Saffron Walden

An Inventory of the Historical Monuments in Essex, Volume 1, North West. Originally published by His Majesty's Stationery Office, London, 1916.

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'Saffron Walden', in An Inventory of the Historical Monuments in Essex, Volume 1, North West, (London, 1916) pp. 228-260. British History Online https://www.british-history.ac.uk/rchme/essex/vol1/pp228-260 [accessed 19 April 2024]

In this section

64. SAFFRON WALDEN. (B.b.)

(O.S. 6 in. (a)iii. S.W. (b)ix. N.W. (c)ix. N.E. (d)ix. S.W.)

Saffron Walden is a parish and market town 11 m. N. by E. of Bishop's Stortford. The first settlement on the site might have been enclosed by the Repell ditches, but the town in the 11th and 12th centuries mainly occupied the ridge on which the Church and Castle now stand. The stalls of the mediæval market-place are probably represented by the narrow streets and blocks of buildings S. of King Street, and the later mediæval town extended round that area. The Parish Church is an ecclesiastical monument of great importance, and amongst the secular buildings the 12th-century Castle, the Jacobean mansion, Audley End, the early 17th-century almshouses near it, and the early 16th-century house, St. Aylotts, are all of great interest. In the town are numerous examples of 15th-century and later town-houses, which well illustrate the development of that type of building, and at Sewers End is a house (122) containing interesting painted wall-decorations.

Roman

(See No. (157), p. 260).

Ecclesiastical

b (1). Parish Church of St. Mary the Virgin stands at the N.W. corner of the town. The walls are of flint rubble with dressings of limestone and clunch; the roofs are covered with lead. The earliest work in the church is of fairly late 13th-century date, and consists of the chancel-arcades, the arches opening into the chapels from the aisles, and a crypt or vaulted chamber, which is partly under the S. aisle, and partly under the S. porch. The position of the crypt indicates the existence, in the 13th century, of a S. aisle narrower than the present aisle, and much too narrow for the 13th-century arch to the chapel. The width of the former aisle suggests that the arch originally opened into a transept on the site of the two E. bays of the present aisle; the spacing of the E. bays of the S. wall further confirms this suggestion, and it is probable that the foundations and lower part of the wall of the E. bays are of the 13th century, and represent the S. wall of the former S. transept. In the N. aisle the spacing of the N. wall and the width of the arch opening into the N. chapel suggest a similar arrangement to that on the S., and the spacing is consistent with the existence of a central tower. It is possible, therefore, that the 13th-century church was of cruciform plan and consisted of a chancel with N. and S. chapels, a central tower, or at least a crossing, N. and S. transepts, nave, N. and S. aisles and a S. porch. About the middle of the 15th century, or somewhat earlier, a general rebuilding of the whole church was begun. The Chancel was built first, with a Charnel or bone-hole below it; the clearstorey of the chancel followed, and in the third quarter of the 15th century the Nave was rebuilt, and the West Tower added, probably outside the W. end of the older nave; the new nave was then joined to the tower, and, at the same time, the North and South Aisles were rebuilt, and the South Porch was added. Early in the 16th century the clearstorey of the nave was built, the chancel-arch raised and the turrets flanking it were added; the North and South Chapels were much altered, if not rebuilt, c. 1526. The church was restored in 1792–3, and the spire was added in 1831. Restorations also took place in 1859–60 and 1876; the N. chapel was restored in 1904.

The church is one of the largest and finest in the county. Among the fittings, the 14th-century carvings in the N. aisle, and the Audley tomb of 1544, are noteworthy.

Architectural Description—The Chancel (44½ ft. by 24 ft.) has a modern E. window. In the N. wall is a mid 15th-century window of three cinquefoiled lights and tracery in a four-centred head; the external jambs, and head and the rear arch are moulded; further W. is an arcade of two bays, of late 13th-century date; the two-centred arches are of two moulded orders resting on a pier quatrefoil on plan, and responds with attached half-piers, all with moulded capitals and bases; the base of the pier seems to have been re-cut in the 15th century. In the S. wall is a window and an arcade of two bays similar to those on the N., but the base of the pier is original. On each wall, above the arcades, is a mid 15th-century string-course, set with small shields painted in the 18th century. The mid 15th-century clearstorey has six windows in both the N. and S. walls, each of three trefoiled and transomed lights with tracery in a four-centred head, and a moulded external label; the external jambs and head are moulded. The two-centred chancel-arch (see Plate, p. 229) is of two moulded orders with elaborate cusped and panelled spandrels on the W. face; the outer order is continued down the responds; the inner order rests on attached semi-circular shafts with moulded bases, and capitals set with small carved flowers; the lower part of the responds is of the third quarter of the 15th century, but the upper part, with the arch, is of early 16th-century date.

The Charnel or bone-hole, now called the Howard Vault, below the E. end of the chancel, is of mid 15th-century date. It has two small rectangular windows in the E. wall, and one in the N. wall; it is now inaccessible.

The North Chapel (28 ft. by 24 ft.) has buttresses and panelled pinnacles and an embattled parapet of the 16th-century, the moulded string-course of the parapet is enriched with small carved bosses such as a phœnix, cat, censing angels, and various grotesques. In the E. wall is a modern window, and below it a stone inscribed 1526. In the N. wall are two modern windows, and under the western is an early 16th-century doorway with moulded jambs and two-centred arch with a moulded label. In the W. wall is a late 13th-century arch, similar in character and detail to those of the arcades of the chancel; the wall appears to have been cut back and the capitals have been partly re-cut, probably in the 15th century.

The South Chapel (24½ ft. by 27½ ft.) has, in the E. wall, a window of 1792. In the S. wall there are two modern windows, and below the western is a doorway similar to that in the N. chapel but with a modern four-centred arch. In the W. wall is an arch similar to that in the N. chapel, except that the capitals have not been re-cut, although the arch has been narrowed, and the N. respond and segment of the arch were re-set early in the 16th century.

Saffron Walden, the Parish Church of St. Mary the Virgin.

The Nave (113 ft. by 23 ft.) has 15th-century N. and S. arcades (see Plates, pp. 229–231) each of seven bays with moulded two-centred arches springing from moulded and shafted piers and E. responds; the shafts have moulded capitals and bases; the spandrels of the arcade have cusped panelling, and bosses carved with the Bourchier knot, molets, Katherine wheels, a wallet and staff, and a shield with three scallops; the westernmost arch in each arcade butts against the buttress of the W. tower; above the arches is a moulded cornice enriched with carved bosses; in each wall, E. of the E. respond, is a small doorway with moulded jambs and four-centred arch with carved spandrels; it opens into a stair-turret, which was added early in the 16th century, carried up to the roof and finished with an octagonal and crocketed stone cupola enriched with scale-ornament. At the level of the former rood-loft is a blocked doorway, and lower down are traces of the existence of a wooden cove, said to have been part of the Audley End pew. The early 16th-century clearstorey has an embattled parapet and a moulded cornice, enriched with bosses, carved with various designs, including the Bourchier knot. In both the N. and S. walls are thirteen windows, coupled in each bay except the westernmost, and all of three cinquefoiled transomed lights with tracery under a four-centred head, each pair under a main four-centred arch with cusped and pierced spandrels; the lower range of lights is blind; between the bays are wall-shafts continued up from the piers of the arcade and finished with moulded capitals. At the W. end of the N. clearstorey is a blocked window, formerly of three lights under a four-centred head, which may indicate the existence of a 15th-century clearstorey, or that it was begun, but not finished.

The North Aisle (24 ft. wide) is of eight bays, of late 15th-century date; the three eastern, corresponding to the two eastern of the nave-arcade, formed a chapel. The N. wall of the three eastern bays has an embattled parapet with a moulded string-course carved with grotesques, including a saddled beast, wild-man, wyvern, woman with a cat in her lap, chained monkey, rabbit and goat; above and below the windows the wall is faced with flint and stone chequer-work, much restored; the panelled and splayed buttresses have crocketed pinnacles. The five western bays correspond to those of the nave-arcade, and have an embattled parapet and plain buttresses with pinnacles. In the N. wall are eight windows of late 15th-century date, much restored, and each of four cinquefoiled lights with tracery in a two-centred head; the three eastern windows have moulded internal and external reveals and square external heads with traceried spandrels, much restored; the remaining windows have moulded labels with grotesque stops, and no tracery in the spandrels. Below the three eastern windows, inside, are shallow niches (see Fittings), and between the same windows are clustered wall-shafts with moulded bases and foliated capitals, surmounted by niches, (see Fittings); between the fourth and fifth windows, and again between the sixth and seventh, and also in the N.W. angle, are circular wall-shafts with moulded bases and capitals. Below the sixth window is the 15th-century N. doorway with moulded jambs and two-centred arch under a square head with traceried spandrels; the outer member of the jambs has embattled capitals supporting the moulded label; the internal splays are moulded, and the spandrels of the rear arch have quatrefoil panels with blank shields. In the W. wall is a 15th-century window, much restored, of five cinquefoiled lights with tracery in a two-centred head.

The South Aisle (25 ft. wide) has a similar arrangement of bays to that of the N. aisle. The three eastern bays formed a chapel. In the S. wall are eight windows of late 15th-century date, the three eastern are of similar design to those in the N. aisle, but have sunk, trefoiled spandrels outside, and are almost completely restored; the remaining windows, except the sixth, are uniform with the corresponding windows in the N. aisle; the sixth window is of three cinquefoiled lights with tracery in a four-centred head, and opens into the upper storey of the S. porch. Below the sixth window is the S. doorway of early 14th-century work, re-set in a thickening of the wall; the jambs and two-centred arch are of three moulded orders; the moulded internal splays and the panelled rear arch are of the 15th century. Further W. is a doorway to the porch staircase, with moulded jambs and four-centred arch. Between the third and fourth windows is a heavy wall-shaft with rounded capital and base set against a nib of masonry, and, opposite to it, against the second pier of the nave arcade, is a similar shaft; the bays of the western part of the wall are divided, except between the fifth and sixth bays, by slender wall-shafts. In the W. wall is a window uniform with that in the W. wall of the N. aisle.

The West Tower (15 ft. square) is of four stages with an embattled parapet and stone spire; it was built in the third quarter of the 15th century, but the fourth stage was rebuilt and the spire added in 1831; at the angles are octagonal turrets, partly masked by buttresses; the two eastern contained staircases, but that on the S.E. has been blocked or destroyed. The two-centred tower-arch is of three moulded orders, the two outer orders are continuous and the innermost order rests on round attached shafts with moulded capitals and bases; flanking the arch are doorways to the two staircases, with moulded jambs and four-centred arches with foliated spandrels. The much restored W. doorway has moulded jambs and a four-centred arch under a square head with panelled spandrels; the internal splays and rear arch are moulded; the W. window, of three cinquefoiled lights, is almost entirely modern. In the angles of the ground stage are vaulting shafts with moulded, capitals and bases, and the moulded springers and wall-ribs of a vault which was never completed or has been destroyed. The third stage has a modern window in each wall. The bell-chamber is entirely modern.

The North Porch, of c. 1500, has pinnacles at the angles and a parapet string-course enriched with carvings; the stone vault has moulded diagonal, intermediate, ridge and wall-ribs, and springs from vaulting shafts in the angles with moulded bases and capitals; the bosses are carved with foliage, and one boss with the half-figure of an angel. The four-centred outer archway is moulded and has a square moulded outer order and a moulded label resting on small attached shafts with moulded capitals and bases, all much restored; above the archway is an embattled string-course. The E. and W. walls have each a window of two uncusped lights under a three centred head, all much restored. Against the S. wall is a moulded four-centred archway, built against, and partly covering the N. doorway.

The South Porch with the Porch-chamber projects from the S. aisle, and is of late 15th-century date. The parapet is embattled and the buttresses are finished with octagonal sham turrets. The porch has a panelled and fan-vaulted roof of two bays, much restored, and with two large foliated bosses; the vaulting rests on shafts with moulded capitals and bases. The moulded and two-centred outer archway has a square head with traceried spandrels, and the responds have attached shafts with moulded capitals and bases. The E. and W. walls have each two windows, much restored, and all of two uncusped lights in a two-centred head; the reveals are moulded and the moulded labels are apparently 14th-century work, re-set. The porch-chamber has, in the S. wall, a much restored window of four cinquefoiled lights with tracery in a four-centred head; the reveals are moulded. The E. and W. walls have each two windows of two plain lights under a square head, which is almost entirely modern.

The Crypt (16½ ft. square) is partly below the S. porch and partly below the S. aisle. It is divided into two bays from N. to S., and has a late 13th-century stone vault with chamfered diagonal and wall-ribs springing from semi-octagonal shafts with chamfered plinths. In the N.W. angle are traces of a circular staircase. In the E. wall is one window, and in the W. wall two windows or air-shafts, all now blocked and much altered. In the S. wall is the modern doorway.

