An Inventory of the Historical Monuments in Essex, Volume 1, North West. Originally published by His Majesty's Stationery Office, London, 1916.
This free content was digitised by double rekeying and sponsored by English Heritage. All rights reserved.
14. BROXTED. (B.c.)
(O.S. 6 in. (a)xiv. S.E. (b)xxiii. N.E. (c)xxiii. N.E.)
Broxted is a small parish and village about 7½ m. S.S.E. of Saffron Walden.
a (1). Parish Church of St. Mary the Virgin stands near the middle of the village, and is built of flint and pebble rubble, with a few bricks and tiles, possibly Roman; the dressings are of clunch and brick; the roofs are tiled. The Chancel was built early in the 13th century; the Nave is probably contemporary with it, but the earliest visible detail is of late 14th-century date. Early in the 15th century the North Aisle was added; the nave was possibly lengthened towards the W. at some later date. The church was restored in 1875–6, when the S. wall of the chancel was rebuilt; the South Porch and Bell-turret are modern.
Architectural Description—The Chancel (39 ft. by 20½ ft.) has, at the E. angles, shallow clasping buttresses. All the original detail is of early 13th-century date. In the E. wall are three graduated lancet windows. In the N. wall are three lancet windows, all with restored heads. In the S. wall are three lancet windows, with restored heads and sills and re-worked jambs. Between the second and third windows is a doorway, probably original, but partly restored; the jambs and two-centred head are chamfered, and the label is moulded. A moulded string-course is carried round the E., N. and S. walls of the chancel, below the internal window-sills. The wooden chancel-arch is modern.
The Nave (53 ft. by 20½ ft.) has an early 15th-century N. arcade of three bays; the piers and responds are of two chamfered orders, the inner with moulded capitals, and both with moulded bases; the two-centred arches are of two moulded orders; the outer order dies on to the piers and responds, and the inner rests on the capitals. Further W. is the late 14th or early 15th-century N. doorway, re-set and now blocked; the jambs and two-centred arch are moulded; the moulded label is almost entirely modern. In the S. wall are three windows; the easternmost is modern, except the late 16th-century opening of red brick and of two moulded orders; the second window is similar to the first, but smaller, and the westernmost window is entirely modern. Between the second and third windows is the S. doorway, probably of late 14th-century date, but partly restored, it is of two moulded orders with a two-centred head. In the W. wall is a modern window.
The North Aisle (42 ft. by 14 ft.) has, in the E. wall, an early 15th-century window, partly restored, and of three cinquefoiled lights with tracery in a segmental-pointed head. In the N. wall are two windows, entirely modern, except the internal jamb-stones and segmental-pointed rear arches; at the E. end of the wall is a high shallow recess, with a segmental-pointed arch, and a sill about five feet above the floor; it was probably connected with a former gallery leading to the rood-loft, and a change in the external walling probably indicates that it was entered from outside. In the W. wall is a window similar to those in the N. wall, but the segmental-pointed external head is apparently old. The Roof of the modern S. porch has two moulded beams of late 16th or early 17th-century date, re-used.
Fittings—Bells: four; 1st, 2nd, and 3rd by Miles Graye, 1632; 4th by James Bartlet, 1688. Bracket: In N. aisle—on N. wall, under eastern window, plain and shallow, probably 15th-century. Brass: In chancel—to John Collyn, 1639, 'coryphaeus' of the parish of Broxted, inscription only. Glass: In N. aisle—in tracery of E. window, fragments, with designs of fish, flowers and foliage, early 15th-century, made up with modern glass. Monuments and Floor-slabs: Floor-slabs: In chancel—(1) to John Chadwick, 1654, and John Carpenter, 1739, vicars of the parish. In nave—at W. end, (2) to A. . . . Burrow, 1710. Niche: In nave—in N. wall, W. of arcade, with defaced cinquefoiled ogee canopy, having crockets and finial, the soffit vaulted, with roses and other flowers at the intersections of the ribs, flanked by square buttresses with crocketed pinnacles, bracket of niche carved with two halffigures of angels, 15th-century. Pulpit (see Plate, p. xxxi.): of oak, octagonal, six sides remaining, each with arcaded panels and foliated ornament, angle-posts, rails and cornice carved, book-rest with carved soffit, and shaped and carved brackets, early 17th-century, base-moulding modern. Miscellanea: Processional Cross, of brass, with flowered ends and raised bosses, possibly late 17th-century. In vicarage garden—stone block, rough, possibly base of churchyard cross, found in the vicarage shrubbery.
c (2). Homestead Moat at Broxted Hall, ¾ m. S.S.W. of the church.
a (3). Church Hall, with brewhouse and barns, 50 yards N.E. of the church. The House is of two storeys with attics, timber-framed and covered with plaster; the roofs are tiled. It was built on a rectangular plan, late in the 16th century; an L-shaped wing was added at the W. end of the N. front probably about the middle of the 17th century, and possibly a little later the main block was extended towards the E.
