Wethersfield

An Inventory of the Historical Monuments in Essex, Volume 1, North West. Originally published by His Majesty's Stationery Office, London, 1916.

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Citation:

, 'Wethersfield', in An Inventory of the Historical Monuments in Essex, Volume 1, North West, (London, 1916) pp. 332-341. British History Online https://www.british-history.ac.uk/rchme/essex/vol1/pp332-341 [accessed 21 May 2024].

. "Wethersfield", in An Inventory of the Historical Monuments in Essex, Volume 1, North West, (London, 1916) 332-341. British History Online, accessed May 21, 2024, https://www.british-history.ac.uk/rchme/essex/vol1/pp332-341.

. "Wethersfield", An Inventory of the Historical Monuments in Essex, Volume 1, North West, (London, 1916). 332-341. British History Online. Web. 21 May 2024, https://www.british-history.ac.uk/rchme/essex/vol1/pp332-341.

In this section

81. WETHERSFIELD. (D.c.)

(O.S. (a)xv. N.E. (b)xv S.E. (c)xvi N.W. (d)xvi. S.W. (e)xxv. N.W.)

Wethersfield is a large parish and village about 6 m. N.W. of Braintree. The Church, Great Codham Hall, and the desecrated Chapel (4) are the principal monuments.

Ecclesiastical

a (1). Parish Church of St. Mary Magdalene stands on the S. side of the village. The walls are of flint and pebble rubble with some brick; the dressings are of limestone and clunch; the roofs are covered with tiles and lead. The W. end of the N. wall of the Nave is thicker than the rest of the wall, and there is a straight joint between it and the tower; as it is without dressed quoins at the angle it is possibly part of a pre-Conquest nave without aisles. The West Tower was added at the end of the 12th century. A S. aisle and the present S. arcade were built early in the 13th century. The North Aisle and N. arcade were built c. 1310, and the S. aisle was possibly lengthened towards the W. at the same time; the Chancel was rebuilt c. 1340. Late in the 14th or early in the 15th century the South Aisle was rebuilt and widened, and the South Porch added; during the same century a N. porch was built. The clearstorey was added probably in the 16th century. The upper part of the tower was pulled down probably during the 17th century, and in the same or the following century the clearstorey was almost entirely rebuilt in brick. The North Porch was rebuilt in brick c. 1750. The church was restored in 1874, when the OrganChamber with Vestry was built, and a former vestry and a small chamber E. of the S. porch were destroyed.

Wethersfield, Parish Church of St. Mary Magdalene

The church is architecturally interesting, especially the late 12th-century tower. Among the fittings the 15th-century effigies in the chancel are worthy of note.

Architectural Description—The Chancel (38 ft. by 21 ft.) (see Plate, p. 333) has the axis deflected towards the N. At the level of the window-sills is a moulded external string-course. The 14th-century E. window is of three trefoiled ogee lights with net tracery under a two-centred head; apparently the external stonework and the tracery have been completely restored. The N. and S. walls have each four bays of plain wall-arcading, with jambs and two-centred arches of two chamfered orders. In the N. wall are two windows of c. 1340, slightly restored, and each of two cinquefoiled lights with a quatrefoil in a two-centred head. Between the windows is a doorway of c. 1340, with jambs and two-centred arch of two moulded orders; the labels are also moulded. In the S. wall is a window similar to those in the N. wall, but with a modern mullion. Further W. a modern doorway has been cut through a bay of the arcading, and at the W. end of the wall is a modern arch opening into the organ-chamber. The chancel-arch is probably of the 13th century, altered in the 14th century, and is two-centred and chamfered; on the W. face of the arch the chamfers stop about 2½ ft. above the moulded imposts; the responds have trefoiled and cinquefoiled stops below the imposts, and broach-stops at the base.

The Vestry is modern, but in the E. wall is a window, re-set from the S. wall of the chancel; it is similar to the S. window in the chancel, and partly restored, but is continued, below a transom, as a low-side window.

