An Inventory of the Historical Monuments in Essex, Volume 1, North West. Originally published by His Majesty's Stationery Office, London, 1916.
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74. THAXTED. (C.c.)
(O.S. (a)xiv. N.E. (b)xiv. S.E. (c)xv. N.W. (d)xv. S.W.)
Thaxted is a large parish and small market town, about 6½ m. S.E. of Saffron Walden. The town, situated on a hill, is grouped round a picturesque market place, called Town Street, and contains an unusual number of late mediæval timber buildings. The Church, the Guildhall, and, outside the town, Horham Hall, are the principal monuments.
a (1). Dwelling-house: foundations were found in 1913 on Claypits Farm, S.E. of the town, but the site has not yet been excavated.
a (2). Parish Church of St. John the Baptist, St. Mary and St. Laurence stands on the W. of the town (see Plate, p. 302). The walls are of flint rubble, mostly covered with cement; the dressings are of limestone and clunch; the roofs are covered with lead except those of the N. and S. porch chambers which are of slate and tiles. The N. and S. arcades of the Nave are of c. 1340 when the aisles were probably built or rebuilt; later in the same century a series of alterations were undertaken, beginning with the rebuilding of the South Transept, followed by the widening of the S. aisle and the addition of the South Porch and Porch-chamber c. 1380. The alterations were carried out apparently after the fall or removal of a central tower. The North Transept was rebuilt late in the 14th or early in the 15th century. About 1445 the North Aisle was widened, and the North Porch and Porch-chamber were added; probably in the last quarter of the 15th century the West Tower was built. The Chancel and the North and South Chapels were rebuilt c. 1510, at the same time as the north and south arches of the Crossing; a clearstorey was also added to the nave c. 1510. The church was considerably restored shortly after the middle of the 18th century and the greater part of the tower was renewed or rebuilt. The spire fell in 1814 and was largely rebuilt in 1822, and the whole building was further restored during the 19th century.
The church is one of the finest and largest in the county, and among the fittings the early 15th-century reredos in the N. transept, the 14th and 15th-century stained glass, and the late 15th-century font-case are noteworthy.
Architectural Description—The Chancel (48½ ft. by 23 ft.) has an embattled parapet and a modern E. gable; at the E. end are buttresses of four stages, the third gabled and the fourth set diagonally and rising above the parapet with a carved finial. The early 16th-century E. window is of five cinquefoiled lights with tracery under a segmental-pointed head; it has been partly restored and the stonework is washed with cement. At the E. end the internal angles are splayed, and the S.E. angle contains a staircase probably leading up to the roof and down to the charnel vault, and now blocked; the doorway has a four-centred head. The early 16th century N. and S. arcades are each of four bays; the piers are moulded and on the E. and W. sides have attached shafts with moulded capitals and bases; the four-centred arches have pierced traceried spandrels under a moulded horizontal string-course; on the N. and S. faces of the piers a roll-moulding is continued up to support the roof-principals; the responds are half-sections of piers. The clearstorey has, in the N. and S. walls, four windows probably all of the 18th century.
The North Chapel (48½ ft. by 16 ft.) is of early 16th-century date and has a diagonal V-shaped buttress at the N.E. angle and three buttresses to the N. wall, all with sham gargoyles and panelled and crocketed pinnacles rising above the parapet. In the E. wall is a window of four cinquefoiled lights with tracery in a four-centred head; the jambs and mullions are moulded; the S.E. angle of the chapel is splayed. In the N. wall are four windows, all partly restored, and of four cinquefoiled lights with tracery under a square head, the jambs, heads and mullions are moulded; the recesses both within and without are carried down to the ground and internally have stone benches; between the windows small attached shafts are carried up to support the roof-principals. Below the western window is a doorway with moulded jambs and four-centred arch under a square head. In the W. wall, opening into the N. transept, is a moulded four-centred arch; the responds have attached shafts with moulded capitals and bases.
The South Chapel (48½ ft. by 16 ft.) is of the same date and detail as the N. chapel. The doorway in the S. wall is almost entirely madern and all the windows have been partly restored.
The Charnel or Bone Vault below the chancel has in the E. wall three plain blocked rectangular windows; it is now inaccessible.
The Crossing (20½ ft. by 21 ft.) has a two-centred E. arch of the same date and similar detail to the chancel-arcades, but without traceried spandrels. The four-centred N. and S. arches are also of early 16th-century date and of two moulded orders; on the E. side the inner order springs from a moulded corbel and on the W. side from an attached shaft with a moulded capital. The two-centred W. arch is of c. 1340 and of two moulded orders with moulded labels; the responds have three round shafts divided by rolls, and with moulded bases and bell-capitals; the arch was raised in the 16th century, probably when the clearstorey was added to the nave.
The North Transept (30½ ft. by 21½ ft.) has, in the N. half of the E. wall, a blocked window of three 18th-century lights with moulded 15th-century internal jambs, which have attached shafts with moulded capitals, and a stilted two-centred rear arch. Further S. is the arch to the N. chapel, and above it a 15th-century wheel window of eight radiating cinquefoiled lights, set in a square outer order; the external stonework is modern. In the N. wall is a large 18th-century window set in a wider 15th-century arched recess, probably an old window-head, with moulded internal jambs and a two-centred arch with a moulded label and stops carved with angels holding a viol and lute. In the W. wall is a wide four-centred arch opening into the N. aisle and of the same date; it is of two moulded orders with moulded labels and has carved on the E. apex a figure holding a shield; the responds are moulded and have each three attached shafts with moulded capitals and bases.
The South Transept (27 ft. by 20½ ft.) has in the E. wall a blocked window probably of the 15th century, of which part of the moulded internal N. jamb is exposed; externally the stonework is of the 18th century; above the arch to the S. chapel is a wheel-window similar to that in the N. transept. In the S. wall is a large 18th-century window, set in a wider recess or window-opening of c. 1370, and with moulded jambs and two-centred arch which has a moulded label and defaced stops. In the W. wall is a four-centred arch of c. 1380 opening into the S. aisle; it is of two moulded orders with moulded labels; the E. label has at the apex a carved angel with a shield, and carved stops; the W. label has at the apex an angel with a lute; the moulded responds have each three attached shafts, with moulded and carved capitals and moulded bases; the larger capital on the S. side has a figure of St. Katherine between two wheels, the other capitals have foliage or faces.
The Nave (85½ ft. by 18½ ft.) (see Plate, p. 304), has N. and S. arcades of c. 1340, and each of six bays; they are of similar detail to the W. arch of the crossing and have on each face moulded labels with carved head-stops; the pair at the E. end are head-corbels and probably supported a former rood-loft; the piers have four round shafts with rolls between them and the responds are half-sections of piers. The early 16th-century clearstorey has on the N. and S. sides, six windows, all modern except the panelled splays and four-centred rear arches. Below the windows is a moulded string-course, from which spring attached round shafts with moulded capitals supporting the rooftrusses.
The North Aisle (86 ft. by 22½ ft.) has panelled buttresses finished with square gabled and crocketed pinnacles and carved imitation gargoyles; the diagonal buttress at the N.W. angle has V-shaped lower stages. The N. wall is divided internally into six bays by small attached shafts with moulded bases and capitals, carried up to support the roof-principals; the five mid 15th-century windows are all partly restored; those in the first, second, third and sixth bays are uniform and each of four trefoiled ogee lights with tracery under a three-centred head, which has a moulded external label; the jambs and arch are moulded and the internal recess is carried down to the floor; the window in the fifth bay is of similar character, but on account of the turret outside is of three lights only under a four-centred head. The N. doorway has moulded jambs and two-centred arch; each jamb has an attached shaft with a moulded capital and base; the moulded external label has stops carved as angels holding shields; the pointed rear arch is moulded; in the fifth bay is also a doorway to the staircase from the porch-chamber with moulded jambs, four-centred arch and a moulded label. In the W. wall is a window of five lights under a four-centred head, similar to those in the N. wall.
