An Inventory of the Historical Monuments in Herefordshire, Volume 1, South west. Originally published by His Majesty's Stationery Office, London, 1931.
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AN INVENTORY OF THE ANCIENT AND HISTORICAL MONUMENTS IN SOUTH-WEST HEREFORDSHIRE ACCREDITED TO A DATE BEFORE 1714 Arranged by Parishes
(Unless otherwise stated, the dimensions given in the Inventory are internal. Monuments with titles printed in italics are covered by an introductory sentence to which reference should be made. The key-plans of those churches which are not illustrated by hatched plans are drawn to a uniform scale of 48 ft. to the inch, with the monumental portions shown in solid black.)
1 ABBEY DORE (B.c.)
(O.S. 6 in. (a)XXXVIII, S.E., (b)XXXVIII, S.W., (c)XLIV, N.E., (d)XLIV, N.W., (e)XXXIX, S.W.)
Abbey Dore is a large parish 10 m. S.W. of Hereford. The principal monuments are the Abbey and Grange Farm.
c(1). In the station yard in 1908 the surface of the Roman main road from Kenchester to Abergavenny was exposed for a length of about 30 ft. It was 12 ft. 9 in. wide, and consisted of "unworked nodular limestone hand-pitched on the virgin soil (a hard red marl). There was no sign of a concrete bed or any cementing material between the stones, which were of all sizes, varying from 3 to 12 in. in their longest diameter. The road was not kerbed. . . . The tracks made by the wheels of the vehicles (4 ft. 6 in. gauge) were not in the centre of the road but well to one side" (Woolhope Club Trans., 1908–1911, 70; Arch. Camb., ix, 1909).
c(2). Parish Church of St. Mary, formerly Dore Abbey (Plate 73), stands near the right bank of the river Dore and on the S. border of the parish. The walls generally are of local sandstone; the dressings are of the same material and of hard grey and gritty limestone; the roofs are covered with stone slates and lead. An Abbey of Cistercian monks, from Morimond, was founded here by Robert Fitz Harold of Ewyas, a grandson of William I, about 1147, but none of the worked stones extant appears to be of that date, so that it may be assumed that the first church to be erected was of a temporary character and that most of the walls as they appear to-day are the results of later rebuildings and enlargements. The building of the abbey appears to have been practically continuous from the middle of the 12th century until about 1200 to 1210, and there is but little difference in the mouldings and carvings, but the work may be divided approximately into two or three periods. The first rebuilding was begun about 1180 and included the Presbytery, probably of two bays, the Crossing, North and South Transepts, each of two bays with two small chapels to the E. of each transept, and the building of at least two bays of the Nave and North and South Aisles was begun. The presbytery possibly belonged to the earliest period and was left untouched while the transepts, chapels, etc., were being added or remodelled, but this rebuilding apparently was not quite continuous, the S. transept being possibly a little later in date than the N. transept, the vaulting to the former not being finished until the 13th century. At the end of the 12th and beginning of the 13th century, the presbytery was extended one bay farther eastward, the N. and S. walls of the former E. bay were almost entirely re-built, and the Aisles or Ambulatory were added. The aisles were built from W. to E., and apparently when completed were connected to the former inner chapels of the transepts by the insertion of arches in the original E. walls of the chapels; at the same time arches were inserted in the N. and S. walls of the westernmost bay of the presbytery, and the opening made between the two S. chapels. From the details of many carved stones now lying loose in the church it is evident that the work went on well into the 13th century, the latest part of it being the main vaulting which was subsequently destroyed. In 1260, Peter Aquablanca, Bishop of Hereford, granted an indulgence (Journ. of Brit. Archæological Assoc., XLI, 367) to those who contributed to the completion of the church, and during the episcopacy of Thomas Cantilupe (or Cantelow) (1275– 82) a consecration (Acta Sanct., Oct. 1,566) took place. The abbey was suppressed in 1536, and the site and buildings granted to John Scudamore (Mon. Angl., V, 553); in 1633 his descendant John, Viscount Scudamore restored the eastern arm and transepts for use as a parish church. The main vaulting by the 17th century had probably fallen or become too unsafe to be retained and was replaced by Lord Scudamore with the present wood roofs and ceilings. The roofs above the vaulting of the ambulatory were altered at the same time. The walls originally had a series of gables above the windows standing up above the eaves-cornice, the upper halves of these gables were cut off and the walls between them were heightened and the wall finished with a continuous eaves. Lord Scudamore also erected the present Tower above the westernmost bay of the S. aisle of the presbytery and filled in the W. arches of the crossing and transepts, in both cases re-using material gathered from the destroyed parts of the abbey. The building was reconsecrated on Palm Sunday, March 30th, 1634. From 1895 to 1904, a restoration of the church was carried out under the direction of Mr. Roland W. Paul, who at the same time excavated the site and discovered the complete plan of the church, the site of the Chapter House and other claustral buildings which lay to the N. of the church. Most of the work then excavated was covered up again.
The church is an interesting example, not only of its period, but as a conventual church of the Cistercian Order. Among the fittings, the ironwork on the N. doorway, the effigies, tiles, pulpit, screen and painted glass are all noteworthy.
Architectural Description—The Presbytery (51 ft. by 28 ft.) externally is mostly of local red sandstone. In the gable of the E. wall are two blocked 17th-century lancets and the side walls have a corbel-table below the eaves, but only a few of the corbels are old. The walling inside is partly of limestone-ashlar and partly of rubble. The E. wall (Plate 74) has an arcade of three bays with two-centred arches of three moulded orders with a moulded label towards the presbytery and a single chamfered outer order towards the ambulatory; the piers have triple attached shafts carrying the inner and outer orders towards the W. and single shafts carrying the middle order; the responds differ in having a single instead of a triple shaft on the W. face; the capitals to the shafts have moulded abaci with the bells plain or carved with 'stiff-leaf' foliage, the arrangement varying in the different piers or responds; the moulded bases are of the 'hold-water' type and have chamfered sub-bases. Above the arcade is a string-course which is carried along the two eastern bays of the presbytery. Above the string-course are three graduated lancet-windows with jambs of two chamfered orders; the rear-arches and splays are elaborately moulded, and the splays have each two detached shafts with 'hold-water' bases and capitals carved with 'stiff-leaf' foliage carrying the two outer orders of the rear-arches. Above the three lancets is a moulded wall-rib of the former vaulting. The N. and S. walls are each of three arcaded bays with the arches opening into the aisles or ambulatory. The two eastern bays have two-centred arches each of three moulded orders with a moulded label and foliated stops towards the presbytery and of two orders towards the aisle, the outer order on the side towards the aisle being chamfered; the outer orders on both sides are continuous, but the inner order is carried on half-round attached shafts with capitals carved with varying forms of 'stiff-leaf' foliage and moulded bases; the western arch on each side is two-centred, but is narrower than the other arches and is of three continuous chamfered orders except in the case of the S. arch, where the outer order is moulded above the springing; the internal moulded string-course is set at a higher level above the two western arches. In each bay above the arches is a lancet-window, similar to those in the E. wall, but with only one free shaft to the splays; all the sills externally are of a later heightening and the sills of the two westernmost windows are at a higher level than the others; the S.W. window, although glazed, now opens into the tower. Between the bays are attached triple vaulting-shafts carried up through the string-course to support the former vaulting; they have moulded bases and carved capitals of similar character to those already described, but while the abaci of the E. pair are round on plan, the abaci of the W. pair are square; the westernmost pair of shafts have an intermediate moulded string about 6 ft. above the floor cut off square on the wall E. of the shaft, showing that it was formerly carried eastward along the wall; the vaulting shaft in each of the two E. angles is a plain single shaft with a carved 'stiff-leaf' capital finished, at the string-course level above the arcades, with a pointed corbel and carved base. The actual vault is now only represented by the moulded wall-ribs and by the rough gaps where the springers have been torn away.
