An Inventory of the Historical Monuments in Essex, Volume 4, South east. Originally published by His Majesty's Stationery Office, London, 1923.
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ROYAL COMMISSION ON THE ANCIENT AND HISTORICAL MONUMENTS AND CONSTRUCTIONS OF ENGLAND.
REPORT TO THE KING'S MOST EXCELLENT MAJESTY.
1. May it please Your Majesty.
We, the undersigned Commissioners, appointed to make an Inventory of the Ancient and Historical Monuments and Constructions connected with or illustrative of the contemporary culture, civilization and conditions of life of the people in England, excluding Monmouthshire, from the earliest times to the year 1714, and to specify those which seem most worthy of preservation, humbly submit to Your Majesty the following Report on the Monuments in the S.E. Division of the County of Essex, being the 7th Interim Report on the work of the Commission since its appointment.
2. We tender to Your Majesty our respectful thanks for the gracious message which accompanied Your Majesty's acceptance of our Inventory of the Monuments in N.E. Essex.
3. It is with great regret that we place on record the sudden death of our Chairman, the Earl of Plymouth, Privy Councillor, Knight Grand Cross of the most excellent Order of the British Empire, Companion of the most honourable Order of the Bath, Lord Lieutenant of the County of Glamorgan, a Deputy Lieutenant of Worcestershire and of Shropshire, Sub-Prior of the Order of St. John of Jerusalem in England and a Trustee of the National Gallery, for whose wise direction and leadership the Commission since the death of our former Chairman, Lord Burghclere, owes a deep debt of gratitude.
We have also to record the severe loss suffered by the Commission through the death of Mr. R. P. L. Booker, M.A., F.S.A., who freely gave expert assistance to the Commission on all questions concerning Roman Monuments, and was primarily responsible for the Sections in Volume III (N.E. Essex) dealing with the important Roman remains in Colchester and its vicinity.
4. We have pleasure in reporting the completion of our enquiries into S.E. Essex, an area containing 658 monuments in 104 parishes, with an average of 6.3 monuments per parish. This Report is the fourth and concluding Report on the monuments of the county, and it is interesting to note that for the whole county the total number of monuments described in our illustrated Inventories amounts to 5,596 in 399 parishes, being an average of 15.5 per parish, which compares with averages of 24 monuments per parish in N.W. Essex (Volume I), 14–5 monuments in Central and S.W. Essex (Volume II), and 13 monuments per parish in N.E. Essex (Volume III).
5. Following our usual practice, we have prepared an illustrated volume containing the full Inventory of the monuments in the S.E. area of the county which, under the advice of the Lords Commissioners of Your Majesty's Treasury, will be issued as a separate Stationery Office publication.
6. No alteration has been found to be necessary in the order and method of describing the monuments scheduled. But, in view of the fact that Essex, Volume IV, is the concluding volume of a series which covers a most varied and interesting part of the country, we have added to the usual Sectional Preface dealing with S.E. Essex alone, a general review of the preceding volumes, with a statement calling attention to those monuments in the county, whether churches and their fittings, domestic monuments, Roman remains, or earthworks, that appear to be especially noteworthy.
We have also added a section in explanation of the types of monuments that are characteristic of the dates to which they have been assigned.
7. We desire to draw attention to the fact that our colleague, Mr. Page, is responsible for that part of the General Review which deals with Saxon and Danish times, while Mr. R. E. Mortimer Wheeler, M.C., D.Lit., F.S.A., is responsible for the sections dealing with Roman Essex, and Mr. A. W. Clapham, F.S.A., for the comparative review of the Mediaeval monuments and the description of the types of houses that are characteristic of the periods to which they belong.
The illustrations, which have throughout been selected for their educational as well as for their artistic value, are principally the work of one of our Senior Investigators, Mr. J. W. Bloe, F.S.A. We desire to congratulate him on the skill with which the difficulties inherent in taking photographs in places which are ill-lighted and from angles that demand almost acrobatic feats on the part of the photographer have been overcome, as well as for the skill in the selection of monuments for the comparative groups which are a feature of the Essex Inventories.
9. The index to this volume has again been the subject of special attention, and has been combined with the indices of previous volumes in such a way that in itself it forms a complete reference index to the monuments of the county. In view of the great accuracy required and the arduous nature of the work, we desire to express our special acknowledgments to Miss M. G. Saunders, a member of our executive staff, who has been primarily responsible for its compilation.
