Ledbury

An Inventory of the Historical Monuments in Herefordshire, Volume 2, East. Originally published by His Majesty's Stationery Office, London, 1932.

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'Ledbury', in An Inventory of the Historical Monuments in Herefordshire, Volume 2, East( London, 1932), British History Online https://www.british-history.ac.uk/rchme/heref/vol2/pp100-114 [accessed 23 July 2024].

'Ledbury', in An Inventory of the Historical Monuments in Herefordshire, Volume 2, East( London, 1932), British History Online, accessed July 23, 2024, https://www.british-history.ac.uk/rchme/heref/vol2/pp100-114.

"Ledbury". An Inventory of the Historical Monuments in Herefordshire, Volume 2, East. (London, 1932), , British History Online. Web. 23 July 2024. https://www.british-history.ac.uk/rchme/heref/vol2/pp100-114.

In this section

47 LEDBURY (D.d.)

(O.S. 6 in. XLI, N.E.)

Ledbury is a parish and town 12½ m. E. of Hereford and contains a very high proportion of ancient buildings. The church, St. Katherine's Hospital, the Market Hall, Ledbury Park, the Feathers Inn, the Talbot Inn, Nos. 28–32, Bye Street, and Church House are the principal monuments. The town has a triangular market-place, in which still stands the Market Hall, but the neighbouring structure known as Butchers' Row has been removed.

Ecclesiastical

(1). Parish Church of St. Michael and All Angels (Plate 138) stands on the E. side of the town. The walls are of local sandstone with dressings and ashlar of the same material; the roofs are covered with tiles and slates. There was a church here at the time of the Domesday survey, but the earliest remains above ground are the series of round bases under the N. arcade; these belong to the late 11th or early 12th century and are said to stand on a sleeper-wall of brick; they formed part of a church with a N. aisle, a W. front within the existing W. front and, perhaps, transepts of which the outline of the N. arm may be preserved in the wide E. bay of the existing N. aisle. Late in the 12th century a complete reconstruction was undertaken on a much larger scale; an unusually long Chancel with N. and S. chapels was built, with the chancel arch and E. responds of the nave; about the same time the existing W. front was built outside the earlier front, and judging from the great thickness of the W. wall, it was intended to build a W. tower. At this point, however, after the pulling down of the earlier front, the work was stopped, leaving the earlier N. arcade standing, well out of line with the new responds to the E. and W. The detached Bell-tower was built c. 1230–40; about 1250–60 the North Chapel was re-built together with the double E. bay of the North Aisle on the site of the suggested early transept; the two E. bays of the N. arcade were perhaps re-built at the same time; the rest of the aisle was re-built, of the same width, c. 1300 and the North Porch added. The South Aisle was widened and re-built c. 1310–20, except the W. bay, which was re-built at a slightly later date; following this the South Chapel was re-built and c. 1330 the Outer North Chapel was added; the N. porch was extended c. 1340–50, the upper storey added and probably the chamber, E. of the porch, built. The S. arcade was re-built at the end of the 14th century, but the remains of the 12th-century clearstorey, etc., are said to have been found in the wall above. An upper chamber E. of the porch was probably added in the 15th century, and the N. arcade of the nave was re-built late in the same or early in the following century. The bell-chamber and the stone spire, replacing a timber one, were added to the tower 1727–34 by Wilkinson, mason. The church has been restored at various times, notably in 1894–5, when the floors were lowered.

The church is of considerable architectural interest, and among the fittings the monuments are noteworthy.

Ledbury, the Parish Church of St Michael and All Angels

Architectural Description—The Chancel (74 ft. by 21½ ft.) has late 12th-century clasping buttresses with battered plinths and remains of the outer splays of two 12th-century windows in the E. wall; the E. window appears to be a late 13th or early 14th-century opening with a 15th-century filling of four trefoiled and sub-cusped lights with vertical tracery in a two-centred head. The N. and S. walls (Plate 137) have each a late 12th-century arcade of two bays with round arches of two plain orders and moulded labels continued along the walls as a string; the square responds have scalloped corbels with pointed terminations and between the bays is a short cylindrical column with a scalloped capital and moulded base, standing on a high square pier; forming part of the E. responds are the rebates and springers of the heads of former doorways indicating that there were low screen walls under the arcade; above the arcades, on each side, are three round clearstorey windows of the same date with the original corbel-table above and the weathering of the early chapelroofs below; the corbel-table is continued along to the E. end of the chancel; E. of the arcades the side walls had each three late 12th-century windows, of which the easternmost remains and is of one round-headed light; the two westernmost windows on the N. have been mostly destroyed by a 13th or 14th-century window with 15th-century tracery of three trefoiled and sub-cusped lights with vertical tracery in a two-centred head; the two corresponding 12th-century windows in the S. wall have been replaced by an early 14th-century window of three trefoiled lights with tracery in a two-centred head. There is a squint to the N. chapel, in the N. wall, with a roughly rounded head. The late 12th-century chancel-arch (Plate 136) is of distorted two-centred form and of three moulded orders with hollow-chamfered labels; the lower part of the arch has alternate voussoirs of red and white stone, but the upper part appears to have been re-built at a late date; the responds have each one triple and two single shafts with scalloped capitals and moulded bases.

The North Chapel (46 ft. by 22 ft.) has a mid to late 13th-century E. window of three pointed lights with quatre-foiled tracery in a two-centred head; the jambs and mullions are shafted and the head is richly moulded, with moulded labels and head-stops. In the N. wall is an early 14th-century arch of two continuous chamfered orders, the inner with a chamfered sinking in the soffit and reveals; the inner order of the jambs is modern; E. of the arch is a late 13th-century window moved eastwards when the arch was inserted; it is of three pointed lights in a two-centred head with moulded labels and head-stops; there was a second similar window, of which the head only remains above the arch. Above the arcade, in the S. wall, is a 12th-century corbel-table, above the clearstorey-windows; the wall has been raised above the corbel-table, to take the later roof. At the S.W. corner of the chapel is a confused mass of masonry indicating at least two rebuildings at this point; facing N. is the original late 12th-century respond with two shafts, scalloped capitals and moulded bases; above the capital of the smaller shaft is a 15th-century corbel (Plate 11), carved with two-winged monsters, and supporting a salient of the later N.E. respond of the nave-arcade; the arch opening into the chapel was removed when the chapel was re-built and the wall to the E. strengthened by a series of buttresses of differing projection and incorporating a carved head-corbel.

The South Chapel (46 ft. by 21½ ft.) has an early 14th-century E. window of three tall pointed lights, with intersecting tracery in a two-centred head. In the N. wall is the 12th-century clearstorey, corbel-table and later raising of the wall as in the N. chapel; farther W. is the making good for the destroyed W. arch of the chapel. In the S. wall are three windows of the same date as the E. window; the first and second are of three cinque-foiled lights in a two-centred head; the third is of two cinque-foiled lights also in a two-centred head; farther W. is a doorway with moulded jambs, two-centred arch and label.

