Wimbish

An Inventory of the Historical Monuments in Essex, Volume 1, North West. Originally published by His Majesty's Stationery Office, London, 1916.

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'Wimbish', in An Inventory of the Historical Monuments in Essex, Volume 1, North West, (London, 1916) pp. 349-357. British History Online https://www.british-history.ac.uk/rchme/essex/vol1/pp349-357 [accessed 29 February 2024]

In this section

85. WIMBISH. (C.b.)

(O.S. 6 in. (a)ix. N.E. (b)ix. S.W. (c)ix. S.E. (d)xiv. N.E.)

Wimbish is an agricultural parish which adjoins Saffron Walden on the S., and consists of a number of scattered hamlets. The principal monuments are the Parish Church, Tiptofts, Broad Oaks, Pinkney's, and Thunderley Hall.

Ecclesiastical

c (1). Parish Church of All Saints stands near the N.E. border of the parish. The walls, where original, are of coursed pebbles with dressings of grey limestone and clunch; the roofs are tiled, except that of the aisle, which is covered with lead. The Nave was built in the first half of the 12th century, and was lengthened probably at the end of the 13th century when the North Aisle was added; the alteration was begun at the W. end and continued towards the E. The North Chapel was added c. 1340. In the 15th century the chancel was rebuilt, and the South Porch added. A former W. tower was destroyed by lightning in 1740, and its successor was pulled down in 1883. The whole church was restored in the 19th century, and the Chancel and W. wall were rebuilt.

The S. doorway and wall-arcading are good examples of 12th-century work, and the late 14th-century oak screens and 14th-century heraldic glass deserve special notice.

The Church, Plan

Architectural Description—The Chancel (27½ ft. by 19 ft.) is modern, except the arches opening into the N. chapel and nave. In the N. wall, at the W. end, is a 15th-century arch; it is two-centred and moulded, and has a moulded label on the S. face; the plain splayed responds are of one order. The chancel-arch, of the same date as the other, and partly re-tooled, is two-centred and of two moulded orders, the outer order continuous, and the inner order springing from round attached shafts, with moulded capitals and bases.

The North Chapel (12 ft. by 13 ft.) has an E. window of three lights, largely modern, except the lower stones of the jambs, the splays and hollow-chamfered rear arch, which are of the 14th century. In the N. wall is a window of two lights, similar to the E. window, and also largely modern; at the level of the sill, inside, is a moulded 14th-century string-course. E. of the window is a pointed doorway, possibly of early 15th-century date, with jambs of two splayed orders and a modern arch.

The Nave (51 ft. by 23 ft.) has a N. arcade of four bays of c. 1280, with piers of quatrefoil plan.; the capitals are moulded and the bases and plinths are chamfered; the E. respond is modern, and the W. respond has an attached half-pier; the two-centred arches are of two hollow-chamfered orders, with a plain label on the S. face; the details of the W. bay differ slightly from, and are probably earlier than the rest. In the S. wall are four windows; the two easternmost and the westernmost are modern; the third is a round-headed 12th-century window, with a slightly pointed rear arch; below it is a square-headed doorway fitted with a modern frame which opens into the stair turret to the porch-chamber. Further W. is the 12th-century S. doorway of two orders; the jambs have each two shafts, the outer shafts plain, with cushion capitals and bases, and the inner shafts fluted spirally, with foliated capitals and moulded bases; the inner shaft on the E. side is modern; the moulded two-centred arch is probably of the 14th century, restored, and incorporating some re-used 12th-century work. The wall for about six feet on each side of the doorway is of the 12th century, and on the external face, partly covered by the porch-chamber, are remains of an original wall-arcade; the round shafts with cushion-capitals and bases support moulded and pointed arches, probably of the 13th century; the six bays over the door are fairly well preserved, but those E. of the 12th-century window have lost all their shafts, except the easternmost, and the arches have evidently been re-set; the remainder of the S. wall is probably of the 12th century up to the windowsills; at that level there is a set-back where the modern work begins. The W. wall is entirely modern.

