preserved in the Oratory (see Master's Lodge); short returns of the panelling at each end of the stalls have similar pierced tracery and stop against standards rising from the end armrests and supporting carved figures, of a king, a bishop and two angels; desks with close panelled fronts enriched with cusping and window-tracery, attached benches and shaped ends with poppy-heads, the ends to the upper desks being the more elaborate and similar in design to those in the nave (see Seating), all designed by A. W. Pugin, 1847–9, except two of the upper bench-ends which survive from the stallwork of c. 1500 and are reused; of these, that at the E. end of the second block of desks, on the S., is similar to the bench-ends in the nave, with a figure in academic dress holding a book; the other, flanking the screen-door on the S., is similar again but of greater elaboration, with the kneeling figure of a bishop in an aedicule with domed canopy standing upon a two-storey building and with an eagle issuing from clouds above, the pedestal-projection supporting Alcock's rebus being enriched with window-tracery and the poppy-head with two bearded figures in loose gowns, back to back, standing on and carrying globes (Plate 141). Stoup: In nave—just E. of N. door, semi-octagonal moulded projection with rounded dishing under wall-recess with hollow-chamfered jambs, four-centred head and restored square label ending in defaced stops, small panel in the label inscribed IHS and soffit of recess carved with cusped tracery-enrichment, c. 1500. Veil: Communion-cup veil with embroidered flower-sprays on a white mount, probably English, first half of 18th-century, much repaired and mount modern. Weathercock: On tower—on wrought-iron upright stiffened with scroll-work, probably 18th-century. Miscellaneous: Candle (Plate 68) of wax decorated with spiralling bands of paterae and vine tendrils in red and gold, mediaeval, found during Pugin's restoration, now on loan in the Fitzwilliam Museum.
The ranges round the other three sides of Cloister Court incorporate the claustral buildings of the nunnery, mainly of two storeys, refaced in yellow brick and heightened by a storey in the E. and W. ranges when converted to collegiate use in c. 1500. The external treatment is generally uniform, having moulded strings and dressings to the openings of freestone, parapet-walls with stone copings and, on the exposed faces, plinths and quoins of Barnack stone.
The W. wall of the East Range, to Cloister Court, has a length of 13th-century clunch masonry exposed in the cloisterwalk. At the S. end is the doorway, already described, to the N. transept of the Chapel. Immediately N. of the transept is a two-light window of the late 19th century but with inner reveals of two square orders, the S. reveal probably contemporary with the transept. The archway to the passage leading to Chapel Court is of c. 1500, with moulded and shafted jambs and four-centred arch in a square head with spandrels containing shields carved with John Alcock's emblem and rebus of an eagle on a ball and a cock on a ball. The wall-face in this area, between the transept and Chapter House, was examined for original architectural features in 1894 but the masonry was found to consist of reused material, some of the 12th century, perhaps a refacing and subsequent to the Suppression.
The W. entrance to the former Chapter House (37 ft. by 25 ft.) and the two window-like openings flanking it (Plate 137), revealed in 1893, are of the early 13th century. They form an arcade of three two-centred arches of three moulded orders springing from piers and responds with detached shafts with moulded caps (Plate 140) carved with stiff-leaf foliage etc. and moulded bases; the shafts of the entrance-arch rise from the floor-level, some 3 ft. below the present cloister floor-level, and have moulded bands. The shafts in each of the flanking bays stand on low apron-walls and the inner order of the arch is returned to form the two-centred heads of a pair of lights separated by a central shaft uniform with those just described; the lights are thus embraced by the outer orders of the main arch and the tympanum is pierced by a curvilinear regular four-sided opening set diagonally, the moulded surround of that in the S. tympanum being carved with dog-tooth and leaf ornament. Parts of the arch-mouldings and some of the capitals have been restored. The plan of the building was revealed by excavations in 1894 and, on the E.-W. axis, surviving built-up in the E. wall of the range continued across the site in c. 1500, is a 13th-century octagonal pier with moulded cap and the remains of chamfered springers of cross vaulting-ribs; other surviving features are described below. Further N. in the W. wall of the range, the doorway opposite the N. cloister-walk is entirely restored on the W. but the internal splays together with the springers of a former rear-arch are perhaps of the 13th century.
The same W. wall continues N. to form the E. wall of the 'dark entry' but the passageway has been blocked by the insertion of cross-walls dividing it into three compartments. The doorway from the E. range into the S. compartment, now a lobby, is of c. 1500, with chamfered jambs and four-centred head; the 18th-century doorway from the wine-cellar into the centre compartment is set in the blocking of an earlier archway, whether of the 13th century or even of the 12th century is uncertain because only the N. jamb and springing of a semicircular or two-centred arch survive; in the N. end of the E. wall of the N. compartment, now a heating-chamber, are the S. reveal and part of the curved head of a destroyed window-light. The continuation of the E. range into New Court has Barnack stone quoins at the junction with the extension made in 1822; the square-headed S. door is of the late 19th century externally and the restored two-light windows flanking it have four-centred openings in square heads with labels. The N. door has been broken through into the base of the original reredorter.
On the first and second floors the windows are uniform with those in the front of the College W. of the Gatetower, and with the windows generally in the College, with square heads on the first floor and four-centred on the second floor, but including one of a single light. On the second floor, supported on a cinque-foiled squinch-arch across the N.E. angle of Cloister Court, is a small light with semielliptical head under a weathered tabling and in the extreme N. end of the wall, at the same level, is a small loop-light with two-centred head. The N. wall of the range is concealed; the theory that the range was always of three storeys at the N. end is, by analogy, most doubtful, (A. Gray, The Priory of St. Radegund, Camb. Ant. Soc. O.P. xxxi, 1898).