The Nave (50 ft. by 20½ ft.) has a N. arcade of four bays, and of c. 1310, except the easternmost bay, wihch is wider than the rest and was probably rebuilt in the 15th century; the two-centred arches are of two chamfered orders and the octagonal columns have moulded capitals and bases; the E. respond has a moulded corbel supported on a corbel carved as a woman's head, the face replaced by a carved flower (see Plate, p. xxxii); the W. respond has also a defaced head-corbel. The early 13th-century S. arcade is of four bays; the easternmost bay is nar ower than the rest, and was probably rebuilt early in the 14th century; the two-centred arches are of two chamfered orders; the round columns have moulded capitals and bases and square plinths; there is no E. respond, but the inner order of the arch springs from a moulded and foliated corbel with a carved head below it; the W. respond has a moulded tapering corbel finished with a carved knot. The clearstorey is probably of the 15th century, restored or rebuilt in the 17th or 18th century; the walls, with embattled parapets, are probably of brick, but are covered with plaster. The four N. and four S. windows are each of two cinquefoiled lights under a square head; the jambs are plastered, except those of the westernmost window on each side, which are of clunch; the hollow-chamfered rear arches are also of clunch.

The North Aisle (10 ft. wide) has an embattled parapet and a moulded external string-course. In the E. wall is a late 14th-century window of three cinquefoiled lights and quatrefoiled tracery under a square head with a four-centred outer order which has a moulded label; the jambs and mullions are moulded. In the N. wall are two windows uniform with that in the E. wall and considerably restored outside with cement; the internal sill of the eastern window has been lowered to form a seat. Further W. is the 14th-century N. doorway with jambs and two-centred head of two chamfered orders, and a moulded label with a defaced head-stop; the W. jamb is considerably perished, but the E. jamb has been repaired with brick. In the W. wall is a window similar to that in the E. wall, but externally restored.

The South Aisle (10 ft. wide) has, in the E. wall, a window of the same date and character as those in the N. aisle, but the cusps of the tracery are missing, and the segmental rear arch is not original. In the S. wall are two windows similar to those in the N. aisle but entirely restored outside. Further W. is the 15th-century S. doorway with moulded jambs and two-centred arch in a square head with traceried spandrels and a moulded label which has defaced head-stops, all much decayed. In the W. wall is a window similar to those in the S. wall, but with a square rear arch.

The West Tower (19 ft. by 20 ft.) is of the 12th century and of one stage with a S.W. stair-turret; the pyramidal roof, and square wooden lantern with a spire covered with copper, are modern. The tower-arch is two-centred and of one square order with plain responds and chamfered imposts. The doorway of the stair-turret has 12th-century jambs and a wooden lintel. The modern W. doorway has a frame of wood; the W. window is of two trefoiled ogee lights under a square head with a moulded label, all of the 15th century; the internal splays and semi-circular rear arch are of the 12th century. The N. and S. walls each have, in the lower part, a small 12th-century window with a pointed head and a semi-circular rear arch. The N., S. and W. walls each have, in the upper part, a 12th-century window of two small lancet lights divided by a square mullion with a moulded capital and plain base; the capital of the mullion in the W. window is foliated.

The North Porch is entirely of c. 1750 except the roof.

The South Porch has a 15th-century outer entrance, much defaced and partly restored with brick: the jambs and two-centred arch are moulded. The E. and W. walls each have a window, now blocked; the jamb-stones are of the 15th century.

The 16th-century Roof of the nave is of flat pitch, and of four bays with moulded main timbers; the principals have curved braces which rest on moulded oak corbels; the wall-plates are moulded and embattled, and are possibly of earlier date than the rest of the roof. The tower contains a timber frame which supports the lantern, and is probably of the 17th century; it rests on a massive central post with four-way struts; the second storey has braced beams which support a braced cage in the bell-chamber. The early 15th-century roof of the N. porch is of flat pitch, with moulded main timbers. The early 15th-century roof of the S. porch is of flat pitch with moulded main timbers and plain wall-plates.