The South Aisle (83 ft. by 22 ft.) has, in the S. wall, four windows; the first and second windows are of four and three lights respectively, similar to those in the N. aisle, and much restored; the third window is of late 14th-century date, and only slightly restored; it is of two cinquefoiled lights with tracery in a segmental head; the fourth window is similar to the third, but of three lights, and largely restored. The late 14th-century S. doorway has jambs and two-centered arch of two moulded orders with a modern external label; the segmental rear arch is also moulded and has a moulded label brought down and continued all round the aisle as a string-course under the windows. Further W., opening into the staircase of the porch-chamber, is a 15th-century doorway with moulded jambs and four-centred arch under a square head with foliated spandrels. In the W. wall is a window, all modern except the internal reveals and the segmental rear arch, which has a late 14th-century moulded label with head-stops and at the apex the carved head of an angel, probably reset.
The West Tower (17 ft. square) was largely rebuilt in the 18th and 19th centuries, including the spire, but with the exception of part of the ground stage. It is of four stages with semi-hexagonal and buttressed turrets to the two lower stages and flat diagonal buttresses to the two upper stages. The panelled and embattled parapet has crocketed pinnacles at the angles. The W. doorway and window are modern. The bell-chamber has, in each face, a pair of coupled windows of two lights under a common square head. The stone spire is supported by flying buttresses at the base and has three tiers of lights; all the work is either much restored or modern. The late 15th-century tower-arch is two-centred and of three moulded orders; the moulded responds have each three attached shafts with moulded capitals and bases. In the angles of the ground stage are attached shafts with moulded bases and capitals, from which spring a vault built of clunch with moulded diagonal ridge and intermediate ribs, carved bosses at the intersections and a round bell-way; the vault is partly restored and the bases are probably of the 18th century or modern.
The North Porch (12¼ ft. square) is of c. 1445 and has been much restored. The entrance archway is two-centred and moulded, with a modern square moulded label; the moulded jambs each have an attached shaft with a moulded capital and base; the spandrels have traceried panels with a large rose in the middle of each panel. Over the entrance is a niche with traceried panels on each side, mostly modern. In the E. wall is a blocked original window and set in it a modern window copied from an original window in the W. wall, which has two plain four-centred lights with a quatrefoil spandrel under a four-centred head with a moulded label. The porch has a stone vault, all modern except the springers, wall-ribs and vaulting-shafts; the ribs are moulded and the vaulting-shafts have moulded capitals and bases, and stand on stone benches on each side of the porch. The Porch-chamber has two modern windows in the N. wall; in the E. wall is a modern blind window. In the S.W. angle, opening into the staircase, is an original doorway with hollow-chamfered jambs and four-centred arch; the staircase is continued up to the roof.
The South Porch (13½ ft. square) is of late 14th-century date, much restored. The outer archway is moulded and two-centred; the responds have each three clustered shafts with moulded capitals and bases; over the arch is a modern niche. At the S. end of each side wall is a smaller four-centred archway of two moulded orders and with shafted jambs similar to the S. archway (the additional archways are a most unusual feature); further N. on the E. side is a modern window with an original moulded and four-centred rear arch. The roof has a vault of clunch, slightly restored, with moulded diagonal, ridge, wall and intermediate ribs, with carved bosses at the intersections; the middle boss is carved with a figure-subject, much defaced; the vault springs from angle-shafts with moulded capitals and bases. The Porch-chamber has in the S. wall a blocked window, largely modern, of two lights with tracery under a four-centred head. In each side-wall is a long low window of four ogee lights under a square head with a modern label; the segmental rear arches are chamfered, with broach-stops to the jambs. In the N. wall is the head of a blocked window of two cinquefoiled lights and a four-centred head, all much damaged. The doorway from the staircase in the N.W. angle has an original moulded E. jamb and three-centred arch.
The Roof of the chancel is of early 16th-century date; it is low pitched and of four bays with an additional narrow bay at the E. end; the moulded tie-beams have curved braces (except the E. truss) and short king-posts, and the wall-plates, purlins, principals and king-posts are also moulded. The early 16th-century roof of the N. chapel is of four bays with five trusses and a short bay at the E. end with a boarded ceiling; the main timbers are moulded and the principals have wall-posts and curved braces; much of the original painted black and white decoration remains, with spiral ornament on the principal rafters and quatrefoils on the common rafters. The roof of the S. chapel is of similar date and detail to that of the N. chapel, but there is now no trace of painted decoration; the boarded ceiling of the E. bay has moulded ribs with carved bosses at the intersections, coloured red and white representing the chalice and wafer; each panel has a painted sun inclosing the monogram I. H. S., the initial M., or a chalice and wafer; the E. tie-beam has remains of a black-letter inscription. The late 15th-century roof of the crossing is similar to that of the chancel; it has a moulded ridge and there are remains of original colour on the E. truss. The late 14th or early 15th-century roof of the N. transept is of two bays with three trusses which have tie-beams, with pierced curved braces and king-posts with four-way struts; the tie-beams of the N. and S. trusses have been cut away to form hammer-beams, and the braces spring from stone corbels carved with angels and symbols of St. Luke and St. John; the intersections of principals and purlins have carved bosses, and at the feet of the intermediate principals are grotesque corbels; there are traces of coloured decoration. The roof of the S. transept is of the second half of the 14th century and has three trusses, each with moulded main timbers, tie-beam, king-post with four-way struts and curved traceried braces; the tie-beams of the N. and S. trusses have been cut away to form hammer-beams and the faces of the tie-beam of the middle truss are carved with dragons; the corbels are moulded or carved and there are grotesque wood corbels at the feet of the intermediate principals. The early 16th-century roof of the nave is flat and has moulded main timbers forming a series of panels, four in each width; the roof is of six bays and below the principals are curved braces; the main intersections have carved shields or bosses, including shields with the following charges:—Four molets; a leopard rampant between two anchors; three bugles, etc. The roof of the N. aisle is of similar character to that of the nave and probably of late 15th-century date; the braces are curved, and at the feet of the intermediate principals are carved wooden figures each holding a blank shield or book; the bosses are carved with heads, angels or foliage and one shield bearing a wool-comb bendwise between two shuttles (?). The early 16th-century roof of the S. aisle is similar to that over the N. aisle but the braces spring from carved figures resting on stone and wood corbels mostly carved with heads; the carved bosses include the following arms and devices:—The Bourchier water-bouget (twice repeated), the Bourchier knot, portcullis, pomegranate and grapes, double rose, ostrich feather, fetterlock, pomegranate and rose dimidiated, fleur de lis, three bugles, three spades (?) tied together in star form, a cheveron between three stars with three roundels on the cheveron, three trefoils, the initials A.F.B., TC and C.