The E. side of the E. range, to Chapel Court, is similar in detail to the N. end of the W. side except that the parapet has a stone cornice. The square-headed ground-floor windows, arranged as shown on the plan, have been more or less restored, only some of the moulded reveals and heads of c. 1500 remaining; all the labels have been renewed. The archway to the passage to Cloister Court is entirely modern and replaces a window. In the brickwork at the end of the reredorter shaft are two small loops. The first-floor windows are similar to those below but entirely renewed outside, except the two large transomed windows, lighting the Combination Room, which are modern. The second-floor windows like those in the opposite wall have four-centred heads; those flanking the two windows over the transomed windows on the floor below are of a single light. On the roof are three chimney-stacks similar to those in Outer Court.
The Interior of the E. range of Cloister and New Courts has longitudinal stop-moulded ceiling-beams of c. 1500, dividing the range into three bays in the width, evident in most of the rooms on the ground and first floors. The N. partition-wall of the passage and staircase through the range is timber-framed and of c. 1500; to it are fixed wedge-shaped brackets supporting the ceiling-beams in the room to the N.; in the E. wall of the same room, at the S. end, part of a cross-rib of the vaulting of the Chapter House is exposed; further N. is the pier already described. In the S.E. corner of the next room to the N., now divided into two by a modern partition, is a rectangular recess; the N. abutment of this last comprises a fragment of the original N. wall of the Chapter House and in it is a 13th-century tapering corbel with hollow-chamfered abacus supporting the springer of chamfered cross and diagonal vaulting-ribs.
The chimney-stack on the site of the Chapter House has in the N. side a fireplace of c. 1500 with chamfered jambs, brick four-centred relieving-arch and renewed head. In the timber-framed partition opposite this fireplace, in the W. end and now in the vestibule, is a timber doorway of c. 1500, now blocked, with a four-centred head and leaves and pomegranates carved in the spandrels. The S. wall and blocking of the E. windows of the room opposite the E. end of the N. range have been added in recent times in converting it into a wine-cellar; the disused fireplace in the N. wall has chamfered jambs and a flat four-centred head and is perhaps of c. 1500. Further N. are two sets of chambers divided by the early 19th-century staircase 'J' with turned balusters, moulded handrail and square newels; the ceiling-beams in the N. set, unlike the rest on the ground floor, are chamfered only. Occupying the width of the northern extremity of the range, S. of the 1822 extension, is the narrow shaft of the reredorter, in part covered with modern brick vaulting and with original clunch N. and S. walls containing later recesses; chutes from the floor above discharge into the N. side.
On the first floor, the southernmost room has in the S. wall the E. jamb and half the semicircular head respectively of the E. and W. blocked windows in the N. wall of the N. transept; in the N. wall of the room, at the W. end is a timber doorway of c. 1500 with moulded jambs and four-centred head with sunk spandrels opening into a closet. Staircase 'F' adjoining on the N., of c. 1500, rises between timber-framed partitions and the room next to the N. contains some 17th-century woodwork, including a door-case with fluted frieze and small cornice hung with a six-panel door to a closet on the S.W. and reused panelling under the W. window.
The landing vestibule at the head of the staircase opposite the N. cloister-walk contains, in the N. wall, the doorway to the Combination Room, and, in the N. end of the W. wall, the springer of a 13th-century chamfered arch; the S. end is partitioned off to form a small chamber having a fireplace with chamfered jambs and four-centred head in the S. end of the E. wall. The vestibule is divided from the room adjoining on the E., now a Writing-room, by a timber-framed partition reconstructed of old material, using the more westerly of the two moulded ceiling-beams as a head-beam, with the studs moulded on the W.; the post at the N. end carries a bracket carved with the arms of the See of Ely and both these and the ceiling-beams retain traces of colouring. The Writing-room has the ceiling-beam supported at the N. end on a bracket carved with a stylised tree bearing bunches of berries; the fireplace in the S. wall has chamfered jambs and four-centred head. Painted on the E. wall of the room is a late 16th-century strapwork panel with black-letter inscription, now illegible.
The Combination Room (19 ft. by 25 ft.) over the winecellar, was used as a Parlour from the 16th century. It was altered in 1692 and again, as a result of a bequest by Francis, Lord Middleton, in 1762, by James Essex who introduced the present panelling with moulded skirting, dado-rail enriched with guilloche-ornament and dentil-cornice with Greek keyornament; the eared fireplace-surround with frieze and cornice is similarly enriched. Staircase 'G' has timber-framed containing-partitions and, in the E. wall, a blocked opening with splayed reveals which may originally perhaps have been a dorter window. Off staircase 'J', already described, the main room of the S. set contains an 18th-century fireplace-surround with frieze, fluted central frieze-panel and dentil-cornice; the closet S.E. of the same room has the splays and rear-arch of a small light, now blocked, in the E. wall.
The second floor retains the roof, visible in those rooms without plaster ceilings, erected in c. 1500 when the nunnery was converted into the College; it is of cambered tie-beam type with the ridge and single purlins housed into the tie and with the main timbers and the wall-plates moulded (p. 396) and the purlins stop-chamfered. One of the tie-beams in the N.W. room at the head of staircase 'F', is a replacement of c. 1600, being of a different section of moulding and carved with running foliage and berries. Subsequent restorations have not been extensive and little modern material is incorporated. The lobby S. of the stair contains some reused early 17th-century panelling. The timber frames of the doorways to both the sets of rooms off staircase 'G' have moulded jambs and four-centred heads with sunk spandrels; in the S. set the lobby contains some reused panelling of c. 1600; in the N. set, where the best view of the old roof may be had, the main room has, in the N. wall, a fireplace with chamfered jambs and cambered head. Off staircase 'J', in the N. set of rooms, the fireplace in the N. wall is flanked on the W. by a small closet, probably once a garderobe, entered through a stone doorway with chamfered jambs and four-centred head and having, in the W. wall, a small light with old splays and elliptical rear-arch.