The Ambulatory has a double E. walk (18 ft. wide), and N. and S. walks (13½ ft. wide). Externally the walls are divided into bays by wide, shallow buttresses with splayed plinths surmounted by a roll-moulded string-course which is continued round the walls. The buttresses stop one course above the springing-level of the window-heads, and above them is a moulded string-course enriched with billet-ornament and originally carried over the windows in a series of gables; the tops of the gables have been destroyed for the existing roof which has a plain continuous eaves.
The East Aisle (Plate 75) of the presbytery, or the E. walk of the ambulatory, is five bays from N. to S. and two bays in width. The eastern range of bays was formerly divided into five small chapels separated from each other by low partition walls about 6 ft. high, but these have been cut away except at the ends where they meet the piers and responds. Each bay is vaulted with a quadripartite vault having moulded cross and diagonal ribs, the cross ribs between the W. bays differing in section from the others. The vaulting is carried by a range of four piers, each consisting of a group of eight round shafts with carved 'stiff-leaf' capitals (Plate 78) of varying design; the abaci of those to the 2nd and 4th piers from the N. are carved with fluting; all have 'holdwater' bases with chamfered sub-bases; the bases of the three E. shafts in each pier are raised to stand on the ends of the cross-walls which formerly divided the chapels, as are also the corresponding responds against the E. wall. All the responds have triple shafts, and capitals and bases similar to those of the E. arcade of the presbytery, except the W. responds opposite the 2nd and 4th piers, which are of much heavier detail on plan and consist of three attached shafts separated by broad splays. In the main angles of the ambulatory are single vaulting-shafts, of which the abaci of the E. shafts are square and those of the W. shafts are rounded. Some of the carved foliage of the capitals is of acanthus-leaf form. In each of the five bays of the E. wall is a lancet-window with jambs and head of two chamfered orders and internally with a roll moulding at the angle of the splays finished with a 'hold-water' base; each window is set within a recess with moulded jambs and two-centred arch. The bays of the N. and S. walls have each a similar window, but not set in a recess.
The North Aisle of the presbytery or N. walk of the ambulatory is of three vaulted bays W. of the E. aisle. The two E. bays have quadripartite vaults with moulded diagonal ribs all of the same section except one rib in the second bay. The two eastern transverse arches are each of two chamfered orders, the arch between the 2nd and 3rd bays differing slightly from the others in having ornamental stops. The responds carrying the two easternmost arches have a central half-round pier flanked by two smaller nook-shafts, and the vaulting is carried by similar nook-shafts, all with moulded bases and capitals (Plate 78) similar to those of the presbytery-arcades; one vaulting-shaft in the second bay is missing. The arch between the second and third bays is similar, but has responds of the same section as the arch and plain chamfered imposts. In the N. wall of each of these two bays is a lancet window set in a recess all similar to those in the E. wall of the E. ambulatory, but below the window in the first bay is a mid 13th-century doorway, inserted in the earlier wall; it has moulded jambs, two-centred head and moulded bases. The third or westernmost bay has a quadripartite vault of greater height than the others with moulded diagonal ribs and a foliated boss. The ribs spring from corbel-capitals carved with 'stiff-leaf' foliage or scallops, and square moulded abaci.
The South Aisle of the presbytery corresponds in most respects with the N. aisle, but the responds to the two eastern transverse arches and vaulting-shafts have square abaci; the W. vaulting-shafts of the second bay are missing. The westernmost bay is generally similar to the corresponding bay in the N. aisle, but the vaulting has no central boss and springs from vaulting-shafts with foliated caps and square abaci; the E. shafts have 'hold-water' bases; the W. shafts have plain square bases.
The Central Crossing (27½ ft. by 28 ft.) has on each of its four sides high two-centred arches (Plate 77), each of two orders, the inner and the outer on the outer face chamfered and the outer order on the inner face, moulded, except in the W. arch, where the outer order on both sides is moulded; the responds have semi-octagonal central shafts taking the inner orders and round attached shafts taking the outer orders on the inside; the corresponding orders on the outer side are carried by plain chamfered pilasters; all have square moulded abaci and capitals carved with varying forms of 'stiff-leaf' foliage except the pilasters, which have rounded abaci and in some cases have no capitals; the bases are all moulded, and some of the main shafts have spur-ornaments. The E. half of the S. arch is distorted owing to settlement, perhaps caused by the building of the tower, and is patched at the apex and supported by iron ties or bolts. The W. arch was filled in, in the 17th century, only the outer order (on both sides) being now visible; re-set in the filling is a single-light window of 13th-century material with a two-centred head and moulded splays and rear-arch.
The North Transept (28 ft. by 28 ft.) externally has a corbel-table at the eaves of the E. wall continued round from the presbytery. The N. wall is gabled, and is surmounted by an old but broken gable-cross. There is a lancet-window high up in the gable lighting the roof span and below it a blocked, square-headed doorway, with, on either side, the remains of two former windows, visible only inside the transept roof-space; the heads, which must have been higher than the present roof-slope, have been destroyed. The walling below the gable base-line has remains of plaster upon it, and on the wall are the weather courses to two former roofs of the dorter-range. At the foot of the wall are the springing stones of the former barrel-vault. At the W. end of the N. wall of the N. chapel are the broken toothings of a former two-centred vault of a low building adjoining the wall; farther E. is the making good of the wall after the removal of the above-mentioned low building. At the junction of the W. wall of the transept with the W. wall of the former sacristy are ashlar bonding-stones alternating with the original quoins, showing that the N.W. angle of the transept existed before the sacristy was built against it. Internally the transept is in two bays divided by tripleshafted responds, the central shaft keeled, and all the moulded bases and a common semi-octagonal capital fluted or scalloped and with a moulded abacus; the responds carried the former main cross-arches or ribs of the vaulting; the responds are flanked by small angle shafts with moulded bases included in the grouping of those of the main respond, but the shafts are carried up to the abaci of the main capitals, above which they support the moulded wall-ribs of the former vaulting; these wall-ribs terminate in the main angles of the transept in two long tapering corbels carved at the tips; between each pair is a corbel-capital which carried the diagonal rib of the former vault; they have square moulded abaci carved with foliage or scallops and terminating in tapering corbels carved at the tips with foliage, etc.