The Nave (90 ft. by about 24 ft.) has a late 15th-century N. arcade of six bays with two-centred arches of two chamfered orders except in the S. face of the two E. bays where the outer orders are moulded; the arches incorporate much 13th-century material; the columns are octagonal with moulded capitals and bases; the E. respond has an attached half-column but stands upon the late 12th-century respond, which consists of five shafts, four with scalloped capitals, round moulded abaci and all with much restored moulded bases; the W. respond has also an attached half-column standing on a square late 12th-century W. respond, with a moulded impost and with a scalloped corbel on the E. face resting on a triple shaft, terminating in a point. Under the four westernmost columns are the rubble bases of as many cylindrical columns of an earlier arcade, not axial with the existing arcade. The late 14th-century S. arcade is of six bays with two-centred arches of two hollow-chamfered orders, incorporating much 13th-century material; the octagonal columns have concave faces, moulded capitals and bases; the E. respond is a half-column standing on the late 12th-century respond; this has a triple and two round shafts all with scalloped capitals, square moulded abaci and moulded bases; set in the respond is a 14th or 15th-century stone (Plate 11), carved with a lion and a winged monster fighting. The W. wall is of late 12th-century date and is flanked by square turrets with shafted angles; they are finished with square pinnacles with shafted angles and pyramidal cappings; the late 13th-century W. window is of three pointed lights with modern tracery in a two-centred head with a moulded label; flanking it are traces of two late 12th-century windows with moulded imposts carried along the wall as a string; the late 12th-century W. doorway (Plates 14, 114) has a round arch of four orders with a moulded label; the inner and outer orders are rounded, the inner being continued down the jambs; the other orders have cheveron-ornament; the three outer orders of the jambs have keeled shafts with moulded bases, capitals carved with foliage and faces and square moulded abaci; the doorway to the stair-turret has roll-moulded jambs and square head with a half-round tympanum above it; on the lintel are remains of diapered ornament.

The North Aisle (12½ ft. wide) is of two dates, the eastern part of mid to late 13th-century date and the rest of c. 1300. In the N. wall are four windows, the two eastern similar to the N. window in the N. chapel, and the two western are generally similar but have the mullions carried up to cut the head of the window; between the two eastern windows is a blocked doorway with moulded jambs, segmental-pointed head and moulded label; W. of the windows are two doorways, the eastern all modern except the E. jamb; the western or main N. doorway is of mid 13th-century date, re-set; it has a segmental-pointed arch of two moulded orders with a moulded label; the jambs have a chamfered inner order and a detached shaft to the outer order with moulded capitals and bases; the splays, also, have detached shafts with a moulded rear-arch and label; above the doorway is a blocked square-headed doorway, from the upper storey of the porch, and farther E. is a tiny square chamfered opening of doubtful purpose. In the W. wall is a partly restored window nearly uniform with the E. window of the N. chapel.

The Outer North Chapel (Plate 139) (24 ft. by 29½ ft.) was built in the first quarter of the 14th century and has a moulded plinth, enriched parapet and gabled buttresses; the windows are each of four trefoiled lights with quatre-foiled tracery in a two-centred head with a moulded label; the reveals and mullions are enriched on both sides with ball-flower ornament and the main cusp-points of the tracery are carved; below the S.W. window is a doorway with a moulded two-centred arch and jambs each with three attached shafts with moulded capitals and bases; the jambs and arch are enriched with ball-flower ornament.

The South Aisle (21 ft. wide) has, in the S. wall, five early 14th-century windows, the four eastern each of three cinque-foiled lights with intersecting tracery in a two-centred head; the fifth window is a modern restoration, as is the window in the W. wall.

The North Porch is of c. 1300, extended about the middle of the 14th century; the outer archway is of the latter date and is segmental-pointed and of two chamfered orders; the jambs have each three attached shafts with moulded capitals and restored bases. In the W. wall is a window of c. 1300 and of two trefoiled lights with shafted jambs and mullion, all modern externally. The upper storey of the porch has, in the N. wall, a window of two square-headed lights. In the W. wall is a window of one trefoiled light. In the E. wall is a fireplace with a heavy stone lintel and two corbels above; farther N. is a modern opening.

The North Vestry, adjoining the porch, is of two storeys and probably of 14th-century date. The lower room has a modern window in the N. wall and had a staircase in the N.W. angle, lit by a still existing window and now replaced by a modern staircase, S. of the chimney-stack. In the E. wall is a loop-light cut by the modern ceiling. The upper room has, in the E. wall, a window of one trefoiled ogee light. In the N. wall is a window of two square-beaded lights.

The Tower (19 ft. square) is of four stages with a raking plinth; the three lower stages are of c. 1230–40, but the bell-chamber and spire were added in 1727–34. The ground stage has, in each wall, a small lancet-window; farther W. in the S. wall is a doorway with jambs and two-centred arch of two chamfered orders with a moulded label. The second stage has, in each wall, a larger lancet-window. The third stage is ashlar-faced and has, in each wall, three large lancetwindows with moulded labels; the side windows are mostly blocked.

The Roofs of the chancel and nave are of simple trussed-rafter type and perhaps of the 15th century; that of the N. chapel and aisle (Plate 19), probably of the 14th century, is of fifteen bays with curved braces to the collars and curved wind-braces; the roof of the S. aisle is similar and of eleven bays; this roof and that of the N. chapel have moulded wall-plates. The wall-plates of the nave are inscribed I.P. 1619 and T.C. 1689 P.H., probably the dates of repairs. The 14th-century roof of the outer N. chapel is of flat pitch and of two bays with moulded tie-beams, traceried filling above them, and carved angels on the tie-beams holding scrolls or a dove (?); the bays are each divided into eight panels by moulded rafters and purlins. The roofs of the upper storey of the porch and the adjoining room are probably of the 17th century and are of two bays with curved principals under the collars.