The later extension of this E. range is described below under New Court.
The North Range of Cloister Court is of two storeys only but the same height as the E. and W. ranges of the Court. It contained the conventual refectory, now the College Hall, raised on an undercroft comprising cellars, with the 'darkentry' on the E.; this last remained an open passageway until at least 1648–9. Bishop Alcock retained the main walls of the refectory, heightened and faced them, as elsewhere, in brick, and inserted a new roof, new windows and a N. fireplace; the sills of the windows, except the sill of the S.E. window, were lowered in 1801–2. Access to the Hall from the N. cloisterwalk was through a doorway of Alcock's period towards the western end, now replaced by a window, opening to a stair rising to a landing behind the Hall screen. From the landing another short stair led up to a doorway in the centre of the W. wall of the Hall, and a third stair, at the N. end, led down to a small annexe, with a ribbed vault, projecting from the N. side of the Hall and containing a vice; a fourth flight of three steps also gave direct access to the annexe from the W. ground-floor passage through the range. The vice, it has been suggested, may have led to the refectory-pulpit, but the thickening of the wall to the N.E. of the refectory perhaps indicates the more likely position for this.
A Hall screen made by Woodroofe in 1610–11 was replaced by the present screen in 1703 when the Hall was repaired, in part by Grumbold, and wainscoted. In 1875 the floor of the Hall was raised almost 1 ft., the screen was moved westward to the present position, lining the W. wall, thus adding some 13½ ft. to the total length of the room, the old staircase was abolished and a new stone staircase built adjoining the Hall on the N.W. The new staircase, approached through the passage in continuation of the W. cloister-walk, rises to a landing giving direct access to the screens-passage now over the passage below, and thence through a rectangular bay built out over the N.W. angle of Cloister Court to the Library staircase and the rooms in the W. range of the Court. The staircase wing also contains additional kitchen-offices and a lecture room; the room E. of the stair was added subsequently.
The N. and S. sides have the parapet-walls continued from the flanking ranges. The N. wall-face has a considerable admixture of red brick, including the whole of the E. bay, the lower part of the wall, where visible, up to sill-level, the stack and some of the parapet. The S. wall to the cloister-walk is plastered and contains at the E. end an archway of c. 1500 that opened to the passageway, the 'dark entry', and now gives access to a small lobby; it has moulded jambs and a four-centred arch in a square head, all in a modern timber architrave. Further W. are two two-light windows each with four-centred openings in a square head with a label; the E. window is entirely renewed outside; the W. window removed here from elsewhere and with a renewed sill is in the opening of the doorway to the former staircase to the Hall and has a label, perhaps that belonging to the doorway, with worn head-stops. At the W. end is an archway of c. 1500, opening into the passage to New Court, similar to that at the E. end but larger and with traceried spandrels containing the Alcock rebus and emblem of a cock and an eagle, each on an orb, in quatrefoils and a tympanum carved with a bishop's mitre in a quatrefoil flanked by scrolled infulae.
The lower part of the N. wall is largely concealed by the late 19th-century additions; the eastern end projects to support the Hall oriel-window, where it appears to be a later underbuilding, and two chimney-stacks. On the ground floor, the projection contains an 18th-century doorway to the heatingchamber contrived in the old 'dark entry' and, further W., a late 19th-century doorway to the undercroft flanked on the W. by a single-light window of c. 1500 with moulded jambs and four-centred opening in a square head with a label and a brick elliptical rear-arch. Concealed by the later additions are two windows of c. 1500, now blocked. The E. and W. gabled ends, rising above the adjoining roofs, are stepped, with restored 16th-century moulded stone copings.
The Interior of the range, below the Hall, which has since 1579–80 contained the Buttery, is divided into two main rooms by a cross-wall. The Beer-cellar to the E. has in the E. wall a blocked doorway of c. 1500 with four-centred head, which originally opened into the 'dark entry' and is now visible only from the latter; in the E. end of the N. wall is a large arched recess, below the Hall fireplace, flanked on the E. by a smaller recess with chamfered jambs and four-centred head.
The Buttery (23½ ft. by 24½ ft.) to the W. has in the E. wall, towards the N. end, an old doorway with a chamfered segmental head and now embracing a smaller modern doorway. Entrance to the Buttery from the passageway below the Hall screens is through a doorway of c. 1500 with chamfered jambs and four-centred head and hung with a 17th-century panelled door. The ribbed vault from the N.W. annexe, now reset in the 19th-century staircase-block to the N.W., with moulded ribs, ridges and a damaged foliated central boss, springs from 19th-century foliated corbels; it is of 15th-century style but except for the boss entirely renewed.
The Hall (Plate 239) (64 ft. by 25 ft.) is of six bays with windows in each bay in the N. and S. walls. The orielwindow at the E. end of the N. wall, of c. 1500, is three-sided, with two cinque-foiled and transomed lights in a four-centred head on the face and one in each canted side, all with moulded labels with grotesque stops and four-centred heads to the lights below the transoms; inside, the spandrels are carved with foliage, the transoms are brattished and attenuated shafts in the angles of the window rise to a cornice carved with orbs and bishop's mitres below a traceried vault (Plate 144); the opening into the oriel consists of a lofty arch with four-centred head with enriched mouldings under the front edge of the soffit springing from carved corbels and plain mouldings under the N. edge rising from slender shafts with carved capitals; the reveals of the archway have stone panelling in two heights of paired panels with four-centred heads to the lower panels under a band of paterae, some carved with Alcock's rebus, and cinque-foiled two-centred heads to those above, and both with brattishing; the soffit of the arch has one height of similar panels on each side of the apex, with trefoiled sub-cusped heads embraced by a four-centred arch with spandrels carved with demi-angels and foliage. The oriel was restored to a minor extent in 1871 by Waterhouse.