The Roof of the chancel is of six bays and of late 15th-century date. It is low-pitched and has moulded main timbers with foliated bosses at their intersections; the boss over the altar is carved with a chalice and wafer; the tie-beams have curved braces with traceried spandrels, and the wall-brackets have carved figures of the apostles, etc. The early 16th-century roof of the N. chapel is of four bays with moulded main timbers, and brackets carved with figures of saints; the coved cornice has carved figures of angels with spread wings. The early 16th-century roof of the nave is of seven bays and a quarter, the main timbers are moulded and the two and a quarter bays at the E. end are more richly ornamented than the rest; the wall-plates are carved alternately with badges, including a pomegranate, fleur de lis, crowned rose and portcullis, and figures of angels; the intersections of the main timbers have bosses carved with foliage, the Stafford knot, double-headed eagle, a molet, etc.; the curved braces to the tiebeams and wall-plates have traceried spandrels. The roofs of the N. and S. aisles are similar to each other, and appear to be of the 16th century, but were possibly altered in the 17th century; the tie-beams have crude tracery above them, and long curved brackets with similar tracery in the spandrels; at the feet of the intermediate principals are ogee brackets of Renaissance character; the roof of the S. aisle has grotesque carved bosses with shields bearing a star and crescent, a monogram and, apparently, the initials A R. The late 15th-century roof of the porch-chamber has moulded main timbers and cambered principals.

Fittings—Brasses and Indents. Brasses: In N. chapel—on W. wall, (1) to Thomas Turner the elder, mercer, 1610, and Joan his wife, 1619, plate with ornamental border. In N. aisle—on N. wall, (2) of woman, c. 1490; (3) and (4) of two women in fur-trimmed gowns and butterfly head-dresses, c. 1480; (5) and (6) of civilian and his wife, c. 1510; (7) of civilian, early 16th-century; (8) of woman, c. 1530, with flat cap and sash girdle, local type; (9) of civilian, c. 1530, with furred gown (see Indent 12); (10) of priest, c. 1430, in mass vestments, above head device of pelican, modern copy of lost original device (see Indent 8). Indents: In N. chapel—(1) of figure and marginal inscription, 15th-century; (2) of civilian and his wife, woman's figure with high-crowned hat, inscription plate, three other plates and marginal inscription, c. 1580; (3) of inscription plate. In S. chapel—(4) of man and two wives, inscription plate, five scrolls and small figure of saint; (6) of civilian and his wife, and two inscription plates; (7) of civilian, under canopy, and standing on bracket, two shields and marginal inscription; (8) of brass (10) with two shields and inscription; plate; (9) of figure and inscription plate, fragment only; (10) part of floriated cross with marginal letters .... OHAN: DE: SAY .... DV ....L.. LALME, early 14th-century, much defaced. (11) of inscription plate. In N. aisle—(12) of man and four lozenges (see Brass 9); (13) of civilian and inscription plate, late 16th or early 17th-century; (14) of man and his wife and two plates, late 15th or early 16th-century; (15) of man and his wife, early 16th-century. In S. aisle—at W. end (16) of inscription plate, half slab only; (17) of inscription plate; (18) of three men and one woman, c. 1500, half slab only; (19) of man and his wife and inscription plate; (20) of man and his two wives, inscription plate and two plates; (21) of inscription plate. In S. porch—fixed in E. wall (22) of man and his three wives, plate with figures, probably of the Virgin and Child, scrolls, inscription plate and four shields. Covering window of crypt— (23) of figures, four scrolls and shield. Chests: In N. aisle—plain, with iron bands and lock-plates, early 16th-century; with carved and panelled front, early 17th-century. In porch-chamber—with curved lid, iron-bound, probably 16th-century; large, panelled, late 15th or early 16th-century. Coffin-lids: In S. porch—three, fragments, with foliated crosses, 13th-century. Communion Table: with carved and bulging baluster legs and carved rails, early 17th-century, much restored. Cupboards: In S. chapel—made up of early 17th-century panelling, with moulded styles and incised ornament. In N. aisle—in W. wall, two recesses with shafted jambs and moulded four-centred heads, 15th-century, one recess fitted with modern shelves. Doors: In nave—in doorways to E. turrets, two with cinquefoil-headed panels and band of quatrefoils, S. door with scutcheon and ring, early 16th-century. In N. doorway—of two leaves with pinnacled buttress on middle style, small wicket in W. leaf. In S. doorway—similar to that in N. doorway, but with ring-handle ornamented with dragons. In doorway to porch staircase—of moulded battens with scut-cheon and ring-handle, late 15th-century. Font: octagonal, with sunk cusped panels, late 15th-century, much repaired with cement. Glass: In S. aisle—in W. window, head probably of female saint, early 16th-century. Monuments and Floorslabs. Monuments: In N. chapel—on N. side, (1) to [John] Leche, vicar of the parish [1521], altar-tomb with plain sides and marble slab with moulded edge and brass marginal inscription. On N. wall—(2) to Fridiswed, wife of James Robinett, 1706, tablet, with inscription and shield of arms on brass plate. In S. chapel—at E. end, (3) to Thomas, Lord Audley, K.G., Lord Chancellor, 1544, altar-tomb of touch, Renaissance work, with panelled sides and W. end divided into bays by enriched pilasters; in each bay a wreathed shield all defaced, except one at the W. end, of Audley, and one on the S. side with Audley impaling a coat of eight quarters, the first being barry; against wall at head a panel with enriched pilasters and an achievement of the Audley arms, on the frieze above it, the motto "Garde ta Foy." In N. aisle— on N. wall, (4) one side of an altar-tomb, with three moulded circular panels each containing a shield— (a) a mill-rind cross and an ermine tail, for Woodhall; (b) (a) quartering quarterly a cross countercoloured; (c) as (a), 16th-century; (5) to William Woodhall, 1603, alabaster and slate tablet with shield of arms; (6) to William Byrde, 1568, and Mary (Woodhall) his wife, 1613, tablet with Corinthian columns and entablature, and three shields of arms, two now obliterated; on W. wall—(7) to Thomas West of London, mercer, 1696, marble cartouche with shield of arms. In S. aisle—on W. wall, (8) to Thomas Baron, 1656, and Anne his wife, 1647, tablet with curved pediment and amorini; (9) to William Holgate, 1630, and Lettice his wife, 1629, tablet with side-columns, broken pediment and shield of arms. Floor-slabs: In N. chapel—(1) to James Robinett, mayor of the town, 1696–7, and Dorothy (Dyke) his wife, 1674, with shield of arms. In nave—(2) to John Holgate, 1673, with achievement of arms; (3) to Colonel Thomas Walsingham, 1691, with shield of arms; (4) to William Holgate, 1672, with achievement of arms; (5) to Jane, wife of Richard Drake, Rector of Radwinter, 1662, with shield of arms; (6) to James Monteth, 1681, and Anne (Holgate) his wife, 1685 (?), with shield of arms. In N. aisle—(7) to Edward Turner, 1699, incised slab; (8) to William Patch, 1709; (9) slab, with figure of man inlaid in white marble, early or mid 17th-century, much worn. Niches: Internal—in N. aisle, in three bays of N. wall, four, with canopied heads carved with designs and figure-subjects, including: David playing on the harp; St. John and the Lamb; the Incredulity of St. Thomas; the Virgin and Child; the Scourging of Christ; the Agony in the Garden; all c. 1340, re-set; in second bay, four, each with two trefoiled canopied heads with shields of the Passion emblems, later 14th-century, re-set; in third bay, four, same date, much weathered; on piers between bays, three, with spire-form vaulted canopies, 15th-century; on piers between first, second and third windows, two with spire-form vaulted canopies and moulded brackets, 15th-century. External—S. chapel—in angle of third buttress from E., with cinquefoiled head and grotesque lion-corbel, 15th-century. N. porch— on N. wall, with plain pointed head, early 16th century. Plate: includes silver-gilt cup of 1685, with quartered shield of Howard, cover with the Howard crest; silver-gilt standing paten of 1706, and a silver-gilt flagon of 1685, with the quartered arms of Howard. Reredos: Now in S. porch— in N. wall, fragment of an alabaster "table" with figure of civilian, probably part of a Crucifixion, late 14th-century. Royal Arms: Over tower arch—painted on board or canvas, arms of Charles II. Screens: Under W. arch of S. chapel— modern, incorporating cusped and foliated panels, late 14th-century. In porch-chamber—fragments of similar screen, both brought from elsewhere. Miscellanea: In S. porch, architectural fragments, 14th and 15th-century. Built into E. wall of S. porch—part of stone cross, possibly late 12th-century.

Condition—Good, much restored.

Secular

b (2). Walden Castle, 200 yards E. of the parish church, originally consisted of a mount on the E., crowned by a keep, and a large bailey on the W. The keep was built and the earthworks constructed probably late in the 11th or early in the 12th century. The buildings apparently fell into decay at an early date; only ruins of the keep now survive.

Walden Castle, the Keep

The Earthworks—Little remains of the earthworks, which lie on high ground on a promontory formed by the river Slade and another stream. The site of the bailey is well defined by a steep scarp enclosing about 2 acres; it is crossed by a slight transverse scarp, probably marking the site of a wall, which divides the bailey into two wards. The line of the ditch at the foot of the scarp has been ascertained at several points, and is now occupied by Castle Street on the N., Museum Street on the W., Church Street on the S., and on the E. it followed the old road, which is now obliterated by the grounds of Castle Hill House. The keep mount was never apparently of great height, and is now almost on a level with the surrounding ground.

The Keep (39 ft. by 40 ft.) is built of flint rubble, with a coursed facing set in herring-bone fashion; no dressings remain. Two stages of the building stand, and are entirely of early 12th-century date, except a low addition at the N.W. angle, built late in the 18th century as a semaphore station. The keep had massive clasping buttresses at the three free angles, and a flat pilaster buttress in the middle of the E., N. and S. sides; most of the buttresses are only represented by rough projections, but a little facing still remains. Projecting towards the W. from the N. end of the W. side is a rectangular structure, evidently the base of the original entrance, which must have been at the level of the third storey; it was probably approached by a staircase against the W. wall, and crossed by two archways, of which the rough abutments still remain against the W. wall; no trace is left of the outer wall of the staircase.

Interior—The basement has, in the middle, the base of a large square pier, which probably supported a column on the floor above. The N. and S. walls have each a plain recess with a semi-circular head, and the back of the N. recess has been pierced by a modern opening. In the W. wall are two similar recesses. In the core of the S.E. angle are traces of a circular staircase, but the wall has been cut through to form the modern entrance. In the N.W. angle are traces of a circular well-shaft; the well still exists, but is covered in. The upper storey has, in the W. wall, remains of a large fireplace.

The foundations of several rubble walls have been found in the area of the bailey.

Condition—Of earthworks, poor; of keep, ruined, and covered with ivy.

Audley End, Ground Plan before reduction.

b (3). Audley End, house, stables, outbuilding and park-walls, 1,500 yards W.S.W. of the parish church. The House is of three storeys; the walls are of stone, and the roofs are covered with lead and slate. It is said to have been begun in 1603 and finished in 1616, and stands near the site of the Benedictine Abbey of Walden, of which there are no remains. The original building consisted of seven ranges which enclosed two courtyards, the outer courtyard was entered from a gatehouse in the middle of the W. range. The N. and S. ranges extended beyond the E. range of the inner courtyard, and formed projecting wings. The N., S. and W. ranges of the outer courtyard, with the adjoining kitchen wing, were demolished c. 1721, and, about 30 years later, the E. range of the inner courtyard with the projecting wings, was also destroyed. To replace the connection between the two sides a corridor or gallery of three storeys was added on the E. side of the middle range. The building was extensively restored in the 18th and 19th centuries, and is now of half-H-shaped plan, with the wings extending towards the E.

The house remains a handsome example of Jacobean work. The 17th-century screen and ceiling in the Great Hall, the N. and S. staircases, and various fireplaces of the same date are all noteworthy.

Elevations—The elevations throughout are faced with ashlar, the storeys are divided by moulded string-courses, and the parapets are of pierced stone-work. Very little of the external stonework is original.

The W. Front (see Plate, p. 234) has a middle block of one storey, which contains the Great Hall, with a square projecting oriel in the middle, and a two-storeyed porch at each end. The ends of the N. and S. ranges are of three storeys, and have each a modern projecting bay; at the angles of the parapet are square turrets with copper-covered ogee cappings. The windows are all squareheaded, mullioned and transomed. The central block has two windows on each side of the oriel, which has tall windows with three transoms. The two porches are of uniform design. In each porch the ground storey has, at the angles, coupled Ionic columns, of marble, with capitals alternately of black and white marble; they stand on pedestals and support an entablature; the three sides have each a semi-circular archway with an enriched keystone, spandrels and frieze; the inner doorway (see Plate, p. 238) is original and has a semi-circular arch, square head and moulded imposts; the door has moulded styles, rails and panels enriched with arabesques; the tympanum above it is carved with representations of Peace and War, in the N. and S. porches respectively. The upper storey has at the angles coupled Corinthian columns and in the middle of the W. side a single column; all stand on an enriched plinth with projecting pedestals; the three sides have each two round-headed openings enriched with arabesques and shaped keys supporting the main entablature; the parapet is largely modern.

The E. Elevation of the main block is entirely of the 18th century, and the E. end of each wing is of the same date or modern.

The S. Elevation is of similar character to the front, and has three projecting bays. The ground floor of the N.E. wing had originally an open arcade, now filled in; the arcade is of nine bays with semi-circular keyed arches divided by Doric pilasters.

The N. Elevation is of similar character to the S. elevation, but has no arcade.

The chimney-stacks generally have square shafts with linked caps standing on square plinths. In two cases the shafts are circular, but all are pro bably entirely modern. There are six old rainwater heads on the various elevations, two with the date and initials I.R. 1686, one with W.M. 1689, two dated 1679 and 1686 respectively, and one with the initials I.P.