Fittings— Bells: six; 6th by Miles Graye, 1623. Chest: In vestry—of oak, small, with six locks, probably 17th-century, lid modern. Coffin-lid: In S. porch—forming threshold, of Purbeck marble, probably 15th-century. Communion Table: In vestry—with square legs and carved upper rail, probably 17th-century, front and sides filled in with modern boarding to form cupboard. Doors: In N. doorway—of moulded and feathered battens with strap-hinges, 14th-century, partly restored. In S. doorway— similar to N. door, but with pierced scutcheon-plate and a spindle, 14th-century. In tower—in doorway of stair-turret, of oak boards, date uncertain, with part of one ornamental hinge, 13th-century. Easter Sepulchre: (See Recess). Font: In S. porch—disused, with plain hexagonal bowl, buttressed and panelled stem and moulded base, 15th-century. Glass: In chancel—in quatrefoil of S.E. window, original roundel and foliage, 14th-century, partly made up with modern work. In vestry—in E. window, three heads and other fragments, almost all 14th-century. In N. aisle—in tracery and middle light of E. window, fragments of tabernacle work, foliage and borders, 14th and 15th-century; in N.E. window, various fragments, 15th-century. In S. aisle—in S.W. window, fragments, re-set in groups, including shield of arms—or a fesse engrailed gules between six martlets sable with three crosslets argent on the fesse, impaling argent a bend gules between three goats sable, 16th-century; another shield—gules crusilly and a griffon or, 16th-century; part of a crest; a cartouche with the badge of Anne Boleyn—a white falcon crowned and holding a sceptre and standing on a rooted tree with red and white roses; a head with the name Daniel over it; a shield—or a lion azure, 14th-century, and fragments of foliage, figures and tabernacle work, 14th, 15th and 16th-century. Monuments and Floor-slabs. Monuments: In chancel—on N. side, (1) possibly of Henry Wentworth, 1482, and Elizabeth (Howard) his first wife (see Plate, p. 333), altar tomb with alabaster effigies of man in plate armour with tabard, head on helm, feet on defaced unicorn; effigy of woman with pedimental head-dress, elaborate necklace of roses and long cloak, feet on beast, paws only left, remains of colour and gilding, both figures much defaced; tomb having cusped panelled ends and S. side, with shields of painted arms—(a) an impaled coat, now defaced; (b) sable a cheveron between three leopards' faces or, for Wentworth, impaling quarterly 2 and 3 paly wavy argent and gules (?); (c) Wentworth, impaling gules a bend argent between six crosslets fitchy argent, for Howard; on N. wall, (2) to Joseph Youngman, alias Clerk, 1681–2, tablet of stone and slate, with curved pediment and achievement of arms. In churchvard— N. of chancel, (3) to Robert Dodd, 1694, slab of former table tomb; (4) to John Coale, M.A., 1673, slab. Floor-slabs: In chancel—(1) to Mark Mott, 1691, and Mark his father, 1694; (2) to Simon Delboe, 1685, with shield of arms. Niche: In S. aisle—in S.E. angle, canopy and bracket broken away, 14th or 15th-century. Piscinae: In chancel—double, with chamfered jambs, circular shaft having moulded capital and base, two trefoiled ogee heads with tracery under a two-centred arch, two drains, one octofoiled square, the other sexfoiled circular, early 14th-century. In N. aisle—in E. wall, with trefoiled head, 14th-century, restored, no drain. In S. aisle—with moulded jambs and two-centred head having panelled spandrels, late 14th-century, square drain apparently not original. Plate: includes cover paten of 1561 and cup apparently of the same date, both richly chased, cup probably cut down. Recess: In chancel— in N. wall, probably for tomb, wide, with low segmental-pointed and chamfered arch having a moulded label with foliated stops, 14th-century. Screen: Under chancel arch—of eleven bays, three middle bays forming doorway, all with traceried heads, and divided by moulded mullions having small attached shafts with moulded capitals, in side bays, foliated cresting, moulded middle rail and close lower panels, 15th-century, partly restored, tracery and coved cornice, modern. Seats: In chancel— in arcading in N. and S. walls, 14th-century. Sedilia: In chancel—two, with chamfered jambs and two-centred heads, 14th-century. Miscellanea: In chancel—on N. wall, over monument (1), funeral helm with unicorn's head crest, 16th-century.

Condition—Poor, walls cracked in various places.

Secular

d (2). The Manor House, 600 yards S.W. of the church, is modern, except a brick cellar under the hall, which is probably of the 17th century. Interior—In the hall is a late 16th-century fireplace with moulded jambs and four-centred head, re-set; above it is a richly carved overmantel of oak said to have come from elsewhere and of early 17th-century date. In the cellar is a wide open fireplace with a flat segmental head.

In the garden, on the S. side of the house, is a set of stone steps and balustrades of late 17th-century date, not in situ, originally the entrance to the Cordwainers' Hall in the City of London.

Condition—Good, rebuilt.

d (3). Great Codham Hall and barn, nearly 3 m. S.E. of the church. The House is of two storeys with attics; the walls are partly timber-framed and plastered and may be partly of stone; the roofs are tiled. It was built late in the 14th century and the middle of the original house, forming the Hall, remains. In the 16th century a wing was added on the E. side of the Hall, and, probably in the 17th-century, another wing was added on the W. side. Both wings project further towards the S. than the original building, which is now entered at the N. end.

The 14th-century roof-truss and the 16th-century fireplace, beams and doors are noteworthy.