Fittings. Brasses and Indents. Brasses: In chancel—(1) of priest in gown, tippet, and hood, c. 1450. In N. chapel—(2) to Briget and Joan, daughters of Thomas Smith, 1638, inscription only. In S. chapel—(3) to William More alias Tayler, 1532, and his grandson, John More alias Tayler, five times Mayor of Thaxted, 1619, inscription and indent of figure. Indents: In chancel— (1) of inscription and another plate with projection at the top. In S. chapel—(2) of half-figure of priest and inscription plate; (3) of inscription plate. In N. transept—(4) of two figures, shield and inscription. In crossing—(5) of two figures and inscription. In S. aisle—(6) of marginal inscription, much worn. Chairs: In N. chapel— stool of oak with turned legs and carved upper rail, 17th-century. Chests: In crossing—of oak with linen-fold panelling, legs moulded on inner side, early 16th-century, lid and lock later. In N. aisle—of oak, small, with seven trefoiled ogee panels in front, lid with moulded edge, 15th-century. Communion Rails: with moulded top rail and twisted balusters, formerly used as enclosure in N. aisle; now used in various parts of the church, two sections of similar pattern, late 17th or early 18th-century. Doors: In N. chapel— of oak, framed and battened with drop-handle, 15th-century. In S. chapel—of oak, framed and battened, with plain strap-hinges, 15th-century. In nave—in N. doorway, of oak with two folds, outside with two tiers of cinquefoil-headed panels and tracery in the head, small wicket, early 16th-century; in S. doorway, of oak, framed and battened, with two folds, plain wicket and moulded battens. In N. porch—in lower doorway of staircase, of oak, plain and nail-studded with plain hinges; in upper doorway of feather battens cut down and rehung, both probably late 15th-century. In S. porch—in lower doorway of staircase, of oak, nail-studded, with strap-hinges; in upper doorway of feather battens, both probably 15th-century. Font Case and Cover (see Plate, p. xxxiii). Case: octagonal, of oak, in two stages with buttressed angles and panelled sides with traceried heads and carved spandrels, line of quatrefoil panels at base and moulded upper rail. Cover: spireform, supported internally on two carved brackets, one partly restored, lower stage with traceried arches and embattled cresting, pierced and crocketed buttresses at angles, upper stage with septfoiled arches and finished with a finial in the middle and side pinnacles, late 15th-century, restored, font entirely hidden by case. Glass. In N. chapel— in N. wall, in eastern window, in heads of three lights, remains of tabernacle work; in tracery, two fragmentary figures of bishops, fragments of tabernacle work, borders, etc. In second window—in the first light, fragmentary figure of St. Christopher bearing the child Christ, below a shield with a missing coat quartering Mortimer, Burgh and de Genevile; in second light, fragments of figure of a king with an arrow (?) in left hand, probably St. Edmund; below it, figure of donor kneeling at a prayer-desk; in third light, fragmentary figure of St. Michael and below it a shield of France and England quarterly, much damaged; in fourth light, fragmentary figure of St. George; all lights have ornamental borders and remains of quarried background; in tracery, remains of figure of angel, inscription and other fragments. In third window—in first light, fragmentary crowned figure of St. Katherine holding sword in left hand, remains of inscription and kneeling figure of donor, etc.; second light, lower part of bishop's figure with remains of name and, below it, kneeling figure of donor; in third light, lower part of figure of St. Elizabeth with part of name; in fourth light, remains of figure of St. Nicholas with part of name and, below it, figure of donor; all lights with remains of ornamental border and diapered background; in tracery various fragments. In westernmost window—in first light, fragments of figure of deacon with book; in second light, parts of figure of female saint; in third light, part of figure; all lights with remains of border; in tracery, fragments of figures of angels, a splayed eagle, etc., all early 16th-century. In N. transept—in circular window in E. wall, fragment of figure of angel (?). In S. transept—in circular window in E. wall, flower ornament; in S. window, formerly in N. window of N. transept, rectangular panel, with figure in armour with shield of Mortimer, and in right hand a spear, diapered background, c. 1375; lower down a panel with figure of Abraham, all modern, except the tabernacle work and a few other fragments, 15th-century. In N. aisle—in N.E. window, in tracery and in heads of lights, fragments. In second window—in each light a panel of fragments, and in tracery, figures, some of them fragmentary, of the Virgin and Child, two archbishops, and St. Katherine. In third window— in first light, fragmentary figure of St. Lawrence, modern head, background powdered with stars; in third light, upper part of figure, probably St. Mary Magdalene, and other fragments, in head of each light, tabernacle work; in tracery, the coronation of the Virgin, the Annunciation, fragments of two figures of saints, tabernacle work, etc. In western window and in window of west wall—in tracery of each, one fragment. In S. aisle—in S.E. window, four panels representing the history of the fall; (1) Adam and Eve in the garden; (2) the temptation; (3) Adam and Eve driven from the garden; (4) now a collection of fragments, including Adam delving and Eve spinning; in tracery, upper parts of figures of two bishops, an archbishop, a female saint, probably St. Ursula, and three angels; in western window, in middle light, fragments. All glass, not otherwise noted, of c. 1460. Monuments and Floor-slabs. Monument: In S. chapel—let into modern altar, to Daniel, son of John Moore, 1631, slate tablet, black marble slab with achievement of arms at N. end. Floor-slabs: In chancel— (1) to Thomas Swallow, 1712; (2) to Robert Barnard, 1720, and Anne his wife, 1681. In N. transept—(3) to John, 1697, John, 1698, Smethe, 1703, Richard, 1706, Jeremiah, 1714, and a stillborn child, children of John Rayner; (4) to John Rayner, 1679, with coat of arms; (5) to Thomas Rayner, 1674; (6) to Thomas Rayner, 1692. In S. transept—(7) to Richard Turner, 1701, and Richard his son, 1706; (8) to Thomas Turner, 1711. In crossing—(9) to Thomas Rayner, 1710. Niches: In chancel—in S.E. splayed angle, with remains of double vaulted canopy, now cut back, shafted jambs with capitals and bases, late 15th-century. In N. chapel—in S.E. splayed angle, with remains of vaulted canopy, now cut back, small figure of angel at head, late 15th-century. In N. transept—in E. wall, on each side of blocked window, similar to that in N. chapel, late 15th-century; in W. wall, with vaulted ogee canopy, head with cinquefoiled cusping and carved spandrels, moulded and crocketed label with angel-stops, shafted jambs, late 14th or early 15th-century. In S. transept—in E. wall, with cinquefoiled arch, square head and foliated spandrels, 15th-century; in W. wall, with sub-cusped trefoiled ogee canopy with crockets and finial, large super-canopy, foiled and gabled, with crockets, finial, and gabled side pinnacles, shafted jambs flanked by buttresses, sill with moulded edge and a four-leaf flower, flanked by figures of angels below sill, late 14th-century. On S. porch—over S. entrance, largely modern (see Architectural Description), with cinquefoiled ogee canopy, crocketed and finialed, sill with carved lion in front, late 14th-century. (See also Recesses and Reredos.) Paintings: In crossing—on E. wall, traces of black-letter texts; on S. jamb of arch, strip of foliage and pomegranate design; on wall N. of arch, traces of ornament. In N. transept—on N.E. niche, dark red background, for former image, angels painted below the canopy, gold and colours on the vaulting; on S.E. niche, similar to the other and apparently touched up. (See also Roofs.) Panelling: In N. and S. chapels—at W. end, in screens, carved and pierced upper panels, late 17th-century, re-fixed. In S. transept—forming screen, moulded panelling, late 17th-century. In various parts of the church—other re-used material, late 17th-century. Piscina: In S. chapel—square recess, head destroyed, moulded and shafted jambs, sill with shallow basin on shaft with moulded base, late 15th-century. Plate: includes a cup of 1562, the bowl strengthened by a band; large cup of 1622 and a stand-paten of 1632; pewter flagon, alms-dish and three salvers, possibly 17th-century. Pulpit: (see Plate, p. 307) of oak, hexagonal, with ogee-shaped base and tall stem, five sides with raised inlaid panels, cornice, lower rail and angles enriched with carved foliage in sycamore wood, staircase with moulded rail and twisted balusters, hexagonal sounding-board with enriched cornice and inlaid soffit, all c. 1680. Recesses: In N. transept—under N. window, range of seven, probably originally seats, each with cinquefoiled sub-cusped head with carved points and spandrels to the main cusps, all under a square main head with carved spandrels, early 15th-century. In S. transept—under S. window, range of eleven, the third, fifth and seventh with cinquefoiled sub-cusped heads similar to those in the N. transept, the others with trefoiled sub-cusped canopies with crocketed labels and foliated finials, foliated spandrels behind canopies and carved angels between each pair, late 14th-century, partly damaged. Reredos: In N. transept—on E. wall, range of six niches with shafted jambs, and vaulted canopies with cinquefoiled sub-cusped heads having ogee crocketed and finialed labels with angel-stops, between each niche a buttress and crocketed pinnacle, and above the heads a panelled wall space with a moulded cornice enriched with a carved head of Christ in the middle, flanked by figures of censing angels and other carvings; the cornice continues beyond the niches over two large panels with cinquefoiled sub-cusped heads, early 15th-century. In S. transept—in E. wall, recess with modern arch and original moulded N. jamb, in it a number of broken fragments of a reredos, said to have been discovered in the recess, probably late 14th-century. Royal Arms: Over S. doorway—large, painted on wood, of Queen Anne before the Union. Screens: In N. and S. chapels—parts of lower half of two screens of six panels each, with elaborate traceried heads and carved spandrels, at base a row of quatrefoils and on rail a band of carving, 15th-century, much restored. Seating: In S. aisle—bench with moulded edge and popeys, one partly destroyed, 15th-century. In various parts of the church— formerly in the private chapel at Easton Lodge, twelve bench-ends with shaped heads and carved panels, foreign, c. 1640. Sedilia: (see Niches and Recesses). Stoups: In N. porch— W. of entrance, cinquefoiled four-centred recess with a label, probably for former stoup, late 15th-century, restored. In S. porch—E. of S. doorway, four-centred arch with square head and deep basin, label and basin cut back, 15th-century. Miscellanea: At W. end of nave and S. aisle—loose stones, including two female head-corbels, 14th-century. On E. wall of chancel—various pieces of traceried woodwork, re-set, probably from former screens or stalls, 15th-century.
