Theydon Garnon

Pages 231-233

An Inventory of the Historical Monuments in Essex, Volume 2, Central and South west. Originally published by His Majesty's Stationery Office, London, 1921.

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In this section


(O.S. 6 in. (a)lviii. N.W. (b)lviii. S.W. (c)lviii. N.E.)

Theydon Garnon parish adjoins Epping on the S. The Church is noteworthy.


a(1). Parish Church of All Saints stands on the S. side of the parish. The walls of the chancel and nave are of flint-rubble, the W. tower, N. aisle and N. porch are of brick, and the N. arcade is of timber; the roofs are tiled. The Chancel was built probably in the 13th century. The Nave is of uncertain date, but as the details are all of the 15th century, it may have been re-built at that time. The West Tower was added c. 1520. The N. arcade was built and the North Aisle and North Porch added c. 1644. The South Porch was added in the 18th century and the church was repaired in the 19th century, when the North Vestry and Organ Chamber were added.

The church is of special interest, from its dated tower of 1520 and its dated N. aisle of 1644, with the contemporary timber arcade.

Architectural Description—The Chancel (33 ft. by 20 ft.) has an early 15th-century E. window of four cinque-foiled lights with vertical tracery, in a two-centred head with moulded jambs and labels; the mullions are partly restored. In the N. wall is a 17th-century window of two pointed lights on a segmental-pointed head with a classic moulding as a label; further W. is a modern doorway and arch. In the S. wall are two windows, the eastern is a 13th-century lancet window, restored in plaster and blocked internally; the western window is uniform with the window in the N. wall; between the windows is a late 15th-century doorway with moulded jambs and four-centred arch in a square head with quatre-foiled spandrels, nearly all repaired in plaster. There is no structural division between the chancel and nave.

The Nave (51 ft. by 20 ft.) has a N. arcade of c. 1644, and of five bays, (Plate p. 231). with octagonal oak columns and semi-octagonal oak responds, all with stop-chamfered bases and moulded capitals; the oak arches are roughly three-centred to the eastern bays and semi-circular to the western bays, and have a horizontal moulded fascia above them, mitred down in the middle of each arch to form a key-block. In the S. wall are two windows, the eastern is of the 15th century and of three cinque-foiled lights in a segmental-pointed head with a moulded label and shield stops of the arms of Gernon, three piles wavy; the western window is modern; between the windows is the 15th-century S. doorway with moulded jambs and two-centred arch under a square moulded label with traceried spandrels.

The North Aisle (48 ft. by 16 ft.) is of c. 1644, and entirely of red brick with a moulded plinth and a corbel-table under the eaves with small brackets. In the E. wall is a modern window, now blocked, and on the E. gable externally is a sunk panel with the date 1644 in large figures. In the N. wall are three modern windows; between the two western windows is the N. doorway of c. 1644, with a modern semi-circular head and a moulded oak frame, with base-stops ornamented with fleurs-de lis. In the W. wall is a modern lancet window.

The West Tower (13 ft. square) is of red brick and of three stages, with an embattled parapet; on the S. wall externally is a stone panel inscribed in black letter ". . . . . Syr John Crosbe Knyght late alderma and grosar of London and . . . . . . of dame Anne and Annes his wyfis of whos gudys was gevyn Lli toward the makyng of thys stepyll . . . . . ano dm 1520 "; prayers for their souls have been chiselled out, and above are two shields, of the arms of Crosby—a cheveron ermine between three rams, and of the Grocers' Company. The tower-arch has plain chamfered responds and a four-centred arch of four chamfered orders. In the N.E. angle of the tower is a doorway with a four-centred head, to the turret staircase which has treads and newel of brick. The W. window is of three pointed lights under an elliptical head with a moulded label, jambs and mullions, all probably of the 17th century; the W. doorway is of the 18th century. The second stage has in the N. and S. walls a single light window with a four-centred head. The bell-chamber has in each wall a window of two round-headed lights, partly restored under a four-centred head.

Theydon Garnon, The Parish Church of All Saints

The North Porch is of c. 1644, restored in the 18th century, it is of red brick with plinth and corbel-table, similar to those of the N. aisle. The outer archway has chamfered jambs and elliptical arch and is flanked by plain pilasters with moulded bases; the projection of the pilasters is probably returned square over the archway, but is entirely concealed by ivy. In each side wall are two modern windows.

The Roof of the nave is probably of the 15th century, perhaps re-set in the 17th century, when the arcade was built; it has six cased tie-beams, rebated king-posts and four-way struts; four tiebemas have curved and cased braces; the plates are moulded and on the N. side have an added fascia of the 17th century.