In the E. wall of the transept are two two-centred arches, each having a moulded order on the W. face, of three large rolls, and with a chamfered label, ornamented with a species of dog-tooth enrichment; the moulded order springs from semi-octagonal responds with carved 'stiff-leaf' capitals and moulded abaci, continued along the wall face, and moulded bases. In the clearstorey are two lancet-windows with chamfered jambs and moulded splays and rear-arches; below the windows runs a moulded string-course stepped up at the end of each bay to meet the abaci of the capitals of the vaulting-shafts. The N. wall has near the E. end a doorway with chamfered jambs and semi-circular head; at the W. end, with the sill about 8½ ft. above the floor level, is a doorway with chamfered jambs and segmental-pointed head; it was blocked in the 17th century and was formerly the entrance to the night-staircase from the dorter. The W. wall has in the S. bay the archway which formerly opened into the N. aisle of the nave and is now blocked with 17th-century filling; it is two-centred with the outer order chamfered on the E. and rounded on the W. side; the moulded impost is continued along the wall-face a short distance on either side; each bay has in the upper part of the wall a lancet window, that in the S. bay being a clearstorey light and similar to those in the opposite wall; the window in the N. bay is similar but much longer and wider; below the windows are moulded string-courses.
Of the two East Chapels of the transept, the southern one now forms the westernmost bay of the presbyteryaisle and has already been described. The other has in the E. wall a single round-headed window with chamfered jambs and moulded splays; the lower part is blocked. The chapel is vaulted with a quadripartite vault with diagonal ribs of twin-roll section, carried on corbel-capitals in the angles, carved with foliage and having square moulded abaci.
The South Transept (28 ft. by 28 ft.) is generally similar to the N. transept, but with minor variations. The walling generally is of red sandstone rubble with ashlar dressings, grey below and red above. A flat projecting buttress covers the stair-turret at the E. end of the S. wall, and at the W. end is a flat clasping buttress; both buttresses have splayed plinths surmounted by a roll-moulding which is continued along the face of the main walls as is also a moulded string-course below the level of the main windows. The E. wall has a modern corbel-table at the eaves and the S. wall is gabled and has a plain string-course at the foot of the gable, both being probably of 17th-century date, though the gable is surmounted by an old broken cross. Lighting the roof space are two lancet-windows, probably re-used work. The E. chapel to the transept has a clasping buttress at the S.E. angle and a small lancet above the main window in the S. wall, lighting the roof space. Internally, in the E. wall of the transept, the arch opening into the S. ambulatory is of two orders, the outer chamfered and continuous and the inner moulded and carried on semi-octagonal responds with carved foliated capitals, square moulded abaci, and a label with ornament similar to that in the N. transept; the arch opening into the S.E. chapel is similar, but the outer order on the W. face is moulded. The two windows above the arches are like those in the N. transept, but have jambs of two chamfered orders, and the northern one, which opens into the tower, is boarded up; the string-course below the sills is carried horizontally across each bay without a break. In the S. wall are two tall lancet-windows, with external heads of two orders, the inner chamfered and continuous and the outer moulded and carried on detached shafts with foliated capitals and moulded bases; the abaci of the capitals are continued as a string-course along the walls; the splays and rear-arches are moulded; in the middle of the wall above the lancets is a vesica-shaped light with moulded and chamfered jambs and moulded splays; towards the W. end of the wall is a doorway with a two-centred head of two orders, the inner rounded and continuous except for the impost-moulding and the outer moulded and carried on attached shafts with foliated capitals and moulded bases; the moulded label is enriched with dog-tooth ornament. In the S.E. angle is a round-headed doorway into the stair-turret. In the W. wall are two lancet-windows similar to those in the W. wall of the N. transept. The vault-responds, corbels and wall-ribs are similar to those in the N. transept.
The East Chapels are generally similar to those in the N. transept. The S.E. chapel has in the E. and S. walls a lancet-window, both with chamfered jambs and moulded splays. The arch between the S.E. chapel and the westernmost bay of the S. walk of the ambulatory is of one continuous chamfered order. The vault has a small carved rosette at the intersection.
The Tower is of early 17th-century date, and rises above the N.E. chapel of the S. transept; it is of three stages above the chapel-roof and is finished with an embattled parapet with the stumps of former pinnacles at the angles. The walls are of ashlar externally excepting the lowest part of the S. face above the chapel roof, which is of rubble and contains a large, rough, relieving arch visible both internally and externally. At the S.E. angle are two buttresses. The first stage of the tower above the chapel roof has a lancet window in both the S. and E. walls; in the E. wall is a round-headed doorway opening into the roof space of the S. aisle of the presbytery; in the N. wall is the original S.W. clearstorey-window of the presbytery; in the S. wall is a doorway with chamfered jambs and three-centred head opening into the roof space over the S.E. chapel; and in the W. wall the boarded N.E. clearstorey window of the S. transept. On the N. and W. walls are visible the original weather-courses of the respective roofs of the S. aisle of the presbytery and the transept-chapel, and on the W. wall three rough corbels for former roof timbers above the N.E. chapel. The second stage has in the E. and S. walls a lancet-window, and in the W. wall a round-headed doorway from the roof of the S. transept; some moulded stones of 12th and 13th-century date have been re-used in the walling. The bell-chamber has, in the E. and S. walls, a lancet-window and, in the N. and W. walls, a round-headed light.