The other five windows in the N. wall are all of c. 1500, but with the sills lowered in 1801–2 by Tomson, mason; they are of two four-centred lights with a pierced spandrel in a four-centred head with a label and moulded four-centred rear-arch. The moulded string between the windows outside probably respresents the original sill-level. The W. window has been largely blocked by the staircase built in 1875. In the S. wall, the E. window is of three cinque-foiled lights in a four-centred head with a moulded label and with the sill at a lower level than the window-sills further W.; the other five windows are similar to those opposite in the N. wall.
Projecting into the Hall from the W. wall, above the screen, is a small three-sided oriel-window (Plate 144) of c. 1500 with two four-centred lights in a square head on the face and one on each canted side; it is supported on a moulded corbel carved and undercut with a mitre with scrolled infulae and has a crowning cornice with a band of cusped curvilinear ornament above and brattishing.
The roof of c. 1500, said to be of chestnut, is divided into six bays by collar-beam principals supported by curved braces forming four-centred arches scarfed into wall-posts standing on semi-octagonal moulded stone corbels, those at the E. end with brattishing, carved with the following: N. side, from E., (a), (e) Alcock's rebus of a cock with a scroll on an orb, (b), (d), (f) foliage, (c), (g) Alcock's emblem of an eagle, or an eagle with a scroll, on a ball; S. side, (a), (e) Alcock's emblem of an eagle etc., (b), (d), (f) foliage, (c), (g) Alcock's rebus of a cock etc. Each slope of the roof is divided into three heights by two purlins, and in the two lower heights are curved wind-braces forming four-centred arches between the principals; the ridge is omitted. All the main timbers are moulded; projecting from the soffit of the principals, above the collar, is a length of pierced and traceried cusping. The louvre was removed in 1871. In a cupola over the W. end is the Hall bell, dated 1709.
The deal wainscoting of 1703 was shortened in 1875 in consequence of the Hall floor being raised. The bolection-moulded panelling on the back wall of the dais has a centrepiece comprising coupled Corinthian pilasters at each side supporting an enriched entablature returned across the flanking bays and surmounted by a large achievement of the Stuart Royal arms on a panelled plinth with side scrolls and inscribed 'Ecce quam bonum et quam jucundum fratres habitare in unum' (Psalm cxxxiii, 1); in both the flanking bays is a panelled door. The N. and S. walls are lined to sill-level with tall fielded panels in raised moulded framing with fixed benches at the base and a moulded capping. The Screen against the W. wall was moved here from a position some 13½ ft. further E. in 1875 and turned so that the original W. face is now to the Hall. It consists of two wide bays, containing the doorways, divided and flanked by narrow bays with panelled dadoes, dado-rails and tall bolection-moulded panels above. The doors are in semicircular-headed frames with panelled tympana, moulded archivolts with grotesque key-blocks and moulded imposts and flanked by Corinthian pilasters on panelled pedestals supporting a continuous entablature returned across the narrow bays.
Two of the S. windows contain heraldic and other glass, generally of the 16th and 17th centuries; in the easternmost window, E. light, (a) Alcock's rebus with black-letter Latin text from Psalm cxviii, 46, (b) arms of the See of Ely, centre light, (a) arms of Swan impaling Twisden, (b) quarterly arms of Bray, (c) crowned Tudor rose between two smaller roses and with the head of a priest below, (d) achievement-of-arms of (unidentified 12), perhaps 18th-century, W. light, (a) Alcock's rebus with text from Luke ii, 10, (b) arms of Alcock, possibly 19th-century; in next window to the W., E. light, Alcock's rebus with text from the Homilies of Chrysostom on John, 'Sed secundum Dei eloquia vivere', W. light, Alcock's rebus with text from Matthew i, 1; the glass with Alcock's rebus probably transferred here from the Library windows.
The low addition at the S. end of the screens-passage, bridging over the cloister-walks, was made in 1875. Above the screens-passage is a bedroom belonging to the set of chambers in the W. range of Cloister Court; it contains the oriel-window looking into the Hall, described above, in the E. wall, and, in the W. wall, at the S. end, a small recess with square jambs and two-centred head. In the S.W. corner of the same room is the wall-post and stone corbel of a roof truss, visible in the loft above, against the W. wall; the roof-bay is in continuation of the Hall roof but of simpler treatment, the braces and purlins being only hollow-chamfered. In the E. wall of the loft are two small lights with two-centred heads, now blocked but previously opening into the Hall, and in the gabled W. wall a two-light window of c. 1500 with four-centred openings in a four-centred head with a label. Preserved in the loft is some painted boarding with a circular panel containing the monogram I.H.S. and flanked by cocks on globes holding scrolls and with a scroll above, each scroll containing an inscription in Greek, being aphorisms from Hesiod's Works and Days, with some dislocations in the texts.