Interior—The Great Hall (65½ ft. by 26 ft.) has a flat roof or ceiling of five bays with moulded tiebeams; the hammer-beam brackets are elaborately enriched and have pierced pendants and plaster strap-work; the intermediate principals have pendants and strap-work against the walls; with the purlins they form forty plastered panels enriched with various crests and badges in low relief; below the brackets of the principals and intermediates are plaster cartouches painted with coats of arms. The mantelpiece on the E. side is original, but much restored; the fire-place is flanked by coupled diminishing pilasters, which support an enriched frieze and plain cornice; between the pilasters are niches with modern plaster figures; the overmantel is flanked by pairs of terminal figures which support an entablature and pierced cresting; in the middle is an achievement of the quartered arms of Howard. At the N. end is an oak screen (see Plate, p. 235) of three bays, richly ornamented throughout with strapwork, arabesques, etc. The bays are divided by pairs of terminal figures which stand on carved pedestals and support an enriched entablature; in the middle bay is an enriched round-headed doorway with a carved key and spandrels; above it is a raised centre-piece to the gallery front, ornamented with terminal figures and cresting, and with two round-headed openings filled with pierced arabesques; the side bays have enriched panels, and the upper panels have perspective arches; the back of the screen is panelled and has coupled Ionic pilasters. At the S. end is a stone screen, made from a design by Sir John Vanbrugh. The Screens have, at each end, a round-headed doorway of stone, flanked by diminishing pilasters which support an entablature. In the N. wall is a stone arcade of three bays and of similar character to the doorways. The Entrance Hall, N. of the Screens, has, in the N. wall, a late 17th or early 18th-century doorway of stone with an architrave and entablature; it is flanked by round-headed recesses. The N. Staircase is of the dog-leg type; it has square newels with moulded vases and pendants, moulded rail and balusters with intermediate arches following the rake of the stairs; many of the newels are surmounted by coarsely carved figures; the rail, balusters and newels are repeated against the wall. The S. Staircase (see Plate, p. 236 and p. xxxiv) is of the well type; the continuous newels round the well form a cage, and are ornamented with diminishing pilasters, round-headed arches and arabesques; the first flight has four separate newels surmounted respectively by a heraldic lion, a horse, a unicorn and a griffon holding shields; the moulded rail rests on square moulded balusters, with Ionic caps and small carved arches. The Cellar Staircase is also of the well type, and has turned balusters and square newels. The Servants' Hall has a plain barrel-vaulted ceiling, possibly not original. In the Corridor adjoining it is a Doric column and the springing of two arches, all apparently original and perhaps part of a former screen. Further W. is a wooden archway, probably original, with flanking pilasters and an enriched cornice.

Audley End, Ground Floor Plan

On the first floor, the Saloon (see Plate, p. 237) has a plaster ceiling divided by foliated bands with pendants into thirty panels ornamented with sea monsters, birds, ships, etc., in low relief; the frieze has geometric patterns and Medusa-heads. The richly ornamented fire-place is now painted, and is flanked by diminishing Ionic pilasters; the overmantel has the Howard arms between two niches. The Gallery over the Screens has, in the N. wall, an original stone doorway. The Neville Bedroom has an oak mantelpiece, flanked by fluted Ionic half-columns supporting an enriched entablature; the overmantel has elaborately carved arches, divided by a terminal figure and flanked by Corinthian columns supporting the main entablature. The Neville Sitting-room has an oak mantelpiece flanked by diminishing pilasters supporting a carved cornice; the panelled overmantel has terminal figures supporting the main cornice (see Plate, p. xxxv). The Howard Sittingroom has an original oak mantelpiece flanked by Ionic columns supporting a carved entablature (see Plate, p. 238); the panelled overmantel has Corinthian columns at the sides, which stand on small pavilions of four round arches. The Drawingroom has a richly ornamented frieze, and an enriched fireplace, partly original, with carved panels and Corinthian pilasters flanking the overmantel, which has some original panels incorporated in it (see Plate, p. xxxv). The Library has an original mantelpiece (see Plate, p. xxxv), much restored and not in situ; it is flanked by Ionic pilasters supporting an enriched entablature and an overmantel of two stages; the lower stage has grotesque caryatids and richly carved panels, and the upper stage has Corinthian pilasters supporting a cornice with obelisks and cresting; the panels have painted shields of Audley and Neville. The Dining-room, formerly two rooms, has, in the western part, an enriched frieze, apparently original. The modern Picture Gallery has an original fireplace, refixed; it has diminishing pilasters and terminal pilasters flanking the inlaid and panelled overmantel (see Plate, p. xxxv).

Audley End, First Floor Plan

The plaster ceilings of the Neville Sitting-room, the Howard Bedroom and the Howard Sittingroom, and the plaster friezes of the Neville Bedroom, the Library and the Small Library are also to a great extent original, but it is now impossible to distinguish between the old work and the new.

On the second floor, several rooms have original panelling, re-set, and there are several original doors and one made up of 16th-century linen-fold panelling. A bedroom in the N. wing has a fireplace with a four-centred arch and square moulded head, flanked by Doric columns; the overmantel has Ionic pilasters, an enriched entablature and cleft pediment. A bedroom in the S. wing has a mantelpiece with Doric and Ionic pilasters, and enriched panels with arched heads.

The Stables, N.N.W. of the house, and in Littlebury parish, are of three storeys; the walls are of brick, and the roofs are tiled. They were built in the second half of the 16th century, and form one long range with a slightly projecting cross-wing in the middle and at each end. On the N. Elevation (see Plate, p. 240) the storeys are divided by plain brick bands and the three wings are gabled; in the middle wing is a wide round-headed archway flanked by pilasters which support a pediment with blind tracery of Gothic character. Between the wings are semi-octagonal bay windows with rounded lights and transoms; in each gable is a square-headed window of three lights, with a moulded label. The S. Elevation (see Plate, p. 241) is similar to the N. elevation, but between the wings are three gabled dormers, and there are no bay windows; the windows are symmetrically arranged and are all of three lights. Inside the building, the openings of the bay windows have moulded and chamfered semi-circular arches, and the responds have each a crude pilaster with moulded capital and base. Stored in the stables are a number of carved fragments of woodwork of various dates from the 15th to the 17th century.

The Timber Store, formerly a barn, is built of brick; the roof is tiled. The N. end is probably of the 16th century, but the rest was apparently rebuilt late in the 18th century. The roof has queen-post trusses with cambered tie-beams and rough wall-brackets.

The Wall, on the S. side of the Park, is mainly of early 17th-century date and is built of red brick; in it is a blocked gateway flanked by semi-octagonal piers. About 400 yards N. of the house is a brick Water Gate with a four-centred arch, apparently of the 16th century; it is flanked by sloping buttresses, and is rebated for gates.

Condition—Of house, good, much restored; of stables, timber-store, wall and gate, good.

b (4). Abbey Farm and Almshouses, at Audley End, nearly 1 m. S.W. of the church, is partly of one storey, and partly of two storeys. The walls are of brick and the roofs are tiled. It was built c. 1600 on a double quadrangular plan as an almshouse of twenty tenements, ten in each quadrangle, with a Chapel, Hall and Kitchen in the range between the two quadrangles. At some uncertain date the E. end of the Chapel was pulled down, and in the 19th century the middle range and the N. quadrangle were considerably altered internally; they are now used as two tenements and farmbuildings. The S. quadrangle is still an almshouse.

The building is of especial interest as an example of a large double quadrangular almshouse of the 17th century. The original roof-truss of the Chapel and the remains of 14th and 15th-century stained glass are noteworthy.

The W. Elevation (see Plate, p. 239) has, in the middle, a block of two storeys, divided by a moulded string-course, and at each end, a lower block of one storey. The walls stand on a plinth of chamfered brick continued round the building. The middle block has a gable in the middle, two small gables at the N. end, and one at the S. end; at each end is a plain four-centred archway, flanked by brick pilasters. The brick windows are all original, and of one, two, or three lights with chamfered jambs and rounded heads. The four chimney-stacks have moulded cappings and diagonal shafts, modern at the top. The side blocks have each a gable and windows similar to those of the middle block. At each angle is a chimney-stack, with a single shaft set diagonally.

The S. Elevation is of one storey, with a gable in the middle and one at each end, and has a moulded eaves-course continued from the W. front. The windows are original and similar to those on the W. front. On each side of the middle gable is a chimney-stack similar to those on the W. side of the middle block; the top is modern. The chimney-stack at the S.E. angle has been destroyed.

The E. Elevation is of one storey, with a gable in the middle; the wall below the gable was built of old material when the E. end of the chapel was taken down. On each side is a courtyard entrance, similar to the archways on the W. front, but the S. entrance has been blocked. The N. end of the wall has been rebuilt with modern brick. The windows are similar to those on the other elevations, but three of them are blocked. Over the S. entrance are two chimney-stacks similar to those at the angles of the W. front, restored at the top. Over the N. entrance, only one chimney-stack remains; the top has been destroyed.

The N. Elevation has been much rebuilt and altered. There is a gable at the W. end. Two original windows remain, one of which has been blocked.

The internal Elevations of the two courtyards are similar in general character to the external elevations. The N. courtyard has been much altered, but on the E., N. and W. sides there are nine doorways, with chamfered jambs and four-centred heads; they opened into the former tenements, but several of them are now blocked. In the S. courtyard the doors and windows of the tenements remain, and are similar in character to those already described. The range between the two courtyards is of two storeys. The N. side has been much restored; the two windows, each of three lights, have original jambs, and the original doorway has a restored arch. On the S. side are two projecting chimney-stacks and at the W. end two tall transomed windows, each of two lights, which opened into the former kitchen, but are now blocked; they are of similar detail to those already described. Between the chimney-stacks is a doorway now blocked and a transomed window of three lights similar to those in the Kitchen; the other window and the dormers are modern.

Abbey Farm and Almshouses at Audley End, Saffron Walden

Interior—The internal arrangements of the N. quadrangle have been much altered, but both quadrangles originally included ten tenements. Each tenement, except two on the W., consisted of a room with a corner fireplace and a small store-room. The two tenements in the two-storeyed W. block were larger, and may have been assigned to the master or warden. Only one tenement retains a fireplace with a four-centred head, but there are a number of original moulded battened doors, and one panelled cupboard door. The courtyards are entered by two passages on the E. and two on the W.; three of them are divided by doorways in the middle, each with a four-centred arch; the doorways on the W. are fitted with battened doors which have moulded frames planted on, and strap-hinges. The E. doorway from the N. courtyard has a plain battened door with straphinges. The Chapel, at the E. end of the middle range, formerly projected about 19 ft. beyond the E. front; the remaining part is now divided into two storeys. Near the present E. wall is a roof-truss of hammer-beam form with curved braces (see Plate, p. xxxiv); the hammer-beam has a cornice and necking planted on, and above it, in the spandrel, is a moulded rail and two turned balusters; a halfbaluster forms a support to the curved brace of the collar-beam. In the W. wall there is a plain blocked doorway. The original Hall adjoins the Chapel on the W., and now forms two rooms; it has chamfered ceiling beams, and a fireplace with chamfered jambs and three-centred arch; against the W. wall is some early 17th-century panelling. The next room, on the W., has a chamfered ceiling-beam, and in the W. wall, opening into the Kitchen, an original four-centred doorway. The Kitchen is paved with stone, and is the full height of the range between the courtyards. It has, in the W. wall, a wide four-centred fireplace, now cemented and painted, which contains an old ornamental iron jack. The upper storey of the rest of the middle range has an original four-centred fireplace, and an early 17th-century panelled cupboard-door. In the windows of the Kitchen and of the S.W. tenement of the N. courtyard, is a collection of fragments of stained glass of various dates; some of it was probably brought from Walden Abbey and other parts from Jesus College, Cambridge. In the N. window of the Kitchen the fragments include figures of the Virgin and Child of late 14th-century date, tabernacle work, and quarries with various devices, in grisaille, of birds, and badges, etc., of the 14th and 15th centuries. In the S.W. tenement, in the N. room on the ground floor, are fragments, including the figure of a pope, an angel's face, several quarries with a broom-sprig, and the initials T.E., etc., all of late 14th or early 15th-century date; two quarries with foreign figuresubjects are of the 16th century. In the S. room are fragments of the figure of a saint, tabernacle work, inscriptions, a figure of St. Michael with other figures, quarries with devices, part of a shield —a chief checky or and gules with a running greyhound ermine therein and a scroll inscribed "Rafe Waren Knyght," all of the 14th and 15th centuries; also two foreign quarries with figures of St. Michael and St. Simon. On the first floor, in a window, is a figure of a saint in a hermit's habit, and various 14th and 15th-century fragments. Several windows in the tenements in the S. courtyard have quarries with traces of devices, but only three of the designs remain, and are of the 14th century.

The boundary wall enclosing the former garden of the almshouse at the back and sides, is of original brickwork, and at the N.E. angle are two large gate-piers.

Condition—Poor.

c (5). Village Moat, at Sewers End; on each side of the present road a stream has been diverted to form three enclosures, in which are monuments (122) and (123) and other buildings.

Condition—Imperfect.

a (6). St. Aylotts, house, barn and moat, 2 m. N.E. of the parish church. The House is of two storeys, the lower storey is of brick and the upper storey is timber-framed and plastered; the roof is tiled. It was built c. 1500 on a rectangular plan, with the Great Hall in the middle, the Solar on the S. and the Kitchen on the N. An outhouse on the E., connected with the house by a modern passage, was built in the 17th century, but is probably on the site of a building of earlier date.

The house is interesting as a brick and timber building of c. 1500. The carved angle-brackets, the moulded bressumers of the upper storey, the small bay-window of the pantry, and the original internal doorways and fire-places are noteworthy.

