An Inventory of the Historical Monuments in Essex, Volume 1, North West. Originally published by His Majesty's Stationery Office, London, 1916.
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24. FINCHINGFIELD. (Db.)
(O.S. 6 in. (a)x. N.E., (b)xv. N.E., (c)xv. S.E.)
Finchingfield is a large parish and village about 10 m. E.S.E. of Saffron Walden. The principal monuments are the Church and Spain's Hall.
b (1). Parish Church of St. John the Baptist stands on a hill on the E. side of the village. The walls are of flint rubble with dressings of limestone and clunch; the roofs are covered with lead, except those of the N. and S. chapels, which are tiled. The West Tower (see Plate, p. 89) was built c. 1170. The Chancel was rebuilt about the middle of the 13th century; a N. chapel, and a S. aisle were built at the same time. A. N. aisle was added c. 1340, and late in the 14th century the walls of the chancel were partly rebuilt and raised and a clearstorey was added, the North Chapel was rebuilt and the South Chapel added; the North and South Aisles with the two western bays of the N. arcade were rebuilt, and a S. porch was added. In the 15th century the bell-chamber of the tower was altered or rebuilt; a spire was built possibly at the same time, but it fell in the 17th century. The church was restored in the 19th century, and the South Porch rebuilt.
The W. doorway is a good example of late 12th-century work, and among the fittings the 16th-century Berners monument, the 14th and 15th-century screens and the 14th-century S. door are noteworthy.
Architectural Description—The Chancel (45 ft. by 19½ ft.) has an E. window entirely modern, except the moulded internal splays, the two-centred rear arch and the internal label, which are of late 14th-century date. In the N. wall is a window of c. 1370, externally restored, and of two cinquefoiled lights with tracery in a two-centred head; further W. is an arcade of c. 1250, of two bays, with two-centred arches of two chamfered orders; the octagonal column and the responds with attached half-columns have moulded capitals; part of one original base remains. In the S. wall is a window of the same date and design as that in the N. wall, but the jambs are more richly moulded and the moulded internal label has carved head-stops. Further W. is a doorway of c. 1370, much restored; the jambs, two-centred arch and label are moulded; W. of the doorway is an arcade of c. 1370, and of two bays with moulded two-centred arches which have moulded labels; the label on the N. side has, at the E. end, a stop carved as a bull (?), and below it is a partly defaced inscription; the moulded column has four attached shafts with moulded capitals and bases; the responds have attached half-columns. The clearstorey has four N. and four S. windows, all of c. 1370, and partly restored; they are each of two cinquefoiled and sub-cusped lights with tracery under a square head; the reveals are moulded; the two western windows on each side are partly blocked. The 13th-century chancel-arch (see Plate, p. 87) is two-centred and of two chamfered orders; the responds have each a semi-octagonal attached shaft with a moulded capital and defaced base; on the E. side of the S. shaft a hollow with a trefoiled head has been cut; some 14th-century stones built into the N. respond have remains of a carved diaper of four-leaved flowers, probably part of the reredos of an altar.
The North Chapel (23½ ft. by 17½ ft.) is almost entirely of c. 1370. In the E. wall is a window of three trefoiled ogee lights under a two-centred head; it has been much restored outside and the tracery is modern; the labels, internal splays and rear-arch are moulded. In the N. wall are two windows, the eastern, now blocked and only visible outside, is of two cinquefoiled lights with a quatrefoil in a two-centred head and has a moulded label; the western window is of three trefoiled ogee lights with tracery under a segmental-pointed head, much restored; the rear arch and internal splays are roll-moulded and the splays have small moulded bases. Further W. is a modern doorway. In the W. wall is an arch of c. 1350, re-set; it is moulded and two-centred, and has on each face a moulded label; the shafted responds and their capitals are moulded, and the S. respond has remains of a moulded base.
The South Chapel (23 ft. by 16½ ft.) has, in the E. wall, a window of c. 1370, of three cinquefoiled lights with tracery under a segmental-pointed head. In the S. wall is a window of c. 1370 and of three trefoiled sub-cusped lights with tracery under a segmental-pointed head and a moulded label; the lower part of each window has been blocked. Further W. is a small doorway of early 16th-century date, with moulded jambs, four-centred arch and label, all of brick; above it, externally, is a moulded brick panel containing four shields—(a) much defaced, but apparently crusily three boars' heads, for Swinburne; (b) quarterly with a label, for Berners, impaling a cheveron between three coronels, for Wiseman; (c) the names [Ber]ners and Elizabeth with a device between them; (d) a cheveron between three birds. In the W. wall is a two-centred arch of c. 1370 and of two moulded orders; on the W. side is a moulded label with animal stops; the shafted responds and their bases are moulded; the capitals are carved and moulded.