The Nave (137 ft. by 28 ft.), as has been proved by excavation, was originally nine bays long with the pulpitum standing between the second and third bays and the rood-screen in the fifth bay; part of the W. wall was uncovered together with the bases of most of the columns of the N. arcade and portions of the screenwalls between them, at the back of the quire of the Conversi. Above ground the nave has been entirely destroyed except the E. respond and first column of the N. arcade, the E. respond and first column of the S. arcade with the arch between them. The E. respond of the N. arcade is semi-circular with a capital carved with slender interlacing leaves and moulded 'hold-water' base with spurs at the angles; the column is circular with a foliated and scalloped capital and a triple corbel of the same design with a foliage-knot below it on the N. side; this corbel carried the former vault-ribs of the N. aisle; the base is of the 'hold-water' type, but only the E. side is now visible; above the E. respond are the springers of the former arch and on the capital of the pillar are re-set a ring of stones, probably sections of vault-ribs. The S.E. respond is generally similar to the N.E. respond but differs in the capital, which is carved with conventional water-leaf foliage; the first column of the arcade is circular, with the capital carved with plain leaves with a similarly carved corbelled projection on the S. side for the vaulting of the aisle; and above it is a perished springing-stone of the aisle vault. The first arch of the S. arcade is two-centred and of two moulded orders, with a moulded label towards the nave, and on the aisle side a perished moulding which presumably was the wall-rib of the aisle vaulting; the arch is rather distorted, and the pillar on the W. side has been buttressed to resist the thrust of the arch; above the arch the wall is cut on the rake and abuts against the transept wall; in this wall is a length of the original string-course below the clearstorey and three courses of the moulded E. splay of one of the windows. In the S.E. angle of the nave is a perished corbel-capital, supporting the springing-stone of the former vault of the nave; it has perhaps been re-set at a lower level than it originally occupied.
The North Aisle (10 ft. wide) has some two or three feet of the original N. wall left standing, and on it is a short length of moulded internal string-course. In the base of the wall are a few moulded stones of the E. jamb of the former E. processional doorway from the cloister and also one course of the outer order of the W. jamb with the damaged 'hold-water' base of the shaft of an inner order. In the N.E. angle is a corbel capital for the former diagonal vaulting-rib; it has scrolled foliage and a square moulded abacus. A portion of thick walling further W. is perhaps part of the outer wall of the aisle, and part of the excavated W. wall is still exposed.
The South Aisle (11 ft. wide) has a length of the foundations of the S. wall exposed and a broken surface and inner angle stones show where the S. wall met the S. transept; only a few of the stones of the wall now project beyond the wall of the transept, but these include one on the outer face at the top which is apparently the beginning of a trefoiled corbel table or arcade. In the S.E. angle is a 13th-century corbel-capital, and the springing-stones of the former moulded diagonal and wall ribs of the aisle-vaulting; these remaining worked stones suggest considerably later work than the arcades.
The South Porch is a timber-framed structure on low walls with the side panels filled with plaster and with the E. wall now covered with a stone slate facing; it is probably of 17th-century date altered and repaired at a later period. The front is gabled and has arched braces below the tie-beam which supports two sloping struts in the gable head; the angle posts are notched for the arched braces, but the mortices in these posts suggest that the original braces were of greater size than the present ones; in the top on the W. face of the S.W. angle-post is a curious cusped sinking. The gable has barge-boards with moulded edges and at the apex a pendant with a shaped end; the roof has a tie-beam against the main S. wall, cut away in the middle on the underside; the posts supporting it are notched and morticed for former arched braces, now gone.
Monastic Buildings. The Sacristy (26½ ft. by 12½ ft.) on the N. side of the N. transept is roofless. In the E. wall is a 17th-century doorway with square jambs and semi-circular head set in the opening of an early 13th-century window, of which part of the splayed rear-arch remains. In the W. wall are the remains of an original recess with the moulded stones of the S. jamb and the springers of the arch and the four lower courses of the N. jamb; the existing rough round head is probably the original relieving-arch; the rest of the N. jamb with the wall to the N. of it are of rough workmanship of 17th-century or later repair; the recess is now blocked with a quantity of worked stones and other re-used material. The sacristy was roofed with a barrel-vault of rubble of which the springing on the N. remains. The Chapter House (about 44 ft. in diam.) was entered through a Vestibule on the N. side of the sacristy. On the S. wall (the N. face of the N. wall of the sacristy) towards the E. end are the remains of a triple vaulting-shaft of c. 1200 with a foliated capital, above which are the broken moulded springing-stones of the former transverse wall and diagonal ribs of the vestibulevault; E. of this was a narrow bay, about 3½ ft. wide, of which the springers of the diagonal ribs of the 13th-century vault also remain in situ, being supported on the E. side apparently on a corbel. Some 7 ft. farther E., about six courses remain above the ground-level of the vaulting-shaft at one angle of the twelvesided chapter house, and adjoining is a short length of rubble-wall forming part of the side of the chapter house.
N. of the former N. aisle of the nave is a kitchen garden, none of the walls of which appears to be of preSuppression date; the S. part of its W. wall is the E. wall of a former barn. N. of the kitchen garden about 84 ft. W. of the present W. face of the church, and running northwards from the kitchen-garden wall, is a substantial wall of some antiquity. It has a broken end about 8 or 9 ft. from the W. wall of the kitchen garden and is nearly 100 ft. long; at the S. end it is about 2 ft. 9 in. thick, but farther N. it is about 4 ft. 4 in. in width and probably formed part of the W. wall of the former Frater.
The Roofs of the existing building all date from the 17th century and were the work of John Abel. Over the presbytery is a flat oak ceiling in three bays, with stop-moulded ties and intermediate beams and exposed ceiling joists, formerly lathed for plaster. The principal tie-beams are supported by moulded wall-posts rising off the original vaulting-shafts and from which spring moulded cross and longitudinal braces; the longitudinal braces against the side walls are carved with running foliage and other ornament, and the cross-braces are carved with sunk and detached quatrefoils and have pendants under the tie-beams, each carved with a bunch of grapes within four leaves; on the faces of the wall-posts below the cross-braces are attached half-round shafts with square bases and caps on which stand the following carved consoles—(1) foliage and scroll work; (2) grotesque female busts and scroll work; (3) monsters with eagles' heads and horses' legs; (4) foliage and scroll work. The crossings and the transepts have ceilings of a similar character to that over the presbytery, but with less elaboration. The wall-posts have no shafts on their faces, but have carved consoles on the posts; these consoles are smaller than those in the presbytery and include human faces and busts in the carving, and the W. console in the S. transept has a grotesque female figure with a shield; on the beams are small pierced pendants. The roofs above the ceilings of the presbytery and transepts are floored and have trusses of a double queen-post type with heavy plain timbers. Above the vaulting of the aisles and chapels are pent-roofs with plain tie-beams on which are struts supporting the principal rafters and purlins.