The West Range of Cloister Court and the continuation of it northward beyond the N. range is generally similar in external treatment to the E. range and has a similar history. The original passageway through it, the 'entry', about level with the centre of the present E. cloister-walk, was blocked and a new passage made in continuation of the N. cloister-walk in 1784, it is believed by James Essex who retained the Gothic entrance-arch, resetting it as the entrance to the new passage. The two-storey Kitchen at the N. end probably served the same purpose in the nunnery. The two rooms S. of the 18th-century passageway and the rooms above now serve as a Buttery-shop, store and offices. On the second floor the old Library extends from the wall continuing the S. wall of the Hall range southward to the wall above the N. side of the old 'entry'. N. of the library is a set of chambers. The S. end of the range, including the old 'entry' and the room S. of it and the equivalent area on the two upper floors, was, until recent years, incorporated in the Master's Lodge and is described mainly under that head.
The E. side, to Cloister Court, is plastered on the ground floor and, above, the three southern bays and parts of the parapet-wall are of red brick; the rest is of yellow brick. On the ground floor, at the N. end, is an archway of c. 1500, probably reset, with moulded and shafted jambs and four-centred head (p. 393) with traceried spandrels carved with Alcock's devices on shields in quatrefoils; further S. are two two-light windows of c. 1500, renewed outside, flanking a doorway of the same date with moulded jambs and four-centred arch in a square head and retaining original hinge-pins in the N. rebate. The doorway and two windows at the S. end of the wall are of the late 19th century. On the first floor is a blocked doorway with four-centred head between the two S. windows; it perhaps originally opened from the Prioress' lodging to an external stair (see below p. 96). The eight one and two-light windows on the first floor and the ten two-light windows on the second floor are similar to those at the same respective levels on the opposite side of the Court except that the northern seven on the second floor are taller.
The W. side of the W. range, to Outer Court, has a stone plinth of reused material, strings at first and second-floor silllevels, a parapet-string and a moulded coping to the parapetwall, all of stone. The windows of one and two lights are similar to those at the same levels on the N. side of Outer Court; excluding the northernmost bay, being the return of the N. range, on the ground floor are fifteen windows and on the first and top floors sixteen each, all those on the top floor being of two lights. The reset W. archway (Plate 144, p. 393) to the 18th-century passage is of c. 1500; it has a four-centred head with the mouldings continued down the jambs, a crocketed ogee label ending in a finial and springing from diagonal side-standards continued up as pinnacles, and traceried panelling over the haunches of the arch and behind the finial; the whole is under an upper rectangular label stepped up in the centre to frame the finial; in the tracerypanels are shields-of-arms of the See of Ely and of Alcock and in the tympanum between the ogee label and the arch a carving of a cock with a scroll inscribed 'Prosperum iter facias'.
The Interior of the W. range has longitudinal moulded ceiling-beams, as in the E. range, running northward at a constant spacing as far as the S. wall of the Pastry. The Kitchen (25 ft. by 18¾ ft.) has been considerably modernised; entrance to it is through the doorway in the S. end of the E. wall with chamfered jambs and a much weathered moulded four-centred head; in the upper part of the same wall are two blocked two-light windows retaining pins for shutters on the splays; high up in the E. end of the N. wall is a doorway with chamfered jambs and four-centred head. In the ceiling are two moulded beams of c. 1500. The Pastry (25¼ ft. by 20¼ ft.) has at the S. end of the E. wall a doorway, now blocked and only visible from the passage, with moulded jambs and four-centred arch in a square head with one spandrel carved with Alcock's emblem of an eagle, the other decayed; in the W. wall visible between the windows, is the upper part of a fireplace with chamfered jambs and depressed four-centred head, now blocked.
In the wall between the Pastry and the passageway on the S. is a low 13th-century light, or hatch, with wide splays and two-centred rear-arch on the S. and a shutter-staple remaining inside. Further W. in the same wall is a doorway of c. 1500 with chamfered jambs and moulded four-centred head; the doorway opposite, in the S. wall of the passage, is modern. The Buttery-shop, next to the S., has the moulded ceiling-beams supported on moulded corbels worked in the heads of the studs of the timber-framed S. partition; this last and the opposing framed partition enclose staircase 'E', access to the shop-store being through a timber doorway with three-centred head in the southernmost partition. The stone S. wall of the shop-store is the N. wall of the former 'entry'.
On the first floor, adjoining the Kitchen which rises through two storeys, is a Servery with a staff dining-room partitioned off on the W.; in the ceiling are two moulded beams with a moulded cross-beam towards the S. end of the centre bay. S. of these two rooms and entered through the 19th-century bay built out over the N.W. angle of the cloister-walks is a passageway leading to the Library staircase; the timber-framing of the S. wall of the passage is exposed. At the head of staircase 'E', in the N. wall, is a timber door-case with four-centred chamfered opening, now blocked and immediately flanked by the outer doorway to the N. rooms. The ceiling-beams in the rooms N. and S. of the same staircase rest on moulded corbels worked in the studs, as described in a room below, except against the solid southern wall; under the W. window in the room on the S. are some fragments of 17th-century panelling. Further S., see the Master's Lodge.
On the second floor over the Kitchen and Servery etc. are two sets of chambers approached from the Library staircase. The main N. room has in the N. wall a clunch fireplace with chamfered jambs and three-centred head and in the S. wall a recess, or blocked doorway, with chamfered jambs and segmental head of two chamfered orders; both features are of c. 1500; the moulded ceiling-beams of the same date in the passage on the E. have carved foliations at the intersections. In the window in the E. wall is a small panel of foreign heraldic glass, probably of the 16th century, and in the S. end of the passage is an archway of c. 1500 with chamfered jambs and three-centred opening in a segmental head. The S. continuation of the same passage, against the W. end of the Hall range, has ceiling-beams similar to those further N. and a moulded wall-plate on the E. wall, and all evidently part of one timber ceiling of Alcock's period; in the E. wall, at the N. end, is a recess with chamfered four-centred rear-arch and, at the S. end, a doorway with chamfered jambs and four-centred opening in a square head to the bedroom over the Hall screens described with the N. range. The staircase to the Library has a timber-framed partition on the N. with a moulded wall-plate supporting moulded ceiling-beams (p. 396) with leaf-stops at the N. end; below the early 16th-century window in the W. wall are the splays of an earlier window.