a (3). At Yardley Farm, about 1¼ m. N.N.W. of the church, remains of a rectangular moat.
c (4). At Terrier's Farm, 1 m. N.E. of the church, rectangular and almost complete.
c (5). At Miller's Farm, Bardfield End, 1 m. E. of the church, remains of a rectangular moat.
b (6). Horham Hall and moat, 1¾ m. S.W. of the church. The House is of two storeys, with a cellar under the 16th-century part; the walls are of brick and the roofs are tiled. The existing S. wing is probably the Solar of a timber-framed building of c. 1470, and stands in the parish of Broxted. The rest of the house was built by Sir John Cutte early in the 16th century and was far more extensive than the present building and probably quadrangular: in any case the N. wing extended further both towards the E. and W., and included a Chapel on the E. side. At a slightly later date a passage way was constructed between the Great Hall and the N. wing, and the small wing in the W. angle between the Hall and the N. wing was probably added at the same time. About 1580 the S. wing was cased with brickwork and the lower part of the staircase tower on the N. side was built. Early in the 17th century the tower was heightened by one stage, and c. 1660 the S. end of the house was partly demolished and the present kitchen built at an angle with the 15th-century structure. The Chapel and other parts of the house were probably demolished in and before the 18th century, and between 1840–50 the building was restored and the N. wing shortened at the W. end.
The house is an interesting example of Tudor and earlier work; the oriel in the Hall is especially fine. The 15th-century roof-trusses in the S. wing are also noteworthy.
The house is now of irregular H-shaped plan, the Great Hall occupying the central block, with the screens and porch at the S. end. The N. wing contains the Drawing Room and Library on the ground floor with the Staircase-tower projecting towards the N. The S. wing has the Morning Room at the E. end, with the Kitchen and other offices projecting diagonally on the S. side.
The E. Elevation (see Plate, p. 308) is of red brick with stone dressings and has some diapering of blue brick. The parapets and copings are probably modern and the moulded plinth is covered with cement. The porch at the S. end of the Great Hall is of two storeys with an original four-centred outer archway of two continuous hollow-chamfered orders with a moulded label; the inner doorway has moulded jambs and a four-centred arch, also original. At the N. end of the Hall is the great oriel, which rises to the full height of the building and is semi-octagonal on plan; the E. face has a large square-headed window with moulded reveals and of six trefoiled lights with three transoms; the return windows are similar and of two lights each; all the work has been partly restored. Further N. is a skewed bay or passage to the N. wing, with two ranges of modern transomed windows which have plain four-centred heads to the lights. S. of the great oriel is a square-headed window, apparently modern. At the end of the S. wing is a small projecting bay carried up two storeys; the window on the ground floor is almost entirely modern, but that on the first floor, with four-centred heads to the lights, is largely original; on each side of the bay is a single-light window partly restored. The remaining windows on the Elevation are modern restorations.
The N. Elevation has the staircase tower projecting at the E. end; it has a modern parapet and S.W. turret and an original four-centred doorway in the E. face; the windows are all of one or two lights with four-centred heads and square moulded labels, and all more or less restored; on the N. face they follow the rake of the staircase. The windows in the main wall are modern restorations, with the exception of two, which light the cellar, and have brick jambs and oak frames. There are two chimney-stacks, the eastern has a single octagonal shaft rising from a moulded and corbelled projection with a crow-stepped parapet; the western stack has two detached octagonal shafts, probably rebuilt.
The W. Elevation has modern parapets and gablecopings. All the doorways and windows are either entirely restored or modern, except the two single-light windows with four-centred heads and square labels, in the smaller addition on the S. side of the N. wing, which may be partly of the 15th century. Projecting from the wall of the Great Hall is a chimney-stack with a crow-stepped capping from which rise three shafts on a rectangular base; the middle shaft is probably original and is set diagonally; the other two shafts are octagonal, one is modern and the other probably a late 16th-century addition.
The line of the S. Elevation is broken in the middle by the angle of the kitchen, which projects diagonally, and has, in the S.E. face, two windows each of two lights with oak frames and transoms of c. 1660. W. of the kitchen is a chimney-stack of the same date as the windows, with four octagonal shafts in pairs. E. of the kitchen is another stack of late 16th-century date, with three detached shafts which have linked oversailing caps and moulded bases; the outer shafts are octagonal and the middle shaft has zig-zag roll ornament.
From the middle of the roof of the Hall rises a hexagonal lead-covered timber lantern with a four-centred and transomed light in each face, and a concave capping finished with a weather-vane.
Interior—The Great Hall (47½ ft. by 23¾ ft.) has a four-centred ceiling, which is possibly original; the arches spring from moulded wall-plates and are divided into panels by moulded wood ribs, scribed round each other. In the S. wall, behind the screen are two original doorways of clunch with chamfered jambs and four-centred heads; the western door is blocked. In the W. wall is a large stone fireplace with moulded jambs and flat four-centred arch in a square head. The oriel window has internal reveals panelled to match the window tracery; in the lights are six panels of original heraldic glass including (a) argent a fesse engrailed sable with three plates thereon, for Cutte, quartering argent a cheveron sable between three hunting horns sable with a ring for difference, for Corney, impaling argent a bend cotised sable with three molets argent thereon, for Esmerton; (b) a crowned portcullis; (c) a crowned red rose; (d) the feathers and motto of the Prince of Wales; (e) a shield of Esmerton; (f) Cutte quartering Corney; in the tracery at the head are quarries with floral designs. Set in the E. wall is a window, of three four-centred lights under a square head, which lights the upper floor of the skew passage; in it are re-set a few fragments of early 16th-century tabernacle work and scrolls with inscriptions. The raised floor of the dais at the east end has an oak curb and a pavement of square stone slabs with small squares of black marble at the corners; the oriel has a similar pavement. The screen at the S. end is probably original and has two doorways with four-centred arches and square heads with pierced spandrels; the remaining nine bays are close panelled; the door-posts are round, and the muntins, middle, and upper rails are moulded; the cornice and sill are modern.
In the N. wing the Library and Drawing-room have each an original fireplace of clunch with double hollow-chamfered jambs and flat four-centred head; both fireplaces are probably re-set. The staircase in the tower has modern casing except the lowest flight, which is of solid oak balks.