Fittings—Bells: eight; 1st, 1690; 3rd, 1706; 6th, 1690; 7th, 1699; 1st, 6th and 7th by Abraham Rudhall. Bell-frame old but reconstructed. Brasses: In chancel—(1) to Sarah (Risby) wife of George Skippe, 1665, inscription with achievement-of-arms; on N. wall, (2) to Thomas Cupper, 1621, inscription only; (3) of John Hayward, 1614, figure of man in armour of period; on S. wall, (4) to Richard Capel, 1601, inscription only; (5) of William Calwe, c. 1410, kneeling figure of priest in academic robes, figure of St. Peter lost; (6) of Thomas Capel, 1490, figure of man in armour of period, with livery collar and feet on horse. In S. chapel—(7) to Richard Haywarde, 1618, inscription only; on N. wall, (8) to Thomas Chamburs, 1605, inscription only. Chairs: In chancel (Plate 145) —(1) with front legs and back posts carved with leaf-ornament, front rail with vine-scroll and carved brackets below, carved arms with turned supports, rails to back carved with inscriptions "Miserere" and "Spes mea Christus," carved panels in back representing the Entry into Jerusalem and the Adoration of the Magi, scrolled cresting with brackets carved as cherubs; footstool with two carved beasts on front, early 17th-century, carved panels and carvings on stool, 16th century; (2) with turned legs, shaped arms, panelled back with guilloche-ornament and scrolled rails, early 17th-century; (3) with turned legs, shaped arms and carved rails, panelled back with guilloche-ornament, early 17th-century. In N. aisle—stool, with turned legs, 17th-century. Chests: In chancel—with carved or incised styles and rails, panelled front and ends, each panel with enriched lozenges and rosettes, c. 1600. In N. chapel—of hutch-type with strap-hinges, three locks remaining, 17th-century. In N. aisle (Plate 45)—with carved styles and rails, front panels each carved with five rosettes, early 17th-century. Coffin-lid: In N. aisle—tapering slab with trefoil-shaped sinking for inlay at head and inscription "Wills. Chaumberleng," late 13th or early 14th-century, later inscription defaced. Consecration Cross: In N. aisle—on E. splay of N. doorway, sunk circle with formy cross. Door: In N. doorway—of plain battens with later back and modern fillets on front. Drain: In upper storey of porch—in W. wall, recess with trefoiled ogee head and round projecting drain, 14th-century. Glass: In chancel— in tracery of E. window, two censing angels, figures of St. Peter, St. Michael and a bishop, borders, etc., 15th-century, mostly in situ; in tracery of second window on N. side, five quatrefoils with leaves, etc., 15th-century, in situ. In N. chapel—in N.E. window, three shields, (a) a chained swan on a field parted sable and gules, (b) France and England quarterly with a label argent, (c) Tracy, late 15th or early 16th-century. In outer N. chapel—in S.W. window, jumble of fragments of various dates including parts of two 13th-century figure-subjects, (a) the Flight into Egypt, (b) the Massacre of the Innocents, also 15th-century kneeling figure of a king, a crucifix, foliage, tabernacle-work, fragment of inscription, etc., in tracery, modern glass probably incorporating some 14th-century material; in N.E. window, head of king, late 15th or early 16th-century. Lockers: In chancel—in N. and S. walls, two pairs with rebated reveals and round heads, late 12th-century. In N. chapel—in N. wall, with rebated reveals and square head, late 13th-century; in E. wall, with rebated reveals and trefoiled head, late 13th-century; in S. wall, large, with rebated reveals and round head, pierced at back for squint, late 12th-century. In S. chapel—in E. wall, plain rectangular recess, early 14th-century. In upper storey of porch— in W. wall, plain rectangular recess. Monuments and Floor-slabs. Monuments: In chancel—on N. wall, (1) of Dr. Thomas Thornton, Master of St. Katherine's Hospital, 1629, wall-monument (Plate 62) with bust in ruff and skull-cap, Corinthian side-columns supporting half-round pediment, five shields-of-arms; on S. wall, (2) of Dr. [John] Hoskins, [1631], rector, stone and marble wall-monument with bust, in ruff and cap, draped canopy with cherub-heads, one shield-of-arms; (3) of Edward Skynner, 1631, and Elizabeth his wife, 1628–9, large alabaster and marble monument (Plate 144) with base and canopy, on base kneeling figures of man in civil costume and wife in large hat, inscription, recumbent figure of girl-child and shield-of-arms at back, on front of base kneeling figures of five sons and five daughters, flat canopy with entablature, supported on three Corinthian columns and two pilasters against wall. In N. chapel—against N. wall, (4) probably to a sister of Grymbald Pauncefot who married a Carew, and of late 14th-century date, altar-tomb, effigy and semicanopy (Plate 140), altar-tomb with enriched cornice and panelled projections at ends, front divided into seven cinque-foiled panels each with a blank shield hanging from foliage, effigy (Plate 141) of lady in wimple, headfillet and long gown draped over side of tomb, canopy with embattled cornice, projecting ends and a ribbed halfvault returned along the projections, projecting ends, with traceried panels and crocketed gables, under vault eleven cinque-foiled panels each with a shield carved with the arms of Carew (four times), Pauncefot (three times) and two liens passant (four times). In outer N. chapel—against S. wall, (5) effigy of priest (Plate 142) in mass-vestments with trefoiled recumbent canopy over head, springing from side-shafts, mid to late 13th-century. In S. chapel—at E. end, (6) to Benjamin Prichard, prebendary of Hereford and vicar of Ledbury, 1701, and Gertrude his wife, 1727, plain slab; (7) of Edward Cooper, archdeacon of Hereford and master of St. Katherine's Hospital, 1596, slab (Plate 125) with incised figure of man in ruff, cap and gown, cap, sleeves and shoes painted black or blue and lines formerly filled with dark composition. In S. aisle—against W. wall, (8) to Elizabeth, daughter of Francis Hall, 1708, draped white marble tablet with pediment and vase; (9) of Constance (Hall), wife of Anthony Biddulph, 1706, also to Anthony Biddulph, 1718, marble monument with reclining effigies (Plate 143) of man and wife on pedestals, in costume of period, inscribed tablet on wall at back with drapery, cherub-heads, achievement and shields-of-arms. In churchyard—N. of tower, (10) to William Jones, 1705, head-stone; N.W. of porch, (11) to James Brown, 1664, head-stone; W. of W. doorway, (12) to ...... daughter of John Harber [?], 1696, headstone; S.W. of S. aisle, (13) to Ambrose Weaver, 1641, flat stone; S. of S. aisle, (14) to ....., 1662, small head-stone; (15) to Mary, wife of William Grundy, 1689, and Sarah, wife of William Lacy, 1690, twin head-stone; on E. wall of outer N. chapel, (16) to Roger Showell, 1711–12, inscription and cherub-head, cut on masonry. Floor-slabs: In chancel—(1) to John Skippe, 1619, and to John Skippe, 1684. In outer N. chapel—(2) to Thomas Higgins, 1637, and others later; (3) to John H[a]ll, late 17th-century; (4) to Elizabeth, wife of John Devereux, 1702–3; (5) to ..... Ellis, 1679; (6) to Sarah, wife of William Mathews, 1712, and William Mathews, 1712. In nave —(7) to William Berrow, 1704; (8) to William, son of above, 1696. In N. chapel—(9) to Francis Hall, 1680, and Constance, his widow, 1703, with achievement-of-arms; (10) to John Deven, 1689, Joan, his wife, 1709, and others later; (11) to ..... Elton, 1702. In N. aisle—(12) to Richard Mathews, 1695, and Elizabeth his wife, 1725; (13) to Comfort, wife successively of Thomas Cox and William Skynner, 1701, and others later; (14) to Jonathan Millard, 1691, and Elizabeth, his wife, 1709, and others later; (15) to Sarah, daughter of Robert Cutler, 1700; (16) to ..... 1674; (17) to Elizabeth Cox, 1710; (18) to Edward Drew, 1710. In S. aisle—(19) to Edmund Tomlins, 1707; (20) to Thomas Tomlins, 1707, and others later, with achievement-of-arms. Piscinæ: In chancel—in recess in S. wall, square drain, mediæval. In N. chapel—in locker in S. wall, square drain, mediæval, later rectangular sinking to W. In S. chapel— in S. wall, recess with pointed head of two orders, quatre-foiled drain, early 14th-century. Plate (Plate 68): includes tall cup of 1571 with band of engraved ornament; cover-paten probably 17th-century; two flagons of 1698, given by Anthony Biddulph, with achievement-of-arms; and a stand-paten, probably late 17th-century. Recesses: In chancel—in N. wall, with sunk chamfered jambs and four-centred head, late 15th or early 16th-century, possibly Easter Sepulchre; in S. wall, with square jambs and segmental head, mediæval. In outer N. chapel—in S. wall, with chamfered jambs and segmental head, 14th-century, restored. Scratchings: On 12th-century masonry of chancel and chancelarcades, masons' marks. On masonry of upper storey of vestry, masons' marks. Stalls: In chancel—on N. side, range of six with heavy top rail, shaped for backs, shaped moulded and pierced sides and moulded misericordes, late 15th or early 16th-century with modern repair; on S. side three, similar, incorporated with modern work and with carved foliations to misericordes. Sundials: On fifth buttress from E. of S. wall of aisle, two scratched dials. Tables: In nave— (1) modern but incorporating two terminal figures of women holding books, c. 1600, and round panel with carved figure-subject, the Entombment, possibly 17th-century. In vestry—(2) oval gate-legged table, late 17th-century. Miscellanea: In upper storey of porch— remains of rood-screen with traceried heads in three bays, each of four cinque-foiled lights, two portions of vaulting, fragments of cresting, etc., 15th-century; two oak terminal figures and a carved panel and fascia, early 17th-century. In outer N. chapel—sword, with Solingen blade and basket-hilt, said to have belonged to Major Backhouse, 17th-century. On W. face of N. buttress of N. chapel, scratched design of one of the windows of the outer N. chapel, date uncertain.