The North Aisle (10½ ft. wide) (see Plate, p. 349) has, in the N. wall, two windows, both of two lights and largely modern, but partly of early 15th-century date, including half the outer order of the head of the eastern window, and the rear arches of both windows; below them runs a moulded string-course, of which the eastern part is mostly modern. Between the windows is the early 15th-century N. doorway, with moulded jambs and a two-centred arch, much restored. In the W. wall is a modern window.

The South Porch has a modern entrance archway and a modern window of two lights in each side-wall. The Porch-chamber is approached by a staircase in the N.E. angle, and has, in the S. wall, a 15th-century window of one cinquefoiled light with a square head and moulded label; the lower half is modern. In the E. and W. walls are rectangular loops.

The early 16th-century Roof of the N. aisle extends over the N. chapel, and is of flat lean-to form; it has moulded and embattled wall-plates and five trusses with moulded principals and wallposts and curved braces; between the trusses are moulded intermediate principals, hollow-chamfered rafters and a moulded purlin with square bosses at the intersections which have foliated angles; the braces have spandrels carved with foliage, figures and a date, probably intended for 1534.

Fittings—Bells: three, 1st, now hung in a timber structure in the churchyard, by John Clarke, 1599; 2nd, now at the vicarage, uninscribed, probably by Robert Doddes or Mot, late 16th-century. Brasses: In N. aisle—at E. end, of [Sir John de Wautone, 1347, and his wife] small figure in armour with camail, full plate on arms, knee-cops and jambs over mail, right leg and foot missing; woman's figure with braided hair, gown with tight sleeves, a loose cloak; figures set in head of an octofoil cross, one cusped foil only remaining, indent of elephant at foot of cross, and indent of marginal inscription (one fragment remains) with symbols at the angles. A palimpsest fragment of the brass of Joan Strangman, c. 1570, formerly in the church, is now in the British Museum. Door: In the S. doorway—two leaves, each of three V-shaped battens with hollow-chamfered ribs between them, 15th or 16th-century, framing at back modern. Glass: In N. chapel—in E. window, in heads of lights tabernacle work with yellow leopards in border; in tracery, flowers and foliage with four shields—(a) or a fesse gules between two cheverons gules, for Fitzwalter; (b) argent a fesse gules between two gemel-bars gules, for Badlesmere; (c) argent a saltire engrailed (?) gules, for Tiptoft; and (d) azure three cheverons or. for Aspall, 14th-century; in N. window—in heads of lights and tracery similar glass but no heraldry, 14th-century. Monuments and Floor-slabs. Monument: In chancel—on N. wall, to Mary (Rudgley) wife of... Wiseman. 1654, painted board with inscription. Floor-slabs: The following probably exist, hidden by the organ and other furniture in the N. chapel: (1) to Aurelius Piercy Wiseman, of Broad Oaks, 1684: (2) to Lawrence Boswell, vicar, 1625; (3) to Joseph Glanville, 1680: (4) to Elizabeth (Glanville). wife of Thomas Bernard, rector, 1684. Niche: In chancel—in E. respond of arch to chapel, small, with pointed and cinquefoiled head, hollow-chamfered jambs with broach-stops, 15th-century. Screens: Between chancel and nave—of six bays, including a central doorway with a depressed head and quatrefoiled pierced spandrels, side bays with cinquefoiled heads and tracery, and traceried close lower panels, all modern, except three; posts, rail and head-beam moulded, late 14th-century, cornice modern. Between N. chapel and N. aisle—of four bays with a central doorway, all with cinquefoiled traceried heads, the foils of the doorway missing, in side bays below rail close panels, with traceried heads, all modern, except one, posts and muntins moulded, rail and sill plain, cornice moulded in three orders, and having deep projection, late 14th-century. Stoup: In N.E. corner of porch— with broken bowl on semi-octagonal shaft, four-centred, hollow-chamfered head, late 15th or early 16th-century. Miscellanea: In nave—over S. doorway, painted board with the Commandments, texts from the New Testament, date and initials 1580, R.G., x c.