The old Library (Plate 143) (25½ ft. by 50¾ ft.) is entered through a central doorway in the N. wall; on the N. it has chamfered jambs and a moulded four-centred head with shields-of-arms of the See of Ely and of Alcock in the spandrels; the S. splays are plain but the four-centred rear-arch is enriched with cusped panelling and the spandrels are carved with the Alcock rebus of a cock and an eagle, with 'Audite' painted on the cock's scroll. The oak door of two leaves is made up with some early 16th-century linenfold panels. In both the E. and W. walls are seven windows, the projecting bookcases are arranged in seven bays down each side of the room and the cambered roof of c. 1500 is divided into seven bays in the length and four in the width by heavy intersecting moulded timbers and plates supporting plain rafters, laid flat. The windows, of two four-centred lights in a four-centred head, have four-centred rear-arches.
The room was refitted by Edmund Boldero during his Mastership, 1663–79. The bookcases stand on low moulded plinths, projecting each side to form a step, and contain six tiers of shelving in two bays with a continuous crowning cornice; the ends are divided into two heights of panelling, the lower rectangular, the upper eared at head and base. The N. wall-cases have been heightened. Surmounting the end of each projecting case is a small banded Doric colonnette giving additional support to the roof-timbers; the N.W. and S.W. colonnettes are flanked by added scrolled brackets. A central doorway in the S. wall has chamfered jambs and four-centred head and is hung with an old plank door in two leaves with original wrought-iron fittings; the 17th-century door-case to the Library has Doric side-pilasters supporting an entablature with central frieze-panel and a broken pediment framing a cartouche carved with the arms of the College and is hung with a contemporary panelled door similar in detail to the ends of the bookcases and with original tinned wrought-iron fittings. On the wall over the N. doorway is a painted wood inscription-tablet, probably an early 19th-century replacement of an earlier panel, recording Edmund Boldero's bequest, with a shield-of-arms of Boldero above.
Each light of the E. windows, except where noted below, contains original glass in situ consisting of a large cock on an orb holding an inscribed scroll (Plate 132) and with a small scroll painted on a single quarry below, the latter inscribed with the subject-matter of the books originally in the adjacent classes, and all in a setting of plain quarries; the larger scrolls are inscribed with biblical texts, mostly from Psalms. Some of the scrolls are damaged or missing and patched with plain glass; the two cocks in the sixth window have lost their combs and orbs, and one cock is missing from both the fifth and the S.E. windows. The smaller scrolls show that the original library contained books of the three principal faculties, Divinity, Law, Physics. The glass in the W. windows completes the scheme of faculties but is modern.
The Master's Lodge occupies the W. end of the nave of the priory church, rooms in the S. end of the W. range of Cloister Court and the part of the S. range of Outer Court E. of the Gatetower, and is described below in the terms E., N. and W. wings. It is of three storeys throughout. The E. wing is of yellow brick, the N. of red brick and the W. of yellow brick. The interior was very extensively remodelled under the direction of R. H. Carpenter in 1886 at the time when the three-storey entrance-porch and the bay window on the S. of the W. wing were added. The extent of the accommodation has varied at different times but from the foundation of the College the Lodge has probably always been in this quarter. (fn. 1).
In the E. wing, the ground-floor room, now a staff sittingroom, was assigned to the Master in 1663 but the group of chambers above, approached by a stair off Cloister Court, not until 1866, and it seems that none of these had respectively been incorporated in the Master's Lodge before those dates; the Master's Study is now in the western part of the old first-floor set. During the 1886 alterations part of the 13th-century W. door of the priory church was found in the W. end wall of this wing.
In the N. wing, the 'Old Hall' is that judged by Gray (op. cit., p. 68) to be referred to in the Bursar's Rentals of 1534–50 as the 'Camera Magistri'; it was assigned to the sole use of the Master in 1636–7 in exchange for the rooms in the upper storeys of the Gatetower which had been his from at least as early as 1573–4. The old 'entry' was blocked and incorporated in the Master's Lodge after c. 1688 and probably in 1784–5. The Conference Room (Plate 64) on the first floor, over the Old Hall, was approached by an external stair from the W. cloister-walk; the blocked door is visible (see description of exterior of W. range of Cloister Court) and the roof of the cloister-walk just below is of later date than the rest. The room adjoining the Conference Room on the N., over the old 'entry', is that, according to Sherman, consecrated as an oratory by John Reston, Master 1546–9; but the whole arrangement suggests a continuity of use (see below). S. of the 'Old Hall' is the Entrance-hall containing a staircase inserted in 1886; the latter replaces the staircase shown on the plan published by Willis and Clark.
The W. wing was found during the 19th-century alterations to have had two lancet-windows in the N. wall extending above the ground floor, indicating that the building was a part of the nunnery and of one storey; it was in all probability the Guest Hall. It was converted into two storeys in c. 1500 and subsequently heightened by the addition of a third storey, no doubt in 1718–20. This wing was part of the Master's Lodge from the foundation of the College and the lower room is referred to in the Accounts as the Parlour or Nether Parlour; it now contains the Dining-room on the ground floor and the Drawing-room above.