St. Katherine's Hospital, Ledbury

Condition—Good.

Secular

(2). St. Katherine's Hospital, chapel, master's house and barn, stands on the W. side of High Street. The Hospital was founded in 1232 by Bishop Hugh Foliot, but the chapel and hall, under one roof, appear to have been re-built c. 1330–40. The master's house was built in the 15th century but enlarged in the 16th and much altered in the 18th and 19th centuries. The almshouse-tenements are modern.

The buildings form an interesting example of hospital-planning.

The Chapel and Hall (93 ft. by 29½ ft.) in one range have walls of local stone rubble with dressings of the same material; the roof is tiled. The chapel occupies the 22 ft. at the E. end and has, in the E. wall (Plate 6), three mid 14th-century windows, the middle one of three trefoiled ogee lights with tracery in a two-centred head with a moulded label; the side windows are each of a single lancet-light; below the middle window, internally, are one jamb and part of the arch of a recess, now blocked. In the N. wall is a window of one trefoiled light. In the S. wall are two windows, the eastern a lancet-light, now blocked, and the western of two trefoiled lights in a two-centred head. The roof of the chapel has modern wood ceiling, but at the W. end is a 14th-century truss with curved braces, forming a segmental pointed arch supporting the tie-beam; the braces spring from semi-octagonal posts against the side walls with damaged moulded capitals; there are curved braces between the tie-beam and the collar. This truss marked the division between the chapel and the hall and is now closed in by a modern partition; above it on the ridge of the roof is a square bell-turret with a vane of 1763.

Fittings—Bell: inaccessible. Communion Table: with turned legs, moulded rails and small brackets, early 17th-century. Glass: In middle E. window—remains of borders, partly in situ, shield-of-arms of Grandison, head of virgin-saint and other fragments, 14th and 15th-century. In S.W. window, part of seated figure, 15th-century. Locker: In N. wall, rectangular with rebated reveals and grooves for shelf, 14th-century, now blocked. Paving: various slip-tiles, forming designs of sixteen and four tiles, former with repeatinscription "Gratias Deo," set of four with repeatinscription "Dne. Ihu. miser[er]e," also roses, fleurs-de-lis, eagle's head and shield-of-arms of Edward the Confessor and Beauchamp with a crescent for difference late 14th or 15th-century.

Ledbury, St. Katherine's Hospital

The Hall, now divided into three rooms, has, in the N. wall, three windows possibly of mediæval origin but all much altered; between the two easternmost is a 14th-century doorway with chamfered jambs and segmental-pointed arch; below the other window is a doorway, probably modern; farther W. is a 14th-century doorway with chamfered jambs and two-centred head now blocked. In the S. wall is a blocked window and doorway the latter with a segmental-pointed rear-arch of the 14th-century; farther W. is a much damaged fireplace and remains of an oven. In the W. wall are four windows, the two upper blocked, they are all of uncertain date. The roof of the five E. bays of the hall is original and has curved and moulded braces below the collars and two tiers of foiled wind-braces. The roof of the two W. bays is of the 17th century or later. The three E. bays of the building now form a vestibule to the chapel; the rest of the building either has or had an inserted floor forming two storeys.

The Master's House is of two storeys partly timber-framed and partly of brick; the roofs are covered with tiles and slates. It is of irregular L-shaped plan with the wings extending towards the N. and W. The original 15th-century house formed part of the W. wing, with a central hall and kitchen and solar-wings at the E. and W. ends. The house was altered in the 16th and 17th centuries and in the 18th century the S. front was re-built in advance of the earlier line. An addition was made at the W. end in 1867. Some of the timber-framing is exposed externally. Inside the building the Drawing-Room occupying the original Hall and screens has, above the ceiling, the original roof of four bays including the narrow screens-bay at the E. end; the central truss has a tie-beam with curved braces below and arched braces below the collar. The screens-truss had posts carried down to the floor to form speres and with curved braces below the tie-beam in the central opening; above the tie-beam are queenposts and above the collar two further posts foiled on the inner face; similar construction is repeated in the W. truss which has a moulded tie-beam, but no posts below it. The Dining Room in the former solar-wing is lined with late 16th-century panelling with an enriched frieze; the fireplace is flanked by Ionic pilasters and above the opening are four arcaded panels divided by pilasters; the overmantel has a late 16th-century painting of Bishop Foliot, the founder, with inscriptions and on the frieze above are the initials and date E.C., 1588, the fireplace itself has an early 18th-century marble surround. The S.E. room, in the former kitchen-wing, is lined with 18th-century bolection-moulded panelling. Other parts of the house have exposed ceiling-beams and the kitchen has an early 18th-century fireplace with an elliptical head of stone and plain key and impost-blocks.

The Barn, S.W. of the hospital, is timber-framed with a tiled roof. It was built in the 17th century but has been partly reconstructed.