Condition—Structurally good, but very damp in parts.

b (2). Thunderley Church, site, 300 yards S. of Thunderley Hall, is indicated by a sinking in the turf. The building was apparently without aisles, with a W. tower and S. porch, and about 66 ft. long.

Secular

Homestead Moats

c (3). N.W. of the church, and said to be the site of the old Hall; it encloses an almost circular area, slightly sloping; the ditch is in poor preservation.

c (4). At Parsonage Farm, about 1 m. S.S.W. of the church; with traces of an outer enclosure on the E.

c (5). At Ellis Green, 2 m. S.E. of the church.

c (6). S. of Coward's Farm, with one arm obliterated by road.

c (7). At Wiggles Farm, 2 m. S. of the church, with traces of an outer enclosure on the N.E.

c (8). S. of Elder Street, about 2 m. S.W. of the church, and adjoining Freeman's Farm, see (33).

c (9). In Crownay Wood, 1½ m. S.W. of the church.

b (10). In a small copse, E. of Abbots Farm, see (18); probably only a cattle enclosure.

c (11). At Rayments Farm, 1½ m. S.E. of the church.

c (12). At Maypole Farm, see (56).

c (13). Wimbish Hall, now a farmhouse, S. of the church, is of two storeys, timber-framed and covered with plaster; the brick front is modern; the roofs are tiled. The house was built probably in the second half of the 17th century, and was originally of half-H-shaped plan, with the wings projecting towards the N.; there are modern additions on the N. side.

On the N. side the upper storey of the main block has some original pargetting, including a pilaster supported by a large scroll with a fringed festoon which formerly connected it with another pilaster, now destroyed. The two upper windows, each of three lights, one window transomed, are original; an ornamental casement-fastener remains. The plain central chimney-stack of the W. wing is perhaps of late 17th-century date. The interior has been much altered, but some chamfered beams are exposed in the ceilings of the ground floor, and the timber-framing shows at the back of the E. and W. wings.

Condition—Good, much altered.

a (14). Tiptofts Manor House now a farmhouse, and moat, 1¼ m. W.N.W. of the church. The house is of two storeys, with attics at the W. end of the S. wing. The walls are timber-framed, and faced with brick; the roofs are tiled, with a lead flat on the E. side. The original house was built probably c. 1330, and was half-H-shaped on plan with the Hall in the middle and the wings projecting towards the W. The Hall was divided, and the central chimney-stack inserted probably in the 16th century. At a subsequent date, possibly before 1700, the N. or Solar wing was extended towards the E., and a S. wing was thrown out to correspond with it, destroying the E. aisle of the Hall. In the 19th century almost the whole of the building was re-faced with brick, and there are two low modern additions on the W. side.

The house is a remarkable survival of a timberframed building with an aisled Hall of the 14th century, and some fine original details remain.

The elevations are almost entirely modern, with modern doors and windows, but on the W. side the walls of the main block and of the S. wing are of plastered timber-framing; on the same side, at the N. end of the Hall, is a semi-hexagonal projecting oriel, carried up above the eaves and finished with an irregular gable.

Interior—The Hall (originally 37½ ft. by 19 ft. with aisles 4½ ft. wide) (see Plate, p. 351), was of three bays of unequal width, the southernmost being a narrow bay forming the Screens, 7 ft. wide. The two roof-trusses were probably supported originally by two pairs of oak columns, of which the S. pair still remains; the other pair has been removed and the truss transformed into a hammerbeam. The construction is now much concealed by the insertion of partition floors and ceilings of later date. The remaining pair of columns are in the present kitchen, one of them stands free and the other is built into a wall; they are quatrefoil on plan with broad fillets on each face, and the moulded capitals have common octagonal abaci, all of c. 1330; the E. column has also an original chamfered base; above each capital rises a vertical post and three curved braces, two, longitudinal, support the roof-plate, and one, transverse, supports the tie-beam of the king-post truss; the transverse brace is moulded like the tie-beam, and has a cusped spandrel; the king-post is octagonal with moulded capital and base, and has curved four-way struts supporting the collar and central purlin. The second truss is similar to the first, but the foot of the vertical post on the W. side is supported on a hammer-beam with a curved brace beneath it, in place of the column, which was probably the original arrangement; the hammerbeam crosses the aisle, and above it, the spandrel of the roof is cusped. Opposite the remaining pair of columns, the W. aisle is crossed by a plain beam, and there are traces of mortices on the columns, indicating a further tie at a lower level. The roof is of steep pitch, and is continued down over the remaining aisle; the upper parts are heavily coated with soot, and above the collars in the N. bay is a small truss with an arrangement of wind-braces, which probably formed part of a former louvre and lantern. The gabled ends are of original framing, filled in with plaster on oak pales. The great brick chimney-stack was probably inserted in the middle of the Hall in the 16th century, and is fitted with modern fireplaces; the ceiling N. of the stack, has chamfered beams, probably of the same date.