The original building is gabled at both ends and the wings are gabled at the S. end, and hipped at the N. end; there are two gables on the W. side. The central chimney-stack of each wing is of the 17th century and the eastern stack has grouped diagonal shafts.

Interior—The original Hall was formerly of three bays and was divided into two storeys in the 16th century; the ground floor has two 16th-century moulded and carved ceiling-beams and a similar wall-plate; in the original roof is a truss with a heavy moulded tie-beam, an octagonal king-post with a moulded capital, plain base and curved two-way struts; another tie-beam has the mortice of a former king-post. The upper storey of the E. wing has three 16th-century doors of battens, alternately moulded and carved with running foliage. In one room is a 16th-century fireplace with a moulded and dentilled lintel, higher in the middle; the spandrel is carved with foliage. Above the doorway of the small staircase in the E. wing are some moulded beams, possibly re-used, and the staircase has moulded carriers.

The Barn, W. of the house, is timber-framed and weather-boarded. It is probably of the 17th century and is of four bays.

Condition—Of house, good, much altered externally.

d (4). Cottage, formerly a Chapel, 150 yards N. of (3) is of two storeys; the walls are of stone and brick and the roof is thatched. The chapel was built probably in the 14th century, but there is little evidence of date. Early in the 17th century it was converted into a cottage and divided into two storeys. The roof is half-hipped at each end, and on the N. side is a 17th-century chimney-stack with a stepped base and a modern top. Interior—The chapel (34 ft. by 17½ ft.) has, in the S. wall, a piscina with a projecting basin and a sexfoiled drain; the piscina is now pierced at the back to form a window. On the ground floor the rooms have massive ceiling-beams and exposed joists.

Condition—Fairly good, much altered.

Wethersfield, plan shewing position of monuments described

Monuments (5–66).

The following monuments unless otherwise described are of the 17th century and of two storeys, timber-framed and plastered; the roofs are tiled or thatched. Some of the buildings have original chimney stacks, wide fireplaces and exposed ceilingbeams.

Condition—Good, or fairly good, unless noted.

Main Street, N. side

a (5). Cottage, 175 yards N.W. of the church, with a modern addition at the back. Inside the building on the ground floor the two E. rooms have moulded ceiling-beams.

a (6). House, 80 yards W.S.W. of (5) was originally of L-shaped plan with the wings extending towards the W. and N. In the angle between the wings and at the E. end are modern additions.

Condition—Poor.

a (7). House, with shop, W. of (6), is of two storeys with a cellar. It was built in the 15th century, the middle block being of that date. In the 17th century two wings were added at the W. end, making the plan T-shaped and in the same century an addition was made in the N.E. angle. There are modern additions on the N. and E. sides The gable at each end of the main block has moulded barge-boards. Inside the building, on the first floor, in the middle room, is a cupboard with some late 16th-century panelling and cock'shead hinges; the fireplace is of c. 1660, and has a band of plaster ornament above it. The roof of the original part of the house was of three bays, subsequently altered to six; it has a central purlin.

a (8). House, with shop, 20 yards W.S.W. of (7), is of two storeys with a cellar. It was built late in the 16th century and has 18th-century additions on the N. and W. sides. The original central chimney-stack has three linked diagonal shafts. Inside the building a longitudinal beam is supported at the W. end on a wall-post with a moulded head.

a (9). House, now two tenements, W. of (8) is of L-shaped plan with the wings extending towards the E. and N. There are small modern additions on the N. side of each wing. An original chimney-stack in the E. wing has two linked diagonal shafts; another stack in the N. wing has plain panels on the N. and S. sides. Inside the building, in the N. wing, is an original moulded ceiling-beam, and there are three old window-frames in the E. wall of the same wing.

Condition—Poor.

a (10). House, formerly the Lion Inn, W. of (9), is of two storeys with a cellar; the roofs are covered with slate and tiles. It was built late in the 15th century, on a half-H-shaped plan with the wings extending towards the S., and with a Hall in the main block. Probably in the 16th century the Hall was divided into two storeys, and the central chimney-stack was inserted. There are 18th and 19th-century additions in the space between the wings and at the back. The 16th-century chimney-stack has a moulded base. Inside the building, on the ground floor of the Hall, is some early 17th-century panelling. In the W. room is some 17th-century panelling, not in situ. The original roof of the Hall is of two bays with a king-post truss which has a cambered tie-beam and a rebated king-post with four-way struts and a central purlin. The roof of the E. wing has two original tie-beams morticed for braces and square king-posts with two-way struts. The roof of the W. wing has an original king-post truss resting on shaped wallposts.

