An Inventory of the Historical Monuments in Essex, Volume 1, North West. Originally published by His Majesty's Stationery Office, London, 1916.
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67. STAMBOURNE. (D.b.)
(O.S. 6 in. (a)x. N.E. (b)xi. N.W. (c)xi. S.W.)
Stambourne is a parish and village, about 9½ m. W. of Sudbury. The Church and the Lion Inn are the principal monuments.
b (1). Parish Church of St. Peter stands on the N.E. side of the parish. The walls are of flint and pebble rubble with dressings of limestone and clunch; the roofs are covered with tiles and lead. The West Tower was built late in the 11th century. The Nave is possibly of the 14th-century, but the N. arcade was built early in the 15th century. Early in the 16th century the Chancel was rebuilt, and the North Aisle widened and rebuilt, and the North Chapel added; later in the 16th century the South Porch was added or rebuilt. The church was restored in the 19th century.
The 11th-century W. tower is remarkable, and the remains of the early 16th-century screen and heraldic glass are noteworthy.
Architectural Description—The 16th-century Chancel (29 ft. by 14½ ft.) has an E. window of five cinquefoiled lights with tracery in a four-centred head; the external reveals and label are moulded. In the N. wall is a four-centred arch of two hollow-chamfered orders; the responds are moulded and have semi-circular shafts with moulded capitals; the E. capital is carved with a helm, mantling and shield—party bendwise argent and gules three roses counter coloured, for Macwilliam, quartering argent a bend cotised sable, for Stanye, and argent a cheveron sable between three billets ermine, for Englowes. Further E. is a squareheaded squint. In the S. wall are two windows, each of three cinquefoiled lights with tracery in a four-centred head. Between them is a doorway with chamfered jambs, four-centred arch and a moulded label. The early or mid 15th-century chancel-arch is two-centred and of two moulded orders on the W. side, and two chamfered orders on the E. side; the chamfered responds have each a semi-octagonal attached shaft with a moulded capital and base.
The North Chapel (18½ ft. by 12 ft.) is of the 16th-century, and has, in the N. wall, a window and doorway uniform with the windows and doorway in the S. wall of the chancel. In the W. wall is a four-centred arch of two continuously moulded orders; the responds have moulded bases rebated for a former screen and the inner order has mortises for the screen. S. of the arch is a round-headed squint.
The Nave (37 ft. by 20½ ft.) has an early 15th-century N. arcade of three bays; the two-centred arches are of two orders, the outer moulded and the inner chamfered; the columns are octagonal, with moulded capitals and bases, and the responds have attached half-columns. In the S. wall is an early 16th-century window of four cinquefoiled lights with tracery in a four-centred head; the external reveals and label are moulded. Further W. is the 14th-century S. doorway with moulded jambs, two-centred arch and label.
The 16th-century North Aisle (11½ft. wide) has, in the N. wall, two windows, each of three cinquefoiled lights with tracery under a four-centred head; the external reveals and label are moulded. Further W. is the N. doorway, with jambs and four-centred arch of two moulded orders. In the W. wall is a window similar to those in the N. wall.
The West Tower (17 ft. by 16½ ft.) (see Plate, p. 272) is unusually massive, and is of three stages, externally undivided; the quoins are partly of Roman bricks and partly of limestone; the parapet is embattled and has grotesque gargoyles. The tower is of the 11th century, but the upper part of the N.W. angle appears to have been re-constructed at some uncertain date. The stilted semi-circular tower-arch is of one plain order; the responds have imposts enriched with simple ornament and partly restored. In the N. and S. walls are traces of blocked loops. The late 14th-century W. window is of two trefoiled lights with a quatrefoil in a segmental-pointed head. The second stage has in both the S. and W. walls, two 11th-century windows with jambs and semi-circular heads of two square orders of Roman brick; all the windows have modern inserted stonework forming two lights. In the N. wall, E. of the centre line, is a window similar to those in the S. and W. walls but of one order. The bell-chamber has, in each wall, a 15th-century window of two cinquefoiled lights with a quatrefoil in a two-centred head.
The South Porch is of mid 16th-century date, and is almost entirely of brick. The four-centred outer archway is of two orders, the outer hollow-chamfered and the inner moulded, and resting on semi-octagonal attached shafts with defaced moulded embattled capitals; the stonework is of early 15th-century date, re-set and restored, and a part of the responds is of brick. The E. and W. walls have each a 16th-century window of two pointed lights in a four-centred head with a moulded label, all of brick.