The Buttery Wing is entered from the Hall by two doorways of the 17th century or later date, and E. of them are remains of a 14th-century doorway, now blocked; it has a moulded two-centred arch, entirely visible on the S. side, with a square moulded head, of which half is visible on the N. side; the impost of the W. jamb on the S. side is also moulded. The heavy ceiling-joists on the ground floor are apparently original, as arc the timbers of the side-walls. At the E. end the first floor projects but has been under-built. In the attic the original roof is visible, and has a tie-beam with one curved brace remaining; a square king-post, with a plain moulded capital and two curved struts, supports the middle purlin under the collars; a similar strut remains against the W. wall. In the W. wall of the first floor is a 16th or 17th-century battened door with strap-hinges, now disused. The wing is paved with small bricks laid in herring-bone pattern.

Tiptofts Manor House. Wimbish

The Solar Wing has been entirely altered, but retains the original roof with two king-post trusses, similar to those in the Hall, but not blackened by soot.

The rectangular Moat surrounds the house, and is complete. There are also traces of a ditch enclosing an area E. of the house.

Condition—The 14th-century work is well preserved, but the modern brickwork of the Solar wing is badly cracked.

c (15). Pinkney's Manor House, now a farmhouse, 1¼ m. S.S.W. of the church, is of two storeys, timber-framed and covered with plaster, with some modern brickwork; the roofs are tiled. The house is probably of late 16th-century date, and was originally of L-shaped plan, with the wings extending towards the W. and N. There are two 18th-century additions on the N. side.

The moulded barge-boards, etc. of the porch are interesting.

On the S. Elevation the wall of the ground floor is modern, and the projecting porch has a late 16th-century gable head, re-used; it has moulded, carved and dentilled barge-boards and fascia and pendant of similar character. The lower part of the central chimney-stack is of old thin bricks. Inside the building, much of the original timber-framing is visible, and both floors contain a number of shaped posts with stop-chamfered edges; most of the ceilings have chamfered beams, some of them with moulded stops.

Condition—Good.

d (16). Broad Oaks Manor House now a farmhouse, and moat, about 2 m. S. of the church. The House (see Plate, p. 353) is of two storeys with attics; the walls are of brick with some windows of clunch; the roofs are tiled. The original house, built c. 1560, was of half-H or E-shaped plan facing E.; the existing building formed the N. wing. The E. front was probably rebuilt in the 18th century, and many of the windows and partitions are modern. The plan of the remaining wing is rectangular, divided into unequal portions by a cross wall.

The house is an interesting example of mid 16th-century domestic work.

The S. Elevation, now the main front, was originally covered, except at the E. end, by the main block of the house, which extended towards the S. It is consequently almost entirely modern, but the front entrance has a frame of oak, moulded, with a four-centred head which is partly original.

The E. Elevation is also modern, but built of old materials; the original wing extended further towards the E.

The N. Elevation is original, and has a chamfered plinth; the W. end is gabled, but has lost the coping, and the remainder is divided into two bays by buttresses, each of three stages, carried up to the eaves. The gabled bay has an original window on each floor and in the attic; the lowest window is of six lights with a transom, the second is similar, but with two transoms, and the attic window is of four lights; all have moulded stone jambs and mullions, and a horizontal moulded label resting on two consoles, much weathered; in the gable is a small round panel, carved with a marigold. The windows in the other bays are mainly modern restorations on similar lines. The door is partly original, panelled and moulded.