Condition—Good, but much ivy on N. and W. walls of Hall.

Ledbury, the Market Hall

(3). The Market Hall (Plate 146) stands in the middle of High Street and is of two storeys, timber-framed and with a tiled roof. It is said to have been built in 1633 by John Abel, the architect of the destroyed market-hall at Hereford, and is a good example of timber-framing. The lower storey is open and has seven posts on the long sides and three at the ends all with curved braces supporting the upper storey; the posts are moulded, grooved and tapered and have moulded bases on stone plinths. The upper storey projects on all sides and has chamfered bressummers and exposed timber-framing; the framing on the W. and S. is of herring-bone form between the uprights; on the other sides it forms square panels. The windows are mostly modern. Inside the building, the lower storey has exposed and chamfered ceiling-beams forming square bays. The upper storey has similar beams and exposed wall-posts; there is no ceiling except at the S. end above the dais. The roof has raking struts, from the main or tie-beams to the lower purlins, and collars above. The staircase is modern.

Condition—Good.

(4). Ledbury Park, house and outbuildings at the corner of Worcester Road and the South End, 200 yards S.W. of the church. The House (Plate 148) is of three storeys, timber-framed and with tiled roofs. The earliest part of the house is the late 16th-century W. range, which appears to have been originally of two storeys. In the first half of the 17th century the top storey was added and the N. range built. The stables and lodge, E. of the house, were added in the 18th century, before 1733, the date of an existing view of the house, showing them in existence; the S. front of the main block was re-built in 1820. Modern additions include an extension of the N. range and the addition of an E. range closing in the courtyard.

The W. range is a good example of timber-construction.

The W. Front has exposed timber-framing; the upper storeys project and some of the main timbers are moulded. The bressummer below the top storey is moulded as is the beam at the base of the five gables. The bressummer at the first-floor level has a modern fascia-board and the brackets and pendants have been hacked away. The windows are all modern except the small sidelights, now blocked, flanking the S. windows of the two lower floors; these have moulded frames. The main entrance was formerly in the middle of this range. The N. Front has a gabled end to the W. range, with a projection at the first-floor level. The rest of the front is of the 17th century and of two storeys with attics; the upper storey projects and has widely-spaced timber-framing in square panels; the ground-storey is rough-cast. The S. and E. Fronts have no ancient features. The upper storey on the S. side of the N. range projects on a moulded bressummer with shaped brackets.

Interior—The S. room in the W. range has a modern fireplace incorporating 17th-century material, including flanking pilasters with jewel-ornament and an overmantel of two enriched arcaded bays, divided and flanked by terminal pilasters. The N. room, in the same range, is lined with original panelling, with the date 1590 over the doorway and sliding shutters to the windows; the ceiling-beams are moulded. There are moulded ceiling-beams, also, in the middle room on the first floor. The N. range retains some 17th-century moulded ceiling-beams, and a mid 17th-century staircase (Plate 74) with moulded strings turned balusters and square newels, some with rosette-pendants. A room in the modern E. range is lined with early 17th-century panelling and there is a little panelling of the same age elsewhere in the building.

The Stable, S.E. of the house, is of early 18th-century date and of T-shaped plan with the cross-wing at the E. end. It is of two storeys with attics; the walls are of brick, with a band between the storeys. In the N. wall are two round-headed doorways with sandstone surrounds and old panelled doors. Other doors also are old. The roof has five king-post trusses with sloping struts.

The Lodge, on the road E. of the house, is a square brick building of two storeys with a tiled pyramidal roof. Each wall is recessed or panelled and the eaves have a modillioned cornice. It was built early in the 18th century.

Condition—Good.

(5). Upper Hall, formerly Over Hall, about 150 yards N. of the church, is an 18th-century or modern building, except for a late 17th-century wing on the S. This is of two storeys with cellars and attics; the walls are of brick with some stone and the roofs are tiled. There is a band between the stories carried up as a pediment over the E. doorway and a modillioned eaves-cornice. Inside the building, the original staircase has moulded strings, twisted balusters and square newels. The roof-trusses are of king-post type.

Condition—Good.

(6). Lower Hall, formerly Nether Hall, 60 yards N. of the church, is of two storeys with attics; the walls are of brick and the roofs are tiled. It was largely re-built early in the 18th century and has later additions on the S. and E. The N. front has a projecting central bay and doorway, the latter with a pedimental hood resting on scrolled brackets. The windows have flush-frames. Set in a stone wall, now internal, are three old stones—(a) part of a carved figure, probably of the 15th century; (b) the cinque-foiled head of a 15th-century niche; (c) a mounted figure carved on a round stone.

Condition—Good.

(7). The Rectory, W. of the churchyard, incorporates a 17th-century timber-framed building of one storey with a two-storeyed wing, on the W., of the same age and construction. Both have been much altered.

Condition—Good.

Ledbury, Plan Showing the Position of Monuments

Monuments (8–89)

The following monuments, unless otherwise described, are of the 17th century and of two storeys or two storeys with attics; the walls are timber-framed and the roofs are covered with tiles or slates. Some of the buildings have old chimney-stacks and exposed ceiling-beams.

Condition—Good or fairly good, unless noted.

High Street, E. side:

(8). House and Shop, No. 1, at the S. corner of Church Lane, was built probably in the 16th century and is of L-shaped plan with the wings extending towards the E. and S. The timber-framing is exposed and is close-set in the S. wing. Forming an extension to the E. wing is a 17th-century cottage, and standing detached to the S.E. is another building of the same century.

(9). House and shop, No. 3, 10 yards S. of (8), has an 18th-century front block with a 17th-century wing at the back and an early 18th-century extension of brick.

(10). House and bank, No. 4, S. of (9), has an 18th-century front-block, with a much altered range at the back, extended in brick late in the 17th or early in the 18th century. This extension has a roof with queenpost trusses.

(11). House and shop, No. 5, S. of (10), is of three storeys with cellars. It was built early in the 18th century, of brick, but the stone-built cellars may be older. The front is modern.

(12). House and shop, No. 6, S. of (11), of three storeys with cellars, was completely altered late in the 18th century. At the back is a warehouse with queenpost roof-trusses.

(13). House and shop, No. 8, 10 yards S. of (12), is of three storeys with cellars. It has been much altered and re-fronted in brick. Two buildings at the back have exposed timber-framing.

(14). House and shop, No. 9, S. of (13), is of three storeys and was built late in the 16th century. The front has been modernised but at the back are two gables with ornamental barge-boards. Farther back are three other buildings, of which the first is of three storeys with exposed timber-framing; the upper storeys project on moulded bressummers with shaped posts and brackets under the upper projection. The second building is a brick-built extension of the last, and the third building, formerly detached, has exposed timber-framing. Inside the first of these back buildings is some late 16th-century panelling and an early 18th-century staircase with turned balusters.