10. As in the previous volumes, the descriptions of monuments have been referred for revision to the incumbents of each parish, to special representatives of the Essex Archaeological Society, and to the principal owners of domestic buildings, and we are satisfied that no important monument dating from the earliest times to the year 1714 has been omitted. We have also inserted in this volume certain corrections and additions that have come to light as we passed from one part of the county to another.
11. Our special thanks are due to the Rev. Canon F. W. Galpin, M.A., President of the Essex Archaeological Society, to Mr. H. W. Lewer, F.S.A., to the Rev. G. Montagu Benton, M.A., F.S.A., to Mr. C. F. D. Sperling and to the Rev. W. J. Pressey, M.A., for the time and trouble that they have devoted to checking the records of Church Plate and fittings contained in the four Essex volumes.
12. We humbly recommend to Your Majesty's notice the following monuments in S.E. Essex as "especially worthy of preservation":—
EARTHWORKS AND ROMAN
(2) Camp; a plateau camp with a mound on the line of the rampart.
(1) Fort, probably Othona; remains of a Roman fort of the " Saxon Shore " type.
Condition'—Poor, partly destroyed by the sea.
(10) Camp; a hill-top camp with a mound within the defences.
(13) Camp; a plateau camp with a mound on the line of the rampart.
(2) Castle; a mount and bailey castle, with strong defences.
84. SOUTH SHOEBURY.
(4) Camp; remains of a fortified enclosure, probably that thrown up by the Danish leader Hasten c. 894.
Condition—Poor, partly destroyed by the sea.
101. WEST TILBURY.
(8) Earthwork; remains of works, perhaps of three periods.
(3) Chapel of St. Peter-on-the-Wall; almost certainly the church built by Bishop Cedd in c. 654 at Ithancester.
(1) Parish Church; possibly dating from before the Conquest, with a good late 11th-century West Tower.
(1) Parish Church; dating from the 13th century or earlier, with three oak effigies.
26. EAST TILBURY.
(2) Parish Church; dating from the 12th century; damaged by the Dutch fleet in 1667.
Condition—Good, some of the external stonework much decayed.
(1) Parish Church; dating from the 12th century, with fine iron-work on door and 12th-century font.
Condition—Fairly good, but roofs defective.
31. GREAT BADDOW.
(1) Parish Church; dating from the 13th century, with good early 16th century brickwork.
33. GREAT STAMBRIDGE.
(1) Parish Church; dating probably from before the Conquest.
Condition—Good, much ivy on tower.
34. GREAT WAKERING.
(2) Parish Church; dating from c. 1100, with curious two-storeyed W. porch.
Condition—Fairly good, some stonework much decayed.
(1) Parish Church; dating from the 12th century, with apsidal E. end and remains of paintings.
(1) Parish Church; dating from the 13th century, with a good 15th-century W. tower and some interesting brasses and monuments.
Condition—Structurally good, some of the stonework perished.
53. LITTLE WAKERING.
(1) Parish Church; dating from the 12th century and with a good W. tower of c. 1425.
(1) Parish Church; dating from the 12th and 13th centuries, with remarkable timber-work to the bell-turret.
Condition—Good, largely re-built.
62. NORTH OCKENDON.
(1) Parish Church; dating from the 12th century, with good monuments and glass.
(1) Parish Church; dating from the 12th century, with good detail, monument and pulpit.
(1) Parish Church; dating from the 12th century, with a good 15th-century W. tower.
(1) Parish Church; dating from the second half of the 12th century, with good detail.
(1) Parish Church; dating from late in the 12th century, with good carved bench-ends and enriched 12th-century slab.
(1) Parish Church; dating from the 12th century, and with good early 16th-century brickwork; the piscina, communion table and pulpit are also of interest.
80. SOUTH BENFLEET.
(1) Parish Church; dating from the 12th century, with a very rich 15th-century roof to the S. porch.
Condition—Poor (recently repaired).
83. SOUTH OCKENDON.
(1) Parish Church; dating from the 12th century, with rich detail, a round tower and good brass.
(1) Parish Church; dating from the 14th century or earlier, with a fine timber belfry of the 15th century.
Condition—Good, much restored.
100. WEST THURROCK.
Parish Church; dating from the 12th century, with foundations of former round nave.
103. WOODHAM FERRERS.
(2) Bicknacre Priory; one 13th-century arch of the crossing of the Priory Church.