Fittings—Altar: In chancel—stone slab with five consecration-crosses and chamfered under-edges, set on three re-set drums of a column, circular on plan with four attached shafts. Bells: six; third and fifth by Abraham Rudhall, 1710. Chair: In chancel—of oak (Plate 27), with turned front legs carried up above seat to support curved arms, rails below seat enriched with conventional incised ornament, enriched arcaded back with scrolled top rail, first half of 17th-century. Chests: In N.E. chapel of N. transept—(1) of oak with front in four panels and one panel to each end, plain lid hinged in two parts hung on wrought-iron strap hinges with one lock to lid and three to smaller lid, late 16th or early 17th-century. In tower—on first floor, (2) small plain chest, possibly 17th-century. Coffin and Coffin Lids. Coffin: In S. walk of ambulatory—tapering, with shaped recess for head, 13th-century. Coffin lids: In E. walk of ambulatory, (1) of stone, with foliated cross in relief and plain shield, late 13th-century; (2) with bevelled edges and at each end small foiled cross within sunk circle, 13th-century, inscribed with later initials C.P. and date 1694 (?), and P.P. and date 1757. Communion Rails: Of oak, with square baserail, moulded top-rail and turned balusters with gate in middle flanked by larger baluster-posts, each surmounted by a ball, early 17th-century. Doors: In S.E. angle of S. transept—in doorway of turret-staircase, of battens and hung on pair of strap-hinges; in main S. doorway, close battened, nail-studded, with two-centred head and moulded cover-strips externally, hung on two strap-hinges with foliated ends, 17th-century. In N. walk of ambulatory—in N. doorway (Plate 34), close battened, with two-centred head framed internally in form of trefoiled arch, hung on two wrought-iron ornamental hinges, upper one with beast's head, lower one partly destroyed, 13th-century. In upper storey of tower—to roof space of S.E. chapel, of oak, plain battened, pierced with small round-headed peep-hole, now boarded up, probably 17th-century. Font: octagonal stone bowl with chamfered top and moulded under edge, plain stem, 17th-century or earlier, on modern base. Gallery: against W. wall of central crossing (Plate 61), in three bays with four circular oak columns with moulded and enriched octagonal capitals and bases standing on square pedestals, supporting an enriched beam surmounted by moulded panelling forming gallery-front in three bays divided by square posts with ball-tops; floor carried on stop-chamfered beams and gallery entered by staircase at S. end with moulded strings and handrails and turned balusters, mid 17th-century, staircase possibly later. Glass: In presbytery—in E. windows (Plate 79), in middle window, figure-subject of the Ascension, with cherubs in clouds, and below, figures of eleven apostles; in upper part of light, figures of St. John the Baptist and Moses standing between pilasters under canopies of Gothic type and with a jumble of glass in the head of the light; in N. window, on background of floral diapers, and all beneath Gothic canopies, four figures respectively of St. Matthew and St Mark in upper part and St. Peter and St. Andrew in lower part; beneath figure of St. Peter inscription, "Peter 44 years after the death (of) our Saviour went to Rome to confute Simon Magus and lived there 25 years. He was condemned by Nero to be crucified, which Peter desired to be done with his head downwarde"; beneath figure of St. Andrew following inscription, "Andrew brother to Peter, he lived at Patris in Achaia where he at last was crucified joyfully embracing the cross (with) his arms"; in S. window, similar arrangement to N. window, with figures of St. Luke, with most of figure replaced by fragments, and St. John the Evangelist in upper part with head missing, and St. James and St. John the Apostle in the lower part, canopies much damaged; beneath the figure of St. James is the following inscription, "James brother of John, he was beheaded by Herod his [accuser] likewise confessing Christ suffered martyrdom with him," and below the date 1634; beneath the figure of St. John the Apostle is the inscription, "John the beloved desipel was banished by Domicion to the Isle of Pathmas where he write the Revellation. He died 60 years after Christ and was buried neere to Ephesus"; glass in all three windows, except where painted on white, of blue, yellow or ruby, and all 17th-century. In Ambulatory—in southernmost window of E. wall, panel with borders and diaper work, achievement-of-arms of Carwarden, with supporters, two wild-men and some mantling, but crest missing, late 16th or 17th-century. In westernmost window in S. wall, some much-worn fragments of plain glass. In S.E. chapel of S. transept—in E. window, some re-set fragments including a kneeling figure of a woman with hands clasped, portions of pinnacles and floral borders, fragments of diaper work and the evangelistic symbols of St. Mark and St. Luke, quarries with a pear and pomegranate-sprig, some foliage and fragments of 'black letter,' 15th and early 16th-century; in S. window, re-set fragments including head of a bishop wearing mitre; hand holding an orb; fragments of angels, drapery, foliage, etc., and diapered quarries, 15th-century. Lockers: In Ambulatory—in N. wall of E. walk, with moulded and rebated jambs and trefoiled head, moulded sill and grooves at sides for shelves, mid 13th-century; in S. wall of easternmost bay of S. walk, with rebated jambs and four-centred head and grooves at sides for shelves, 15th-century; in S. wall of adjoining bay, with rebated four-centred head and groove on W. side, 15th-century. In S. transept—in S. wall (Plate 60), rectangular with moulded surround enriched with 'dog-tooth' ornament, 13th-century, and fitted with a three-panelled early 17th-century door hung on two hinges. In S.E. chapel of S. transept —in S. wall, with moulded and rebated jambs and trefoiled head, projecting sill and sides grooved for shelves, 13th-century; immediately E. of above, small with two-centred head rebated on E. side, mediæval. Monuments and Floor Slabs. Monuments: In presbytery— under easternmost arch of N. arcade, (1) effigy of knight (Plate 43) lying on raised slab with head on cushion, wearing complete mail armour, long surcoat, shield on left side, sword-belt and sword, right hand on hilt; legs broken off below knees with loose fragment lying by side of effigy, much worn and defaced, mid 13th-century; under easternmost arch of S. arcade, (2) effigy of knight (Plate 51), generally similar to (1) but with narrow girdle to surcoat; upper portion of shoulders and head much worn, the latter being broken from the body; lower part of legs missing, mid 13th-century; fixed against first pier from the E. of the N. arcade (3) small slab, slightly tapering, with side edges moulded, ends broken, and carved in relief on face with figure of a bishop (Plate 43) lying with head on cushion with, on either side, following inscription in Lombardic capitals "[qv]o[n]dā pontificis co . . ." on right side, and ". . . xpiste johi . . ." on left side, possibly heart burial of John le Breton, Bishop of Hereford, 1269–75. In N.E. chapel of N. transept—(4) to Peter Smyth, 1677 (date altered), slate slab with moulded edge and achievement-of-arms; (5) to Elizabeth (Hereford), wife of Peter Smyth, 1693, slate panel. In S.E. chapel of S. transept— (6) to John Hoskins, 1638, stone table-tomb (Plate 