The Morning-room, at the E. end of the S. wing, has an open timber ceiling. In the N.W. angle, one of the original corner-posts of the 15th-century house has been exposed; it has an attached shaft with a moulded capital and a curved bracket which supported the former projection of the upper storey. In the S. wall is a plain fireplace with an oak lintel and in the E. wall a plain oak doorway, now blocked. On the W. wall, behind the modern panelling, are remains of late 16th-century painted decoration, including foliage, a wyvern, a guilloche frieze, and interlacing foliage, all in white on a black ground; the decoration is continued on the N.W. angle-post. The back staircase, E. of the morning room, is of late 16th or early 17th-century date, re-set with the former wall-side outwards, and the former free-side inwards; it has square newels with guilloche ornament and moulded tops, and hand-rails, and turned balusters.
The Kitchen is two storeys high and has a rough beam in the ceiling.
On the first floor level the 'Queen Elizabeth' room, over the drawing room, has a barrel-vaulted ceiling with moulded and painted ribs, which may be original; in the N. wall is an old fireplace similar to that in the room below it. The bedroom over the library has a similar fireplace. The roof of the N. wing and of the Hall are plain and of queen-post type, much repaired and renewed. The roof of the S. wing is 15th-century work; one truss is exposed and there are two others concealed by the ceilings; the exposed truss has a double hollow-chamfered tie-beam with curved braces, king-post with moulded base and capital and four-way struts supporting a central purlin; the wallplates and purlins are all moulded and the principal rafters are double hollow-chamfered.
The Moat round the house was almost rectangular; the N. arm and part of the E. and W. arms remain. The scarp is revetted in brick partly of the 16th century, and a skewed recess on the N.W. apparently marks the extent of the original N. wing of the house. On the E., in a water-logged cellar, there are said to be some remains of the base of the former gate-house.
Condition—Of house, good.
a (7). Woodham's Farm, house and moat, about 1¼ m. N.W. of the church. The House is of two storeys, timber-framed and plastered; the roof is tiled. The N.E. part was built soon after the middle of the 17th century, but the rest was added or rebuilt in the 18th century. Inside the building, the S.W. room has a stop-chamfered beam and an open timber ceiling.
The Moat was apparently oval, but is very incomplete.
Condition—Of house, good.
d (8). Richmond's Manor House, now a farmhouse, nearly 1½ m. S.E. by S. of the church, is of two storeys with attics, partly timber-framed and plastered, and partly re-faced with brick; the roof is covered with slate. The W. wing was probably the Solar of a 15th-century house, but the rest of the building was altered early in the 17th century. The N.E. wing is probably a later 17th-century addition and the original wing was possibly extended at the same time. The house was re-fronted in the 19th century.
Elevations—On the S. front the upper storey of the W. wing formerly projected on curved brackets, but has been under-built and the intervening space now forms cupboards. The central chimney-stack is of early 17th-century date, modern at the top. On the E. side an upper window has old glazing, and a chimney-stack on the same side is probably of late 17th-century date.
Interior:—Most of the rooms on the ground floor have exposed beams and joists and one beam in the N. wing has an original curved brace at the W. end. The roof of the W. wing has three original king-post trusses which have chamfered and cambered tie-beams with curved braces, kingposts with two-way struts, and a central purlin; purlins and struts of later date have been inserted.
(9). The Guildhall (see Plate, p. 310), at the head of Town Street, 100 yards S.E. of the church, is of three storeys, timber-framed and plastered; the roofs are tiled. It was built probably in the second half of the 15th century and restored early in the 18th century, when the present roof was put on. In 1910–11, the plaster was stripped from the walls, arches were inserted between the uprights of the first floor, the windows were renewed, and the building was generally restored.
As it is one of the few remaining mediæval Guildhalls, the building is of great interest.
The plan is roughly square; the ground floor forms an open flagged market-house; the upper floors are approached by a staircase at the back and are divided into rooms now used as a club and reading room.
Elevations—The three fronts facing the street have been much restored. The two upper storeys project and the first floor has an original moulded oak bressumer, supported on curved brackets with mouldeed corbels, mostly modern; the diagonal brackets at the angles are original. The upper floors rest on oak posts which divide the S.E. and N.E. faces into six bays, and the S.W. face into four bays, and have curved braces springing from moulded corbels and forming four-centred arches. Many of the posts have been renewed and all the braces are modern. The first floor has original timber-framing, partly restored and fitted with modern arches, shafting, and brackets. The windows are all modern and the hipped roof in two spans is of early 18th-century date.
Interior:—The open ground-floor has an open timber ceiling with heavy cross-beams supported in the middle by a massive oak post. The N.W. end is partly occupied by the modern staircase and next to it is the space partitioned off to form a 'cage.' On the first floor a small room has some 17th-century panelling, but the rest of the internal fittings are of the 18th century or modern.
Condition—Good, much restored.
a (10–12). Houses, three, forming a block 28 yards W. of the Guildhall, are all of three storeys with cellars, timber-framed and plastered and were built probably in the second half of the 15th century; the roofs are tiled. In front the two upper storeys project, but in the E. house the lower storey has been partly under-built. On each side of the door of the same house are curved brackets springing from moulded capitals. The middle house has curved brackets at the ends of both the projecting storeys, and a plaster cove under the eaves. The W. house is gabled and the projecting upper storey rests on two original curved brackets which have spandrels carved with roses and foliage and spring from moulded corbels. On the W. side is a 17th-century chimney-stack. On the back elevation the E. and W. houses have gabled top storeys which project on original curved brackets; the E. gable has original foiled barge-boards. Built against the middle house is a chimney-stack, of which the lower part is of the 17th century. The lower storeys are covered by modern additions.
Interior:—All three houses have some exposed ceiling-beams and joists, and the roofs are probably original, with king-post trusses, cambered tiebeams and curved braces. In the E. house, on the ground floor, is an original four-centred doorway with a double hollow-chamfered frame. In the W. house the cellar has walls of flint and pebble rubble and the ceiling has a heavy double-chamfered beam with curved braces. On the two lower floors there are three original four-centred doorways of oak; those on the first floor have old battened doors. On the ground floor the front room has a wide three-centred arched recess in the W. wall. The staircase from the first to the second floor has original solid oak treads.
Town Street, S. side
a (13). House, 110 yards S.E. of the church, is of two storeys with an attic and cellar; the walls are probably timber-framed, and are covered with plaster; the roofs are tiled. The W. part of the house is probably of the 15th century, but the whole building has been entirely altered in the 18th or 19th century. The external features are modern. Inside the building the cellar has a heavy ceiling-beam and exposed joists. The roof of the W. end of the house has a rough braced central purlin and a few old collar beams and rafters.
Condition—Good, much altered.
a (14). House with shop, E. of (13), is of three storeys partly plastered and partly faced with brick; the roof is tiled. The rectangular wing at the back is probably of early 17th-century date and has a small wing on the S.W., added probably late in the 17th or early in the 18th century. The front block, facing the street, was rebuilt in the 19th century. The central chimney-stack of the back wing is original and the stack at the end of the small wing is contemporary with it. Inside the building the modern front block has stop-chamfered ceiling-beams, re-used. In the back wing are two original panelled doors, and a room on the first floor has much 17th and 18th-century panelling. A room on the ground floor is said to be lined with panelling, now covered with wall-paper.
a (15). The Recorder's House (see Plate, p. 313), 20 yards S.E. of (14), is of three storeys in front and two at the back; the walls are timberframed and plastered and the roof is tiled. The front and back parts of the house were built c. 1470–80, but the intervening part is of late 16th or early 17th-century date and was probably re-constructed after a fire, of which there is some evidence.
The house is an interesting example of 15th-century work.