The S.W. Elevation has a moulded plinth and the upper storey projects, and rests on curved and moulded angle-brackets with carved foliage spandrels; the bressumer is plain, except a moulded length at each end, that at the N. end is further enriched with scroll-ornament. The plinth and the projection of the upper storey are continued round the building. Towards the N. end of the elevation is an original gabled staircase projection. Further N. is an original doorway with double-chamfered jambs and four-centred arch; four of the windows are original, but two of them have been blocked, and the other two have been altered externally. Between the chimney-stacks, two straight joints mark the position of the former oriel of the Hall. The two projecting chimney-stacks have stepped bases above the eaves, and shafts of different designs with diagonal pilasters; they are all original, except at the top.

At the S.W. End the upper storey has a moulded bressumer; on the ground floor is an original stone window of three pointed lights under a square head, and at the angles are diagonal buttresses.

On the N.E. Elevation the projecting upper storey has carved angle-brackets similar to those on the S.W. front. The bressumer is moulded and partly enriched with scroll-ornament. Near the S. end of the elevation is a projecting stair-turret, originally of semi-octagonal form, but with one angle now built out square. Almost in the middle of the elevation is an original stone doorway with moulded jambs, square head partly altered, and a moulded label. S. of the stair-turret is a semi-octagonal bay window with stone mullions and four pointed lights in front, and one in each splay. S. of the doorway is a square-headed window with a moulded label, formerly of three lights; the remaining windows have been much altered, and one of them has been cut away to form a modern doorway.

The N.W. End has a large projecting chimney-stack with a modern shaft.

Interior—The Hall, now cut up into the dining-room, cellar and passage, was of three bays with a longitudinal beam, two transverse beams, and wall-plates, all moulded. The dais at the S. end was not the full width of the building, and the original passage on the E. side has an oak doorway with moulded jambs and four-centred arch in a square head with carved spandrels, each bearing a scallop-shell, probably for Walden Abbey; W. of the dais are the chamfered jambs of the former oriel. A modern door on the E. of the dais has original strap-hinges with ornamental ends. The Solar, now the kitchen and pantry, has a moulded ceiling-beam and wall-plates. The doorway to the circular staircase has moulded stone jambs and four-centred head, and is fitted with a door which has strap-hinges with fleur de lis ends. The fireplace is partly blocked, but one moulded stone jamb and part of the square head are exposed. The Kitchen, now the dairy and entrance hall, has plain chamfered ceiling-beams. On the first floor there are four original oak doorways, two of them are blocked, and two partly destroyed; each doorway had moulded jambs and four-centred arch in square head with carved spandrels. The room at the S. end has an original fireplace with mould d jambs of brick and an embattled lintel of oak, enriched with bands of running foliage (see Plate, p. xxxiv); adjoining it is a double locker. On each side of the chimney-stack is a cupboard; one of them has a recess with a four-centred head, and the other a small quatrefoil window of oak, now blocked. The roof is of eight bays with trusses consisting of tie-beams with curved braces, collar-beams with curved in ersecting braces above them, and two rows of curved wind-braces.

Saint Aylotts, Saffron Walden.

The 17th-century Outhouse N.E. of the house is connected with the main building by a passage entirely modern, except the base of one side wall, which is of original brickwork. The outhouse is of two storeys, timber-framed and plastered. The ground floor has a large chamfered ceiling-beam and exposed joists.

The Barn, E. of the house, is timber-framed, partly plastered and partly weather-boarded; the roof is thatched. It is of early 17th-century date, and of five bays with side-aisles and a projecting entrance.

The Moat is almost square, and has traces of a brick revetment on the N. side.

Condition—Good.

a (7). Butlers Farm, house, barn and moat, 1 m. S.E. of Little Walden Church. The House is of two storeys with attics; the walls are timberframed and plastered; the roof is tiled. It was built in the second half of the 16th century on a half-H-shaped plan with the wings extending towards the N.

The original panelling with painted heraldry, and the plaster panel with heraldic design in the upper storey are of interest.

On the N. front are three gables. The two original chimney-stacks have grouped keeled shafts, partly restored.

Interior—On the first floor, the W. room is lined with late 16th or early 17th-century panelling, and has a door of similar panelling; each panel contains a painted ornament; the four panels over the fireplace have heraldic designs, including the Garter, a coronet, and the quartered shields of Howard and Knivet. In the same room is an original fireplace with brick jambs, moulded and plastered to imitate stone, and a head consisting of an oak beam, similarly covered with plaster. In a room over the present kitchen is an original fireplace with triangular head, now blocked, over which is a plaster panel containing a quartered shield of Howard surrounded by the Garter; in each of the spandrels is carved the head of a man.

The Barn, N.W. of the house, is of four bays with aisles and a projecting entrance, and is weather-boarded. It is probably of the 17th century.

The Moat is very incomplete.

Condition—Of house and barn, fairly good.

a (8). Little Walden Park, about 3 m. N.N.E. of the church, is of two storeys with attics; the walls are of brick, and the roofs are tiled. It was built about the middle of the 17th century.

On the S. Front, at each end, is a gable, and between the gables a gabled porch of two storeys, of which only the upper storey is of original brickwork; on each side of the porch is an original window, now blocked; the other windows have been reduced and altered. On the other elevations most of the original windows have been either blocked or similarly reduced, but on the N. Elevation one window of three lights retains the moulded brick jambs, head, mullions and transom. On the E. Elevation is a modern projecting chimney-stack with a diagonal shaft of 17th-century brick; the other chimney-stacks have been rebuilt with modern brick.

Interior—On the ground floor, in the kitchen, is a partition of early 17th-century panelling now painted. Other panelling has been removed to Chesterford Park, Great Chesterford. On the first floor is an old moulded battened door. The staircase is original, and has plain square newels with pointed tops, moulded handrail and fascia, and turned balusters, widely spaced.

Condition—Good.

Monuments (9–156).

The following monuments, unless otherwise described, are of the 17th century, and of two storeys, timber-framed and plastered; the roofs are tiled or thatched. Many of the buildings have exposed ceiling-beams, wide fireplaces and original chimney-stacks, and most of them have been much altered both inside and outside.

Condition—Good or fairly good, unless noted.

Bridge Street, E. side

b (9). House, over ½ m. W.N.W. of the church, with an 18th-century addition at the back. On the S.W. front the upper storey projects.

b (10). House, now two tenements, S.E. of (9), with a modern addition at the back. On the S.W. front the upper storey projects.

b (11). House, now two tenements, S.E. of (10), is of two storeys with attics. It was built, probably in the 15th century, on an L-shaped plan with the wings extending towards the S.E. and N.E., and consisted of a Hall, Screens, Buttery and Solar. The Hall, in the middle of the main block, was open to the roof; the Screens and Buttery were at the S.E. end; the Solar was at the N.W. end and was continued in the N.E. wing. In the 17th century an upper floor and a chimney-stack were inserted in the Hall. On the S.W. Front, at the N.W. end, some of the timber-framing is exposed, and at the S.E. end the brick-nogging is modern; the upper storey projects at each end, and also, at a higher level, in the middle, where it has a moulded bressumer carved with a foliated design; under it is the original bay-window of the Hall, now much altered; the S.E. doorway is original and has moulded jambs and four-centred head with foliated spandrels and a battened door; N.W. of the doorway is an original window, now blocked and partly destroyed, with moulded mullions not grooved for glass. At the S.E. end was another original window with hollow-chamfered mullions; one mullion is preserved in the Saffron Walden Museum. Inside the building, in the S.E. wall of the Screens, is an original doorway with chamfered jambs and four-centred head. In the roof of the Hall are remains of two original trusses, one of them retains an octagonal king-post with moulded base. In the central chimney-stack are two 17th-century fireplaces of stone, now concealed; one of them has a small moulded mantelshelf.

b (12). House, 40 yards S.E. of (11), with modern additions on the S.E. side.

b (13). The Eight Bells Inn, 20 yards S.E. of (12), was built late in the 16th century, but has modern additions on the N.E. side. On the S.W. front the upper storey projects and has a moulded bressumer carved with a foliated design; on the ground floor, the original windows have corbelled sills carved with grotesques and finished with an embattled moulding; on the first floor the original windows project and have, under the sills, small plastered coves with embattled mouldings. Inside the building, in the S.E. half of the ground floor, are moulded ceiling-beams; and on the first floor are tie-beams with mortices for braces.

b (14). House, and shop, 10 yards S.E. of (13).

b (15). House, 10 yards S.E. of (14), with a modern addition at the back. On the S.W. front the upper storey projects.

Saffron Walden, Plan Shewing Positions of Monuments Described

W. side

b (16). House, 30 yards S. of (9), is entered by a doorway and vestibule which form part of the structure of (17). On the N. front the upper storey projects. The entrance doorway has an old battened door, probably re-hung, with 17th-century lock and scutcheon.

b (17). House, now two tenements, S.E. of (16), is of two storeys with attics; it was built, probably in the 15th century, with a central Hall open to the roof, but an upper floor has been inserted in the Hall and the structure has been much altered. The upper storey projects at each end of the N.E. front. Inside the building, in the attics, are remains of a king-post truss.

b (18). House, now three shops, (see Plate, p. 37) 30 yards S.E. of (17), was extended at the back and re-fronted in the 18th century. On the N.E. front, the upper storey projects, and originally projected at the S.E. end, where it was supported by a large diagonal joist. The original N.W. chimney-stack has four octagonal shafts, from which the caps have been removed; in the stack is a three-light window of stone, now blocked and much weathered, with a pediment of brick. Inside the building, in the small entrance hall of the northernmost tenement, are two carved fan ornaments, eight brackets, and a caryatid figure, of early 17th-century date.

In the garden are fragments of stone, apparently corbels, with early 16th-century carving.

b (19). Doors, in house, S.E. of (18). The house is of the 18th-century, but has, on the ground floor, three doors made up of early 17th-century panelling; many of the panels are carved with small shallow arches enriched with guilloche and foliated designs.

Condition—Rebuilt, fittings only remain.

b (20). House, now two tenements, 10 yards S.E. of (19), was built at the end of the 15th century, and much altered in the 17th century. The original plan apparently consisted of a Hall on the ground floor with a screened passage at the S.E. end, entered from the street, and possibly containing a staircase. At the N.W. end of the N.E. front the upper storey projects and is gabled; on the rest of the front it projects at a higher level on an embattled bressumer and exposed joists, some of the joists rest on curved brackets and on the remains of small half-round pilasters with moulded capitals and bases. At the S.E. end of the N.E. front, under the upper storey, are a moulded cornice and traces of framing which apparently indicate the position of the original doorway. In the partition which forms the original entrance-passage are two doorways with four-centred moulded oak heads and foliated spandrels.

b (21). House, now two tenements S.W. of (20), at the N. corner of Myddylton Place, is of two storeys with attics. It is built round an irregular quadrangle to which there is a waggon-way at the N.W. end of the N.E. range; the present domestic buildings, which are contained in the N.E. and S.E. ranges were built at the end of the 15th century; the S.W. range and the S.W. part of the N.W. range were built in the 18th century as maltings, and there is an addition of the same period in the E. angle of the courtyard.

House at the corner of Myddylron Place, Saffron Walden.

On the S.E. Front (see Elevation) the timberframing of five western bays is exposed; the upper storey projects and has a moulded and embattled bressumer, now defaced, carried on exposed joists; the heavy joists between the bays are supported by small curved hollow-chamfered brackets which rest on slender semi-circular shafts with moulded capitals, much weathered; in the ground storey is an original window with some moulded mullions, and in the upper storey are two small oriel windows with moulded corbel-sills, each of four lights with pointed heads and moulded mullions. At the E. angle, under the upper storey, is a large diagonal bracket supported by a heavy post, both carved with a twisted-leaf design; the post has a moulded capital with cresting.

Saffron Walden. House at the corner of Myddylton Place

On the N.E. Front the upper storey projects for more than half the length of the range, but the northern part is on a lower level, the break occurring at the N.W. end of the original Hall; the waggon-way, near the N.W. end, is carried up to the eaves of the roof, and has rough angle-brackets; the original Hall has a bay window which has been restored but retains its original moulded cornermullions.

Interior—A room (see Plan 1) on the ground floor near the N.E. end of the S.E. range, contains some 17th-century panelling, re-set, and has a moulded longitudinal ceiling-beam, which ends against a diagonal beam into which the joists carrying the upper storey at the E. corner are framed. In the original Hall (2) the fireplace has a mantelpiece of mid 17th-century date with moulded shelf and architrave and a frieze of arabesque ornament; the walls are covered with 17th-century panelling; the S.E. side is formed by the original double screen (see Plate, p. 246) which has a wide doorway in the middle, and a smaller doorway on each side, all with four-centred heads; the middle doorway has foliated spandrels and moulded jambs, with semi-circular shafts which have moulded capitals and bases; the two smaller doorways are of simpler design and have sub-heads set in the S.E. half of the screen at a lower level. In the roof of the S.W. part of the S.E. range, which is now used as a storehouse (3), remains of queen-post trusses are visible.

Freshwell Street, W. side

b (22). The Saffrons, (formerly Freshwell House) 80 yards S.W. of (18), was built on an L-shaped plan with the wings extending towards the S.W. and N.W., but was rebuilt and re-fronted with brick in the 18th century. The upper storey of the N.W. wing originally projected at the N.W. end, but has been under-built. Inside the building, on the ground floor, in a room at the S.W. end, is a dado of early 17th-century panelling, re-set. The main staircase is possibly of early 18th-century date; it has turned and carved balusters and a moulded handrail.

b (23). House, about 40 yards S. of (22), was built probably late in the 16th century, but has been considerably altered. At the E. end the upper storey projects, but has been partly under-built; it has a moulded bressumer carved with a foliated design.