The East Wing has the N. and S. walls in continuation of those of the Chapel, the change of facing material, from ashlar to brickwork, demarcating the junction externally. Both the N. and S. sides are generally uniform with the fronts of the E. and W. claustral ranges. The ground floor of the N. side to the cloister-walk is plastered and contains the piers of the nave-arcades of the priory church, as already described, and two doorways of c. 1500, the eastern with stop-chamfered jambs and four-centred arch in a square head, the western of similar form but with moulded jambs and with traceried spandrels. Between the doorways are two windows, one of the late 19th century and of two lights, the other round and of the late 18th or early 19th century. On both the first and second floors are three two-light windows, similar to those at the same levels respectively in the E. and W. sides of Cloister Court, and splayed across the S.W. angle of the Court is a small single-light window on the second floor supported on a cinque-foiled squinch-arch and with a weathered tabling above.
The S. side has a plain parapet and chimney-stacks of 1871, replacing the stepped embattling and elaborate stacks shown in Loggan's engraving of the College. On the ground floor are four windows, of two lights, with four-centred openings in square heads with labels all more or less restored and with the sills lowered; between the two western windows is a mid 19th-century doorway replacing a window largely destroyed and the remainder blocked to receive it. On both the first and second floors are five late 19th-century windows, which replace tall single-light sash-windows inserted in 1791, being based upon those, excluding the oriel, shown by Loggan. The dormer-windows he shows have been removed. The windows in the W. wall are all of the late 19th century.
The Interior of the E. wing has longitudinal chamfered beams dividing the ceilings on both the ground and first floors into three bays; the rooms were probably once the full width of the range but partitions have been inserted to provide corridors on the N. On the ground floor, the W. room has in the S. wall a fireplace-recess with four-centred head now entirely plastered but perhaps an old feature. An 18th-century staircase in the corridor, moved to this position probably in 1886, has close strings, turned balusters, square newel and moulded handrail. On the first floor, in the E. end of the N. wall a length of the arch of the third bay of the nave-arcade of the conventual church is exposed; it is of a single roll-moulded order. Cut through the same wall further to the W. where it adjoins the main staircase, is an opening with four-centred head, now entirely plastered over, which Willis described as modern. The Master's Study at the W. end contains a dado incorporating some late 16th or early 17th-century panelling.
Reset in the bay-window above the porch are four panels of old glass made out with mediaeval fragments, (a) Alcock's rebus, damaged, early 16th-century, (b) Salome with the head of St. John the Baptist before Herod, foreign, probably late 16th century, (c) head of a king, inscribed Richard II and with the arms of the Confessor impaling the Royal arms, 18th century, (d) various fragments. The staircase to the second floor is of the 18th century, with turned balusters, close strings, moulded handrail and small square newels. On the second floor, some bedrooms have 18th-century doors of two fielded panels and flat moulded stone surrounds of the same date to the fireplaces; in the westernmost bedroom is a dado of reused early 17th-century panelling. Apparent on the N. face of the N. wall, in a position over the westernmost bay of the old nave-arcade, is a patching blocking a former opening.
The North Wing of the Master's Lodge has been occupied, in part at least, by the Master from the early days of the College; this perhaps represents a continuity of the earlier arrangement. Analogy suggests that the 'Old Hall' was the Parlour and that the prioress was accommodated on the first floor, in the room now the Conference Chamber, with her oratory beyond. An external stair in the corner of the cloister would, if the arrangement were continued in the early days of the College, explain the difference in the S. bays of the roof of the west walk of the cloister. The exterior is described above with the rest of the W. range of Cloister Court, of which it is a part. The Interior has had the old 'entry' divided into two in the early 19th century by a cross-wall; in the W. half is an open timber ceiling of c. 1500 with moulded beams and joists. The open timber ceiling of the 'Old Hall' (25½ ft. by 20¼ ft.) was uncovered late in the 19th century; it is divided into three bays by chamfered beams, possibly reused, supporting joists laid flat and painted red with a white stencilling of Ihū in black-letter; on the walls is a dado of reused oak panelling of c. 1600 made up with modern work and all modern on the W. wall. The S. wall has been presumed to be part of the N. wall of the N. aisle of the priory church, but no evidence of this, beyond a correct alignment, remains; in it are a clunch fireplace of c. 1500, uncovered in 1913, similar to others of the same date in the College but with leaves carved in the spandrels, and a renewed doorway with four-centred head. The doorway in the W. wall has chamfered jambs and a four-centred head with a later painted wood carving above of a cock perched on a crown.
On the first floor, the former Oratory (25¼ ft. by 7¾ ft.) has an open timber roof with moulded beams and moulded joists painted red, green and yellow and the underside of the floorboards above blue with white stars; the boards have been relaid in the wrong direction. The doorway of c. 1500 in the W. end of the S. wall has moulded jambs and four-centred head. The room was restored in 1913. Amongst modern glass hung against the E. window is a 16th-century roundel containing a shield-of-arms of Alcock; in the W. window is a collection of fragments of 15th, 16th and 17th-century glass from the Chapel and old Library including parts of canopies and black-letter inscriptions and a panel inscribed 'Mariken Weduwe Wille Somers Peters-on 1615'. Attached to the S. wall is a run of fragments of oak traceried canopy-work with cinque-foiled openings in two and four-centred heads with foliated spandrels under crocketed gablets and brattishing and also a separate run of pierced traceried frieze with sub-cusped quatrefoils enclosing a rose, a mitre, a cock, the arms of the See of Ely, three cock's heads (Plate 35); all of c. 1500 and doubtless from the Chapel, having been recovered from Landbeach church in 1879 (see above, p. 83).