44) with chamfered base; front and back divided into three bays by attached Doric columns supporting entablature with frieze formerly ornamented with alternate shields and projecting jewel-ornaments; cornice formed by chamfered edge of projecting marble top of tomb; panel at N. end with achievement-of-arms, other panels painted black with incised inscriptions. Floor slabs: In presbytery—against W. respond of middle arch of S. arcade, (1) to Anne wife of Bennet Hoskins, 1648, with moulded rim, carved enrichment at head with below three shields-of-arms; (2) immediately N. of (1), to William, son of Bennet Hoskins, 1714, and Elizabeth his daughter, 1721, slate slab with shield-of-arms at head in conventional floral wreath; (3) to Elizabeth, daughter of Nicholas Coll (es) ? and wife of Benjamin . . ., 1646, partly concealed by front of choir-stalls; S. of organ (4) to G.R., 1701, slate slab with enriched border; E. of (4), (5) to B. 1684, and I.B. 1714; S. of altar (6) to William Watts, son of William Watts, B.D., of Hereford, 16(91–2 ?), slate slab with moulded margin and shield-of-arms; (7) to R.W., 1711, incised paving-stone. In ambulatory—in N. walk, under arch between E. and N. walks; (8) illegible slab of 17th-century date; (9) to Sarah Watkins, 1681, inscribed paving-slab. Below crossing, in front of gallery, (10) to John Jon(e)s and Mary his wife, 1676; (11) to Elizabeth wife of John Wever, 1698–9; (12) to K.M., 1663; (13) to Henry Gilbert, 1694; (14) to I.P. 1709. In N. transept—under arch to crossing; (15) to William Vaughan, 1667, and Philip his son, 1698; (16) to Mary Wever, 1682; partly below pulpit, (17) to Robert Williams, 1696, and Philip Williams, 1729, slab with border carved with conventional foliage; (18) to Margaret, wife of Robert Wilton, 1652; (19) to Robert Wilton, 1660; (20) to John Attwell, 1698–9; (21) to Jane Walt, probably early 18th-century; (22) to Mary Wever, 16. 8, and T.W., 1715; (23) to B.P., 1712; (24) to William, son of John Attwell, 1706. In N.E. chapel of N. transept—(25) to Richard Smith, 1701–2, stone slab with shield-of-arms in head. In S. transept— (26) to T.P. 1714, and I.P. 1729. Paintings: In crossing—on upper part of W. wall, N. half, panel with Lord's Prayer, S. half with Apostles' creed, both in black letter, in frames of yellow foliage with ornamental surrounds, c. 1701; on lower part of wall, partly concealed or destroyed by gallery, heads of three panels with frames and ornamental borders, southernmost containing earlier sentences of the Apostles' creed, c. 1630–40. High up on wall painting of David with harp in bay-leaf frame with pointed head, c. 1701. In N. transept—on N. wall, on upper part, large pair of conjoined panels containing the ten commandments in Roman lettering with borders enriched with bay-leaf ornament each having round pedimental head; above middle, Hebrew Jehovah with rays; lower down large Royal Arms of Queen Anne after the Union in red and yellow colouring, rather defaced but with motto, "Semper Eadem" and initials A(R); on lower part of wall two small panels, the western on the blocking of night-stair doorway with text in Roman lettering, "For this is the love of God that we keep his Commandments"; the eastern with text, Rom. ii. 13, both in foliated frames with cresting and swag-ornament in red line, all c. 1700–10, palimpsest under Royal Arms, traces of earlier 'black letter' inscription of c. 1630–40. On W. wall, N. bay, somewhat similar panel to lower panels on N. wall with text; S. bay similar panel with text, Psalm 148, 12, and palimpsest on earlier panel with 'black letter' inscription with scroll work visible on N. side, c. 1701, earlier painting c. 1630–40. S. transept—on S. wall, under eastern lancet, upper half of human skeleton with handle of spade, remains of ornamental border and inscription, "Memento Mori," probably c. 1701, but may be earlier; under westernmost window, panel with text in Roman lettering with bay-leaf surround, ornamental cresting with remains of inscription "William . . . er of H[erefo]rd, painter, 1701," in middle of wall, panel with bay-leaf surround and text in Roman lettering, "O death where is thy sting," etc., c. 1701. On W. wall, on upper part of N. bay, large figure of "Time" with scythe, partly destroyed, probably c. 1701, but may be earlier; below, panel with ornamental surround and text in Roman lettering, c. 1701, palimpsest on earlier panel with 'black-letter' inscription c. 1630–40. S. bay, panel with ornamental surround and text in Roman lettering c. 1701, palimpsest on traces of 'black-letter' inscription below, c. 1630–40. Panelling: In presbytery— on N. and S. walls of W. bay, panelling with enriched arabesque frieze and moulded capping, c. 1630, modern panelling below. Piscina: In S.E. chapel of S. transept—in S. wall, with moulded trefoiled head and carved foliated stops and sill formed of block with two projecting moulded shaft-capitals, 13th-century. Plate: includes silver cup of 1634 with cover-paten to fit but without date-letter, and silver flagon of 1634. Poor-box: of oak, square, with moulded rim to lid, moulding mitred round base, supported on small column with moulded capital and base; two old locks (disused) to box and following inscription partly hidden by iron strapping, "1639 H[e] that from ye poo[r] h[is] eyes wil turn aw[ay] t[h]e Lord wil turn His . . . V . . . N yn later day yfro . . .," 17th-century. Pulpits: In presbytery—of oak, hexagonal, each side panelled and with enriched double arcaded head, supported by enriched pilasters and with pendant in middle and flanked at angles of pulpit by Doric columns supporting an entablature with arabesque frieze, moulded and dentilled cornice, with shaped brackets above each column; moulded base below panels supported at each corner by square leg; above pulpit, hexagonal sounding-board with enriched frieze, moulded cornice, pendant drops below and turned finials and cresting above; panelled soffit with pendant in middle; board supported on standard panelled as sides to pulpit and with plain panel below, mid 17th-century with modern stair. In N. transept—of oak, octagonal, made up of 17th-century panelling with top panels carved with arabesque ornament. Recesses: In N.E. chapel of N. transept—in S. wall, with moulded trefoiled head and modern sill, 13th-century, with triangular head with carved 'stiff leaf' ornament at head and modern sill, 13th-century. Screen: Under E. arch of crossing (Plate 76), of oak, with chamfered base and divided into five bays by Ionic columns standing, without bases, on pedestals and supporting enriched entablature with shaped consoles above each column; on W. faces of pedestals to columns flanking central opening are grotesque carved heads; above doorway are shaped brackets carved with conventional leaf enrichment and meeting below middle of cornice in carved pendant; lower part of side bays each divided into four panels by heavy moulded styles; upper part open and divided by symmetrically turned balusters with trefoiled cusping between heads; bay on N. side of central opening with two pendant drops in place of two balusters; on W. side of frieze raised panels inscribed "vive deo gratus toti mvndo tvmvlatvs crimine mvndatvs semper transire paratvs"; above main cornice four pierced pinnacles and three large cartouches-of-arms as follows, (a) Royal (Stuart) Arms; (b) impaled coat of Scudamore surmounted by a coronet; and (c) the see of Canterbury