The W. Elevation is divided into two bays by buttresses, and has a dentilled eaves-cornice of moulded brick; three original transomed windows of four lights remain and are similar in detail to those on the N. elevation, but the two upper windows have the top lights destroyed and bricked up; there are traces of two other original openings, now blocked. The three chimney-stacks, all original, have octagonal brick shafts, moulded bases, and modern caps.

Broadoaks Manor House, Plan

Interior—The Entrance Hall (see Plan 1) has in the N. wall two doorways with original oak battened doors, leading to the two staircases, and a cupboard with an early 17th-century door. The eastern staircase has old oak treads and risers, and leads up to the Store-Room over (2) which has a stop-chamfered ceiling-beam resting on a shaped wall-post. The Cellar (2) has an original doorway with a four-centred arch and square head of stone and a battened door with strap-hinges. The Kitchen (3) has an unusually large fireplace, now partially blocked; the partition on the S. side is original, and the doorway to the Dairy (4) has a moulded oak frame, with four-centred arch, square head and carved spandrels; the window is boarded up with mid 17th-century panelling. The SittingRoom (5) as an early 17th-century panelled dado, and in the W. wall a door of the same date. On the first floor the bedrooms on the E. side have early 17th-century panelled doors, and one of them has a panelled oak dado of mid 17th-century date. The N.W. room has a doorway with a four-centred arch and square head, fitted with a moulded panelled door which has strap-hinges; in the original E. wall is a Renaissance fireplace of clunch (see Plate, p. 354), with a square moulded head and jambs, flanked by fluted Doric pilasters on panelled bases, which support an entablature with a carved and panelled frieze and dentilled cornice: below it, the head of the opening has a long panel with a series of pointed heads with trefoiled pendants between them. The S.W. room has, in the E. wall, a small oak fireplace with tapering fluted pilasters at the sides, which have moulded bases standing on pedestals with console supports; the lintel is of carved strapwork, and above it is a frieze with triglyphs and a dentilled cornice. The staircase to the attics is apparently original.

A modern fowl-house, S. of the house, has an original oak door with moulded panels.

The Moat is rectangular; the E. arm is filled in.

Condition—Of house, fairly good, but the original stone and brickwork is much perished, and there is a bad crack on the N. front.

b (17). Thunderley Hall now a farmhouse, and moat, about 2 m. E. of the church. The House is of two storeys with attics and cellar. The walls are timber-framed and plastered; the roofs are tiled. Two bays of the W. wing are of late 15th or early 16th-century date, but the rest of the building was altered early in the 17th century to an L-shaped plan, with the wings extending towards the N. and W. A low addition, probably of the 18th century, makes the existing plan T-shaped.

The moulded timbers are noteworthy.

In the original part of the W. wing the upper storey projects and has a moulded bressumer, supported by three curved brackets, springing from moulded oak capitals; there were probably shafts below the capitals, but they have been removed. All the windows, doors and chimney-stacks are modern.

Interior—The general arrangement has been much altered. The N. half of the N. wing has heavy chamfered ceiling-beams, and in a passage are two early 17th-century panelled doors. In the 18th-century extension of the same wing is an early 16th-century door, divided into vertical panels by moulded and nail-studded fillets, cut at the top to fit a four-centred arch. The two W. bays of the W. wing have the original moulded ceiling-beams of c. 1500; the eastern transverse beam was evidently set against a former wall; the second beam has foliated stops, and is carried on wall-posts with shield-like corbels; the other beams are similarly moulded with plainer stops. The first floor above the two W. bays retains the original plain tie-beams of the roof; one of them has curved braces and shaped wall-posts. In the N. wing the roof has braced collar-beams and wind-braced purlins; an early 17th-century panelled door remains on the top landing.

The Moat is rectangular, but only the E. and S. arms and part of the W. arm remain.