(15). House and shop, No. 10, S. of (14), is of three storeys and was extended at the back late in the 17th century. The top storey projects in front. The back has been fronted with brick. The extension, also of brick, has some late 17th-century mullion and transom windows, and an 18th-century extension beyond. Inside the building the late 17th-century staircases have moulded strings, turned balusters and pendants to the newels. There is some late 16th-century panelling.

(16). House and shop, No. 12, 10 yards S. of (15), has a front block of the 18th century with a rainwater-pipe, perhaps re-used from an earlier building; it has an ornamental head and bands. The back wing is of brick and perhaps of late 17th-century date. Inside the front building is an early 18th-century staircase with turned balusters.

(17). Houses and shops, Nos. 14 and 15, 10 yards S. of (16), are of three storeys and have a modern brick front. At the back of No. 14 is a building with exposed timber-framing, and on the opposite side of the yard is a second building of brick and of c. 1690–1700. In the garden is a re-erected portion of the former Butchers' Row, in the middle of the High Street, pulled down c. 1835–40. The building is of late 16th-century date with exposed timber-framing and a projecting upper storey on the S. side. Inside the front block of No. 14 are some re-used flat wavy balusters. There is some similar balustrading in the brick building N. of the yard.

(18). House and shop, No. 17, 10 yards S. of (17), is of three storeys and was built late in the 16th century. The front has exposed and close-set timber framing to the two upper storeys; the top storey projects on a moulded bressummer; the windows are mostly modern. At the back is an early 18th-century extension of brick. The shop has moulded ceiling-beams. On the E. side of the back yard is a building with exposed timber-framing in square panels; the upper storey projects on the E. side on a moulded bressummer and shaped bracket.

(19). House and shop, No. 18, S. of (18), is of three storeys and was probably re-built in brick early in the 18th century, but the front part is modern. At the end of a long E. extension is a building, now a kitchen, with exposed timber-framing. It was formerly a detached cottage.

(20). House and shop, No. 19, S. of (19), is of three storeys of which the uppermost is an addition. Inside the building, on the ground floor, are original moulded ceiling-beams.

(21). House and shop, No. 20, S. of (20) and at the corner of Worcester Road, is of three storeys of which the uppermost is an addition. The extension at the back may have been built as a separate house. Some timber-framing is exposed towards the yard. Inside the building the staircase has some flat shaped balusters.

W. side

(22). House and shop, No. 21, at the N. corner of New Street, is of three storeys. The top storey projects on the E. front on shaped brackets and the whole front is plastered. There is a moulded beam in the passage to the back yard. A door-post with an attached Ionic column is preserved in a shed at the back.

(23). House and shop, No. 22, N. of (22), is of three storeys, with a gabled front. The top storey projects on the E. front.

(24). House and shop, No. 23, N. of (23), is of three storeys with a gabled front. The top storey projects and in the middle of the front is a window-projection of two storeys.

(25). The Feathers Hotel, formerly two houses, 20 yards N. of (24), is partly of four and partly of three storeys, with cellars. The S. block was built c. 1560–70 and the top storey was added early in the 17th century when the N. block was built. The back wing was added about the middle of the 17th century together with the staircase wing. There are 18th-century and modern additions.

The front (Plate 149) is a good example of timber-framing.

The S. part of the E. front is of three main bays with exposed and close-set timber-framing and each of the upper storeys project. The main bays are divided and flanked by superimposed pilasters terminating under the cornices of the projections; the pilasters on the lowest storey, only one of which remains, were fluted and had foliated caps of Ionic character forming brackets; the pilasters of the second storey have conventional foliage ornament rising from a vase and a scrolled capital or bracket; the pilasters of the third storey have bulbous Ionic half-columns. The added top storey has five gables with moulded barge-boards and pendants. The N. part of the front is of three storeys and has exposed timber-framing. The upper storeys formerly projected, but the lower projection has been under-built. Below the moulded bressummer of the second floor and below the eaves-cornice are scrolled brackets with Ionic capitals.

The interior of the building has been much altered but much of the timber-framing is exposed. On the first floor of the S. block the ceiling has decoration in the form of a cross in a large circle. The roofs show evidence of alteration. The staircase has been altered and partly re-arranged; it is of late 17th-century date and has twisted balusters and heavy moulded strings.

(26). House and shop, No. 27, immediately S. of (2), is of three storeys with cellars. It is in two portions connected by a short staircase wing. The timber-framing is exposed at the front and back of the main block. The top storey projects on the E. on a moulded bressummer and carved brackets; on the middle of the beam is the intial and date H. 1695.

The Homend, E. side:

(27). House and shop, No. 1, at the N. corner of the Market Place, formerly four shops, has been entirely re-fronted in 18th-century and modern times, and has an 18th-century addition at the back.

(28). Houses, shop, No. 5, and the New Inn, N. of (27), were re-fronted in the 18th century. The back wing has some exposed timber-framing and in the S. wall is an original window of four lights with moulded mullions. The framing is also exposed at the back of No. 5.

(29). House and shop, No. 9, N. of (28), was built c. 1600 but remodelled in the 18th century. There is some exposed timber-framing in the back wing. Within the modern front is an original post with a bracketed head.

(30). Seven Stars Inn, N. of (29), was built probably late in the 16th century. The upper storey formerly projected in front but has been under-built; one post and part of the moulded bressummer are exposed in a passage. The doorway has a moulded frame and scrolled brackets at the head. There is some exposed timber-framing at the back. Inside the building a room on the first floor has a plaster ceiling with fleurs-de-lis and rosettes, now papered over.

(31). House and shop, No. 13, N. of (30), is of three storeys and has a modern front. Some of the timber-framing is exposed at the back. At the back of the adjoining house is a reconstructed timber-framed building said to have formed part of the destroyed Butchers' Row.

(32). Cinema House, 50 yards N.N.W. of (30), is of three storeys, remodelled late in the 18th century. The top storey projects on the W. front.

(33). Abbey House, 50 yards N.N.W. of (32), was built c. 1600 on an L-shaped plan with the wings extending towards the S. and E. The timber-framing is exposed on the W. front and the upper storey projects on a moulded bressummer with shaped brackets; near the middle is a square projecting bay of two storeys with modern windows. Some framing is exposed in the E. wing.

(34). Horse Shoe Inn, N. of (33), is of three storeys with cellars; some timber-framing is exposed at the back.

(35). House, No. 67, N. of (34), and tenements, Nos. 43 and 45, at the back, has an 18th-century brick front. Some timber-framing is exposed at the back.

(36). Houses, Nos. 71–75, N. of (35), were built early in the 18th century; the walls are partly of brick.

(37). Houses, Nos. 77–81, N. of (36), were remodelled and the front re-built in brick early in the 18th century. There is some exposed timber-framing at the back.

(38). House, No. 123, 20 yards N.N.W. of (37), has been largely re-built in brick.

(39). Houses, Nos. 183–187, 130 yards N. of (38), have been much altered.

(40). Houses, Nos. 233 and 235, 80 yards N. of (39), were built or re-built c. 1600 but incorporate, at the N. end, a mediæval crutch-truss. There are possible remains of a second crutch-truss inside the building.