The Roofs where ancient are all of early 16th-century date, except that of the nave, which is of the 15th century. The roof of the chancel is of three bays with moulded main timbers and curved braces to the principals and collars; the spandrels are carved with foliage, a Macwilliam badge, a thumbscrew, and the motto 'Espoir me confort' and shields, some blank and some with arms—(a) Macwilliam impaling Stanye; (b) the quartered coat of Macwilliam impaling azure a cheveron between three stags' heads argent, for Hartishorn; (c) the quartered coat of Macwilliam impaling sable powdered with roundels argent and two flaunches argent, for Spelman, quartered with gules a chief ermine, for Norburgh; (d) Macwilliam; (e) the Macwilliam badges. The flat roof of the N. chapel has moulded crossbeams. The roof of the nave is of the trussed-rafter type with two moulded tie-beams which have curved braces and foliated spandrels; a third tie-beam has been cut away. The ridged roof of the N. aisle is of three bays with moulded and foliated main timbers; the principals have curved brackets with spandrels carved with foliage, the same motto as on the roof of the chancel, and shields, all blank but one, which has a Macwilliam thumb-screw badge. The second stage of the tower has a moulded ceiling-beam apparently of the 14th century, but possibly older.
Fittings—Bells: five; 1st by Thomas Draper of Thetford, 1583; 2nd, 4th, and 5th by Henry Pleasant, 1705. Chair: In chancel—with carved and inlaid back, curved arms and turned legs, c. 1600. Chest: In tower—front and ends with square framing, three hasps, traces of red colour, mediæval, date uncertain. Door: In N. chapel— in N. doorway, plain, with strap-hinges, early 16th-century. Font: stem with traceried and cinquefoil-headed panels, late 15th or early 16th-century, bowl, modern. Glass: In chancel—in E. window, kneeling figure of woman at prayer-desk, with heraldic mantle charged with the coat of Macwilliam, and tunic with the arms of Hartishorn, kneeling figure of man in armour with tabard charged with fragments of the arms of Macwilliam, Englowes, and a coat—gules two leopards or; in heads of lights, fragments of tabernacle work; in tracery lights, shields hung on trees or held by figures, with the following arms—(a) a Macwilliam badge; (b) Macwilliam impaling argent fretty sable; (c) Macwilliam impaling Stanye; (d) Macwilliam quartering Stanye, impaling Englowes; (e) Macwilliam quartering Stanye and Englowes, impaling Hartishorn; (f) Macwilliam, probably as (e), impaling Spelman and Norburgh quarterly; (g) a fesse azure between three galloping colts, for Colt, impaling Macwilliam quartered as before; (h) Colt quartering Macwilliam; (i) argent a bend gules with three pairs of wings argent on the bend, for Wingfield, quartering quarterly sable and or a crescent for difference, for Bovill, impaling Macwilliam quartered, early 16th-century; (j) shield much restored; in windows of S. wall, borders made up of fragments, fragments of thumbscrew badge, a white rose, etc. In N. chapel—in tracery of N. window, fragments of foliage, tabernacle work and thumb-screw badge. In nave—in tracery of S. window, shield and badge of Macwilliam, fragments of thumb-screw badge, etc. all early 16th-century. Monuments and Floorslabs. Floor-slab: In chancel—to Colonel John Farewell, deputy-governor of the Tower, 1710. Niches: In chancel—in E. respond of arch to N. chapel, with cinquefoiled head and flanking buttresses; under niche, the Macwilliam rose badge, early 16th-century, bracket restored. In nave—in E. splay of window in S. wall, two, one above the other, with vaulted canopies of tabernacle work, lower niche with foliated pedestal, upper niche with shield of arms on canopy— the quartered coat of Macwilliam; under each niche, the Macwilliam rose badge early 16th-century. In N. aisle—in E. splay of easternmost window, two, similar to but plainer than those in nave, lower pedestal with plain shield and no shield on upper canopy, early 16th-century. Piscinae: In chancel—in S. wall, with four-centred head, early 16th-century, drain destroyed; in W. splay of S.E. window, with trefoiled head and remains of drain, early 16th-century. Pulpit: semi-hexagonal with plain panels, early 18th-century, stem made up of early 17th-century panelling. Screen: Under chancel arch—of five bays, middle doorway with septfoiled and sub-cusped head and elaborate tracery, side bays with open traceried upper panels and close traceried lower panels, two to each bay, close panels on the N. side elaborately but coarsely painted in green, gold, and red, with four figures standing on pedestals— (a) St. Denis; (b) St. George; (c) St. Edmund, and (d) a crowned figure standing on an antelope, for King Henry VI.; painted on sill on S. side, part of an inscription—'the good benefactors of this church,' early 16th-century, partly restored. Sedilia: In chancel—sill of S.E. window carried down to form seat. In nave—sill of S. window carried down to form seat, both early 16th-century. Stoup: In nave—E. of S. doorway, with rough ogee head, probably 16th-century, projecting basin cut away.
b (2). Stambourne Hall and moat, 100 yards E.N.E. of the church. The House is of two storeys, timber-framed and plastered; the roofs are tiled. It is of irregular L-shaped plan, with the wings extending towards the S. and W., but has been almost entirely rebuilt; the earliest remaining detail is of c. 1600. There are two gabled projections on the W. front of the S. wing, one on the N. side of the W. wing, and one at the N. end of the back elevation. Inside the building, some rooms on both floors have chamfered ceiling-beams; shaped wall-posts and a moulded beam of c. 1600 are exposed on the first floor.