a (11). House, W. of (10), is of two storeys with cellars; the walls are partly of brick and partly of plastered timber-framing. The front has been re-faced with modern brick. The one original chimney-stack has two diagonal shafts. Inside the building are one or two original panelled doors with ornamental latches and hinges. The cellars are vaulted in brick. In the N. E. wall of the garden is a 17th-century brick panel with defaced date and initials.

a (12). House, N.W. of (11), is of two storeys with attics and cellar. It is of L-shaped plan with the wings extending towards the W. and N. The roof of the N. wing is gabled and the S. front has a gable at each end. The windows, except two, are all late 17th-century insertions with moulded frames and mullions and iron casements. The original central chimney-stack of the W. wing has grouped diagonal shafts and pilasters. On the W. side of the N. wing is an original doorway and a door with moulded panels. The original chimney-stack of the N. wing has grouped diagonal shafts. Inside the building, on the ground floor, the middle room of the W. wing has an early 18th-century cupboard with panelled doors flanked by fluted Doric pilasters.

a (13). House, three tenements, W. of (12), is of L-shaped plan with the wings extending towards the W. and S. The W. wing was built in the second half of the 16th century, and early in the 17th century the S. wing was added. There are 18th-century additions on the N. side. On the S. front the upper storey of the W. wing projects and is gabled at the E. end. The original central chimney-stack has two sunk panels in the base, and a moulded capping. Inside the building, a room in the W. wing has an original fireplace with chamfered jambs and three-centred arch in a square head; the stops are foliated and the spandrels have guilloche ornament.

a (14). House, four tenements, 30 yards W. of (13) is of L-shaped plan with the wings extending towards the E. and N. On the N. side of the E. wing are modern additions. The S. front has a gable in the middle and another at the W. end and two original gabled dormer windows.

S. side

a (15). Cottage, opposite (14) and 200 yards W. of the church. The roof is covered with slate and corrugated iron. At the back is an 18th-century or modern addition. Some of the windows are original and have moulded frames and mullions and iron casements. Inside the building, at the foot of the staircase, is an original moulded battened door with strap-hinges.

a (16). Cottage, two tenements, 20 yards E. of (15), was extended towards the W. in the 18th century. On the N. front the windows are original and each of three lights with moulded frames and mullions and some iron casements. Inside the building, in the eastern tenement, a fireplace has a late 17th-century wood frame carved with foliage and fruit, probably brought from elsewhere. In the western tenement is a fireplace with one original hollow-chamfered brick jamb exposed, and a stop-chamfered oak lintel.

a (17). House, two tenements and shop, S.E. of (16), is of two storeys with attics and of L-shaped plan with the wings extending towards the N.W. and S.W. There are extensive modern additions on the S.E., N.W., and S.W. sides. The original central chimney-stack has grouped diagonal shafts. Inside the building, the E. room, now the shop, has an original moulded ceiling-beam.

a (18). House, with shop, S. of (17), is of three storeys; the roofs are covered with slate. It was built probably early in the 17th century and extended towards the W. later in the same century. In the 19th century a storey was added to the front part of the house and an addition was made on the S. side. The S. elevation has two 17th-century windows, one of them is of four lights and both have moulded frames and mullions. At the back of the original block is a modern gable with re-used original barge-boards enriched with geometrical carving. The original central chimney-stack has grouped diagonal shafts.

a (19). House and shop, 50 yards W. of the church, is of two storeys with a cellar. It was built possibly early in the 16th century, and much altered late in the 17th century. The plan is half-H-shaped with the wings extending towards the S.E. On the N.W. front the windows are of late 17th-century date; those in the ground storey have each an oak frame, mullion and transom and a moulded cornice; in the second storey the windows are each of three lights with a moulded architrave and sill. Inside the building, the room on the ground floor of the E. wing has an original moulded ceiling-beam and the walls are lined with early 18th-century panelling which has a moulded cornice. On the first floor the windows of the two northernmost rooms have 17th-century iron catches.

a (20). Cottage with forge, 100 yards N.E. of the church, is of T-shaped plan with the cross-wing at the E. end. The cross-wing was added in the 18th century. Inside the building is some re-used 17th-century panelling.

Condition—Part of cross-wing bad.

The Shalford Road, E. side

a (21). Cottage, three tenements, 100 yards S.W. of the church, has an early 18th-century extension at the S. end and a modern addition at the back. Inside the building is an original door of moulded battens.

Condition—Of two N. tenements, bad.

a (22). Cottage, S. of (21), is of L-shaped plan with the wings extending towards the E. and N. There is a modern addition at the end of the E. wing.