Fittings—Bells: five; 1st to 4th by Miles Graye, 1628. Brass and Indent. Brass: In chancel —on N. wall, of [William Kirkeby, rector, 1458,] figure of priest in cope, with shield of arms, six lions and a quarter charged with a pierced molet; inscription modern; see also Monuments (4–5). Indent: see Monument (6). Chairs: three, in chancel and vestry with carved backs, rails and arms, c. 1700. Chest: In vestry—of oak with iron straps, ornamental patterns of nail-heads, three locks and brass plate with inscription recording gift by Sir John Archer, 1668, and shield of arms. Communion Rails: with moulded rail, panelled posts and twisted balusters, c. 1700. Doors: In tower—in doorway to stair-turret, of oak battens with strap-hinges, 16th-century; in W. doorway of moulded oak battens with four-centred head, 16th-century. Funeral Helm: In chancel—on N. wall, 16th-century. Inscription: see Architectural Description under W. Tower. Monuments and Floor-slabs. Monuments: In chancel—on E. wall (1), to Sir John Archer, Justice of the Common Pleas, 1681, white marble tablet with Corinthian side columns, broken voluted pediment, urn and shield of arms; (2) to Lady Anne (Sidney), widow of Sir William Fitzwilliam, 1602, tablet in a frame with Ionic side columns and four shields and a lozenge of arms; (3) to Dr. James Meggs, rector, 1672, white marble tablet with carved fruit and foliage at sides. Against N. wall (4), grey marble altar-tomb set in wall, front with two lozenge-shaped panels with cusping and blank shields, formerly with brasses, and three cinquefoil-headed panels, canopy resting on small side shafts with moulded capitals and bases, flat arch with panelled soffit and blank shield as a key, and a frieze of quatre-foiled panels; at back of recess, brass kneeling figures of man in armour and wife with two sons and three daughters, indents of two inscription plates, two shields, a Trinity and another group, c. 1520; (5) to Ellen (Hamden), wife of John Branch, 1567, small grey marble tablet with ogee arched head, brass kneeling figure of lady, text, shield of arms and inscription. Against S. wall (6), altar-tomb set in wall with cinque-foiled panels in side of recess, flat arched canopy resting on twisted shafts, with moulded capitals and bases; at back of recess, indents of kneeling figure of woman, scroll, inscription plate, two shields, Trinity and another group, c. 1530; (7) to Denton Nicholas, M.D., 1714, white marble tablet with cherubs, etc.; (8) to Sir Daniel Dun, 1617, and Joan, his wife, 1640, black and white marble tablet with side columns and three shields of arms. Floor-slabs: In chancel—(1) to Sir John Archer, 1681; see Monument (1); (2) to Margaret, wife of James Meggs, S.T.P., 1681, with shield of arms; (3) to Dr. James Meggs, rector, 1672, see Monument (3); (4) to Richard Butler, 1688 with shield of arms; (5) to Henry and Thomas Meggs, 1670. In nave— (6) to Jane, widow of John Wormlayton, 1725, and Jane, 1705, and Anne, 1712, their daughters. Niche: In N. aisle—in W. wall, with pointed head, perhaps for lamp, date uncertain. Panelling: In nave—on S. wall, with moulded rails, 16th century. In tower—c. 1700. Plate: includes cup of 1562. with bands of running ornament; cover-paten, 17th-century; two flagons of 1650, given 1671, and a plate and stand-paten, both probably of 1701. Seating: In nave—ten benches and two fronts, with moulded rails and panelled ends, 16th-century (since removed). Sounding Board: above pulpit, hexagonal with inlaid soffit and enriched cornice, c. 1700.

Condition—Very bad, cracks and settlements in every part of building, buttresses parted from walls and aisle walls parted from nave, heavy growth of ivy on W. tower and elsewhere.


Homestead Moats.

a(2). At Garnish Hall, about 300 yards N. of the church.

c(3). S. of Peaks Farm and nearly 1 m. E.N.E. of the church.

Monuments (4–10).

The following monuments, unless otherwise described, are of two storeys, timber-framed and plastered or weather-boarded; the roofs are tiled. Some of the buildings have original chimney-stacks, exposed ceiling-beams and wide fireplaces.

Condition—Good or fairly good, unless noted.

a(4). Priests House, cottage, W. of the church, was built late in the 15th or early in the 16th century. The upper storey projects on the E. front with exposed joists and curved brackets. Inside the building one doorway has an original four-centred head.

Condition— Ruinous.

a(5). Fitzwilliam Almshouses, cottage, ¼ m. S.E. of the church. The walls are of brick. It was built probably when the charity was founded in 1602.

a(6). Gardners, house, ¾ m. N.W. of the church, is of two storeys with attics. It was built probably in the 15th century. The roof was raised in the 16th century and there are modern additions on the N. side. Inside the building there is an original window of three lights, now blocked, and with moulded mullions of oak. There is some 16th-century panelling in two rooms, and the 17th-century staircase has moulded hand-rails and turned balusters. In the roof are remains of an original king-post truss with a 16th-century queen-post roof superimposed.

a(7). Bridge Farm, house, about 1 m. N. of the church, was built on an L-shaped plan with the wings extending towards the N. and E., probably in the 16th-century. The upper storey projects on the W. front.

b(8). Hill Farm, house, 1 m. S. of the church, was built probably in the 16th century with gabled cross-wings on the N. and S. On the W. front the upper storey of the cross-wing projects and the gables have dentilled barge-boards. The central chimney-stack has four attached diagonal shafts.

b(9). Jackson's Farm, house, now two tenements, 300 yards S.E. of (8), was built in the 17th century and has been partly refaced with modern brick. The original chimney-stack is cross-shaped on plan.

c(10). Peaks Farm, house, about 1 m. E.N.E. of the church. The N. wing was built probably in the 16th century, and has a projecting upper storey with curved brackets. The main block was re-built in the 18th century.