Condition—Of house, fairly good.

b (18). Abbots' Manor House, now a farmhouse and moat. ½ m. S. of (17). The House is of two storeys, timber-framed and covered with plaster; the roofs are tiled. It was built probably early in the 17th century on a rectangular plan, and late in the same century a wing projecting towards the N. was added at the E. end. The low addition at the W. end is modern. The E. end of the S. wing has a half-hipped gable. One window on the N. side of the W. wing has some lead glazing with two old quarries. The central chimney-stack of the W. wing is of original thin bricks, and that on the E. side of the N. wing is of late 17th-century brickwork. Inside the building, the two fireplaces in the central chimney-stack are original, but one of them has been filled in. The E. rooms have open timber ceilings, and the other rooms have chamfered beams. Wind-braces are visible in some of the upper rooms.

The Moat is rectangular and partly filled in at the N.E. corner.

Condition—Of house, fairly good.

c (19). Thunderley Parsonage Farm, house and moat, 1,000 yards E.N.E. of (17). The House is of two storeys, timber-framed and covered with plaster; the roofs are tiled. It is of L-shaped plan with the wings extending towards the N.W. and S.W. The N.W. wing is probably a little older than the other, but both are of early 17th-century date. The N.W. wing was extended probably in the 18th century; the addition on the N.E. side and the staircase on the S.E. side are both modern, together with the cellar below the S.W. wing. The roofs of the wings are half-hipped at the ends. The two chimney-stacks are of thin original bricks. Inside the building, the S.W. wing has a room on each side of the central chimney-stack, with shaped posts against the walls, and chamfered ceilingbeams with moulded stops. On the first floor the rooms have similar beams, those in the N.E. room showing the mortices of former braces. The N.W. wing has on the ground floor stop-chamfered ceiling-beams, and a large open fireplace with a stop-chamfered lintel and an ornamental iron crane and hook, possibly of c. 1700, and still in use.

The Moat is rectangular and small.

Condition—Of house, fairly good.

c (20). Pepples' Farm, house, and moat, nearly 2 m. S.S.W. of the church. The House is of two storeys, timber-framed and covered with plaster and weather-boarding; the roofs are tiled. It was built late in the 16th or early in the 17th century, and there is a low modern addition at the N.E. end. The central chimney-stack is original, and has grouped diagonal shafts. Inside the building, the rooms on the ground-floor have moulded ceiling-beams. The fireplaces have been reduced in size, and over that in the S.E. room is a long moulded corbel of stone, which probably supports the hearth of the room above it.

The Moat is rectangular, but the N. arm is partly filled in.

Condition—Of house, good.

c (21). Conyers or Cowards Farm, house and moat, 250 yards S.E. of (20). The House is of two storeys, timber-framed and covered with plaster and weather-boarding; the roofs are thatched or tiled. It was built probably early in the 17th century, and the roof is half-hipped at the ends. The central chimney-stack was apparently rebuilt late in the 17th or early in the 18th century. Inside the building, the rooms on the ground floor have chamfered ceiling-beams. The wide fireplaces remain unaltered.

The Moat is very imperfect.

Condition—Of house, good.

a (22). Hoy's Farm, house and moat, about ¾ m. N.W. of the church. The House is of two storeys, timber-framed and covered with plaster, with some modern brickwork; the roofs are tiled. It was built early in the 17th century on an L-shaped plan, with the wings extending towards the E. and N., but the N. wing has been entirely re-faced or rebuilt. The central chimney-stack is original; it has diagonal pilasters on each face, and stands on a rectangular base; the capping is moulded. At the back of the house the roof is carried down low and there is a single chimney-shaft, probably of late 17th-century date. Inside the building, some chamfered ceiling beams are exposed, and on the first floor is a fireplace with a chamfered opening, a moulded cornice and a band of plaster arabesque ornament above the cornice; a second fireplace is similarly ornamented. The back staircase is apparently original, and has a rail to the landing with symmetrically turned balusters.

The Moat was formerly rectangular, but the S. and W. sides have been obliterated.