W. side

a (23). Cottage, now two tenements, 250 yards S. of the church, with a modern addition at the back.

a (24). House, now four tenements, S. of (23), is of two storeys with attics and was built about the middle of the 16th century on an L-shaped plan with the wings extending towards the W. and N. Early in the 17th century a wing was added extending towards the S. from the W. end of the W. wing and making the plan Z-shaped. There are small modern additions on the N. side.

The chimney-shafts, carved bressumer and pargetting are interesting.

The upper storey projects and is gabled at each end of the N. wing; the N. gable has an original moulded and foliated bressumer with carved pendants and two braces with foliated spandrels forming a four-centred arch; under it are traces of a former oriel window. Under the S. gable are traces of a former bay-window of two storeys. In the E. wall of the N. wing is an early 18th-century window of three lights; the middle light has a semi-circular head; on the same wall is a pargetted panel with conventional foliage-ornament of the 17th century. The original central chimney-stack has six circular shafts, four fluted and two plain, standing on a rectangular base with a moulded capping; the rectangular top is modern. The central chimney-stack of the 17th-century wing has grouped diagonal shafts and pilasters.

Interior—In the original wings the rooms on the ground floor have moulded ceiling-beams, and the western rooms have shaped and moulded wall-brackets; there are two original panelled doors in the same part of the house, and one of them has ornamental hinges. On the first floor some of the rooms have moulded ceiling-beams, and one room has three walls covered with original panelling, which has a fluted pilaster in two of the angles. The original staircase has a moulded rail, square newels with moulded pendants and modern balusters.

b (25). Cottage, 110 yards S.S.E. of (24), has, inside the building, an old battened door.

b (26). Cottage, two tenements, S. of (25), with an early 18th-century addition at the S. end. The original S. chimnney-stack has two attached diagonal shafts. Inside the building, the upper storey of the S. tenement has massive tie-beams about two feet above the floor level.

b (27). Cottage, 50 yards S.E. of (26), is of two storeys with attics and has an 18th-century wing at the N. end.

d (28). Golden's Farm, house and barn, 530 yards S.S.E. of (27). The House was built early in the 17th century and extended towards the N. at the end of the same century. Inside the building are two original doors of moulded battens.

The Barn, S. of the house, is of the 15th century and of three bays with an 18th-century addition at the W. end. The roof has massive king-post trusses with curved braces below the tie-beams.

Condition—Of house and barn, poor.

d(29). Cottage, four tenements, E. of (28), with an addition, probably of the 18th century, at the W. end of the S. side. The roof of the main block is half-hipped at each end. The original central chimney-stack has three attached diagonal shafts.

d (30). House, now two tenements, ½ m. S.S.E. of (29) and about 1 m. S.S.E. of the church, is of two storeys with attics. It was built c. 1600, and, probably at the end of the 17th century, a wing was added at the N. end of the W. side, making the plan L-shaped. The E. part of this wing was rebuilt in the 19th century. On the W. side of the original block is a gabled porch and staircase-wing. At the N. end is an old window lighting the attic.

d (31). Cottage, two tenements and outhouse, 40 yards E.N.E. of (30). The Cottage has two small wings on the E. side, probably of early 18th-century date, making the plan F-shaped. There is a gable at the N. end of the front and a half-hipped gable at the S. end of the main block. Inside the building, in the southernmost room, is a heavy panelled door of late 17th or early 18th-century date.

The Outhouse, E. of the cottage, was built probably early in the 18th century. The window has an original ornamental iron latch.

d (32). Boydell's Farm, house, now two tenements, 70 yards N. of (31), is of two storeys with attics; it was built c. 1600 on an L-shaped plan with the wings extending towards the N. and W. There is a modern addition at the S.E. angle. The dormer windows at the back of the N. wing and some windows in the W. wing have old frames. The original central chimney-stack has grouped diagonal shafts.

d (33). Cottage, 50 yards N.W. of (32), has an original central chimney-stack with a group of four shafts, cross-shaped on plan, and set diagonally.

d (34). House, now two tenements, N.W. of (33), is of two storeys with attics, and was built in the second half of the 16th century, on a T-shaped plan with the cross-wing at the S.W. end. There is a modern addition on the S.E. side. At the S.E. end of the cross-wing the upper storey projects and has an original moulded bressumer with a curved bracket; the gable at the N.W. end has original moulded barge-boards. The original central chimney-stack of the cross-wing has three octagonal shafts on a rectangular L-shaped base with a moulded capping. Inside the building, on the ground floor, the middle room in the cross-wing has an original fireplace with moulded stone jambs and three-centred arch in a square head; a cupboard in the same room has an original door of moulded battens. On the first floor the S.E. room in the cross-wing has original panelling, now covered with paper.