(6) Belhus; a fairly large early 16th-century brick house with a courtyard, subsequently much altered and enlarged.
31. GREAT BADDOW.
(3) Great Sir Hughes; part of a larger early 17th-century house with a richly ornamented loggia.
(2) Castle; re-built in the 14th century, with extensive ruins of the curtain and other towers.
Condition—Ruinous, and in part dangerous.
(3) Nelmes; house dating from late in the 17th century, with very handsome carved staircase.
50. LITTLE BURSTEAD.
(4) Hatches Farm; a late 16th-century house with very good early 16th-century carved panelling.
54. LITTLE WARLEY.
(2) Hall; a 16th-century brick house with a good chimney-stack and staircase.
Condition—Good, except W. wall.
(2) Priory; dating from late in the 12th century, remains of a Cluniac Priory.
(3) Porters; a complete 16th-century house of brick.
(2) Hall; remains, partly ruined, of a very large 16th-century house of brick and rubble.
Condition—Poor, partly ruinous.
(2) Fleming's Farm; a fragment of a brick house of c. 1600.
(2) Ford Place; a 17th-century house with rich plaster ceilings.
98. WEST HANNINGFIELD.
(2) Meeting House; a much-restored house with extensive 17th-century painted decoration on plaster.
101. WEST TILBURY.
(3) Tilbury Fort; a late 17th-century stone gatehouse.
Condition—Good, but unequal settlement may cause trouble.
13. We offer our grateful thanks to the Rev. E. E. Dorling, V.P.S.A., for revision of the descriptions of Heraldry; to Mr. Oswald Barron, F.S.A., for revision of the descriptions of Costumes and spelling of names; to Mr. Mill Stephenson, F.S.A., for revision of descriptions of Brasses; to Mr. J. Murray Kendall, M.B.E., F.S.A., for revision of the descriptions of Armour; to Mr. R. E. Mortimer Wheeler, M.C., D.Lit., F.S.A., for revision of descriptions of Roman Remains; to Mr. Albany Major, O.B.E., F.S.A., Secretary to the Committee on Ancient Earthworks and Fortified Enclosures, for revision of the accounts of Earthworks; and to Mr. F. S. Eden for his descriptions and illustrations of the Ancient Glass in the county.
14. We desire again to call attention to the assistance given to our work by the Secretary (The Rev. T. H. Curling, M.A.) and members of the Essex Archaeological Society. We have also to thank the Bishop of Chelmsford for his letter of introduction to the clergy in his diocese, and the clergy who have freely opened their churches for investigation; and we have pleasure in acknowledging the hospitality extended to our staff by the clergy and owners of houses in the county.
15. We desire to express our acknowledgment of the good work accomplished by our Executive Staff in the persons of Mr. A. W. Clapham, F.S.A., Mr. J. W. Bloe, F.S.A., Mr. E. A. R. Rahbula, F.S.A., Mr. W. Byde Liebert, Mr. G. E. Chambers, F.S.A., Mr. M. L. Logan, Mr. P. K. Kipps and Miss M. G. Saunders; also by Miss M. V. Taylor, M.A., who has investigated the Roman Remains of this portion of the County of Essex.
16. We regret exceedingly that owing to loss of staff and its continued non-replacement owing to Treasury ruling, and, a fortiori, to the refusal to entertain any immediate prospect of its extension, it has not been possible to go forward with the pre-war intention of the Commission to train and place senior investigators in charge of separate counties or divisions of counties with competent staffs under them to report the results of their enquiries to a central office in London for final editing and publication; and, in addition, that it has been found necessary, in order still further to restrict expenditure on travel and subsistence, to postpone our proposed survey of Lincolnshire and confine our investigations in the immediate future to the counties of London and Middlesex.
17. The succeeding Inventories of the Commission will therefore deal in three volumes with the County of London, including the Cities of London and Westminster and the County of Middlesex.
18. In conclusion we desire to add that our Secretary, Mr. George H. Duckworth, C.B., F.S.A., has continued to afford invaluable and unremitting assistance to us, your Commissioners.
All of which we submit with our humble duty to Your Majesty.
CRAWFORD & BALCARRES (Chairman).
HENRY H. HOWORTH.
J. F. F. HORNER.
J. G. N. CLIFT.
E. J. HORNIMAN.
C. HERCULES READ.
M. R. JAMES.
D. H. MONTGOMERIE.
C. R. PEERS.
GEORGE H. DUCKWORTH,
21st March 1923. Secretary.