The Nave (59 ft. by 27 ft.) has embattled parapets of brick, probably of 1561. The N. arcade is of five bays; the three eastern bays are of c. 1340, and the other two of c. 1370; the three eastern bays have two-centred arches of two moulded orders with moulded labels; the columns have each four filleted shafts separated by filleted rolls; the capitals are moulded; the bases have been mutilated; the E. respond has an attached half-column, partly cut away; the two western bays are of the same date and detail as the S. arcade of the chancel, but the labels are plain; the W. respond has been much defaced. The S. arcade is of c. 1250 and of five bays; the two-centred arches are of two chamfered orders: the octagonal columns have moulded capitals and bases and square plinths with spur ornaments; the responds have attached halfcolumns. The clearstorey has five N. and five S. windows of the 15th century, each of two cinquefoiled lights with tracery in a segmental head with a plain label; the internal splays and rear arch are moulded.
The North Aisle (13 ft. wide) is of c. 1370, and has, in the N. wall, two windows, both similar to the westernmost window in the N. chapel. Further W. is the N. doorway with moulded jambs and two-centred arch; the labels, internal splays and rear arch are moulded. In the W. wall is a window, all modern except the moulded internal splays and the external label with one stop.
The South Aisle (12 ft. wide) is of c. 1370, and has, in the S. wall, two windows; the eastern is of three uncusped lights under a segmental-pointed head; the various parts are moulded and the label has animal-head stops; the lower part of the window has been blocked; the western window is of similar detail to the other, and is of three trefoiled ogee lights with tracery under a segmental-pointed head. Further W. is the S. doorway (see Plate, p. 32) with richly moulded jambs and two-centred arch, and a label with head-stops. In the W. wall is a window similar to the western window in the S. wall, but with varied tracery.
The West Tower (16 ft. by 19½ft.) is of three stages (see Plate p. 89) with a deep embattled parapet and an 18th-century timber lantern; the western angles, up to the middle of the second stage, are shafted and enriched with spiral ornament; between the first and second stages is a double dentilled string-course of the 12th century, partly restored; the S.W. stair-turret has brick steps of the 17th century. The 12th-century tower-arch is semi-circular and of one square order; the square responds have shafted angles with remains of moulded bases, and scalloped capitals with chamfered abaci continued round the responds as imposts; the impost on the N. has cheveron ornament and that on the S. has a diaper pattern. The N. and S. walls have each a round-headed window of the 12th century, restored outside. In the N.E. and S.E. angles are 12th-century wall-arcades, extending two bays along the N. and S. walls and returning one bay on the E. wall; they are partly filled up with masonry as if for altars; the rough semi-circular arches are covered with plaster and rest on shafts set between the bays; the shafts have scalloped capitals and deep abaci; one capital on the S. side has carved stiff-leaf foliage. The 12th-century W. doorway (see Plate, p. 89) has a semi-circular head of three orders enriched with cheveron ornament and a diapered label; the tympanum has been removed, and the space filled with a modern glazed frame; the jambs are both of four orders, the innermost has cheveron ornament and carved head-corbels at the top; the other orders have shafts with scalloped capitals; the two outer shafts have been removed; the shaft of the second order is spirally fluted on the N. side, and has cheveron ornament on the S. side. The N., S. and W. walls of the second stage have each a 12th-century window of a single round-headed light; those in the N. and S. walls have been blocked. In the 15th-century bell-chamber the E. and S. walls have each a window of two trefoiled lights under a depressed head with a moulded label; flanking the window in the E. wall are two circular recesses or blocked openings. The N. and W. walls have each a window of three trefoiled lights under a four-centred head with a moulded label.
The South Porch is modern, but incorporates the heads of three 14th-century panels of stone; two of them are built into the E. and one into the W. wall, and all are cinquefoiled and sub-cusped.