Condition—Poor.

b (24). House, at the corner of Bridge Street, was built probably in the middle or second half of the 16th century. On the N.W. and N.E. elevations the upper storey projects, but on the N.E. elevation has been partly under-built. In the N.E. wall is a gabled oriel window, apparently original, but altered. Inside the building, on the ground floor, are traces of small curved anglepieces at the heads of the studs. On the first floor is a rough king-post truss.

E. side

b (25). House, now three tenements, S.W. of (24). On the N.W. front the upper storey projects. Condition—Poor.

b (26). Garden-wall, with doorway, on the E. side of the street, 140 yards S.S.W. of (25), was built of brick with tile-courses, on foundations of flint rubble, in the middle of the 16th century, but has an 18th-century coping. The doorway is of brick and of two moulded orders, the inner with a four-centred, and the outer with a square head; it is flanked by piers each finished with a weathered top and roll-moulding.

Myddylton Place, W. side

b (27). Myddylton House, 30 yards S.W. of (21), is of two storeys with attics; it was built possibly early in the 16th century, on a half-H-shaped plan, with the wings extending towards the N.W., but an early 18th-century addition fills the space between the original wings, and the whole building has been re-faced. Inside the building, a room on the ground floor has a large fireplace of early 16th-century date (see Plate, p. xxxiv); the opening is framed by massive timbers, moulded and carved, and in the foliated spandrels are the syllables "Myd" and "dyl"; between them is a carved tun bearing the letter "K" and an obscurely carved date in grotesque arabic numerals, possibly 1534; the hearth is slightly raised and has a moulded wooden curb of late 17th-century date; the walls are lined with early 17th-century panelling, and in the door are some exceptionally fine linen-fold panels of early 16th-century date. A room on each side of the entrance hall, and a room on the first floor are lined with early 18th-century panelling, now painted white.

E. side

b (28). House, 20 yards E. of (27), was built possibly in the 15th century; it was originally of one storey and possibly a barn or outhouse; in the 17th century an upper floor was inserted, and at the N.W. end is a modern addition. The timber-framing is exposed, except at the S.E. end which has been re-faced with brick. Inside the building, on the first floor, is a cambered tie-beam with curved braces.

High Street, E. side

b (29). The Close House, at the S. corner of Castle Street, is of three storeys and apparently once formed two structures. The S. or main block was built in the middle of the 16th century; the N. block, which is of two storeys only, is of doubtful date. The house is now of L-shaped plan with the wings extending towards the S.E. and N.E.; the N.E. wing is probably a fairly recent addition. The whole structure was much altered c. 1700, and the S. block was almost entirely encased with brick in 1854. On the S.W. front both the upper storeys of the S. block project. At the N. end of the N. block is a gable, and under the eaves is a cove of c. 1700; some of the windows are also of c. 1700, and one is of oval shape; a doorway of painted wood has an egg-and-dart moulding on the architrave, and a cornice with a fimbriated frieze carved with laurel leaves. Over the doorway of the S. block is carved "1554, 1854."

Interior—In a bay window in the S.W. wall of the S. block is visible a short length of the original moulded bressumer, carved with a twisted-leaf design. In a room on the first floor of the same block are moulded ceiling-beams, partly restored; the walls are lined with panelling, probably original, but re-set, and one of the doors is made up of six panels, one of them dated 1546, and all carved in high relief with heads in medallions and foliage of Italian design; at the E. end of the room is a fireplace with a panelled overmantel containing a large panel carved in high relief with a classical subject; the fire-back has a shield—a saltire and the date, 1612. Some of the timbers of the original roof remain in situ under the present lower-pitched roof, and suggest that it was originally open above the first floor. In the N. block is a queen-post truss, probably of the 16th century; its position shows that the upper floor is an insertion of later date. In one of the rooms are two small carved pilasters of the 16th century, re-set, and a fireplace of c. 1700 with bolection-moulded panels.

b (30). House, now two tenements, 60 yards S.E. of (29), is of two storeys with attics; it was built in the first half or middle of the 16th century, on a half-H-shaped plan, with wings of unequal length extending towards the N.E. There are modern additions between and at the ends of the original wings. At each end of the S.W. front and at the N.W. end of the house the upper storey projects and is gabled; at the western corner it is supported by a diagonal bracket on a heavy wall-post with a small moulded capital ornamented with a much weathered cresting. Inside the building, in the N. tenement, is an original wooden doorway of two moulded orders, the outer squareheaded and the inner four-centred, with foliated spandrels. In the roof are rough queen-post trusses.

b (31). House, S.E. of (30), is of two storeys and attics; the present structure is of c. 1700, but some chamfered beams inside the building may be of earlier date; at the back are modern additions. At the N.W. end the house is pierced by an archway. On the S.W. front, on the first floor, the windows are of c. 1700. The attics are lighted by three hipped dormer windows.

b (32). House, S.E. of (31), is of two storeys with attics; it was built probably about the middle of the 16th century, but the original central chimney-stack has been removed, though the framing of beams, carved with a foliated design, remains in the entrance lobby and adjoining rooms. In the 18th century the house was extended at the back and almost entirely rebuilt.

b (33). Cambridge House, at the S. corner of Church Street, has been rebuilt, but many of the rooms have dadoes of 16th or early 17th-century panelling, re-set. In a doorway of the entrance corridor is an ogee wooden door or window-head, with sunk quatrefoils in the spandrels, of late 15th-century date, re-set and heavily painted.

b (34). House, with shop, S. of (33), is of two storeys with attics; it now forms part of (35), but was built as a separate structure early in the 16th century; at the back are modern additions, and the house has been altered internally; the attic floor is probably an insertion. On the W. front the upper storey projects, and has a window of late 17th-century date.

b (35). House, S. of (34), is of two storeys with attics; it was built early in the 16th century, but there are modern additions at the back, and the attic floor is probably an insertion. On the W. front the upper storey projects and has a heavy moulded bressumer; under the eaves is a plaster cove of late 17th-century date. At the N. end is an original wooden doorway with moulded jambs, four-centred head and foliated spandrels, but inserted in it is a modern door-frame; in the upper storey is a window of late 17th-century date. Inside the building, on the ground floor, at the N. end, is a passage cut off by a partition, apparently an original arrangement. In the room S. of the passage is some 16th-century linen-fold panelling, and some plain panelling of later date, both apparently re-set.

b (36). House, now shop and motor garage, 20 yards S. of (35), has been rebuilt, but traces remain of a timber-framed and plastered house, probably of the 17th century. At the N. end is a high archway opening to the yard.

b (37). The Cross Keys Hotel, at the N. corner of King Street, was built about the middle of the 16th century. In the 18th or 19th-century the walls of the W. half were raised, and the roof was altered and covered with slate; at the E. end the original tiled roof of sharp pitch remains under the modern roof. On the S. and W. fronts the upper storey projects, and at the S.W. corner is supported by a diagonal bracket on a heavy wall-post. Inside the building, on the ground floor, the N.W. room has moulded ceiling-beams, and the S. wall is covered with 16th-century panelling, which has a fluted frieze and small carved brackets; one panel has a small carved semi-circular arch on which is the date 1569, and the initials W.A. In the room above the N.W. room the S. wall is covered with panelling of the same date.

b (38). House, 40 yards S. of (37), is of two storeys with attics; it has been re-fronted, but the eastern part appears to be mainly of early 18th-century date; a few hollow-chamfered beams supporting the first floor may be of the 17th century.

b (39). House, 50 yards S. of (38), has been almost completely rebuilt, but traces remain of a timber-framed and plastered structure, and it is reported that during recent alterations a four-centred door-head of wood was discovered in the S. wall; the door must have opened on to the river Slade, which was enclosed in the 18th century.

b (40). The Greyhound Inn, at the S. corner of George Street, was built about the middle of the 16th century, probably on an L-shaped plan, with the wings extending towards the N. and E., but it has been almost completely rebuilt. On the W. front, at the S. end, is a gable; the upper storey projects and has a cambered, moulded and embattled bressumer, possibly a re-used tie-beam. Inside the building, in the bar parlour N. of the main entrance, is a wide fireplace with an iron basket-grate and a wrought iron crane, both of late 17th or early 18th-century date.

b (41). House, 30 yards S. of (40), has been much altered. At the N. end the upper storey projects and is supported by plain curved brackets; under it are traces of an original wooden window-frame with moulded mullions, now blocked.

b (42). House, S. of (41), has, under the eaves, a cove of late 17th-century date. A photograph in the Saffron Walden Museum shows that the original central chimney-stack had grouped diagonal shafts, now destroyed.

b (43). House, 100 yards S. of (42), is of L-shaped plan, with the wings extending towards the S. and E. It was probably originally an oblong rectangular structure, but has been almost entirely rebuilt. The original central chimney-stack has grouped diagonal shafts.

W. side

b (44). House, 40 yards S. of (29), is an 18th-century building, but has two doors, one in front and the other at the back, partly made up of mid 16th-century panelling, now covered with paint; five of the panels are carved with grotesque heads, the rest with foliated designs.

b (45). House, 60 yards S.E. of (44), has been entirely rebuilt, except the 17th-century central chimney-stack, which is modern at the top.

b (46). House with shop, and outhouse, S. of (45). The House was built probably late in the 16th or early in the 17th century, but has been much altered, and the original plan is uncertain; the present plan is of modified L-shape, with the wings extending towards the N. and W.

The Outhouse stands in the back yard; it is a rough structure of two storeys, now used as a storehouse, but originally a cottage.

Condition—Of house, good, of outhouse, poor.

b (47). House, now a shop, S. of (46), is of two storeys with attics; the E. front is of late 17th-century date, but the main structure is probably of earlier date; it has been much altered.

b (48). House, now two tenements and shops, S. of (47), has been almost entirely altered, but in the N. wall is a doorway with a pointed head, now heavily painted, but apparently of wood and of the 15th century.

b (49). House, now a shop, S. of (48), was built possibly in the 16th century, but has been almost completely altered; the plan is now L-shaped, with the wings extending towards the W. and N. Remains of wall-paintings are reported to have been found when the lower storey was fitted as a shop.

b (50). House, S. of (49), has been almost entirely altered, but at the back are traces of a timber-framed and plastered structure. Inside the building, in the entrance hall, is a panel carved with foliated designs and dolphins; it is of early 17th-century date, and was originally in the older part of the house, where a small quantity of panelling of the same date remains, probably in situ.

b (51). House, at the S. corner of Almshouse Lane, was built on an L-shaped plan, with the wings extending towards the S. and W.; the main block was almost entirely rebuilt in the 18th century, and the W. wing was re-faced in the 19th century. Over the front doorway is a carved hood of early 18th-century date. Inside the building, on the ground floor, in the S. room, is a fine early 17th-century fireplace and overmantel, now set across an angle; the opening, which has a late 17th-century moulded architrave, is flanked by fluted pilasters; over it are carved panels, a frieze with enriched consoles, and an overmantel with two richly arcaded panels, divided by fluted and rusticated pilasters, and surmounted by a frieze of carved panels. One panel with a painted portrait is reported to have been removed to Wood Hall, Arkesden. The staircase has moulded rails and twisted balusters of late 17th-century date.

b (52). House, now two tenements and shop, 10 yards S. of (51), has been almost entirely rebuilt; a small wing at the back is probably of the 16th century.

b (53). The Gables, house, 300 yards S. of (52), was built in the second half of the 16th century, probably on an L-shaped plan, with the wings extending towards the S. and W.; probably in the 18th century, a second wing was added, making the plan half-H-shaped, and the whole structure has been much altered. At each end of the E. front is a gable. Set in a modern chimney-stack at the back is part of the wooden frame of an original window with moulded head, sill and jambs. Inside the building on the ground floor, in the middle room, are moulded ceiling-beams. On the first floor, at the N.E. corner of the house, a wall-painting was discovered, and tracings of it are preserved at the Saffron Walden Museum.

Ingleside Terrace

b (54). House, now several tenements, facing the S. end of the High Street, has been almost entirely altered, and the ground storey has been faced with brick. On the N. front, at each end, is a gable, and in the middle a small projecting wing; at the E. end is a carriage-way.

b (55). Cottages, a range of four tenements, extending towards the S.E. from the back of Ingleside Terrace, were built c. 1700, but have been partly re-faced with modern brick.

Almshouse Lane, S. side

b (56). Cottage, now two tenements, about 200 yards from the E. end of the lane, was built c. 1700, but has been much altered. A few original windows remain, and have metal casements and leaded glass.

Abbey Lane, N. side

b (57). Almshouses, about ¼ m. S.W. of the church, are modern, but contain a few fittings from the former structure. In the common room—(1) over the fireplace is a 15th-century brass with Latin inscription, commemorating Thomas Bryd, one time rector of Much Munden, his parents, and others, by whose bounty the chimney-stack in the original Hall was built; (2) fastened to the W. wall, are two carved wooden corbel window-sills of late 15th-century date; one has a shield with France quartering England supported by two leopards, the other has a shield with a crowned rose supported by two greyhounds; (3) fastened to the E. wall, a board, with the rules of the house painted on it, in a frame carved with egg and tongue ornament, early 18th century; (4) a carved oak armchair of early 17th-century date.