The Moat is incomplete and only the N.E. part remains.
Condition—Of house good, much altered.
b (3). The Lion Inn, formerly Moone Hall, 50 yards S.W. of the church, is of two storeys, timber-framed and plastered; the roofs are tiled. It was built c. 1500; the additions on the S. side and at the W. end are modern. On the N. front, and also at the back, between the modern additions, the upper storey projects; in front it has an original moulded bressumer supported by five moulded shafts or buttresses of wood; at the E. end of the front is a gable with original cusped barge-boards. The early 17th-century central chimney-stack has one octagonal shaft, and two attached diagonal shafts. The chimney-stack at the W. end has a square shaft. Inside the building, on the ground floor, are some hollow-chamfered ceiling-beams and joists. The fireplace in the middle room has an original moulded and embattled lintel.
The following monuments, unless otherwise described, are of the 17th century, and of two storeys, timber-framed and plastered; the roofs are tiled or thatched. Many of the buildings have original chimney-stacks, wide fireplaces and exposed ceiling-beams.
Condition—Good or fairly good, unless noted.
b (4). Pound House, about ¼ m. S.W. of the church, was built late in the 16th or early in the 17th century. The N. end was rebuilt or added late in the 17th century, and there is a modern extension at the S. end. The original central chimney-stack has grouped diagonal shafts and pilasters. Inside the building, the timber-framing is exposed in some of the walls.
b (5). Mill Farm, house, about ½ m. E.S.E. of the church, was built early in the 17th century, and extended towards the W. late in the same century. The addition on the N. side is modern. The original central chimney-stack has two attached diagonal shafts. Inside the building is an old door with strap-hinges, and, on the first floor, the timber-framing is exposed.
b (6). Little Tagley, house, 500 yards S. of the church, was built in the second half of the 16th century. The S.W. part was either rebuilt or added in the 17th century. The S.W. side has been re-faced with modern brick. On the N.W. side are two original windows with moulded mullions and old hinges, catches, and glazing. The original central chimney-stack has four square shafts, set diagonally. Inside the building, the N.E. room has late 16th or early 17th-century panelling, re-fixed, and a panelled door. On the first floor is a similar door, and at the foot of the staircase is an original four-centred arch; the panelling and doors have carved friezes.
b (7). Craig's Farm, house, ¾ m. S.W. of the church, with a modern extension at the S.W. end.
c (8). Robinhood End Farm, house, 1¼ m. S.W. of the church, was built probably c. 1699; the additions on the S. side are modern. On the N.W. front are the initials and date, I.E. 1699.
c (9). Cottage, 370 yards S.W. of (8), is of Lshaped plan with the wings extending towards the N. and W. Inside the building, on the first floor, the timber-framing is exposed.
a (10). Old Robin, house, now three tenements, nearly 2 m. W.S.W. of the church. The original central chimney-stack has two attached diagonal shafts and pilasters on a square dentilled base. Inside the building, the timber-framing is exposed.
a (11). Little Nortons, house, 500 yards E.N.E. of (10), is of two storeys with attics. It was built in the 16th century on an L-shaped plan with the wings extending towards the N. and W. The extension at the end of the N. wing is modern. At the S. end of the E. front the upper storey projects and is gabled. On the S. elevation is an original window with a moulded mullion, now blocked. Inside the building, in the attics, is a window with old fastenings and diamond-shaped glazing.
a (12). Stambourne Green Farm, house, 1¼ m. W.S.W. of the church.
a (13). Slough Farm, house, 200 yards N. of (12), has a modern wing on the S.W. side, making the plan T-shaped. The original central chimney-stack has grouped diagonal shafts and pilasters.
a (14). Newhouse Farm, house, 1,100 yards S.W. of the church, is of two storeys with attics. The plan is L-shaped with the wings extending towards the E. and N. At the W. end of the S. front is a gable; the original central chimney-stack has numerous grouped diagonal shafts and pilasters, and on it are the initials and date, I.P. 16 (?) 78.
b (15). Three Chimneys, house, about 1 m. N.N.W. of the church, is of T-shaped plan, with the wings extending towards the N. and E. The addition at the N. end is modern.