The Roof of the chancel is low pitched and of four bays, with moulded main timbers, curved braces and moulded pendants; the braces of the easternmost truss are inscribed 'This roof was builded anno domini 1635 at the charge of Robert Kempe Esquiir'; one brace of the second truss is inscribed 'Builded by John Glascock'; the late 14th-century stone corbels are moulded and carved with heads of saints, a king, queen, etc. The late 14th-century roof of the N. chapel has moulded tie-beams with curved braces and a king-post with four-way struts; the stone corbels on the N. side are carved with heads. The low-pitched roof of the nave is of five bays with moulded main timbers; the tie-beams have curved braces, and those of the easternmost truss are curved with foliage and the date and initials 1561 W.B., S.L.; the carved head corbels are all of late 14th or early 15th-century date, except two, which are plainly moulded, and apparently of the 16th century. The lean-to roof of the N. aisle is possibly of the 14th century, and has plain timbers, except the moulded wall-plate and middle principal. The lean-to roof of the S. aisle is of the 16th century and has moulded principals. The ground stage of the tower has moulded ceiling-beams and plain joists. The late 14th-century roof of the S. porch has two king-post trusses with double hollow-chamfered ridge and purlins.
Fittings—Brasses: In S. chapel, said to be under organ—(1) to John Meade, 1629, inscription only. (See also Monuments.) Chest: In N. chapel—with panelled and inlaid front and panelled ends, late 16th or early 17th-century. Communion Table: In N. chapel—with turned legs, and carved upper rail having pendant in middle, early 17th-century. Doors: In S. doorway—of two folds, each with three moulded panels having crocketed heads, tracery, and carvings of the Crucifixion, a pelican, dove and other figures, two shields, one with a cheveron, 14th-century, partly restored. (See Plate, p. 119) In tower—in doorway to stair turret, of battens, 15th or 16th-century. Font (see Plate, p. xxix.); with octagonal bowl, supported on carved angels; in each side of bowl a quatrefoiled panel with a shield of arms, (a) a lion, (b) a cross, (c) fretty a fesse, for Helion, (d) quarterly with a molet in the quarter, for Vere, (e) two cheverons powdered with cloves (?), for Clovile, (f) a saltire engrailed, (g) a cheveron between three crosses formy fitchy, (h) a chever on, late 14th-century; stem and base modern. Locker: In chancel—in S.W. corner, small, rebated, date uncertain. Monuments and Floor-slabs. Monuments: In chancel—against N. wall, (1) to Richard Marriot, 1703, and others, plastered altar tomb with black marble slab. In N. chapel—against N. wall, (2) to Robert Kempe, 1524, and Anne his wife, plain altar tomb with brass inscription on slab; on E. wall, (3) to William Kempe, 1628, and 'Philip' his wife, 1623, white marble and slate tablet with four shields of arms, erected 1652. In S. chapel—in middle, (4) of John Berners, 15 .... (not filled in) and Elizabeth (Wysseman) his wife, 1523, altar tomb with brass figures on Purbeck marble slab, of man in armour with a tabard of arms, quarterly with a crescent for difference, for Berners, quartering a cheveron between three martlets; figure of woman with pedimental head-dress and heraldic mantle, a cheveron ermine between three coronels, for Wiseman, inscription below figures; tomb of clunch with traceried panelled sides and ends, each with a shield of arms: (a) Berners quartering a cheveron between three martlets impaling Wiseman; (b) Berners quartering a cheveron between three martlets and impaling two coats, Wiseman, and three lozenges ermine; (c) Berners; (d) a cheveron between three martlets; (e), (c) impaling crusilly three boars' heads, for Swinburne; (f), (c) impaling (d), E. end hidden by organ; on N. and S. sides, dividing the panels, three canopied niches each with a hooded and habited bedesman, much damaged. Floor-slab: In chancel—(1) to Dorothy, wife of Sir John Marshall, 1685, with shield of arms; (2) to Lucy, wife of Sir John Marshall, 1699, with shield of arms. Piscina: In chancel—with chamfered jambs and cinquefoiled head, fluted drain, 15th-century. Royal Arms: In nave—on W. wall, framed and painted on canvas, Stuart arms, late 17th-century. Screens: Under chancel arch, of oak, with double entrance bay and two bays on each side; entrance bay with two-centred arch and traceried head, side bays with ogee arch and traceried heads all cusped and sub-cusped, with crockets carved as foliage or grotesques; between the bays, buttresses and springers of vault to former loft; traceried middle rail and close lower panels; early 15th-century. In S. chapel, at W. end, of three main bays, middle of bay two lights, side bays of three lights, all with cinquefoiled ogee heads and flowing tracery; between lights in middle and S. bay, circular shafts with moulded bases and carved capitals; in N. bay, inserted doorway with cusped and sub-cusped head and embattled cornice; main cornice moulded and enriched with small carvings, close lower panels, c. 1350, head of doorway, 15th-century. Miscellanea: In S. aisle—on ledge of second window in S. wall, scratched diagram of 'ninemen's morris.' Loose in chancel and in second and third stages of tower—architectural fragments, 14th and 15th-century. In churchyard—S. of tower, fragments of former S. porch including tracery, capital of respond, etc., late 14th-century.