d (35). Cottage, on the N. side of a lane, nearly 1 m. S.E. of the church, has an addition at each end, probably of early 18th-century date. The original central chimney-stack has grouped diagonal shafts and pilasters. Insid the building, on the first floor, are four king-post trusses with cambered tie-beams.

d (36). Moneyfields, house—150 yards N.E. of (35), was built late in the 16th century on an L-shaped plan with the wings extending towards the W. and S. The S. end of the S. wing is half-hipped. Inside the building are two old battened doors, one of them is studded with nails.

d (37). Cottage, on the S. side of the road, 300 yards E.S.E. of (36), has an 18th-century addition on the S. side. The roof is half-hipped at each end of the main block.

d (38). Danvale's Farm, house, on the N. side of the road, 50 yards E.N.E. of (37), is of L-shaped plan with the wings extending towards the E. and N. The original chimney-stack has grouped diagonal shafts.

d (39). Hole Farm, house, on the W. side of Oak Hill, nearly 1 m. W.S.W. of Blackmore End Church, was built probably early in the 16th century on an H-shaped plan with the cross-wings at the E. and W. ends. The 16th-century central chimney-stack has three octagonal shafts. The chimney-stack at the E. end has stepped offsets. Inside the building the main block has a moulded wall-post and fragments of a moulded wall-plate. In the E. wing a room on the first floor has panelling and a fluted frieze of c. 1600. The roof of the main block has an original tie-beam with the mortice for a former king-post. The roof of the W. wing has a rough king-post truss.

Rotten End, W. side

d (40). House and barn, 400 yards S.S.E. of (39). The N. wing of the House was built in the 15th century and formed the original Hall. In the 16th century the S. block was built, including a wing which projects slightly towards the E. between it and the original block. A small wing on the W. side of the S. block was added in the 17th century and there is also a modern addition on the same side. At the S. end of the S. block are two blocked doorways with three-centred heads, and the weak construction of the end wall probably indicates the former existence of an adjoining wing.

Interior—The original Hall has been partly divided into two storeys, but has an original roof of two bays with king-post trusses. The principal room on the ground floor of the 16th-century block has moulded ceiling-beams and joists. On the first floor is a 16th-century fireplace and a cupboard with four-centred heads of wood.

The Barn, N.E. of the house, is square and probably of the 17th century.

Condition—Poor.

d (41). House, two tenements, 100 yards S.W. of (40), is of two storeys with attics. It is of L-shaped plan with the wings extending towards the S. and E. The roof is hipped at the S. end. Inside the building, the attic staircase of the S. tenement has some solid oak steps; at the foot of the lower staircase is an old battened door.

d (42). House, now four tenements, 40 yards S.S.E. of (41), was built early in the 16th century on a modified half-H-shaped plan with the wings extending towards the E. Early in the 17th century the N.E. wing was extended further towards the E. and an addition was made on the S. side of the S.E. wing. The roof of the original block is hipped at both ends and on the E. front the upper storey projects to the level of the face of the two wings; it has an original moulded and foliated bressumer and below it is a brick projection enclosing a seat in the chimney-corner; it has a simple moulded weathering and a sunk panel with three trefoiled heads. The original central chimney-stack retains part of an octagonal shaft.

Interior—On the ground floor the middle room has original moulded joists and ceiling-beams resting on wall-posts with elaborately moulded brackets; above the fireplace is a cambered oak bressumer with a sunk panel enclosing the name 'Ihus'; higher up is a brick panel with chamfered jambs and moulded head and sill. E. of the fireplace is a recess with a door of 17th-century moulded panelling; the recess has on the N. side an original trefoil-headed niche and in the E. wall a seat with a three-centred head of brick. In a corridor at the back of the house is an original doorway with a four-centred head.

d (43). Newhouse Farm, house, about ¾ m. S.S.W. of Blackmore End Church, is of L-shaped plan with the wings extending towards the E. and N. The S. front has, at the W. end, a gable with a moulded beam at the base. The two original chimney-stacks have each two attached shafts.

Beazley End

d (44). Cottage, on the W. side of the road, about ¾ m. S. of Blackmore End Church. The roof is half-hipped at each end.