impaling Laud, c. 1630–40. Seating: In presbytery—pews with panelled backs and ends having carved panels at top, one pew with initials T.M.; pews at back for churchwardens, with higher enclosures with arabesque panels at top; two extra desks at E. end; all c. 1630. Sundial: On S.W. clasping buttress of S. transept—on angle with dial on S. face with Roman numerals, dial on W. face with Arabic numerals and gnomon re-fixed in new position with original gnomon holes empty, 16th-century. Table: In tower—on first floor, of oak, five feet long with stop chamfered legs, grooved or panelled top rails (except at one end), 17th-century with modern deal top. Tiles: In presbytery—slip tiles re-set in floor on N. of altar, including following with heraldic shields—(a) a lion; (b) Clifford; (c) Berkeley; (d) a fesse between three fleurs-de-lis; (e) England; (f) Berkeley; (g) checky in a chief a leopard; (h) checky a cheveron; (i) Old France; (j) Leon and Castile; (k) Bohun; (l) a cross paty; (m) crusily, 13th-century; also some lozenge-shaped glazed green tiles with embossed conventional floral design. In other parts of presbytery—a number of other heraldic tiles including some of the shields above described and also, (a) a cross paty; (b) Vere; (c) a cross paty between four martlets; (d) checky a bend and a label of four points. In N.E. chapel of N. transept—a number of boxes of broken fragments of tiles. Other fragments of tiles in E. chapels and round font. Miscellanea: In presbytery—high up on wall on each side, between first and second bays a staple perhaps for suspending the lenten-veil. In ambulatory and transept—a large collection of moulded and carved stones, from destroyed portions of the building; these include portions of an enriched trefoiled wall-arcade and a moulded base with twelve shafts and other portions of the central column of the chapter-house; three semi-octagonal stones with inscriptions in Lombardic capitals on the face (a) "Hugo olim decan' de Webbeli' me fe," (b) "Robert Wroeth me fe," (c) " Robert Vicari' de Wrmbregge me fecit"; carved bosses (Plate 78) from a vault with (a) an abbot kneeling before the Virgin and Child, (b) a Coronation of the Virgin, (c) a Majesty with surrounding foliage, (d) large human head; carved stone with a monk kneeling before a bishop; several small foliated bosses, vault-ribs, capitals, bases, etc., mostly 13th-century. In vestry—fragments of a tabernacle or tomb-canopy with gables over the arches, etc., 13th-century.
b(3) Homestead Moat, at Morehampton Park Farm, nearly 2½ m. N.N.W. of the abbey.
c(4). Jury Bridge, carrying roadway over stream in Grey Valley, nearly 2 m. N.E. of the abbey, is of rubble with rough ashlar voussoirs to the segmental arch. It is of 17th-century date and of a single span with the parapets and abutments projecting slightly in front of the face of the arch and its spandrels. The parapet has been repaired and has modern coping-stones.
b(5). Morehampton Park Farm, house N.E. of (3), is of two storeys with attics; the walls are of stone rubble; the roofs are covered with stone slates. It is a rectangular building of early 17th-century date, but the N.W. half has been remodelled in modern times and the S.E. half has been used for cider-making. The S.W. wall has in the S.E. end, on both the ground and first floors, an old two-light window, each with a wood frame with chamfered jamb and mullion and stop-chamfered head. Inside the building one room has exposed ceiling-beams and joists.
Condition—Of house, good.
c(6). Grange Farm, house (Plate 185) nearly 1¼ m. E.N.E. of the abbey is of two storeys with a cellar; the walls are timber-framed with plaster infilling on a stone base; the roofs are covered with stone slates. The house was built in the 14th century, and probably had a central hall block with a northern solar wing, and the buttery-wing on the S. side of the hall. Early in the 16th century a porch was added on the W. side of the S. end of the hall, and early in the 17th century a chimney-stack was inserted in the southern end of the hall, and the interior was remodelled. The solar-wing has been partly destroyed, only the one-storey eastern end now remaining. The S. wall has been refronted in stone. A low modern addition has been built on to the S. end of the house and there are modern lean-to additions on the E. side. The W. or Front Elevation has the timber-framing exposed. In the middle of the front is the two-storeyed gabled porch; the entrance has curved braces from the side posts forming a semi-circular arched opening and the upper storey projects in front on a moulded bressummer and shaped brackets at either end. The front entrance-doorway has moulded jambs and head, the under-side of the lintel being cut in the form of three arches. In the ceiling of the entrance porch are moulded joists. S. of the porch a flight of stone steps leads up to a granary on the first floor of the buttery-wing. The central chimney-stack has two diagonal shafts, the lower parts of which are of 17th-century brickwork. The W. wall of the solarwing has exposed chamfered timbers with wood panels between the framing; there is a blocked doorway with moulded jambs and two-centred head. The E. elevation, when not covered by the modern addition, has the timber-framing exposed. On the upper floor are the moulded sills and angle-mullions of a blocked oriel-window.
Inside the building, on the ground-floor, the parlour which occupies the northern end of the original hall has moulded 14th-century beams. In the N. wall is an original doorway with moulded jambs and two-centred head. In the ceiling of the remaining room in the N. wing is a stop-chamfered beam and traces of early 17th-century plaster-work which apparently consisted of moulded panels with conventional roses, etc. In the ceilings of the kitchen and pantry, which lie to the S. of the central chimney-stack, are exposed stop-chamfered beams and joists; the doorway between the pantry and the original hall has a shaped head. The first floor has been remodelled but retains some exposed stop-chamfered beams in the ceiling. The room over the entrance porch, known as the Chapel, has plaster decoration on the walls and semi-hexagonal ceiling (Plate 29). The wall-plates and purlins at the meeting of the sloping sides of the roof with the flat ceiling are plastered and emphasised with mouldings, and each of the sloping sides has a panel with fleurs-de-lis and oak-sprigs in the corners; in the middle of each panel is a smaller panel enclosing a pierced heart with the letters I.H.S. below; this panel is flanked on either side by conventional sprigs with birds, while beyond the sprigs in large letters are the initials I.H.S. The ceiling has a central square panel with smaller panels at each end; the central panel has a rose and fleurs-de-lis with rose-sprigs between, and the side panels each have a monster's head with a sprig with buds issuing from the mouth and rosesprigs and fleurs-de-lis in the corners. The N. and S. walls are similar and have above an exposed timber-beam which acts as a dado, a large moulded panel with fleurs-de-lis in the angles and a central medallion inscribed with the initials I.H.S. and the date 1603. On the E. wall, above the door, is a similar medallion with plaster ornament on either side. On the W. wall, above the window, is a rose flanked by sprigs with birds, and on either side of the window is a moulded panel with oak-sprigs in the angles.