W. side

(41). House and shop, No. 4, 10 yards N. of Bye Street, is of three storeys, and has been much altered and re-fronted. The back wing has some exposed timber-framing and a stone fireplace projection with a brick shaft ornamented with pilaster-strips. Inside the building the W. room in the wing is lined with early 18th-century panelling with fluted pilasters flanking the fireplace; the fireplace has a panelled stone surround with elliptical head and key-stone.

(42). Range of houses and shops, Nos. 6–10, N. of (41), is of three storeys and has been re-fronted in brick. Within the passage through the building is an original post with a moulded top supporting the moulded bressummer of the formerly projecting second storey.

(43). House, No. 22, 50 yards N. of (42), has been completely altered internally and externally, but retains an early 18th-century staircase with moulded strings and turned balusters. In the garden is a re-erected timber-framed building said to have formed part of the destroyed Butchers' Row.

(44). House, No. 24, N. of (43), has been re-fronted in brick, but in the passage is a post with a moulded bracket supporting the moulded bressummer of the former projecting upper storey.

(45). House, No. 30, N. of (44), with houses Nos. 26 and 28, forming a back wing. No. 30 is of three storeys with attics, and it and the other buildings have been largely re-faced with brick. In No. 26 is a fireplace with an early 18th-century moulded surround.

(46). House and shop, No. 32, N. of (45), has been re-fronted in brick, but the timber-framing of the back wing is exposed. In the yard at the back is a small timber-framed building now used as a workshop.

(47). House, No. 34, N. of (46), has been re-fronted in brick, but some of the framing of the back wing is exposed.

(48). Shell House, N. of (47), was built early in the 18th century. The walls are of brick, with a band between the storeys and square-headed windows. The front doorway has an enriched shell-hood (Plate 38) resting on shaped brackets. Inside the building, the S.E. room is lined with 18th-century bolection-moulded panelling of unusual character; flanking the fireplace are fluted Ionic pilasters. The ceiling has an oval panel in the middle.

(49). House and shop, No. 38, N. of (48), was re-fronted in the 18th century. There is some exposed timber-framing in the back wing. Inside the building is a portion of the original staircase with turned balusters. At the back of the wing is a second building with exposed framing.

(50). House, No. 42, 10 yards N. of (49), is of L-shaped plan with the wings extending towards the S. and W. The timber-framing is exposed on the E. front, where there is a gabled porch of two storeys, the upper one of which projects. There is also some exposed framing at the back. Inside the building is a door of moulded battens and two ceilings have flush mouldings against the beams.

(51). Range of tenements, Nos. 44–48, N. of (50), was built probably early in the 18th century; the walls are of brick.

(52). Houses, Nos. 52–56, 10 yards N. of (51), and houses Nos. 58, 60 and 64, at the back, were built late in the 17th or early in the 18th century but have all been much altered. All have some exposed timber-framing. There is a bake-house, of the same date as the rest of the buildings, on the S. side of the yard.

(53). House, No. 90, 85 yards N.N.W. of (52), was built probably early in the 18th century but has been re-fronted in brick.

The South End, W. side:

(54). House (Plate 150) and shop, at the S. corner of New Street, is of three storeys and was built c. 1600. The top storey projects on both the E. and N. fronts and on the N. front the second storey projects over the footpath on five posts; these posts taper to the base and have bracketed heads and moulded bases; they support a moulded bressummer. The top projection rests on projecting posts and brackets on the face of the storey below.

(55). House and shop, S. of (54), was built c. 1600, but the attic-storey has been heightened. The moulded bressummer under the former projecting upper storey, is now within the shop-front.

(56). Royal Oak Hotel, 20 yards S. of (55), is of three storeys with cellars. It was built probably late in the 16th century, on an L-shaped plan, with the wings extending towards the N. and W. The front has been re-faced in brick. The timber-framing is exposed in the back wing and in the covered entrance to the yard. Inside the building, the dining-room is lined with original panelling, with an enriched cornice; the overmantel is made up and has enriched pilasters between the bays. The roofs are of queen-post type. The cellars have rubble-walling.

(57). House and shop, No. 7, 15 yards S. of (56), has a modern brick front.

(58). House and shop, No. 9, 5 yards S. of (57), is of three storeys and has an 18th-century brick front. The timber-framing is exposed at the back.

(59). Cookery School, 40 yards S. of (58), originally a Charity School, founded in 1706 by Mrs. Elizabeth Hall, was entirely re-built in 1910. It retains some original fittings in the Lecture Kitchen. These consist of the high-seat (Plate 145) against the E. wall and panelling on this and the adjoining walls; the box-seat has turned arm-posts and curved arms, a tall panelled back and a canopy or hood resting on carved and scrolled brackets and having a segmental pediment with the arms of Hall. The panelling has fielded panels and a moulded cornice, ramped up on either side of the high-seat.

(60). Cottage, No. 19, 20 yards S. of (59), has exposed timber-framing on the E. front.

E. side:

(61). Bowling Green Cottage, 340 yards S. of Worcester Road, is of three storeys with attics; the walls are of brick. It was built late in the 17th or early in the 18th century, and has 18th-century and modern additions. In the N. wall is a door of moulded battens, with strap-hinges. S.E. of the house is a modern summer-house, fitted with panelling, said to be of early 18th-century date.

Back Lane, N.W. side:

(62). Cottages, Nos. 22 and 23, 110 yards W.N.W. of the church, have exposed timber-framing on the S.E. front.

(63). Cottages (Plate 22), Nos. 24, 25 and 26, N.E. of (62), have exposed timber-framing on the S.E. front. The upper storey projects on this side, but has been under-built in brick, as regards No. 24.

(64). Cottage (Plate 22), No. 27, N.E. of (63), has exposed timber-framing on the front and N.E. end.

Church Lane (Frontispiece), N. side:

(65). Block of houses, including office, shop, etc., at the N.W. angle of the lane, between it and Back Lane. The office-building at the S.W. angle is of 15th-century date. It was extended towards the E. c. 1600, and about the same time the double-gabled N. wing was added. There are 18th-century and modern additions. The timber-framing is exposed and the upper storey projects on the whole of the S. front; the framing is close-set and the moulded bressummer is of the 15th century in the W. part and of c. 1600 to the rest of the front. The upper storey has a projecting four-light transomed window in the original part, with chamfered frame and mullions; in the later building there are three projecting windows, two of five and one of three lights, with moulded mullions, transoms, sills and brackets. The timber-framing is exposed in the upper storey of the W. end and on the front of the back wing, where it is in large panels. Inside the building, the office is lined with late 16th or early 17th-century panelling with a cornice and fluted frieze; under the ceiling-beam are pilasters with panels of carved conventional foliage.

(66). Prince of Wales Inn, 30 yards E. of (65), has exposed timber-framing in the upper parts of the S. front and W. end.