Castle Street, N. side

b (58). House, 140 yards W.N.W. of the church, was built late in the 16th century, but has 18th-century and modern extensions on the N.W. side. On the S.E. side under the eaves is a plaster cove. Inside the building, on the ground floor, is a door of original panelling, re-used.

b (59). House, two tenements, N.E. of (58), was built in the 17th century, but has 18th-century additions on the N.W. side. Inside the building, in the W. tenement, is a corner cupboard with Jacobean ornament and inlay on the door.

b (60). House, 40 yards N.E. of (59), was built in the 17th century, but has a modern brick front and a large addition at the back. At the N.W. end the original oak wall-plate is exposed.

b (61). School House, near to Castle Street, about 35 yards N.E. of (60), was apparently entirely rebuilt in the 18th or 19th century; re-set over the N.E. doorway is a plaster panel with the date 1655, and the words "AVT DISCE AVT DOCE AVT DISCEDE."

b (62). House, and shop, 70 yards N.E. of (60), is of two storeys with a cellar, and was built early in the 16th century, with a small Hall in the middle between two bays, but the S.W. bay has been pulled down. At the S.E. end of the N.E. bay the upper storey projects; the S.E. front has continuous eaves, with curved braces supporting the eaves-bressumer of the Hall; the angle-post of the former S.W. bay remains. Inside the building, on the ground floor, the S.E. room had formerly a partition with two four-centred oak doorways; one of them is now in the Saffron Walden Museum. In one of the rooms in the N.E. wing on the first floor a black and white wall-painting was discovered, and a reproduction of it is kept at the Museum.

b (63). House, now two tenements, N.E. of (62), is of two storeys with a cellar, and was built probably in the 16th century. On the S.E. front the upper storey projects and is supported by curved brackets.

b (64). House, now two tenements, N.E. of (63), is of two storeys with a cellar, and was built probably early in the 16th century, but has a large modern wing at the back. At each end of the S.E. front the upper storey projects; the eaves are continuous and are supported on an oak bressumer. The cellar is cut in the chalk.

b (65). House, now two tenements, of which one is the Five Bells Inn, N.E. of (64), is of two storeys with a cellar; it was built probably early in the 17th century, but has modern extensions at the back. The S.E. front is gabled at the N.W. end. The cellar is cut in the chalk.

b (66). House, N.E. of (65), was built in the 17th century. The eaves have a plaster cove.

b (67). House, N.E. of (66), was built probably in the 16th century. On the S.E. front the upper storey projects and is supported by two curved brackets and exposed joists; above the projection are four early 17th-century plaster consoles, and between the windows is a panel containing the date 1630, evidently the date of the plaster; in the middle above the bressumer is a plaster scallop-shell.

b (68). House, now two tenements, N.E. of (67), is of two storeys with a cellar; the roofs are covered with tiles and slate. It was built probably in the 16th century, and has a modern addition at the back. On the S.E. front the upper storey of the N.W. tenement projects, and is supported by three main beams with two curved brackets; the upper storey of the S.E. tenement formerly projected, but has been under-built. The central chimney-stack was rebuilt probably early in the 18th century. The cellar is cut in the chalk.

b (69). House, now three tenements, N.E. of (68), was built in the 17th century on an L-shaped plan, with the wings extending towards the S.W. and N.W.; the N.W. wing has a modern extension.

Condition—Poor.

b (70). The Castle Inn, 30 yards N.E. of (69), is of two storeys with a cellar; the walls are partly of brick. It was built probably late in the 16th century, but was re-fronted in brick, and almost entirely altered c. 1720. The plan is L-shaped, with the wings extending towards the S.W. and N.E. Inside the building, on the ground floor, are remains of moulded beams, and on the first floor is a partition made up of 17th-century panelling.

b (71). House, now two tenements, and shop, N.E. of (70), is of two storeys with a cellar; it was built in the 17th century. The cellar, cut in the chalk, is said to be modern.

b (72). Cottage, now school, 80 yards N.E. of (71), was built probably early in the 17th century. Inside the building, on the first floor, are shaped wall-posts and heavy tie-beams; in the upper part of the staircase are some turned balusters of mid 17th-century date.

b (73). House, now two tenements, N.E. of (72), was built late in the 15th or early in the 16th century, but was much altered in the 18th century, and has a modern wing on the N.W. side. On the same side part of the timber-framing is exposed. Inside the building, on the ground floor, are two original moulded transverse beams and a hollow-chamfered and stopped longitudinal beam. Between the two western rooms is a doorway with a hollow-chamfered four-centred head. The wide open fireplace in the middle room has shaped supports. On the first floor are two king-post trusses.

b (74). House, now three tenements, E. of (73), is of two storeys with a cellar; it was built early in the 16th century on an L-shaped plan, with the wings extending towards the E. and S. At the S. end of the middle passage is a doorway, now blocked, with a chamfered four-centred head.

Condition—Poor.

S. side

b (75). House, now shop, 70 yards N.W. of the church, was built probably in the 15th century; in the 17th century a wing was added on the S.E. side. The base of the central chimney-stack is possibly of the 17th century. Inside the building, on the first floor, is a cambered and chamfered tie-beam with a long mortice for a curved brace.

b (76). House, now two tenements and shop, 160 yards N.E. of (75), is of two storeys with a cellar; it was built probably in the 16th century, but has modern additions on the S. side. In the middle of the main block is a gabled cross-wing. The original chimney-stack has two square shafts rebuilt at the top. The cellar is cut in the chalk.

b (77). House, now three tenements and shop, 50 yards N.E. of (76), is of two storeys with a cellar, and was built in the 17th century. The front has, in the middle, a small gable.

Condition—Poor.

Museum Street, E. side

b (78). House, now three tenements, 70 yards N.E. of the church, was built probably late in the 15th or early in the 16th century, and has a modern addition at the back. On the W. front the upper storey projects, and is supported by curved brackets. One moulded door-frame is partly original. The base of the central chimney-stack is possibly of late 17th-century date. Inside the building, on the first floor, is a moulded transverse beam.

b (79). House, at the S.E. corner of the street, 140 yards S.E. of (78), is of two storeys with attics and cellar; apparently it has been re-faced. Inside the building, on the ground floor, the front room has a dado of early 17th-century panelling. The cellar is cut in the chalk and is partly walled with old thin bricks.

Museum Court, W. side

b (80). Cottage, now two tenements. Condition—Poor.

Church Street, N. side

b (81). House, and outbuilding, 80 yards S.S.W. of the church. The House is of two storeys with attics and cellars; at the E. end of the building is some of the timber-framing of a 15th-century house, which appears to have been altered late in the 16th or early in the 17th century; it was extended towards the W. in the 18th century, and has been almost entirely re-faced with brick. On the N. elevation are three gables. Inside the building, on the ground floor, the hall and the room E. of it each have a dado, partly of early 17th-century panelling, and a cupboard N. of the central chimney-stack has a door of similar panelling. At the original E. end of the first floor are chamfered and cambered tie-beams, now encased; in the roof is a king-post and a central purlin running N. and S. An old gable-end, possibly the original N. gable, stands about three feet inside the present gable.

The Outbuilding, in the garden N. of the house, has on the S. side a gabled projection, possibly a lucomb. It is said to have formed part of former maltings.

Condition—Of outbuilding, poor.

b (82). House with shop, 140 yards N.E. of (81), at the W. corner of Museum Street, is of two storeys with attics; it was built probably late in the 16th century; modern additions or rebuildings on the W. side make the present plan half-H-shaped. On the S. front the upper storey projects, but has been partly under-built. On the E. side, the upper storey projects. Inside the building, on the first floor, the S.E. room has a late 16th-century door of twelve panels with two cock's-head hinges.

b (83). House, N.E. of (82), at the E. corner of Museum Street, with a modern addition at the back.

b (84). House, N.E. of (83). The two E. bays are original, but the W. bay was probably added at a later date; at the back is a modern addition. On the S. front the upper storey projects and is supported by curved brackets; at the E. end is a covered way. Inside the modern addition is an early 17th-century door, re-used, and of three moulded battens.

a (85). House with shops, N.E. of (84), was built late in the 16th or early in the 17th century, but has been much altered, and has a modern addition at the back.

S. side

b (86). House and shed, now two tenements, opposite (81). The House is of two storeys with attics; the date 1689 on the gable is probably that of the house, but the figures are modern; at the back is a modern addition.

The Shed stands in the yard N.E. of the house; it is also dated 1689, but is possibly a more recent structure.

b (87). House, 10 yards N.E. of (86), is of two storeys with a cellar, and was built, apparently in the 15th century, on an L-shaped plan, with the wings extending towards the S.E. and N.E.; possibly it has been reduced in size, and there are modern additions at the end of the S.E. wing, on the S.W. elevation, and in the angle between the wings. On the N.E. front is a gabled dormer with 17th-century barge-boards carved with guilloche ornament; at the base of the dormer is a beam carved with a twisted-leaf design and surmounting a cambered board carved with guilloche pattern; the pendant at each end is turned; possibly none of the carving is in situ. Inside the building, in the N.E. wing, on the first floor, is a chamfered ceiling-beam with a foliated stop, probably of the 16th century. In the original S.E. block of the S.E. wing the upper floor has been removed. In the roof of the original structure are central purlins and remains of king-post trusses.

b (88). House, 35 yards N.E. of (87), is of two storeys with cellars; it is of L-shaped plan with the wings extending towards the N.E. and S.E., but the N.E. wing is of the 18th century and later dates; the higher part of the S.E. wing is probably of late 17th-century date, but has an 18th-century addition at the S.E. end. The cellars under the N.E. wing have heavy ceiling-beams, probably of earlier date than the superstructure.

b (89). House, with shop, 20 yards N.E. of (88), was built, apparently in the 15th century, on an L-shaped plan, with the wings extending towards the S.W. and S.E., but has been altered and partly re-faced with 18th-century brick. At the back are modern additions. On the N.W. front the lower storey is pierced by an archway. One original window with moulded mullions remains, but is now blocked, and possibly not in situ. In the roof are said to be two 15th-century trusses, but they are hidden by the ceiling of the upper storey.

b (90). House, N.E. of (89), is of two storeys with a cellar; the plan is L-shaped, with the wings extending towards the N.E. and S.E.; the N.E. wing was built in the 15th century and appears to have had an upper Hall of two bays, the whole length of the house; the S.E. wing was added in the 17th century. On the N.W. front, in the N.E. bay, the upper storey projects, and formerly projected also in the S.W. bay, but has been under-built. On the N.E. elevation some of the timberframing is exposed. The chimney-stack of the N.E. wing and the central chimney-stack of the S.E. wing are of the 17th century. Inside the building, in the S.W. wall of the staircase leading to the cellar under the N.E. wing, is a 15th-century doorway, with a four-centred head, now blocked. In the cellar, in the N.E. wall, are two brick recesses, one of them is large and has a four-centred head; the other is small and has a triangular head; both are possibly of the 15th century. In the roof of the N.E. wing are original king-post trusses.

b (91). House, formerly part of the Sun Inn, but now two tenements, N.E. of (90), is of two storeys with a cellar; it was built in the 15th century with a Hall in the middle, flanked by Solar and Kitchen wings. Late in the 16th or early in the 17th century an upper floor was inserted in the Hall, and at a later date the upper floor of the S.W. wing was raised and a wagon way cut through underneath it; there are modern additions at the back. On the N.W. front (see Plate, p. 252), at each end, the upper storey is gabled and projects on exposed joists and curved brackets; in the middle bay are two late 17th-century panels in plaster, one with a design of foliage and birds, and the other with a stocking; in the S.W. gable is a design of the same date in plaster (see Plate, p. 254), which consists of a circular panel divided into twelve segments; on each side is the figure of a man in a long coat, knee-breeches and high-heeled shoes; one figure holds a sword and buckler, the other a long club. On the N.E. side of the S.W. wing, above the roof of the Hall, is another plaster panel of the same date, with the representation of a dog. On the S.E. elevation, at each end is a gable. Inside the building on the ground floor, in the N.E. room (see Plan 1) is a wall-post surmounted by a curved bracket which is apparently part of the arch of an original doorway; at the S.W. end of a cupboard, which is now on the S.E. side of the room, is a round-headed recess, possibly a former doorway. In the original Hall (2) is a moulded ceiling-beam of late 16th or early 17th-century date. In the roof over the Hall is an original braced central purlin.

Saffron Walden

b (92). House, formerly part of the Sun Inn, N.E. of (91), was built late in the 14th century; the E. half was apparently the Hall (see Plan 3) with the Screens at the E. end; the W. half contained the Solar (4) and possibly the W. half of the next house (93) formed the Buttery wing (5). Probably late in the 16th or early in the 17th century an upper floor was inserted in the Hall. At the back are a modern wing and staircase-hall.

The late 14th-century roof-truss and doorway are interesting, and the whole building is worthy of note (see Plate, p. 252).

On the N. Front the upper storey projects and is gabled over the Hall doorway, at the E. end, and in the Solar bay at the W. end; immediately E. of the Solar is a gabled bay window of two storeys; the easternmost of the three gables has bargeboards and a horizontal board across the foot, all carved with strap-work design of early 17th-century date, and perhaps re-used; the gable of the bay window has similar boards. The upper storey of the Solar has a moulded bressumer, and is carried on exposed joists and four curved braces, of which one has been re-faced; at the foot of the gable and immediately below the window sill are moulded oak string-courses, and between them at each angle is a moulded upright; the space between the lower string-course and the bressumer is divided into three panels by hollow-chamfered uprights; the panels are ornamented in plaster with foliage and a bird, and in the gable is a plaster ornament, including a cartouche with a man's head and an oval panel with the date 1676, probably the date of the plaster-work; on the E. side of the projection is a plaster representation of a stork. At the E. end of the elevation is an original oak doorway with a three-centred arch in a square head and elaborately traceried spandrels; the soffit of the arch has a modern fillet; the door, probably original, is battened and has strap-hinges. The upper storey of the bay window has an oak frame with moulded jambs, mullions and head, apparently original; the moulded sill projects and serves as a string-course for the bay.