The Conference Chamber (25¼ ft. by 20 ft.) has at different times been named the Audit-room, the Master's Dining-room and the Founder's Chamber (Audit books). It was restored in 1913 when some extensive earlier alterations were eliminated and the blocked N.W. window was reopened. The open timber ceiling is coloured and stencilled with the monogram IHŪ similarly to that in the room below. The walls are lined with pine panelling of c. 1600 in five heights with a frieze carved with arabesques; the N. wall is divided into three bays by fluted Doric pilasters on pedestals and with entablature-blocks carved with lion-masks; on the S. wall is a similar pilaster under the W. ceiling-beam. The door-case to the N.E. doorway has Doric side-pilasters and frieze uniform with the rest of the panelling and hung with an eight-panel door retaining original wrought-iron H-shaped hinges. The fireplace, in the S. wall, has reeded and fluted Doric side-pilasters on panelled pedestals and an enriched frieze with three brackets supporting the pilasters dividing and flanking the overmantel; this last is in two panelled bays with framing carved with egg-and-dartornament; the Ionic pilasters have scale-pattern carving below the caps and diminish towards the bases, the face of the shafts being enriched with sunk arabesques; they support an entablature with arabesques and lion's masks carved in the frieze. E. of the fireplace the 18th-century door with two fielded panels and contemporary brass rim-lock and finger-plates masks an old stone doorway; the timber door-case on the S. side of the same doorway, facing the main staircase, is of c. 1675, with a small entablature with frieze-panel and hung with a door of two bolection-moulded panels.
On the top floor a doorway at the N. end opens into the old Library and is described above under that head. At the S. end, adjoining the N. side of the wall above the N. arcade of the priory church, is exposed one bay of the timber roof of Alcock's period consisting of moulded wall-plates and three moulded beams running N. and S. with carved foliation at the junctions. In the W. wall of the bay is a small recess, now a cupboard, but perhaps once an opening to the roof-space over the adjoining range before the addition of the third storey.
The room S. of the old Library has now been converted into an annexe to contain the library of Malthus, the economist, Fellow 1793, recently given to the College.
The West Wing has been extensively modernised; the history of it has been summarised above. The S. side, except for the two-storey bay-window added in 1886, is uniform with the rest of the S. front of the College; the windows are all of the late 19th century, in place of sash-windows inserted in 1791 and shown in le Keux's engraving of the College in C. H. Cooper's Memorials of Cambridge. The N. side is uniform with the rest of Outer Court and with three windows on each floor similar to and of the date of those on the same floors respectively on the E. side of the Court but all, except three, blocked. The W. end adjoins the Gatetower. In the Interior, the Dining-room on the ground floor is modernised, but a cupboard in the N. end of the W. wall is contrived in a blocked doorway with four-centred head to the Gatehall. The bedroom and the dressing-room on the second floor are lined with 18th-century panelling with moulded dado-rail and cornice, the bedroom having a simple stone fireplace-surround with a bolection-moulded panel above.
In Second or New Court the northern extension of the E. claustral range was built in 1822 to contain twelve extra sets of chambers. It cost £2,290 and the contract was with James Webster, builder, of Cambridge. Subsequently, in the present century, a further extension some 30 ft. northward was made. It is of white brick with stone dressings and the roof is slate-covered. The E. and W. sides are symmetrically designed and uniform with those of the range that it adjoins. In the centre of the W. side is a square-headed doorway with a label. The plan also, as shown, is entirely symmetrical. The Interior remains largely unaltered, the rooms have simple plaster cornices, moulded wood dado-rails and fireplaces with reeded or moulded surrounds with roundels on square blocks at the angles. The staircase has close moulded strings, slender turned balusters, moulded handrail and columnar newels.
Entry to the College from Jesus Lane is by a Gateway (Plate 56) with piers built by R. Grumbold in 1703; they are brick with rusticated stone quoins, moulded bases, cornices and ball finials on flared pedestals decorated with gadrooning. The wrought-iron gates of c. 1725, in two leaves, have a central wicket, plain uprights with scroll-work and an elaborate overthrow with scrolls, finials, sheet-cut foliation and an original embossed panel of the College arms with shaped and tasselled apron; two large hinge-pins in the E. pier indicate that they replace heavier, or perhaps wooden, gates.
The Boundary-wall of the Master's Garden is known to have been built in part in 1681–2; it is of different dates. To Jesus Lane it is in five lengths of differing brickwork, the easternmost of the 19th century in stretcher bond, the next 18th century in Flemish bond, then a long run comprising narrow yellow bricks in English bond and perhaps of 1681–2, the fourth in English bond and the fifth, adjoining the entrancegateway, generally in Flemish bond of 18th-century red brick. The southern third of the return wall bounding the 'Chimney' is perhaps of 1681–2, being similar to that on the S., the rest has been refaced in the 19th century with white bricks in Flemish bond.
The Boundary-wall of the Fellows' Garden was built in 1608–9. It is of narrow red bricks incorporating, in the W. side of the E. wall, much reused masonry, and of yellow bricks in the upper part of the N. and S. walls. Buttresses have been added against the inner faces of the E. and W. walls and their upper parts repaired subsequently. In the N. wall is one and in the S. wall are two blocked archways with four-centred heads and, in the E. end of the N. wall, an 18th-century doorway with moulded stone architrave hung with a door of six flush panels. Against the W. wall is a timber Summer-house of c. 1800, the E. side being open and framed by Tuscan pilasters supporting a pedimented entablature. The low W. Boundarywall of Outer Court is of red brick surmounted by a wrought-iron railing with scroll-work standards at intervals surmounted by modern chevaux-de-frise; at the S. end is a small wrought-iron gate.