Condition—Good generally, but there are cracks in E. wall of nave; the N. arcade of chancel is out of the perpendicular, and part of the window tracery is badly decayed.
b (2). Homestead Moat at Howe Hall, ¾ m. N.E. of the church.
b (3). Spain's Hall, house, outbuilding. millponds and moat, nearly 1 m. N.W. of the church. The House is of two storeys with attics; the walls are of brick and the roofs are tiled. It was built c. 1570 on an irregular T-shaped plan with the main or cross-wing at the S.W. end. Early in the 17th century the N.E. wing was widened towards the N.W., making the plan L-shaped. The original part of the N.E. wing was burnt down and rebuilt c. 1768, and there are modern additions on the N. and W. sides.
The house is an interesting example of Elizabethan brickwork, with carved woodwork on the gables of the N.W. elevation, and contemporary rain-water-heads of lead.
The S.W. Front (see Plate, p. 91) has a moulded plinth of brick; the storeys are divided by moulded string-courses, also of brick, continued round the S.E. end. There are seven original gables, two large and five small, all with curvilinear copings. The porch is carried up the full height of the house, and is finished with one of the smaller gables; the outer entrance has moulded and plastered jambs and a four-centred arch under a square head and label. The windows are of plastered brick with square heads, mullions and moulded labels; six of them are original, but the large window lighting the hall is modern. In the side walls of the porch there are two original windows, now blocked. Five rain-water pipes and heads are of 1637, the heads have the arms or initials of Robert and Elizabeth Kempe; the pipes have elaborate straps ornamented with leopards, cherubheads, etc.
The N.W. Elevation has a moulded plinth to the early 17th-century additions, and two projecting gables of plastered timber-framing; the bressumers and barge-boards are moulded and carved with guilloche and conventional ornament, and, at the apices are carved and moulded pendants. Three of the lower windows are original and similar to those on the S,W. front; under one gable is an oriel window, with moulded mullions and transom of oak, partly restored.
The N.E. Elevation of the main block has two small gables with moulded copings, and a larger gable at the end of the drawing-room wing. Two rain-water heads and pipes have the Kempe initials and arms, and are both dated 1637. At the N.E. end of the early 17th-century addition is an oriel window of the same date, similar to that on the N.W. elevation. Five original chimney-stacks have octagonal shafts and moulded bases; the original caps have been destroyed.
Interior—The Hall (37 ft. by 21½ ft.) has moulded wall-plates and ceiling-beams; the beams have carved soffits, and on two of them are carved and painted a shield of arms and a crest; the doorways from the porch and to the S. staircase are both original, and have double chamfered jambs and four-centred heads; the two doors, also original, are of richly moulded battens with iron handles; the fireplace is modern except the back, which is of original brickwork; round the walls is a dado of late 16th or early 17th-century panelling, re-used. The Drawingroom has original moulded ceiling-beams, and a fireplace with a richly panelled overmantel of c. 1640, flanked by Ionic pilasters; the walls are covered with panelling of the same date as the overmantel. The Library has original moulded ceiling-beams, one of them having foliated stops; the panelled overmantel with Ionic pilasters, and the panelling on the walls are of late 16th or early 17th-century date. The modern Kitchen has a dado of late 16th or early 17th-century panelling, re-used. In the Offices some modern partitions have old panelling, re-used, and there are two old panelled or battened doors. Under the S. staircase is a similar door. The early 17th-century S. Staircase has turned balusters, moulded handrails, and square newels with turned finials and acorn tops. On the first floor a room in the early 17th-century addition has chamfered ceilingbeams, and a fireplace with chamfered brick jambs and a four-centred arch; the richly carved and panelled overmantel and the panelling on the walls are both of early 17th-century date. There are several old doors of moulded battens, some with drop-handles; two of the doors have moulded frames planted on.