The following monuments, unless otherwise described, are of the 17th century and of two storeys; the walls are of stone; the roofs are covered with modern or stone slates. Many of the buildings have exposed ceiling-beams and original chimney-stacks, and most of them have been much altered both inside and outside.
Condition—Good, unless noted.
c(7). The Rectory, immediately S. of the abbey, is of two storeys with attics and cellars. It has been almost entirely re-built and greatly altered. The wrought-iron gate in the wall between the rectory-garden and the graveyard is of c. 1700. It is hung between two square stone piers and is in two leaves of simple design with a horizontal band of scroll-work across the middle. The shaped overthrow above the gates is of simple scroll-work and has a wrought-iron sun in the middle.
c(8). Tan House Farm, house, 170 yards N.W. of the abbey, is of two storeys with attics and is partly timber-framed. It has modern additions both at the back and on the E. end. On the S. front the doorway has an old stop-chamfered frame. The E. wall of the original building has the timber-framing exposed above the modern additions. Inside the building on the ground-floor are four moulded battened doors, and there is a similar door in the attic.
c(9). School House, 20 yards W. of (8), was built on a rectangular plan and has had later additions on the N. side. A modern school has been built against the W. end.
c(10). Two Barns, at Upper House Farm, about 250 yards N.N.W. of the abbey, are timber-framed on a stone base. The northern barn is of two storeys and is in six bays, of which the southernmost two have been re-built in stone; a small modern addition has been built on the W. side. The roof has trusses of collar-beam type with posts between the tie-beams and the principal rafters.
The southern barn was built probably c. 1700, and is weather-boarded; the roof is covered with corrugated iron. It is in five bays with queen-post trusses.
c(11). Lower House Farm, house, 360 yards N.N.E. of the abbey, is of two storeys with attics. Part of the roof is covered with corrugated iron. It was built probably early in the 17th century and altered later in the same century. Late in the 18th century additions or rebuildings were made at either end of the house.
d(12). Hollingwood Farm, house, about 1 m. W.N.W. of the abbey, is of two storeys with attics and a cellar. It is built on a half H-shaped plan with the wings extending towards the S. It was largely altered late in the 18th or early in the 19th century, when the roof was re-built and much of the walling was refronted in brick. The entrance-doorway on the S. front has, re-set as a keystone, a portion of a much worn archmould probably of 13th-century date, and on the W. front, set against the doorway to the loft on the first floor, is a portion of 13th-century arch-mould with a stop carved with 'stiff-leaf' ornament. Some of the exposed beams in the ceiling of the ground-floor are moulded.
d(13). Holling Grange Farm, house, about ½ m. W.N.W. of (12), is a timber-framed building erected in the 16th century, and altered and cased with stone probably late in the 18th century; it has modern lean-to additions along the N. side and on the E. end. It probably originally extended farther eastwards. In the W. wall is an old three-light window with chamfered wooden frame and mullions. Inside the building the main cross-partition on the ground-floor has chamfered framing with long narrow panels of wood; the doorway in this partition has chamfered posts and four-centred head.
c(14). Cottage and Barn, 120 yards E. of Jury Bridge. The Cottage is of one storey with attics and is timber-framed with brick nogging. It was built on a rectangular plan, but has modern additions on the N.W. end of the S.E. side.
The Barn lies to the E. of the cottage and is timber-framed and weather-boarded on a stone base. It is in seven bays and has open rectangular framing below the tie-beams to two of the trusses which probably at one time divided the barn into three closed compartments.
a(15). Lower Jury, farmhouse and two barns, about 280 yards N.N.W. of Jury Bridge. The House is of two storeys with attics and a cellar. It was built, on a rectangular plan, of timber-framing with plaster on a stone base late in the 15th or early in the 16th century. Later alterations have been made, and in modern times the building has been refronted in brick. The N. front has one small window with an old chamfered wood frame; beyond the old stone chimney-stack towards the E. end of the front are later additions; the old wall within the later additions has the timber-framing exposed with narrow plaster panels of about the same width as the framing.
The Barns stand to the E. of the house. Both are timber-framed and weather-boarded with some brick nogging and the southernmost barn is also partly of brick; they have stone plinths; the roof of the southern barn is covered with corrugated iron. The northern barn is of five bays with queen-post trusses with braces below the tie-beams. The two westernmost bays are divided into two storeys. Part of the infilling between the timber-framing is of interlaced wooden slats. The barn has a later lean-to addition on its W. side. The southern barn is in five bays with queen-post trusses. It has a later addition on the S.W. side. The barn is probably of the 17th century; the inscription "W.P. 1716" on one of the tie-beams probably applies to a restoration.
a(16). Cottage, 1140 yards N.N.E. of (15), is of one storey with attics; it is timber-framed with modern brick nogging; the roof is covered with thatch. It is built on a rectangular plan, has a modern lean-to addition at the E. end and has been re-roofed.
c(17). Hill Farm, cottage, nearly 1½ m. N.N.E. of the abbey, is of one storey with attics and is timber-framed on a stone plinth; the roofs are tiled. It is built on a rectangular plan and has modern additions on the S. and W.
a(18). Farm House, nearly 2¼ m. N.N.W. of the abbey, is of two storeys with attics and cellar with an E. wing of one storey with attics. The walls are timber-framed with brick nogging and plaster, but have been largely refaced in modern brick and stone. It was built in the 16th century, and is of L-shaped plan with the wings extending towards the N. and E. The E. wing was remodelled or built in the 17th century and was extended farther eastward later in the century. Modern alterations include the addition of a lean-to extension on the end of the E. wing.
a(19). Woodhouse Farm, cottage, 550 yards N.E. of (18), is of one storey with attics. The walls are of timber-framing with brick nogging and plaster on a stone plinth; the roofs are covered with modern tiles. Late in the 18th or early in the 19th century, a barn was built on the S.W. end of the cottage.
e(20). Cottage, at the extreme E. end of the parish, 3½ m. N.E. of the church, has exposed timber-framing and a thatched roof.
c(21). Earthwork, in Camp Wood, about 1 m. N.N.E. of the abbey, consists of a roughly rectangular excavation on the hillside with no attempt at any rampart on the N. and N.E. and only a slight rampart, largely natural, around the remainder. The natural scarps, however, are steep to the W., E., and S. Possibly this work bears some relation to (22).
c(22). Earthwork, in Minns' Close, Tump Wood, about 650 yards S.W. of (21), is a large natural oval mound standing with artificially sunk top, some 200 ft. above the level of the Golden Valley. It has precipitous sides, and the only approach to the top is by a natural narrow causeway which connects it with the base of the earthwork in Camp Wood.