On the N. Elevation two upper storeys project and rest on curved brackets at each end; those of the second storey spring from semi-hexagonal attached shafts with moulded capitals and stand on small square buttresses. The brackets of the third storey are similar, but the shafts, the offsets, and bases of the buttresses are moulded. The door and windows are modern, but the two bay windows of the second storey rest on oak coves carved with the arms of Edward IV., supported by a lion and a bull, on the E., and with a griffin passant on the W.
On the W. side of the original part of the S. wing the upper storey projects and has an original moulded bressumer, which is charred at the N. end. In the upper storey is a blocked window of four lights with moulded oak mullions. At the junction of the front block with the later building is a late 16th or early 17th-century chimney-stack, modern at the top.
Interior:—On the ground floor most of the rooms have exposed ceiling-beams; the three in the shop, in front, are moulded and the others chamfered. There is much early 17th-century panelling on the walls of the shop. The cellar under the main block has original ceiling-beams and the rooms on the first floor have a stop-chamfered ceiling-beam. The roof of the main block has an original king-post truss with curved braces to the tie-beam.
a (16). House, 30 yards E.S.E. of (15) is of two storeys, timber-framed and plastered; the roof is tiled. It was built in the 15th century and is of rectangular plan. The external features are modern. Inside the building the roof is of five bays with five king-post trusses, of which the third and fourth from the front are only about 1 foot apart; the back part of the roof appears to be of slightly later date than the front part; the northern truss has a moulded tie-beam with curved braces, a moulded and rebated king-post with four-way struts and a central purlin; the second and third trusses have chamfered tie-beams and rebated king-posts; the second truss is filled in solid, to form a partition; the two southern trusses are similar to the others, but the timbers are plain.
Condition—Fairly good, much altered.
a (17). House, with shop, at the W. corner of Park Street, 20 yards E.S.E. of (16), is of two storeys, timber-framed and plastered; the roof is tiled. It was built probably in the 15th century. The plan is L-shaped with the wings extending towards the N.W. and S.W. The elevations have no ancient features. Inside the building, several rooms have exposed ceiling-beams and the shop at the S. angle has a 15th-century ceiling-beam, moulded on one side only, and probably not in situ. In the room at the end of the S.W. wing is a pointed doorway of oak, now blocked. On the first floor a cambered tie-beam, probably part of a roof-truss, is visible.
a (18). House, with shops, formerly The Duke's Head Inn, about 180 yards S.E. of the church, is of two storeys; it is timber-framed and plastered; the roofs are covered with tiles and slate. The front part of the house is of 14th-century origin and may have been part of a larger building. It now consists of a great gateway, which possibly represents the Solar, and a shop on the E. which was probably the Hall or part of it. The wing at the back was an addition probably of mid 16th-century or earlier date, and formerly extended further towards the N.
The remains of 14th-century work are of particular interest.
The Elevations have no ancient features, except the end of the wing at the back, which has exposed timber-framing, and the upper storey projects. The chimney-stack of the wing is possibly of late 17th-century date.
Interior:—The great gateway, which in part has been enclosed for a modern shop, has an original open timber ceiling with moulded main beams and stop-chamfered joists. In the wall on the E. side, at the N. end, is an original moulded beam, post and curved brace, and beyond the beam a door opening; at the S. end a second post, a brace and a door opening have been cut away, and only the head remains. The shop, E. of the gateway, has a plain 17th-century beam in the ceiling, but on the upper floor the front room has one moulded and one chamfered ceiling-beam. The wing at the back has, on the ground floor, a moulded ceiling-beam, and on the N. side of the central stack is a large fireplace with a moulded lintel. On the first floor there is also an old fireplace, apparently of stone, with moulded jambs and lintel.
(fn. n1) Watling Street, N. side
a (19). House, now two dwellings, 50 yards N.N.W. of the church, is of two storeys with attics, timber-framed and plastered; the roof is tiled. The front part of the house is probably of early 17th-century date and late in the same century the back part was added; in it are two re-used early 16th-century beams. The whole house has been much altered and restored. The elevations have no ancient features, but the three chimney-stacks are of late 17th-century brickwork; one of them is modern at the top. In the N.E. angle of the house is a small gabled staircase-wing. Inside the building, the E. room at the back has two early 16th-century moulded beams with a boss at the intersection carved with the Bourchier knot, and a dado of 17th-century panelling, now painted. The middle room at the back has a stop-chamfered ceiling-beam resting on wall-posts. On the upper floor is one door of early 17th-century panelling.
a (20). House, 70 yards W. of (17) is of two storeys, timber-framed and covered with plaster; the roof is tiled. It is probably of early 17th-century date. The gabled upper storey projects in front, and at the back is a low modern addition.
a (21). House with shop, adjoining (18) on the W., is of two storeys, timber-framed and plastered; the roofs are tiled. The middle part of the house is of early 16th-century date; on the E. and N. sides, additions were made in the 17th century. An 18th-century addition on the W. side made the plan T-shaped. There is also a low modern addition on the W. side. The central chimney-stack of the back wing is of late 17th or 18th-century brick. Inside the building, the middle part of the house has on each floor an original open ceiling with moulded main beams and joists. The upper storey of the middle part of the house originally projected on the E. side. The 17th-century additions have rough ceiling-beams.
Bolford Street, N. side
a (22). Cottage, three tenements, 240 yards W.S.W. of the church, is of two storeys, timberframed and plastered; the roof is thatched. It was built probably early in the 17th century and has three flat dormer windows in front; one of them has an original frame. The central chimney-stack is original. Inside the building, on the ground floor, the ceilings have stop-chamfered beams and some of the ceilings are open. There are two wide open fireplaces.
a (23). Borough Farm, now four tenements, ¼ m. S.W. of the church, is of two storeys, timberframed and plastered; the roof is tiled. The house was built apparently on a rectangular plan late in the 15th century. Chimney-stacks were subsequently inserted, and small additions at the S.W. end and at the back are modern. The N.E. half of the N.W. front is higher than the rest; the upper storey projects and originally had one gable. The chimney-stack near the N.E. end is probably of late 16th or early 17th-century date and that near the S.W. end is partly of late 17th-century bricks and partly modern. Inside the building the N.E. half of the house has chamfered ceilingbeams and a curved brace in the S.W. wall. In the upper storey is a plain king-post truss with braces, a central purlin, and a cambered tie-beam, all original. On the ground floor the S.W. half of the house has in the N.E. room a moulded beam with curious double roll-stops and curved braces; the cross-beams are chamfered as are the wallplates of the room above. On the upper floor the S.W. room has a chamfered tie-beam and braced central purlin of the 15th century.
The following monuments, unless otherwise described, are of two storeys, timber-framed and covered with plaster. Most of the buildings are of the 17th century and have exposed ceiling-beams, wide fireplaces and original chimney-stacks.
Condition—Good or fairly good, unless noted.
Newbiggin Street, W. side
a (24). House, now two tenements, 60 yards N.W. of the church, was probably built early in the 16th century and has an 18th-century wing at the back. At the N. end of the front the upper storey originally projected. Inside the building, on the ground floor, are two original moulded ceiling-beams.
a (25). House, now two tenements, about 80 yards N. of (22), with a low modern addition at the back, and a square heavy central chimney-stack.
Copthall Lane, E. side
a (26). House, 220 yards E.S.E. of the church, has been much altered and restored, but was built probably early in the 16th century. Inside the building, on the first floor, part of a moulded beam with a curved brace is exposed; it was probably an original tie-beam. The roof has been re-constructed, but a few old timbers have been re-used.
a (27). Cottage, two tenements, on the N. side of the lane, N.E. of Mill End, and 250 yards S.E. of the church, was probably built at the end of the 15th century, but has been much altered and the N. half of the building has been re-faced with flint and brick. On the S. half of the W. front the gabled upper storey projects, but has been almost entirely under-built and only part of the projection, with two curved brackets, is now exposed. The central chimney-stack of the main block is probably of the 17th century. The S. half of the back elevation is gabled and in the upper storey, one window has an old frame. Inside the building, the roof of the S. part of the house has a collar-beam and a central purlin with curved braces at each end, probably of late 15th-century date.