The Garden has some late 16th or early 17th-century walls of brick; one wall has a large brick coping.
The Moat, which formerly surrounded the house, has been obliterated, except on the N.W. side.
The Outbuilding, formerly a cottage, N. of the house, is of two storeys, timber-framed and plastered; the roof is tiled. It is probably of the 17th century, and has some old casement windows and original chimney-stacks. Inside the building are some original doors of moulded battens.
S.E. of the house were a succession of eight rectangular basins or ponds, formerly feeding a Mill; the existing lake represents two of these ponds and there are traces of most of the others.
Condition—Of house and outbuilding, good; of moat, poor.
a (4). Cornish Hall, farmhouse and moat, about 1¾ m. N. of the church. The House is of two storeys with attics; the walls are timberframed and covered with plaster; the roofs are tiled. It was built late in the 16th or early in the 17th century on a roughly rectangular plan, but c. 1700 a wing was added on the S., making the plan L-shaped, with the wings extending towards the E. and S. There is a small modern addition on the N. side. The gable at the W. end of the main block has original barge-boards, carved with guilloche pattern, now much worn. At the W. end of the N. or back elevation is a gable with plain original, barge-boards, and the back door is original, with mouldings planted on. The S. wing has a wooden eaves-cornice of c. 1700. The original central chimney-stack has four octagonal shafts with moulded bases, and a moulded capping to the stack. Inside the building, on the ground floor, two rooms have chamfered ceiling-beams, and there are several panelled or battened doors of c. 1600; one door has an ornamental hinge. On the first floor of the S. wing one room has deal panelling of c. 1700, with a moulded architrave and panelled overmantel to the fireplace. At the head of the staircase are four turned balusters. There are two panelled cupboards also on the first floor.
The Moat has been partly obliterated.
Condition—Of house, good.
a (5). Brockhold's Farm, house and moat, about 2¼ m. N.N.E. of the church. The House is of two storeys, timber-framed and plastered; the roofs are tiled. It was built probably early in the 17th century; at the S. end the upper storey projects.
The Moat is of irregular shape; a stream forms the N. arm.
Condition—Of house, poor, now unoccupied; of moat, fairly good.
b (6). Boyton Hall, farmhouse, malt-house and moat, 1½ m. E.N.E. of the church. The House is of two storeys with attics and cellar; the walls are timber-framed and plastered, and the roofs are tiled. It was built probably late in the 16th or early in the 17th century, on an L-shaped plan with the wings extending towards the W. and S. The N. front has, at the E. end, a gable with original barge-boards carved with guilloche ornament. The original chimney-stack has six octagonal shafts with moulded bases restored at the top. Inside the building the chamfered ceilingbeams and shaped wall-posts are exposed; the wide fireplaces are partly blocked. On the first floor is an original fireplace with stop-chamfered jambs and four-centred head. The early 17th-century staircase has moulded rails, turned newels and flat balusters with vertical mouldings.
The Malt-house, N. of the house, is timberframed and weather-boarded; the roof is thatched. It was built in the 17th century and is now used as a stable.
The Moat is of irregular form, the N. side has been filled in recently.
Condition—Of house, good.
b (7). Sculpin's Farm, house and moat, 1½ m. E.N.E. of the church. The house is of two storeys, timber-framed and plastered; the roofs are tiled. It was built in the 17th century, on an L-shaped plan with the wings extending towards the N.E. and N.W. The N.E. wing has been shortened. On the S.E. front is a small gable. The central chimney-stack is original. Inside the building is an old door of moulded battens.
The S.E. arm of the Moat has been destroyed.
Condition—Of house, good.
b (8). Petches, farmhouse and moat, 1 m. S.E. of the church. The House is of two storeys, timber-framed and plastered; the roofs are tiled. It was built probably early in the 16th century, and has a S.E. wing of later date. The N.E. and S.W. elevations have each two gables, and the original chimney-stack has two spirally fluted shafts. Inside the building, the Hall and a bedroom have panelling of c. 1600. The roof under the E. gable has a central purlin and king-post with two-way struts.