Condition—Of house, good.

e (23). The Vicarage, E. of the church, is of two storeys with attics; the walls are of brick and the roofs are tiled. It was built at the end of the 17th or beginning of the 18th century, but was altered in the 18th and 19th centuries. On the N. elevation are some original windows, now blocked, and each of two transomed lights under a segmental head. Inside the building, in a room on the first floor, is an original fireplace with a moulded architrave.

Condition—Good, much altered.

Monuments (24–58).

The following monuments, unless otherwise described, are of the 17th century, and of two storeys, timber-framed and plastered; the roofs are tiled or thatched. Many of the buildings have original chimney-stacks, exposed ceiling-beams and wide fireplaces.

Condition—Good or fairly good, unless noted.

a (24). Frogs Green Farm, house, ½ m. E. of (14), with a modern wing on the N.W. Most of the walls are weather-boarded.

b (25). Cottage, 570 yards N. of Thunderley Hall, with an addition on the N.W., probably of the 18th century. At the S.E. end are two windows with original frames.

Cole End

a (26) Cole End Farm, house and barn, 470 yards E.N.E. of Thunderley Parsonage Farm (19). The House is L-shaped on plan with the wings extending towards the N.E. and S.E. Some of the windowframes are original, and also the central chimney-stack, which has diagonal pilasters. Inside the building, the easternmost room has a panelled 17th-century dado; on the E. wall it is of earlier date and is enriched with a carved frieze; on the N. wall it has lozenges and incised ornament.

S.E. of the house, and close to it, is a large timber-framed Barn.

Condition—Fairly good, but the whole building seems to be settling towards the E.

c (27). Cottage, 230 yards W. of (26), is of Lshaped plan, with the wings extending towards the S.W. and S.E.; on the N.E. side is an 18th-century extension, making the plan of modified T-shape.

c (28). Cottage, two tenements, W. of (27), with a modern addition at the back. The W. part of the building may be of late 15th-century date, but the E. part is probably of the 17th century. The S. wall of the older portion has been partly re-faced with modern brick; the upper storey originally projected at the E. end, but is now almost hidden by a large chimney-stack, probably of the 18th century. Inside the building, the ground floor is divided into three rooms, and between the two easternmost is some old timber-framing, including a blocked doorway with chamfered jambs and four-centred head, and a shaped post which holds the end of the ceiling-beam.

Condition—Poor.

b (29). Cottage, 250 yards N.E. of Abbots Farm, was possibly lengthened towards the N. late in the 17th century. The chimney-stack near the N. end is of original thin bricks, and an oven projects from the W. side at the ground floor level.

c (30). Miller's Farm, formerly Shaft's Farm, house, nearly 2 m. S.W. of the church, with a low addition at the back.

Elder Street, S. side

c (31). Burnt House Farm, house, 620 yards E.S.E. of (30), is almost entirely of the 18th century, but the S. end is of the 17th century.

c (32). Cottage, three tenements, 360 yards W. of (31), has three original window-frames on the N. front, and one at the back.

b (33). Freeman's Farm, house, 2 m. S.W. of the church, is of L-shaped plan, with the wings extending towards the S. and W.; it was built probably late in the 16th century. There is an addition of later date on the E. side. The upper storey projects on part of the E. side. The original central chimney-stack of the W. wing has diagonal pilasters on a square base with a moulded and dentilled cornice. Inside the building, the timber construction of the walls is visible, especially on the first floor, which has six pairs of shaped wall-posts. On the first floor, in the W. room, is a cupboard with an original door which has ornamental hinges of the cock's-head type. The roof has probably been altered, and incorporates some re-used timbers brought from elsewhere; two of them have incised foliage ornament, and a third has foliage in relief.

Howlett End

c (34). Rowney Corner Farm, house, 1½ m. S.S.W. of the church. On the N.E. front the upper storey has a projecting gable at each end. At the S.E. end the main roof is carried down over a low addition. On the back elevation the upper storey projects at each end, but has been under-built with modern brick; the roofs are hipped. The original central chimney-stack has diagonal pilasters. Inside the building, some wind-braces are visible in the roof.

c (35). Cottage, opposite (34), with three dormers on the N. front.

c (36). Cottage, 100 yards N.E. of (35).

c (37). Little Gowers Farm, house, 300 yards E. of (36) is of T-shaped plan, with the cross-wing at the N. end. The main block and the E. end are original and are of one storey.