Mill End, N.E. side
a (28). Cottage, 350 yards E.S.E. of the church.
a (29). House, now stores, ¼ m. S.E. of the church, was built in the second half of the 15th century, and was probably the kitchen wing of a larger building which extended towards the W. The S.W. end of the house is probably an extension of later date. On the N.E. front the gabled upper storey projects and has an original moulded bressumer and four curved brackets. Some of the timber-framing is exposed. The S.E. side has a small gabled staircase wing in the middle, and at the S.W. end a wing which probably extended further; it has a half-hipped gable. The chimney-stack at the S.W. end is probably of the 16th century. Inside the building the floor has been removed in the four back bays. Near the N.E. end of the N.W. wall are two lintels shaped to a double ogee form on the soffit; they probably indicate original doorways. On the first floor is a brick fireplace with a three-centred head, probably of the 16th century. The roof of the main block is divided into three bays by original king-post trusses with a braced central purlin.
a (30). House, now part of factory, adjoining (29) on the S.E., is of two storeys with attics. On the N.W. front the timber-framing is exposed, and at the level of the attic floor is a projecting gabled lucomb. At the back the lower storey is of brick.
a (31). House, now part of factory, and in the same block as (30), has walls of brick and was built probably c. 1520. The N.W. front has remains of original diapering in blue bricks and a chamfered plinth. There were apparently two doorways, now altered into windows, and over one of them is the outline of a former label. At the back the upper storey has original diapering and an ornamental brick corbel-table of trefoiled arches. Inside the building on the first floor is a disused fireplace with a moulded oak lintel and next to it is a small arched recess. The roof is apparently original and has queen-post trusses with wind-braced purlins. It is now ceiled in.
a (32). Claypits Farm, house and barn, 600 yards S.E. of the church. The House is roughly rectangular on plan and has a late 17th-century addition at the back, with a contemporary brewhouse of brick adjoining it on the W. The N. front has a slight projection at each end and a porch near the middle. The front door has moulded oak panels. Inside the building there is one old oak battened door.
The Barn is of six bays, with two projecting porches on the N. side.
Park Street, W. side
a (33). Park Farm, house and barn, 350 yards S.S.E. of the church. The House is of two storeys with attics and cellar, and was probably built c. 1510–20 on a T-shaped plan, with the cross-wing at the E. end; probably in the 17th century it was extended further towards the W. On the E. front the upper storey projects and has three original curved brackets. The central chimney-stack is probably of the 16th century, and was originally of cross-shaped plan, but one flue has been cut away.
Interior:—On the ground floor the main block is divided into three main rooms with a small lobby on the E. side of the central chimney-stack. The two N. rooms have each an original open timber ceiling with two moulded intersecting main beams, which have broach-stops, and moulded joists. The lobby has a similar ceiling. The S. room has an early 17th-century panelled dado and stop-chamfered ceiling beams. The middle room has a similar dado. In the original back wing is a partition made up of early 17th-century panelling. At the top of the cellar stairs, in the later extension of the back wing, is re-hung an early 16th-century door of moulded battens, and there is a similar door on the attic floor of the cross-wing. The roof of the cross-wing has plain chamfered tie-beams and wind-braced purlins.
The Barn, S. of the house, was built probably in the second half of the 16th century. The lower part of the E. wall was rebuilt with flint and stone in the 18th century, and incorporates a number of carved stones probably of the 15th century and brought from elsewhere; the wall is divided by ashlar piers into six bays, and, in all but one bay, is a small triangular-headed opening; over each opening is set a grotesque head-corbel. The N. end of the building was probably always of two storeys, and has a staircase of solid oak balks. Two of the roof-trusses are probably original and have curved braces.
a (34). Cottage, now two tenements, adjoining the barn of (31) on the S. side. In front the upper storey projects.
The Dunmow Road, W. side
b (35). Totman's Farm, house, 640 yards S.E. of the church, is of L-shaped plan with the wings extending towards the N. and E. The N. wing is dated 1698, but the E. wing is probably of earlier date. The house has been much altered internally and there is a low modern addition on the W. side. The roof of the earlier part is slightly higher than the rest and, at the end of the E. wing, the upper storey projects. On the E. side of the N. wing is a gabled dormer window with a reversed lion and the date 1698 carved in the head. Inside the building, in the S.W. room, one curved brace is visible. The staircase has round-headed newels and flat wavy balusters at the top, probably of 1698.
b (36). Parsonage Farm, house, over ½ m. S.S.E. of the church, is of T-shaped plan with the cross-wing at the N. end; a second short wing projects towards the W. from the S. end. On the W., N. and S. elevations the lower storey has been rebuilt in modern brick. Inside the building the S. wing has shaped wall-posts to the upper floor, and in the N. wing the timber-framing is exposed. The E. end of the N. wing is only of one storey, and has two old tie-beams, one with curved and the other with straight braces.
b (37). Cottage, about 1½ m. S. by E. of the church, was built apparently in 1614, and has a modern wing at the back and a low modern addition at the N. end. On the W. front are three gabled dormer windows; the middle window is dated 1614.
b (38). Follymill Farm, house, on the E. bank of the river Chelmer, 1½ m. S.S.W. of the church, was originally of L-shaped plan with the wings extending towards the N.E. and N.W. A modern addition has made the present plan half-H-shaped. In the middle of the N.W. front is a 15th-century oak doorway with moulded jambs and a four-centred arch under a square head with foliated spandrels; it was brought from Buckingham's Farm (40) and has the original filleted door. The central chimney-stack has attached diagonal pilasters. Inside the building much of the timberframing is exposed. In the dining room, N.E. of the chimney-stack, is an early 17th-century overmantel with fluted pilasters, three arched bays and a fluted frieze, re-set. Some panelling of the same date is in a bay window, and, re-set in the N.E. wall, is a pointed doorway of oak with spandrels carved with roses and strap-work; it contains a panelled door, and is entirely of early 17th-century date. All the fittings are said to have come from Quendon Hall, and a gilded plaster flower above the doorway from Horham Hall.
b (39). Hammer Hill Farm, house, on the E. side of the Tilty road, 1¼ m. S.S.W. of the church, with a modern addition at the S.E. end. At the N.W. end of the N.E. front the upper storey projects and is gabled. Inside the building the N.W. room has chamfered wall-posts, and the room above it has shaped wall-posts.
b (40). Buckingham's Farm, house, 1 m. S.S.W. of the church, is of L-shaped plan with the wings extending towards the S. and W. The house is of 15th-century origin and the N. half of the S. wing was possibly the Kitchen-wing of the original building. In that case the W. wing occupies the site of the Great Hall. The house was much altered when the two chimney-stacks were built, late in the 16th or early in the 17th century. There are low modern additions at the ends of both wings. The Elevations have no ancient features, except the gabled N. end of the S. wing, which has a moulded barge-board of late 16th or early 17th-century date. The central chimney-stack of the S. wing is of the same date and has an attached diagonal pilaster on the S. face. At the end of the W. wing is another chimney-stack of saltireshaped plan and also of late 16th or early 17th-century date.