The Moat has been obliterated, except at the W. angle.
Condition—Of house, fairly good.
b (9). Outhouse at Nortofts, barn and moat, 1⅓ m. S.E. of the church. The Outhouse is now of two storeys with attics; the walls are of brick, and the roof is tiled. It was built late in the 16th century, possibly as a Banqueting House. At the E. and W. ends are curvilinear gables; the windows, many of which are now blocked, have brick jambs and mullions and moulded labels. On the N. side are three gabled dormer windows, all now blocked; the doorway is modern, but has an old door of nail-studded battens with a drop handle and old hinges; there is no trace of the original doorway. Inside the building, the staircase is of solid oak.
The Barn, W. of the house, is timber-framed and plastered; the roof is tiled. It is probably of late 16th-century date, and is of five bays with aisles.
The Moat has been obliterated, except on the E. side.
Condition—Of outhouse and barn, fairly good.
b (10). Great Winsey, farmhouse and moat, about 1 m. S.W. of the church. The House is of two storeys, timber-framed and plastered; the roofs are tiled. It was built early in the 17th century, on an L-shaped plan with the wings extending towards the E. and N. There are 18th-century additions on the E. and N. of the E. wing. On the N. front of the E. wing is a gable, and the original central chimney-stack has three shafts, set diagonally.
The N. side of the Moat has been destroyed.
Condition—Of house, fairly good.
b (11). Great Biggins, farmhouse and moat, 350 yards W.S.W. of the church. The House is of two storeys, timber-framed and plastered; the roofs are tiled. It was built probably early in the 17th century; the plan is L-shaped with wings extending towards the W. and N. The N. wing is possibly of later date than the other. The W. gable has original barge-boards with traces of carving. Inside the building some chamfered ceiling-beams are exposed.
The Moat can be traced, but only the N. arm is still wet.
Condition—Of house, good.
b (12). Brent Hall, nearly ¾ m. W.N.W. of the church, is of two storeys, partly timber-framed and plastered, and partly faced with 18th-century brick; the roofs are tiled. It was built probably early in the 17th century, on a T-shaped plan with the cross-wing at the S. end. There are 18th-century extensions on the E. and W. sides, and the S. front has been re-faced with brick. The central chimney-stack of the cross-wing has two original shafts, set diagonally on a stepped base. On the E. side of the N. wing is an original projecting chimney-stack with diagonal shafts and pilasters on a stepped base. Some of the windows have old casements. Inside the building, on the first floor, some original wall-posts and ceiling beams are exposed and there are some old battened doors.
The Garden-wall, W. of the house, is of 17th-century brick.
b (13). The Guildhall, now the Parish Hall and Almshouses, N.W. of the churchyard, is of two storeys, timber-framed and plastered; the roofs are tiled. It was built probably c. 1500, and consists of five tenements, with an open gateway to the churchyard; above the gateway is the parish hall. On both the N.W. and S.E. fronts the upper storey projects, and the windows have some old casements; on the N.W. front two windows have original moulded mullions. Some of the chimney-stacks are of old bricks. Under the gateway is a post, which has the head carved with the initials E.T. 84 (probably for 1584.) Inside the building the tenements have exposed ceiling-beams and joists, and the roof of the parish hall has a king-post truss with two-way struts and curved braces to the tie-beam.
The following monuments (see Plate, p. 95), unless otherwise described, are all of the 17th century, and of two storeys, timber-framed and plastered; the roofs are tiled or thatched. Many of the buildings have original chimney-stacks, wide fireplaces and exposed ceiling-beams.
Condition—Good, or fairly good, unless noted.
b (14). The Red Lion Inn, on the N. side of the road, opposite (13), was built, probably early in the 16th century, on an L-shaped plan with the wings extending towards the E. and N. In the 18th century another wing was added on the E., making the plan half-H shaped. The front and back of the main block have been re-faced with modern brick. Inside the building, the ground floor has moulded ceiling-beams, on the first floor are two original fireplaces with stop-chamfered jambs and four-centred heads; one of them has been blocked, and above both are traces of fleur-delis decoration, now covered with wall-paper.
b (15). House, 50 yards E. of (14), with a small cross-wing at the W. end.
b (16). The Two Gables, formerly 'Cabbaches,' 80 yards S.E. of the church. The house was built probably in the 15th century, and is of the mediæval type with a Hall in the middle, a Buttery and a Solar at the W. and E. ends respectively. In the 16th century the Hall was divided into two storeys, and a chimney stack inserted at the N. end. A S.E. wing added at some uncertain date makes the existing plan L-shaped. On the W. front the upper storey formerly projected at each end, but has been under-built; both front and back back elevations have a gable at each end. The 16th-century central chimney-stack has three octagonal shafts on a moulded base.