Interior—On the ground floor, at the E. end, is a passage, which doubtless represents the original Screens; at the S. end of the passage (see Plan 6) is an original doorway with jambs and two-centred head of two hollow-chamfered orders, partly restored. In the ground-floor ceiling of the original Hall (3) is a moulded ceiling-beam, now partly encased. On the first floor, over the original Hall, is visible the lower part of an original roof-truss; it has a heavy, cambered and hollow-chamfered tie-beam, supported by heavy uprights and curved, hollow-chamfered braces which form a two-centred arch; on both sides are remains of moulded wall-plates; in the S. wall is a fireplace with a four-centred head, possibly of late 16th or early 17th-century date, now thickly painted. On the walls of the same room are pieces of early 17th-century panelling. During the restoration of the house in 1870, a 16th-century wall-painting was discovered in one of the rooms, and a copy of it can be seen at the Saffron Walden Museum.

b (93). House, N.E. of (92), has the date 1600 on the N. bressumer, but it is said to have been brought from elsewhere. The building is not apparently of earlier date than the 17th century, but a window at the W. end of the front is partly of late 14th-century date, and suggests that the W. end of the structure, though much altered early in the 17th century, may be part of the late 14th-century house which adjoins it on the S.W., but it is possible that the window is not in situ. At the back are modern additions.

The late 14th-century oak windows and the carved 17th-century bressumer are of special interest.

On the N. Front are two gables; the upper storey projects and has a partly restored bressumer, carved with a running foliage design, and a panel with the date 1600; below the design is a course of dentils, and above it is a modern fillet. In the W. half, in the ground storey, is a bay window with three pairs of lights; the middle pair is of late 14th-century date, and the lights are trefoiled under a two-centred head with a quatrefoiled panel and sunk spandrels.

On the E. Elevation the upper storey of the 17th-century structure projects and is supported on exposed joists; it has a bressumer carved with a running pattern of grapes and leaves.

Inside the building, on the ground floor, a modern room at the back has a few pieces of early 17th-century panelling, and on the first floor are two panelled doors of the same date, also some remains of an early 17th-century wall-painting, of which a copy can be seen at the Saffron Walden Museum.

Church Lane, W. side

b (94). Cottages, now six tenements, are of two storeys with attics and cellars. The southernmost tenement is of the 15th century, but has a modern addition on the S. side, making the plan L-shaped, with the wings extending towards the S. and W.; the lower room in the W. wing now belongs to the adjoining house in Church Street. The other tenements form a long range of late 16th-century date, said to have originally formed part of a malting.

On the E. Front the 15th-century block has a gable with an original foiled barge-board and a moulded horizontal board, possibly original, across the foot; the upper storey has been under-built. The upper storey of the 16th-century block projects and shows some of the timber-framing; there are traces of three original windows, now blocked.

Inside the building, on the first floor of the 15th-century block, is visible the lower part of king-post trusses which divide the original structure into three bays from front to back. On the first floor of the 16th-century range are cambered tie-beams.

b (95). Churchyard Cottage, on the N. side of the churchyard, opposite the N. porch of the church, is of three storeys, and was built c. 1500; it now forms the W. part of a long modern structure. The original block has exposed timber-framing, and at the foot of the gable is a moulded horizontal beam, much defaced. Owing to the sharp fall in the ground the entrance from the churchyard is on the first floor.

Market Hill, E. side

b (96). House, now two tenements, partly shops, at the N. end of the hill, was built, probably in the 15th century, on a half-H-shaped plan with a Hall in the middle and wings of unequal length extending towards the E. At a later date an upper floor was inserted in the Hall; in the angle between the S.E. wing and the main block is a small gabled addition of uncertain date, possibly intended for a staircase. On the W. front at each end the upper storey projects and is gabled. Inside the building, on the first floor of the S.E. wing, are two wall-posts which probably carried a roof-truss, and below the ceiling is a central purlin which may be part of the original roof construction.

b (97). House, 50 yards S.S.E. of (96), is of L-shaped plan with the wings extending towards the E. and N. On the S. half of the W. front the upper storey projects and is supported by curved brackets. Inside the building, in the N. wing, is a door of early 17th-century panelling, and in a room on the first floor is a panelled dado of the same date.

Market Place, E. side

b (98). House, now shop, at the S.E. corner of Market Hill, is of two storeys with attics; the roofs are covered with slate. The rectangular part of the block facing W. was built probably c. 1710; the rest is of later date. On the W. front is an eaves-cornice with plain modillions; the entrance doorway has a carved flat hood of wood with egg-and-tongue ornament and foliated consoles. At the S. end of the original block is an eaves-cornice with foliated consoles. Inside the building, on the ground floor, the S. room, now a shop, originally formed two rooms; between them was a narrow staircase, now removed, and in the ceiling a square plaster panel with diagonal moulded ribs and a rose in the middle indicates the position of the small hall which existed at the foot of the stairs. Some of the upper rooms are said to contain panelling, now hidden

b (99). House and garden-wall, at the N.E. corner of Market Hill. The original part of the House is of two storeys with cellars. The N. half was built c. 1600, with a small gabled staircase-wing on the N. side; the S. half is modern, and there is a modern addition at the back of the N. block. The upper storey originally projected on the W., S. and N. elevations, but has been under-built, though on the S. elevation the E. half still projects. Inside the original block, on the ground floor, the S.W. room has a dado of early 17th-century panelling, and the S. wall of the entrance passage has a similar dado with a fluted frieze. In the N. wall of the passage is an original door of three moulded battens. The staircase-wing has an entrance door of early 17th-century panelling, and there are two similar doors on the first floor; the stairs, which have been partly restored, wind round a central newel, and lead both to the first floor and to the cellars. The cellars are partly cut in the chalk. In the modern block, under the stairs to the attics, is an early 17th-century door, re-set, carved with two semi-circular foliage patterns; in the attics are two other doors of the same date.

The Garden-wall bounds the garden on the E. and N. sides, and originally belonged to the house called the Priory; it is of 17th-century brick. In the E. wall are two piers of a wide gateway, now blocked; they have moulded capitals and bases, and are panelled and rusticated, and were formerly plastered. The N. wall has, at the W. end, a short return wall which retains part of one moulded jamb of an original gateway.

b (100). The Rose and Crown Hotel, 30 yards S. of (99), is of three storeys with attics and cellars. It is L-shaped on plan, with the wings extending towards the N. and E.; the front part of the N. or main wing was built probably late in the 16th century; the back part of the N. wing and the greater part of the E. wing are of slightly later date, and there are modern additions at the E. end and on the N. side of the E. wing. On the W. Front the lower storey has been faced with brick; the entrance has a shell-hood supported by foliage consoles, probably of c. 1700; at the N. end is a waggon-way. On the E. Elevation the N. wing has two gables.

Interior—On the ground floor the original N. room and the entrance passage each have a dado of early 17th-century panelling. The main staircase to the first floor is of mid 17th-century date; it has square newels with moulded caps and modern ball-tops, moulded handrail and turned balusters, but the lowest flight has been altered and has a handrail, probably modern, against the wall; the flight from the first floor to the attics is probably of the same date, but has flat wavy balusters. In the original block, on the second floor, one of the ceiling-beams has a curved brace, and the room over the waggon-way has a panelled door of late 16th or early 17th-century date; in the E. wing one room has a panelled dado and door of the same date, and another has a late 16th-century door with cock's-head hinges. In the original block, in the attics are two doors of early 17th-century panelling, and a piece of carved panelling of the same date; in the E. wing is another door, also of 17th-century date.

Common Hill, W. side

b (101). The Priory, house, now two tenements, 180 yards S. of the castle, is of two storeys with attics and cellars. The S. half was built c. 1580, and was perhaps only part of the original building; the N. half was added in the 17th-century, and there are modern additions at the back. The building has been re-faced with modern brick. At the S. end is a 17th-century chimney-stack with elaborately grouped diagonal shafts. On the W. side of the N. block is a small original staircase-wing containing a staircase probably of late 17th-century date, with wavy balusters.

King Street, N. side

b (102). House, E. of the corner house in the High Street, is of two storeys with attics; it has a modern addition at the back and has been partly re-faced with brick.

b (103). House with shop, E. of (102), is of two storeys with attics; it has been re-faced with modern brick. Inside the building is a cupboard with a 17th-century panelled door.

b (104). House, now shops and storehouses, E. of (103), is of three storeys; it was built late in the 15th century, on a half-H-shaped plan with the wings extending towards the N., but has been partly re-faced with brick. Through the main block between the wings is an original waggon-way, with an outer entrance which has chamfered oak jambs and a moulded four-centred head with foliated spandrels; the E. jamb has an oak buttress with three offsets and small sunk panels with trefoiled heads; from the top of the buttress springs a small semi-octagonal shaft with a moulded capital supported by a shaped and chamfered bracket; the W. jamb is entirely modern. The ceiling-beam and joists are moulded, and on the W. side are large curved braces. On each side of the waggon-way is a doorway with moulded jambs, now blocked; that on the E. side has an original four-centred head with foliated spandrels, but the head of the other doorway is modern. Inside the building, in a disused doorway formerly opening into the next house (105), is an early 17th-century door with six panels and a carved frieze.

b (105). House, with shop, E. of (104), is of three storeys; it is said to have been dated 1633, and most of the house is possibly of that date; the structure has been partly re-faced with modern brick.

S. side

b (106). House with shops, 70 yards from the W. end of the street, is of two storeys with attics; it was built with a small wing at the back, but has been partly re-faced with brick, and has a modern extension at the back.

b (107). House with shops, E. of (106) (see Plate, p. 254), was built in the second half of the 15th century on an L-shaped plan, with the wings extending towards the E. and S. The Hall is in the middle of the E. wing; an upper floor has been inserted in the Hall, and the N. wall has been rebuilt about two feet towards the N.

The 15th-century shop-fronts are of special interest.

On the N. Front the upper storey projects and is gabled at the E. end; at the W. end it is also gabled, but the projection has been under-built; both gables have original barge-boards carved with winged dragons, a shield charged with a cross, etc.; in the wall under the E. gable the timber-framing has recently been exposed, and includes a moulded and cambered horizontal beam at the foot of the gable. At the E. end of the elevation the upper storey is supported by exposed joists and a massive angle-bracket, which is carried on a shaft with moulded capital and base; in the W. return-wall is a small original single-light window with cinquefoiled head and pierced spandrels, partly restored; in the lower storey a modern shop-window is flanked on the W. by an original shop-window with a four-centred head, and on the E. by an opening, now a doorway, but originally also a shop window.

At the E. end, which faces a side street, the timber-framing is now exposed; the upper storey projects and is supported by the angle-post already described, and by exposed joists: in it is an original window of two cinquefoiled lights with moulded jambs and mullion; in the lower storey are four original shop-windows with four-centred heads and hollow-chamfered frames, partly restored, and a narrow doorway of similar detail.

On the S. Elevation of the E. wing is an old projecting chimney-stack of thin bricks, which is said to cover an original window of four lights; E. of the chimney-stack is an original doorway with a four-centred head, now blocked.

Interior:—On the ground floor the easternmost partition-wall probably represents the E. wall of the Screens. The room E. of the partition has a diagonal ceiling-beam which supports the upper storey at the N.E. angle. In the roof above the Hall is an original truss; the king-post is octagonal and has a carved capital. In the S. wing is another king-post truss.

b (108). The Hoops Inn, E. of (107), is of two storevs with cellars; it was built c. 1500, probably on a rectangular plan, but has been extended towards the E., and the roof has been raised in the 19th century.

The original shop-windows, now blocked, in the W. wall, are especially worthy of preservation.

On the N. front the upper storey originally projected, but has been under-built. On the W. elevation are four original shop-windows, now blocked, with four-centred heads, moulded jambs, and spandrels carved with leaf-ornament, winged dragons, etc. Inside the building is some oak panelling of c. 1600. Under the present roof are remains of the original roof with a king-post truss. A piece of plaster ornamented with a slipped sixpetalled rose-sprig was found lying in the roof space.

b (109). House with shop, E. of (108), is of two storeys with attics. The plan is L-shaped, with the wings extending towards the E. and S.

b (110). House, now shops, E. of (109), is of three storeys; it was built in the 16th or 17th century, but the roof has been raised and the walls have been partly re-faced with brick.

Butcher Row

b (111). House, now partly a shop, at the N.W. corner of the row, is of two storeys with attics.

George Street, N. side

b (112). House, 30 yards from the W. end of the street, was built in the 16th century on a half-Hshaped plan, with the wings extending towards the N. The N. front has been re-faced with modern brick. On the E. wall of the N.W. wing is a cherub's head in plaster, of late 17th-century date; and there are said to be figures carved in stone on the W. wall of the N.E. wing, but they are now hidden. Inside the building, on the ground floor, one room has a moulded beam.