Interior:—The internal arrangement has been much altered. The original part of the house is occupied by the entrance hall, and has an original moulded beam with a curved brace at the E. end and mortices for another brace at the W. end. The Kitchen occupies the rest of the S. wing, and has a ceiling-beam which still retains one of the curved braces; the exposed joists are probably of the 15th century, re-used. The Parlour in the W. wing has an early 17th-century panelled door, partly restored, and two cupboard doors made up of panelling of the same date; above the fireplace is another piece of similar panelling with three lozenge-shaped panels and arabesque and guilloche ornament. The 15th-century doorway now at Follymill Farm was formerly in the Parlour. A staircase on the N. side of the fireplace has solid oak treads.
b (41). House, now two tenements, at Stanbrook, nearly 1 m. S. by W. of the church, is probably of the second half of the 16th century and is of roughly rectangular plan with a short wing projecting at the back. The original central chimney-stack has grouped diagonal shafts on a rectangular base; the top has been removed. Inside the building the S. room has a wide fireplace with a moulded oak lintel; the middle room has an old batteneddoor with moulded fillets.
b (42). Love's Farm, house, 1¼ m. W.S.W. of the church, is of late 16th or early 17th-century date, and has a low modern addition at the E. end. Inside the building the middle room has an original moulded main beam. The second staircase, on the S. side, has a number of original flat shaped balusters at the top. On the first floor one room has a square moulded fireplace of oak, and all the rooms have shaped wall-posts.
a (43). Cottage, 100 yards N. of (40) has a hipped roof, and on the N. side, a projecting oven.
a (44). Pest House—about ¾ m. N.W. of the church, is of L-shaped plan with the wings extending towards the N. and W. The E. wall and the walls of both wings at the back have shaped plaster panels with stippled filling; in the E. wall one window of three lights has the original moulded frame and mullions; above it is a gabled dormer window. Inside the building, the staircase has flat balusters and a thin moulded handrail, apparently all original.
a (45). Proud's Farm, house and barn, on the E. side of the Walden road, nearly 1¼ m. N.N.W. of the church. The House was built on a rectangular plan in the second half of the 15th century, with a Hall in the middle, a Solar on the S.E. side and a Buttery on the N.W. The central chimney-stack was built at the N.W. end of the Hall late in the 16th century, when the first floor was inserted and the roof raised to its present height. About the same time the Buttery wing was extended towards the N.E., and a staircase wing was added at the back of the Solar in the second half of the 17th century. The low additions on the N.E. and S.E. sides are probably of late 17th-century date.
The 15th-century moulded beams and door-heads and the roof-construction of the same date are interesting.
Elevations.—On the S.W. front, at each end, the gabled upper storey projects on two curved brackets; at the end of the N.W. wing is a battened door with strap-hinges, probably of the 16th century; the late 16th-century central chimney-stack has three grouped diagonal shafts on a rectangular base with a moulded capping. At the back the main roof is carried down over the low addition; the N.W. wing has, on the ground floor, a late 16th-century window of three lights with old diamond-shaped quarry glazing; on the first floor is a lowered window; two other windows, each of three lights, have old glazing, and in the N.W. side of the N.W. wing is an old plain battened door.
Interior:—In the main block the former Hall has cased ceiling-beams, but one of them is exposed in a modern passage partitioned off on the N.E. side; it is original and moulded, with foliage-stops, and was formerly braced. Parallel with the exposed beam and behind the chimney-stack, is another beam, moulded on one face only and marking the position of the former Screens. The N.W. wing has a passage representing the former Screens running along the S.E. side, and in the N.W. wall are two original doorways with double ogee heads of oak; one doorway is still used, the other is blocked and is only visible in the cellar; between the two doorways is visible the groove for a former partition which divided the present cellar into the former Buttery and Pantry. In the cellar, at the N. end, is a staircase of solid oak balks, with an old battened door, which has strap-hinges at the foot, and is probably original; at the S. end are traces in the timberframing of a former window, probably also original. The later extension of the N.W. wing contains the Kitchen; the central ceiling-beam has carved foliated stops. The low addition at the back of the house has a battened door with moulded fillets, probably of the 17th century. On the first floor the roof of the main block is of late 16th-century date and has a braced collar-beam truss, which is partly visible below the modern ceiling. The N.W. wing has a highly cambered tie-beam with one brace remaining; it is probably part of the original roof. The open timber roof of the later extension has wind-braced purlins and a chamfered tie-beam with foliated stops of the 16th century; in the same part of the house is an old rough battened door. In the S.E. wing the S. part has an original roof of two bays, with a braced and cambered tie-beam in the middle, a king-post with two-way struts and a central purlin. The N. extension of the S.E. wing has shaped wall-posts and an old battened door with strap-hinges all probably of late 17th-century date.
The Barn, N.W. of the house, is of seven bays, with side aisles and a gabled entrance in the middle of the S.E. face; the gable is inscribed I.P. 1700.
Condition—Good, generally, the plaster is partly decayed.
a (46). Goddard's Farm, house and barn, nearly 1 m. N. by E. of the church. The House was built probably c. 1580–90 on a rectangular plan. The porch bears the date 1602; the main block was extended towards the E. and a wing added at the back at about the same time. A lower addition at the E. end was made later in the 17th century.
Elevations:—On the S. front the upper storey of the main block projects. The porch is modern, but over the outer entrance is a re-set lintel incised with the initials and date, I.M. 1602. In the second storey the windows are each of three lights with moulded oak mullions, and are probably original. The original central chimney-stack has four attached diagonal shafts on a rectangular base. In the N. wall of the back wing is an early 17th-century window of three lights, with moulded mullions and old leaded glazing.
Interior:—The main block is divided into three rooms, with a modern passage between the two eastern rooms. The back wing has also three rooms; in the middle room is a late 16th-century fireplace of plastered brick, reset; one jamb has been cut away, but the other has a semi-circular shaft supporting a cornice and frieze carved with vine ornament. At the back of the fireplace in the E. room, are two separate recesses. The middle room has also an early 17th-century door with moulded vertical fillets. On the upper floor is a similar door, and one of old plain battens. The roofs are of plain collar-beam construction and in the E. gable of the back wing is a blocked window of three lights, with moulded head and mullions. The head of a similar window remains at the W. end of the N. wall of the main block, indicating the existence of a gable before the addition of the back wing.
The Barn, N.W. of the house, was built in the 17th century, and is of three bays with aisles; it has a gabled wing in the middle of the E. side.
a (47). Golder's Farm, house, nearly 1 m. N.N.E. of the church, contains traces of 15th-century work, but was rebuilt on a roughly rectangular plan late in the 16th century. Early in the 17th century a second chimney-stack was built on to the E. side of the original central stack. Later in the 17th century the N.E. wing was added, making the plan an irregular T-shape. There are low modern additions at the back and W. end. The central chimney-stack has five grouped diagonal shafts; the easternmost shaft is a modern addition.
Interior:—On the ground floor, the E. room has an original moulded beam with the mouldings cut down to a chamfer, except in a small chamber which has been partitioned off on the S. side. The small W. room has two moulded 15th-century beams, re-used; one of them is continued over the middle room and cased in. The N.W. wing has an early 17th-century panelled door, cut and altered. On the upper floor, at the E. end of the main block, the original beams of the open timber ceiling are moulded.
c (48). Cottage, now two tenements, 340 yards E. of (47), has at each end a half-hipped gable and a central chimney-stack with two square shafts, one original and the other of later date.
Bardfield End Green
c (49). Cottage, two tenements, about 1 m. E. of the church, was built probably late in the 16th century. Inside the building the middle room has two moulded ceiling-beams.
d (50). Piggotts Farm, house, about 1¼ m. S.E. of the church, was built as tenements probably in 1714, the date on a gabled dormer. The house forms a long rectangular range.
d (51). Cottage, now two tenements, 160 yards S.W. of (8), with modern additions at the back and S.W. end. The roof is covered with slate.
d (52). Gladwyn's Farm, house, 130 yards S.E. of (51) is of two storeys with attics, and has an 18th-century or modern wing at the back which makes the plan L-shaped. The back elevation has two gabled dormer windows. Inside the building, at the E. end, a secondary staircase is of oak and probably original. At the top of the principal staircase is an original door with moulded battens.
b (53). Moated Mound, at Little Horham, 800 yards E.S.E. of Horham Hall, is about 50 ft. in diameter.