Interior—The former Hall has slight traces of colouring on the W. wall-plate, and a moulded bracket; the walls are partly lined with 17th-century panelling. In the N. room is a brick fireplace which has moulded jambs and four-centred head with an oak lintel above it; in the ceiling is a large beam with a curved brace. On the first floor, the room over the Hall has a cupboard with a panelled 17th-century door. The S. end of the house has an original roof with king-post, central purlin and remains of four-way struts. In the outhouse at the back is an old door, of moulded battens.
b (17). Parsonage Farm, house and barn, 150 yards S. of the church. The House is of half H-shaped plan with the wings projecting towards the S. It was built c. 1600. At the E. end of the N. front is a gable with original barge-boards carved with grotesque beasts. Inside the building are five original doors of richly moulded battens. The original staircase has moulded rails and square newels with turned finials.
The Barn, N. of the house, is probably of late 16th or early 17th-century date. The walls are weather-boarded.
The Green, S. side
b (18). House and shop, 200 yards W.S.W. of the church, was built probably early in the 17th century; a wing was added at the back late in the same or early in the following century. The central chimney-stack has grouped shafts, with original bases.
b (19). The Old Poor House, S.W. of (18), was built probably late in the 16th century. The N. front has two gables, and some old casement windows remain. The original central chimney-stack has four octagonal shafts with moulded bases. Inside the building, on the ground floor one room is lined with 17th-century panelling. On the first floor there are two old doors of moulded battens.
b (20). House and shop, S.W. of (19), with a modern extension at the E. end.
b (21). Hill House, 60 yards W. of (20), is of two storeys with attics. It was built in the 16th century, and has modern additions on the S. and W. The front and back elevations have each four gables. Inside the building, the S. room has original moulded wall-plates and joists.
b (22). House, now two tenements, 100 yards N.N.W. of (21). At the E. end of the S. front is a gable, and the upper storey projects beneath it. There is also a gable at the E. end of the back elevation. Inside the building some shaped wallposts are exposed, and there is one original door of moulded battens.
b (23). House, E. of (22), is of two storeys with attics. It was built probably late in the 16th century, and has several modern additions. The original central chimney-stack has four octagonal shafts.
b (24). The Fox Inn, E. of (23). It has modern additions at the back, making the plan half H-shaped. The original central chimney-stack has grouped shafts.
b (25). House, 80 yards E.N.E. of (24), is of three storeys and has an addition of later date at the back, making the plan L-shaped, with the wings extending towards the S. and W. The E. front has two gables with original barge-boards carved with different forms of guilloche ornament. At each end of the house the gables have also carved barge-boards. The original central chimney-stack has diagonal shafts and pilasters. Inside the building are two doors of moulded battens.
b (26). Street Farm, house and barn, N. of (25). The House was built, probably early in the 16th century, on a plain rectangular plan. In the 17th century an addition was made on the S.W. and a brew-house built on the N.E., making the plan of modified Z-shape. The original central chimney-stack has four grouped shafts. Inside the building one room has an original moulded ceiling-beam. The roof of the main block is original and has a chamfered king-post, two-way struts and a central purlin.
The Barn, N. of the house, is of five bays; the walls are weather-boarded.
b (27). Cottage, 50 yards S.S.E. of (26).
b (28). Cottage and shop, S. of (27).
b (29). House, five tenements, on N.W. side of road, 200 yards N.N.W. of the church. Some old casement windows remain.
b (30). Cottage and shop, on S.E. side of road, 130 yards N.E. of (29).
b (31). Cottage, two tenements, on W. side of road, ½ m. N.N.W. of the church. Some old casement windows remain.
b (32). Cottage, now two tenements, on E. side of road, 100 yards N.E. of (31). There are some old casement windows, and the original central chimney-stack has two grouped shafts.
b (33). Dairy Farm, house and barn, nearly 1 m. S.E. of the church. The House is of L-shaped plan with the wings extending towards the N.W. and N.E.; the N.E. wing is probably of later date than the other. There is a gable at the E. end of the S.W. front and in the N.E. wing there are some old iron casements.