(67). The Old Grammar School, now tenements, E. of (66), was built late in the 15th century and has exposed timber-framing on the whole of the S. front. The upper storey projects on this side and has an original moulded bressummer and curved brackets springing from octagonal shafts with moulded capitals. The framing is also exposed at the back and E. end.

S. side:

(68). Houses, opposite (66) and (67). The W. house has exposed timber-framing at the back, but the E. house has been re-faced with brick both at the front and back.

(69). The Church House (Plate 147), now three houses, 15 yards E. of (68), is of three storeys with cellars. It was built c. 1600 on an L-shaped plan with the wings extending towards the W. and S.

The house is a good and complete example of timber-framing.

On the N. front, the close-set timber-framing is exposed and the upper storeys project on moulded bressummers with shaped brackets; there is a slight projection also under the four gables with a moulded beam below it. The entrance-passage at the W. end has moulded side-posts. On the first floor are three original windows, with moulded frames, transoms and mullions; one of these forms a semi-octagonal projection with a gable and modern brackets. The gables of the top storey have moulded barge-boards. The timber-framing is exposed on the E. side and on the W. face of the S. wing; here the second storey projects on a moulded bressummer with shaped brackets. Inside the building, the N.E. room has part of the ceiling enriched with lozenge-shaped plaques with devices of an elephant, birds, lion's face, etc. The next room to the W. is lined with original panelling, and this and the room beyond have flat plaster mouldings round the beams and walls.

Worcester Road, N. side:

(70). Range of houses, 60 yards E. of High Street, was built probably early in the 18th century. The walls are of brick. At the back there is a brick band between the storeys and an original window with a solid frame.

(71). House, 80 yards E. of (70), was built late in the 17th or early in the 18th century. The walls are of brick. The S. front has some original windows, with solid frames, mullions and transoms. Inside the building, the staircase has turned balusters and plain newels. W. of the house is an outbuilding of rubble with timber-framing above.

Bye Street, N. side:

(72). Cottages, Nos. 61–65, 180 yards W. of the Homend, have exposed timber-framing in the upper part of the S. front.

Condition—Poor.

S. side:

(73). Cottages, Nos. 6–10, 45 yards E. of High Street; the front block appears to have been heightened early in the 18th century when the two tenements, forming the back wing, were added. The timber-framing is mostly exposed.

(74). The 'Bishop's Palace' (Plate 22), cottages, Nos. 28–32, 20 yards W. of (73). The front block was the hall of a 14th-century house, of four bays, but the E. bay may perhaps have formed part of the kitchen-wing and the next bay W. of it, the screens of the hall. A floor and chimney-stack were inserted late in the 16th or early in the 17th century and the back wing was added later in the 17th century.

The house is interesting as an example of 14th-century work.

The timber-framing is exposed on part of the S. front which has remains of an original window at the first-floor level; it appears to have been of five ogee-headed lights, with moulded mullions and small rosettes carved in the spandrels of the square head. At the back is one original window of two lights with diamond-shaped mullions. Inside the building, two original roof-trusses remain, one towards the E., complete and consisting of cambered tie-beam with curved braces below and sloping struts to the principal rafters above; the top-spandrel is cut in the form of a large quatrefoil; the second truss was probably similar but has now no struts or braces. There is some 17th-century panelling on the first floor.

Condition—Poor.

(75). Cottages, Nos. 36 and 38, 10 yards W. of (74), were built late in the 17th or early in the 18th century, and have some exposed timber-framing.

(76). Cottages, Nos. 46 and 48, 35 yards W. of (75), have exposed timber-framing.

Condition—Poor.

(77). Range of cottages, Nos. 52–58, immediately E. of the railway, has exposed timber-framing.

Bridge Street, S. side:

(78). Range of cottages, Nos. 11–15, 60 yards W. of the railway, has exposed timber-framing.

(79). Range of cottages, Nos. 17–21, W. of (78), has exposed timber-framing.

Condition—Poor.

New Street, N. side:

(80). House and shop, No. 7, 35 yards W. of High Street, is of three storeys. It was re-fronted in brick in the 18th century.

(81). Houses and shops, Nos. 9 and 11, W. of (80), have been re-fronted in brick.

(82). The Steppes (Plate 147), house, 35 yards W. of (81), is of three storeys. It was built c. 1600 and the E. part of the house is mainly of this date. The W. part has been largely reconstructed, but adjoining it is a 17th-century barn, now a music-room. The S. front of the E. block has exposed and fairly close-set timber-framing; the upper storeys project on moulded bressummers and shaped brackets below the first floor; below the bressummers are moulded coves, probably added in the 17th century. The top storey has two gables with moulded beams carried across the base. The barn has exposed timber-framing. Inside the building, the dining-room has original moulded ceiling-beams and the drawing-room has double chamfered beams. There are moulded beams, also, on the first floor.

S. side:

(83). House and shop, No. 2, adjoining (54) on the W., is of three storeys and was built c. 1600. The upper storeys project on the N. front, which is gabled and has enriched barge-boards and a moulded pendant.

(84). House and shop, No. 4, W. of (83), is of three storeys. The top storey projects on the N. front.

(85). Houses and shops, Nos. 6 and 8, W. of (84), have been re-fronted in brick.

(86). House and shop, No. 12, 10 yards W. of (85), is of three storeys. The first floor formerly projected on the N. front.

(87). Talbot Hotel (Plate 150), 10 yards W. of (86), is of two storeys with cellars. It was built probably c. 1596, the date on the panelling, but there have been extensive alterations. An addition was made along most of the N. front in the 17th century, and the back was altered in the 18th century.

The house is a good example of timber-framing and the dated panelling is of interest.

The N. front has exposed timber-framing, fairly close-set and partly moulded; in the middle is a large projecting bay-window, at the first-floor level; the doorway, below it, is flanked by fluted Ionic pilasters supporting an entablature with a strapwork frieze; the panelled door has a shaped and enriched panel at the top with the initials and date I.A.F. 1[6]00. The framing is exposed in the upper part of the back elevation. Inside the building, the W. room on the ground-floor is lined with original panelling with entablature and carved frieze; the entablature on the W. wall is divided into four bays by triglyph-brackets with carved fox-heads in the angles; the panelling, on this wall, has a central Ionic pilaster, fluted and carved and bearing the date and initials A.D. 1596 A.N. On the S. wall the frieze is carved with guilloche-ornament. The original fireplace, in the E. wall, is flanked by tapering Ionic pilasters; the overmantel (Plate 151) is of three enriched arcaded bays, divided and flanked by terminal figures and finished with an entablature with carved frieze and brackets. The N. wall has Ionic pilasters, one with the initials A.N.

On the S. side of the yard is a stable, of two storeys, with a roof of five bays.

(88). House and shop, 20 yards W. of (87), has exposed timber-framing. S. of the house is an outbuilding, and farther S. a barn, with some exposed timber-framing.

(89). Vine Tap Inn, W. of (88), has exposed timber-framing and two gables on the N. front.