Elevations—Many of the windows, especially those on the upper floors, retain old mullioned frames of oak. On the N. front the original block has an overhanging gable with chequered barge-boards and base-board, and a small foliated ornament of plaster in the head of the gable; the wing has two gables; the eastern has moulded barge-boards. On the S. or garden front (see Plate, p. xxvi.) the original block has a gable on each side of a gabled porch-wing of two storeys; all three gables project slightly, and have chequered barge-boards and base-boards; the western gable has a moulded and carved console at the W. angle; under the gable of the porch-wing are similar consoles, and the overhanging upper storey has a dentilled bressumer; the E. extension of the main block has a plain gable. The L-shaped addition also has two gables, the eastern having moulded barge-boards. The E. and W. elevations are gabled, and have moulded 17th-century bargeboards, similar to those on the N. front. The original central chimney-stack has four diagonal pilasters on the N. and S. faces.
Interior—In the original block the kitchen has a chamfered ceiling-beam, and two early 17th-century panelled doors; in the adjoining passage are two similar doors, and a little panelling of the same date and design has been re-set in the kitchen and passage.
The Brewhouse, E. of the house, is of the 17th century, and has trusses with curved braces.
The Barns, two, on the E. and N.E. of the house, are probably also of the 17th century.
The following buildings are generally of two storeys, timber-framed and plastered; the roofs are tiled or thatched. Almost all the buildings are of the 17th century, and many of them have original chimney-stacks, wide fireplaces and exposed ceiling-beams.
Condition—Good, or fairly good, unless noted.
b (4) Palegate Farm, house, 1,500 yards W. of the church. The plan is L-shaped, with the wings extending towards the N. and E. The N. wing was built probably late in the 16th or early in the 17th century, and the E. wing is probably of later date. The original central chimney-stack has clustered diagonal shafts with pilasters, on a rectangular base with a moulded capping.
b (5). Wood Farm, about 1 m. S.W. by W. of the church. The house faces W. and has a modern wing at the N. end, making the plan L-shaped. At the back the close-set timberframing is exposed, and the plaster filling is stamped with various designs, probably of the 17th century. The original central chimney-stack has clustered diagonal shafts with pilasters, and has been restored at the top. Inside the building is some early 17th-century panelling, now forming a cupboard.
Brick End, S.W. side
b (6). Cottage, now two tenements, S.S.W. of the church, is partly weather-boarded.
b (7). Cottage, now two tenements, 70 yards S. of (6).
b (8). Cottage, now two tenements, 30 yards S. of (7).
b (9). Cottage, now two tenements, 100 yards N.E. of (8), with a low modern addition at the back. The original central chimney-stack has grouped diagonal pilasters.
b (10). House, now two tenements, 80 yards S.S.E. of (9), is of F-shaped plan with the wings extending towards the N.E. The front has, at each end, a gable, with moulded and dentilled barge-boards.
b (11). Garrolds, farmhouse, 1¼ m. S.S.W. of the church, has a modern wing at the N. end.
b (12). Cottage, now two tenements, 80 yards S. of (11), is partly weather-boarded.
b (13). Cottage, now two tenements, at Chapel End, 800 yards S.W. of (12), has old window frames and diamond glazing.
c (14). Cottage, now two tenements, on the N. side of the Little Easton Road, about 1½ m. S. of the church, with a modern addition at the N.W. end.
c(15). Cottage, on the W. side of the road, 200 yards S.E. of (14).
c (16). Baldwins, house, 1¾ m. S.S.E. of the church. A modern wing has been added, forming a second tenement. Inside the building is an original fireplace with chamfered jambs and four-centred arch of stone.
c (17). Broxted Hill, house, 250 yards N.E. of (16). The plan was originally rectangular, but large modern additions have made it of modified H-shape. The original central chimney-stack has three attached square shafts.
a (18). Tingates Farm, house, about 1½ m. E. of the church, is of two storeys with attics, and of L-shaped plan, with the wings extending towards the S.W. and N.W.
a(19). Brick House, and barn, 100 yards S.E. of (18). The House was built c. 1540, on a rectangular plan, facing W.; it was extended towards the N., probably in the 17th century, and there are modern additions at the back. In front the upper storey projects and has a moulded bressumer resting on curved brackets. Inside the building, on the ground floor, two rooms have original moulded ceiling-beams with foliated stops; in the S. room is a dado made up of late 16th and early 17th-century panelling. On the first floor, in several rooms, the dado is of early 17th-century panelling, and other panelling of the same date is covered by wall-paper. In one room is visible the tie-beam and one curved brace of a roof-truss, resting on shaped wall-posts.
The Barn, N. of the house, is weather-boarded, and is probably of late 17th-century date.
a (20). Little Broxted Hill, house, now two tenements, 1 m. N. of the church.
Chaureth Green, S. side
a (21). Cottage, now two tenements, 1¼ m. N.N.W. of the church. The walls are partly weather-boarded.
a (22). Cottage, 100 yards E. of (21) is partly weather-boarded.
a (23). Cottage, now two tenements, 300 yards E. of (22).
a (24). Chaureth Green Farm, house, 1½ m. N. of the church. The plan was originally rectangular, but 18th-century and modern additions have made it T-shaped, with the cross-wing at the N. end. Over the main doorway is the date 1793, probably that of the plaster on the walls. The original central chimney-stack is cross-shaped and set diagonally. In a modern addition is a 17th-century door of moulded battens.