The Barn, S.W. of the house, is partly weather-boarded.
a (34). Tinker's Green Farm, house, 2½ m. N.N.W. of the church, is of two storeys with attics, and has a modern addition at the W. end.
a (35). Rivett's Farm, house, about 2 m. N.N.E. of the church, was built late in the 16th or early in the 17th century, and was apparently part of a larger building. An original chimney-stack on the W. side has two octagonal shafts with moulded bases and modern tops. Inside the building, on the ground floor, the S. room has original moulded ceiling-beams resting on moulded posts. The newel staircase on the E. side of the house is original, and has a moulded rail and turned balusters at the stair-head. There are four old ledged doors. On the first floor is some re-used panelling with part of a fluted frieze.
a (36). Whitehouse Farm, house, about 2¼ m. N. of the church, is of L-shaped plan with the wings extending towards the E. and N. The S. front has remains of two original plaster panels with foliated ornament. The original central chimney-stack has diagonal pilasters.
b (37). Sharpe's Cottages, a range of four tenements, about 2 m. N. of the church. Some of the doors are original, and have moulded and ledged battens. The second chimney-stack from the S. end has diagonal pilasters. Inside the building the second tenement contains an original ledged door with moulded battens. The third tenement has moulded ceiling-beams.
b (38). Hobtoe's Farm, house and barn, about 1½ m. N. of the church. The House contains some old doors of moulded battens.
The Barn, near the house, has weather-boarded walls and is of six bays.
b (39). Mill Farm, house, nearly 2 m. N.E. of the church, has an original chimney-stack with diagonal pilasters.
b (40). Elm's Farm, house and barn, 2 m. N.E. of the church. The House has modern additions on the N. and S. sides.
The Barn, N.W. of the house, has weather-boarded walls.
b (41). Pigeon-house, at Oldborne's Farm, about 1 m. N.E. of the church, is built of brick and has a timber lantern in the middle. The nests have been removed, and the building is now used as a stable. The walls have a moulded plinth and string-course, and the three windows are each of two lights with moulded jambs, mullions and labels.
b (42). Cottage, in Howe Street, about 1 m. N.E. of the church.
b (43). Tile-kilns, farmhouse, 1 m. E.S.E. of the church, was originally of L-shaped plan with the wings extending towards the S. and W. In the 18th century a wing was added on the E. side, making the plan T-shaped.
b (44). Cotton's Farm, house and barn, about 1½ m. E. of the church. The House has a brewhouse at the W. end.
The Barn, E. of the house, has a projecting bay.
b (45). Cottage, at Scott's End, about 1½ m. E.S.E. of the church.
c (46). Ashwell Hall, farmhouse and barn, 2 m. S.E. of the church. The House is of half H-shaped plan with the wings extending towards the N. The S. front has at each end a slightly projecting gabled wing.
The Barn, S.E. of the house, has a projecting bay on the W. side.
c (47). Hawkins Harvest, farmhouse, nearly 1¾ m. S.E. of the church; it has an 18th-century addition on the S.E. side. The original central chimney-stack has diagonal pilasters.
c (48). Cottage, 280 yards N.N.W. of (47).
c (49). Cross Farm, house and barn, 1½ m. S.S.E. of the church. The House is of two storeys with attics, and is of L-shaped plan with the wings extending towards the N.E. and N.W. The original central chimney-stack has grouped diagonal shafts.
The Barn, near the house, is of five bays with one aisle.
c (50). Cottage, N. of (49), with an early 18th-century brewhouse at the W. end.
b (51). Daw Street, house, 1 m. S.S.W. of the church, was built late in the 16th or early in the 17th century on an L-shaped plan, with the wings extending towards the S. and E. There are modern additions on the E. and W. The E. front has two gables, one with original carved barge-boards. Above the doorway of the porch is a strip of original plaster-work. The two original chimney-stacks both have diagonal pilasters.
b (52). Cottage, at Little Winsey Farm, nearly ¾ m. S.W. of the church.