Gold Street, E. side

b (113). House, now partly a club, at the corner of Hill Street, is built on a modified half-H-shaped plan, with the wings extending towards the E. On the E. elevation, between the wings, is a band of ornamental plaster-work.

b (114). House, S. of (113), has a modern wing at the back, making the plan L-shaped. On the E. elevation, above the low modern wing, is an oval plaster wreath, containing a cornucopia, animals, dolphins, etc.; in the middle are the motto and feathers of the Prince of Wales, with the initials P.A.; it is probably of early 17th-century date.

b (115). House, 30 yards S. of (114), is of two storeys with cellars; it was built probably in 1565, but has been partly re-faced with modern brick. On the W. front the upper story profects. Re-set in the modern E. chimney-stack are two small stone panels, one carved with the initials I.H.A., the other with the date 1565. Inside the building, in the entrance passage, are remains of a moulded ceiling-beam. On the first floor, a cambered tie-beam with one curved brace is visible.

b (116). House, now a brewhouse, 10 yards S. of (115). On the W. front the upper storey projects.

b (117). House, 130 yards S. of (116).

W. side

b (118). House with shop, opposite (115), is of two storeys with attics, and has modern additions at the back; nothing indicates a date earlier than the 17th century, except a central purlin in the roof, which suggests mediæval construction. On the E. front the upper storey projects, and has at the base a band of ornamental plaster-work; above it is a plaster panel containing a dolphin. Part of the eaves has a wooden cornice with modillions, probably of c. 1700. Inside the building, on the first floor, is a 17th-century panelled door.

b (119). House, now partly a shop, 80 yards S. of (118), is of two storeys with cellars; it was built early in the 16th century, but has modern additions at the back.

The heads of the original doorways are noteworthy.

On the E. front the upper storey projects, and much of its timber-framing is exposed; above the middle doorway is the original four-centred door-head with foliated spandrels, and W. of it, over a window and another doorway, are remains of similar heads.

Sewer's End

b (120). Pounce Hall, house and barn, about 1¾ m. E. of the church, on the W. side of the road. The House has modern additions at the W. end and at the back. Inside the building, one fireplace has an old ornamental iron crane.

The Barn, S. of the house, is of four bays, and partly of original brick, but mainly weather-boarded.

b (121). Hopwoods, house, 250 yards E.S.E. of (119), on the N. side of the road, has modern alterations and extensions at the back. On the S. front, at the W. end, the upper storey projects and is gabled.

c (122). Campions, house, now two tenements, 200 yards E.S.E. of (121) on the S. side of the road, was built late in the 16th century on an L-shaped plan with the wings extending towards the E. and N., but has modern additions on the S., and has been partly re-faced with modern brick.

The late 16th-century wall-painting on the first floor is of exceptional interest.

Interior—On the ground floor in the easternmost room is an original wide fireplace with a chamfered lintel, and in the brickwork of one jamb a small triangular-headed recess. In the kitchen the fireplace has a similar lintel, and above a doorway, now blocked, is a painted panel containing letters, of which I B ... T G T S are still decipherable. In two of the rooms, black and white designs were painted on the walls, and also in the middle room on the first floor; part of the work is preserved at the Saffron Walden museum. On the first floor the walls of the easternmost room are painted with an elaborate design in several colours, and on the lower part of the sloping ceiling on the S. side is the inscription in black letter—

"Give to the pore Spend and be [blest]."

The last word, now almost obliterated, is given in a copy at the museum.

c (123). House, 220 yards E.N.E. of (122), on the N. side of the road, was built on a half-H-shaped plan, with the wings extending towards the N., but has modern additions between the wings and at the end of the N.E. wing; it has been partly re-faced with modern brick.

c (124). House, now two tenements, 100 yards S.S.E. of (123) on the S. side of the road, has a modern addition at the E. end. On the N. front the upper storey projects and is supported by small curved brackets. The original central chimney-stack has grouped diagonal shafts on a square base, with a moulded capping.

c (125). House, 100 yards N.E. of (124) on the E. side of the road (see Plate, p. xxvii) was built in 1676, but has a modern addition at the S. end of the E. elevation. On the W. front over the doorway is a lozenge-shaped panel with a foliated border, and the date 1676. The original central chimney-stack has four grouped shafts. Inside the building is an original battened door with strap-hinges and a wooden latch.

c (126). Cottage, now two tenements, 130 yards N. of (125), on the E. side of the road.

c (127). Cottage, and brewhouse, 220 yards N. of (126), on the E. side of the road.

c (128). Birbeck's Farm, house, now three tenements, 50 yards W. of (127), on the W. side of the road, was built in the second half of the 16th century.

The gables at the N. and S. ends have original oak barge-boards carved with checker-pattern. The original central chimney-stack has elaborately grouped diagonal shafts.

Interior—On the ground floor is an original fireplace with chamfered jambs and four-centred head. On the first floor are two similar fireplaces. Over two of them are narrow moulded mantelshelves. One room has an early 17th-century panelled door, and at the top of the stairs are some slender turned balusters, probably of the same century.

a (129). Swaine's Farm, cottage and barn, 40 yards N. of (128). The Cottage has an original chimney-stack with grouped diagonal shafts.

The Barn, E. of the cottage, is of four bays.

c (130). Sewers End Farm, house, 60 yards E. of (129), has 18th-century additions on the N. side. The original central chimney-stack has grouped diagonal shafts. Inside the building, a cupboard has an early 17th-century panelled door.

c (131). Wren's Farm, house and barn, 100 yards N.W. of (130).

c (132). House, now two tenements, at Will's Alley, ½ m. E. of (131), was built early in the 17th century, and extended at the S.E. end in the second half of the 17th century; there is a modern extension at the N.W. end. On the S.W. front the upper storey of the 17th-century structure projects.

b (133). Painters, house, nearly ½ m. W. of St. Aylotts, with extensions of 1752 and of the 19th century, at the back.

a (134). Byrds, part of staircase and two barns, nearly 1 m. W. of (133). The house has been rebuilt, but contains stairs of which the oak treads and risers are old.

The two Barns stand N. of the house and are weather-boarded.

a (135). Old House, about ½ m. S.E. of Little Walden church.

a (136). Cloptons, house, about ¾ m. E. of Little Walden church (see Plate, p. xxvii), was built in 1643; on the N. side are modern additions. The gable at the E. end has a moulded barge-board dated 1643. The original chimney-stack has grouped diagonal shafts.

a (137). Mitchells, house, 800 yards N. of (136), has a small wing extending towards the N.E., and a modern extension. The front and S.E. end have been re-faced with modern brick.

a (138). Cottage, at Chapel End, ¼ m. S.W. of (137), partly re-faced with modern brick.

Ravenstock Green

a (139). Cottage, 400 yards N.W. of (138), on the E. side of the road.

a (140). Cottage, 70 yards N.W. of (139), on the W. side of the road, with modern additions at the S.W. end, and on the S.E. side.

a (141). Cottage, 20 yards N.E. of (140) on the E. side of the road.

Burntwood End

a (142). House, now two tenements, nearly 1 m. N.N.W. of Little Walden church, with a modern addition on the N. side. On the S. front the upper storey projects and is supported by curved brackets.

a (143). Cottage, ¼ m. S. of (142), with a modern extension at the S. end.

Little Walden

a (144). Cottage, now three tenements, 220 yards N.N.E. of Little Walden church, with a modern addition at the E. end of the N. side.

a (145). Cottage, two tenements, 140 yards N. of Little Walden church, with a modern addition on the W. side, and a modern cross-wing at the N. end.

a (146). Cottage, now two tenements, 300 yards E.N.E. of Little Walden church, was built on a Tshaped plan with the cross-wing at the N.E. end.

a (147). Westley Farm, house, stables and barn about 1 m. N.N.W. of the parish church. The House is of two storeys with attics. An original chimney-stack has grouped square shafts.

The Stables and Barn stand S.W. of the house; the barn is of three bays and partly weather-boarded.

b (148). Cottage and two barns, at Northend, about 1¼ m. N.W. of the parish church. The Cottage has a modern addition on the W. side.

The Barn, N.E. of the cottage, is of four bays with two aisles, and is partly weather-boarded. Another Barn, E. of the cottage, is of seven bays with a projecting entrance, and is weather-boarded.

b (149). New Houses, row of six tenements ½ m. N.N.E. of the parish church, on the E. side of the Little Walden road, is of the 17th century, but the three N. tenements are possibly of somewhat earlier date than the others; the N. end of the N. tenement is probably modern, and there are modern additions at the back.

Audley End

a (150). House, 150 yards S.S.W. of Audley End House (3), was built in the second half of the 16th century on an L-shaped plan, with the wings extending towards the E. and S.; recently the S. wing has been extended towards the S., and the walls have been almost entirely re-faced with brick. The original large central chimney-stack has six octagonal shafts with moulded bases; four of the shafts are carved with different forms of ornament. Inside the building, on the ground floor, in the N.W. room, the fireplace has a carved and moulded wood mantleshelf, probably of early 18th-century date. On the first floor a 16th-century fireplace now partly filled in has an original plaster overmantel with fluted pilasters, moulded cornice, and a frieze, in which are six small panels, each containing an animal.

Battle Ditches, Saffron Walden

a (151). House, E. of (150), has been partly re-faced with brick, and has modern additions at the E. end and at the back. Inside the building, under the staircase, is a cupboard with a door of 17th-century panelling.

a (152). Duck Street Farm, house, now two tenements, 500 yards N. of Audley End House. On the E. front the upper storey projects.

The Debden Road

d (153). Claypits, house, now two tenements, about 1¼ m. S.S.E. of the church.

d (154). The Roos, house and barn, about 1¾ m. S.S.E. of the church. The House has modern additions on the S. side. Inside the building, over a cupboard doorway, is a piece of an early 17th-century panelled door.

The Barn, E. of the house, is of five bays with one aisle and a projecting entrance; it is weather-boarded, except one wall which is of modern brick.

d (155). Herberts, house, 1¼ m. S.S.E. of the church, has a small wing on the N. side; there are modern additions on the N. side and at the end of the wing. The original chimney-stack of the main block has a shaft with diagonal pilasters.

b (156). Bears Hall, about 1¾ m. S.E. of the church, was built with a small wing on the S. side; and has been partly re-faced with modern brick.

Unclassified

b (157). Battle or Repell Ditches (also called Pel, Paille, Piddle, etc., Ditches), outside the W. end of the town, on the S. slope of the Walden valley. This earthwork consists at present of a substantial mound and ditch running S. for 500 ft. from the W. end of Abbey Lane, and a similar mound and ditch running at right angles to the other from the S. end eastwards to the High Street. On the W. side the rampart is about 9 ft. above the bottom of the ditch, which is 30 ft. wide from crest to crest. These works are probably a fragment of a larger work of which remains have been detected at various points. (See Plan.) At A, a long narrow pond which was visible in 1758 doubtless marked the ditch, now vanished. At B., when the Cinema Hall was built in 1912, a flat-bottomed ditch, 12 ft. wide from lip to lip was cut across. At C., surface traces suggest a continuation of the S. rampart. At D., and in the line D.-E., traces of the ditch were found in the sewage works of 1911; the section at D. resembled that found at B. At F., in the burial ground of the Baptist Chapel, less certain traces of a ditch were found some years ago, and between F. and G. there are property boundaries with a sharp drop towards the N. which may indicate the line of a rampart or ditch. At H., traces as of a ditch running as marked in the plan are stil visible in the gardens, and at I., drawings of 1804 seem to show a mound, though not very certainly. The evidence implies an earthwork of roughly rectangular plan, about 520 ft. from N. to S., and 1,780 ft. from E. to W., area over 20 acres; as no ditch was found at O.-O. when the sewers were laid down the High Street, there were probably entrances at those points. Some early accounts and plans such as that of Foote Gower, 1768), show the W. rampart continuing N. of Abbey Lane, and the N. rampart is plainly less attested than the others; it might be doubted whether it existed at all, or whether the defence on that side was the little marsh beside the once fair-sized stream of the Slade.

The age of Battle Ditches is doubtful. Neither the shape of the mound nor the contour of the ditch suggest Roman work. About 200 Saxon graves were found in 1830 and 1876–8, inside the western part of the area, and among them are said to have been a few Roman potsherds, brooches, coins and tiles, but they do not date the Ditches. If the record of the discovery of Roman tiles is correct a Roman building must have existed near the site; the other Roman objects are such as might occur in Saxon graves. Below the Saxon graves were some pits or hollows with a few pre-Roman potsherds, which have suggested a prehistoric origin. (Essex Archæol. Trans., 1894, p. 312, 1904, p. 224). Without careful excavation no decision is possible.

Condition—Only part of the W. and S. rampart and ditch is clearly visible.

The Maze, Saffron Walden

a (158) Enclosures, two. in Great and Little Grimms Dyke Woods, about 1½ m. N.N.E. of the church. Situated on high ground, the woods are irregular in shape and have several rectangular turns in their outline. The defences consist of a single rampart and ditch, which vary considerably in strength. Across the N. corner of the larger enclosure is a very slight transverse rampart, and in the area thus enclosed is a large cigar-shaped mound. There is also a large round pond, now dry, in the larger enclosure. In the fields W. and S. of the larger work are several pits, possibly flint mines, and many worked flints have been picked up near them. The smaller work is possibly only a wood boundary.

Condition—Both works are in a very poor condition.

b (159). The Maze, on the Common, consists of a series of concentric circles cut in the turf (see plan) and surrounded by a low bank. The origin of the work is doubtful, but it is said to have been re-cut at a charge of 15s. in 1699, and has been subsequently restored.

Condition—Good, much restored.

Saling, see Bardfield Saling and Great Saling.

Sampford, see Great Sampford and Little Sampford.