Condition—Poor.

c (38). Cottage, E. of (37).

c (39). Cottage, now two tenements, 420 yards S.E. of (38), with gabled dormers; the plastering of one dormer is dated 1799.

c (40). Cottage, 60 yards E. of (39).

c (41). Cottage, now two tenements, 260 yards S.E. of (40). An original window-frame remains at the W. end.

c (42). Cottage, formerly a workhouse, and now three tenements, adjoins (41) on the E.

d (43). Cottage, 1,180 yards E. of Broadoaks Farm. A dormer window in the E. half of the building has some old diamond quarries in the glazing.

Condition—Poor.

d (44). Higham's Farm, house, 2¼ m. S.S.E. of the church, is of modified L-shaped plan, with the wings extending towards the S. and W.; on the N.E. side is a low addition, and above it the upper storey projects. Inside the building, a beam in the ceiling of the W. wing has hollow-chamfered stops with incised ornament.

Lower Green

c (45). Lower House Farm, house, nearly 1½ m. S.S.E. of the church, has been largely re-faced with modern brick. It was built late in the 16th or early in the 17th century, on a rectangular plan, but a late 17th or early 18th-century addition at the N. end, made the plan L-shaped. Inside the building, the timber-framing is visible in all the walls, and has shaped well-posts under the main beams.

c (46). Cottage, now two tenements, on the S. side of the road, 100 yards E.S.E. of (45), with a dormer window in front.

c (47). Cottage, 250 yards E.N.E. of (46).

c (48). Mill Cottage, on the N. side of the road, 300 yards N.E. of (47), with a low addition at the back. In front is one flat dormer window. In a rubble and flint garden-wall in front of the cottage is set an early 14th-century gable-cross of rough limestone, probably from a church.

c (49). Nottige's Farm, house, 80 yards S.E. of (48), was built late in the 16th or early in the 17th century, and has a low 18th-century addition on the S.W. side. The central chimney-stack has six engaged diagonal shafts on a rectangular base The easternmost room on the ground floor is used as a Friends' Meeting House.

Condition—Fairly good, chimney out of the perpendicular.

c (50). Cottage, now three tenements, 70 yards N.E. of (49).

Condition—Poor.

Upper Green, S. side

c (51). Cottage, now two tenements, ¼ m. E. of Hodges Farm, with a low addition on the N. side.

Condition—Poor.

c (52). Hodges Farm, house, 1 m. S.S.E. of the church, is of half-H-shaped plan, with the wings projecting towards the S. A small wing, probably of the 18th century, has been added in the angle of the W. wing. At each end of the N. front there is a gable; the E. gable projects. The heavy central chimney-stack has six diagonal pilasters on each face, and a square base.

N. side

c (53). Little Stonards Farm, house, opposite (52).

c(54). Cottage, W. of (53).

c(55). Joyce's Farm, house, 90 yards W. of (54), with a low addition on the N. side. In the ground storey one window has an original frame. Inside the building, an original battened door remains in an upper room.

W. end

c(56). Maypole Farm, house and barn, 100 yards S.W. of (55). The House is of L-shaped plan, with the wings extending towards the N. and W.; at the S. end of the E. front the upper storey projects. Inside the building, the timber-framing is visible in the walls, and a doorway on the ground floor between the two wings has a four-centred arch in a square head, with sunk spandrels, all of oak.

The Barn, N.E. of the house, is of the same date, with braced transverse and longitudinal rooftrusses and an aisle on the N. side.

c (57). George's Farm, house, 600 yards S. of the church, is of L-shaped plan, with the wings extending towards the S. and W.; the W. wing is gabled at each end.

c (58). Aldridge's Farm, house, ¼ m. E.S.E. of the church, with a barn adjoining it on the N. side.

Yeldham, see Great Yeldham and Little Yeldham.

Wendens Ambo Church. Carving on bench-end; late 15th-century.