Condition—Poor.

d (45). Cottage, on the W. side of a lane, 100 yards E. of (44), has weather-boarded walls.

d (46). House, on the S.E. side of the road, 160 yards S. of (45), was built probably late in the 16th century; a N. wing was added c. 1700, making the plan L-shaped. Inside the building is a doorway with a rough four-centred head.

d (47). The Cock Inn, on the W. side of the road, 110 yards S.W. of (46), with an 18th-century addition at the N. end. The roof is half-hipped at both ends. The original chimney-stack has grouped diagonal shafts and pilasters.

d (48). Little Codham Hall, farmhouse, 120 yards N. of Great Codham Hall (3), is of irregular Lshaped plan with the wings extending towards the N. and E. The E. wing was extended probably in the 18th century. The original central chimney-stack and that at the N.W. end each have attached shafts set diagonally.

d (49). Codham Mill and house, 270 yards W. of (48). The House forms the N. wing of an Lshaped block and was built early in the 17th century; at the end of the same or early in the 18th century, the mill which forms the W. wing was built. There are modern additions at the N. end of the N. wing and in the angle between the wings.

d (50). Hyde Farm, house, now two tenements, 500 yards W.S.W. of Blackmore End Church, with a modern wing on the W. side. The original central chimney-stack has grouped diagonal shafts.

d (51). Cottage, on the W. side of the road, 600 yards W. of (50), has, inside the building, an old battened door.

Condition—Poor.

d (52). Owl's Hall, farmhouse, 530 yards N.W. of Blackmore End Church, was built in the 16th century. Inside the building the close-set timberframing is partly exposed, and there is an original moulded ceiling-beam in one room.

Blackmore End

d (53). Cottage, on the W. side of the road, 200 yards N.N.E. of (52).

Condition—Ruinous.

d (54). House, three tenements, on the E. side of the road 30 yards N. of (53), is of L-shaped plan with the wings extending towards the E. and S. There are 18th-century or modern additions on the N. and W. sides.

d (55). Cottage, next to the windmill and 120 yards N. of (54), has an original central chimney-stack with a cross-shaped group of four shafts set diagonally.

Lower Green, E. side

c (56). House, now two tenements, 1,000 yards N.N.E. of Blackmore End Church, was built late in the 16th century on an L-shaped plan with the wings extending towards the N. and E. A second wing was added at the back in the 18th century. The E. wing is gabled at both ends and the N. wing is hipped at the N. end. Inside the building on the ground floor one room has shaped wall-posts. On the first floor is an original fireplace with chamfered jambs and arched head of brick.

c (57). Cottage, two tenements, 100 yards N. of (56).

c (58). Cottage, two tenements, 120 yards N. of (57).

Condition—Ruinous.

c (59). Brick Kiln Green Farm, house, over ¾ m. N.N.E. of Blackmore End Church, with modern additions on the W. side and at the N. end.

c (60). Cottage, on N. side of Stanmer's Green, 300 yards S.W. of (59).

Condition—Ruinous.

c (61). Allen's Farm, house, 430 yards W.N.W. of (60), has a modern addition at the back and the walls have been faced with modern brick. The original central chimney-stack has three diagonal shafts.

c (62). Widley Brook Farm, house, about 1 m. N.W. of Blackmore End Church, is of L-shaped plan with the wings extending towards the E. and N. The original central chimney-stack has grouped diagonal shafts.

The Hedingham Road, S. side

c (63). Cottage, about ¾ m. E.N.E. of the parish church, with a modern addition at the back. The N.W. front has an original ledged and boarded door with iron hinges and handle.

N. side

c (64). Cottage, 70 yards N.E. of (63), was built late in the 17th or early in the 18th century; at the back is an addition of later date.

c (65). Gray's Farm, house, ¾ m. N.E. of the parish church, with 18th-century additions on the E. side and at the S. end. The original central chimney-stack has three grouped diagonal shafts. Inside the building, one room on the ground floor has an original moulded ceiling-beam. On the first floor is an old boarded door with an original iron hinge.

c (66). Hoggs Farm, house, 1½ m. N.E. of the parish church, is of L-shaped plan with the wings extending towards the W. and N. There are modern additions at the E. and W. ends. The roof of the N. wing is hipped at each end. The original central chimney-stack has a shaft, cross-shaped on plan, and set diagonally.

Unclassified

c (67). Moated Mount, 350 yards S. of Great Codham Hall, is about 100 ft. in diameter at the base, and 16 feet. high. It is surrounded by an irregular quadrangular ditch, partly wet.

Condition—Fairly good.