An Inventory of the Historical Monuments in Herefordshire, Volume 2, East. Originally published by His Majesty's Stationery Office, London, 1932.
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26 CRADLEY (E.c.)
(O.S. 6 in. (a)XXVIII, N.E., (b)XXVIII, S.E., (c)XXIX, N.W., (d)XXIX, S.W.)
Cradley is a large parish on the E. border of the county, 6 m. N.N.E. of Ledbury. The church, parish hall (formerly school), and Barrow Mill are the principal monuments.
d(1). Parish Church of St. James stands towards the S. side of the parish. The walls are of local sandstone rubble with dressings of the same material; the roofs are tiled. The S. doorway and the West Tower date from late in the 12th century. The top stage of the tower was added late in the 14th or early in the 15th century. The church was repaired in 1854, and drastically restored and largely re-built in 1870 when the North Aisle was added; much of the old material of the Chancel and Nape was re-set. The South Porch was added in 1893.
Architectural Description—The Chancel (31¾ ft. by 25 ft.) has been largely re-built, but part of the plinth of the E. wall is old and perhaps of c. 1200. The E. window is modern. In the N. wall are two windows of c. 1330 and each of two trefoiled ogee lights with a quatrefoil in a two-centred head. In the S. wall are two partly restored windows of similar form and date; between them is a doorway with chamfered jambs and semi-elliptical head. There is no chancel-arch.
The Nave (74½ ft. by 25 ft.) has a modern N. arcade. In the S. wall are four modern windows; the re-set late 12th-century S. doorway, of c. 1200, has a round arch of three orders, the inner square with a beaded edge, the middle moulded and with cheveron-ornament, and the outer order with cheveron-ornament; the jambs have each an attached shaft with scalloped capital, moulded base and abacus.
The West Tower (22 ft. by 21¾ ft.) is of three stages, the two lower, undivided externally, and of c. 1200, and the top stage of late 14th or early 15th-century date and finished with an embattled parapet. The two-centred tower-arch is of late 12th-century date and of two square orders, the outer interrupted by an impost and the inner springing from triple attached shafts with scalloped capitals and moulded bases. In the S. wall is a doorway with beaded jambs and segmental head cut in one stone, with sham voussoirs lined on it. The rear-arch is formed apparently of the two halves of the bowl of an octagonal font with the bottom cut away; the whole doorway is probably of about the date 1722 when the new font was provided. The late 14th or early 15th-century W. window is of three trefoiled lights with vertical tracery in a two-centred head with a moulded label. The second stage has, in the N. and S. walls, a window of one square-headed light; in the W. wall is a late 14th or early 15th-century window of one trefoiled light in a square head with a moulded label. The bell-chamber has, in the N., S. and W. walls, a window of two trefoiled lights with a quatrefoil in a two-centred head. In the E. wall is a window of one plain pointed light. Within the ground-stage of the tower are two timber-framed walls parallel to the N. and S. sides, and probably of 17th-century date and inserted to stiffen the structure.
Fittings—Brass: In chancel—to Morgan Powell, B.D., Chancellor of Hereford , inscription only, date formerly on slab. Chest: In nave—long chest with iron straps and hinges, two with fleur-de-lis ends, others with scrolled ends, three lock-plates, lid in two parts, probably mediæval. Churchyard Cross: S. of tower, square base and part of octagonal shaft, reversed, all of tufa, now used for sundial. Desk: In chancel— with panelled front, shaped ends with modern heads, 15th or early 16th-century. Door: In tower-partition —battened door with strap hinges, 17th-century. Monuments and Floor-slab. Monuments: In chancel— on S. wall, (1) to Margaret (Pichard), wife of William Smith, 1613–14, plain slab. On external S. wall of chancel—(2) to Richard Nokes, 1608, stone panel; (3) to John [Log]gon, 1627, stone slab; (4) to William son of John Lo[ggon], 1684, stone slab. In nave—on W. wall, (5) to John Benson, M.A., Prebendary of Hereford, 1713, Catherine (Martin) his wife, 1725, and Mary, 1707, and Elizabeth, 1715, his daughters, marble slab. Floor-slab: In W. tower—to James Jurnon, jun. [?], 1667, fragment only. Screen: Between chancel and nave—modern upper part and plain close-panelled lower part with two low doors having trefoiled and sub-cusped heads and foliated spandrels, one head modern, 15th-century. Seating: Bench-end incorporated in quire-stalls, 15th or early 16th-century; in W. tower— bench with part of one shaped end, same date. Table: In chancel—half of round table with turned legs and enriched top rail, early 17th-century. Miscellanea: In vestry—two small kneeling figures of women, probably from early 17th-century monument. Incorporated in masonry, fragments of moulded stones, head and mask-stops and corbels, 12th-century. In N. wall of tower—stone (Plate 18), 2 ft. 4 in. by 7½ in., with interlocking crocket-ornament in panel, probably pre-Conquest.
The Lych Gate, on the S.W. side of the churchyard, is timber-framed and of two bays, with tie-beams, curved braces and collars. It is probably of 16th or 17th-century date with some modern material.
d(2). Fishponds at Churchfield, 400 yards S.S.W. of the church, consist of three adjacent ponds connected by a ditch with a further pond to the W.
b(3). Seed Farm, house, outbuildings and moat, 2 m. W. of the church. The House is of two storeys; the walls are of stone with some timber-framing and the roofs are tiled. It was built probably in the 16th century or earlier and remodelled in the 17th century when the E. wing was added or re-built. A 17th-century chimney-stack, at the W. end, has a brick shaft with V-shaped projections. Inside the building are some exposed ceiling-beams.
The Barn, N.W. of the house, is of the 17th century, timber-framed and of four bays with raking struts supporting the side walls; the building is continued N. to form stables, etc.
The Cow-shed, at right angles to the barn, is timber-framed, and perhaps of early 18th-century date.
The Moat, surrounds the house forming an island of roughly oval form.
Condition—Of house, good.
d(4). Parish Hall (Plate 123), S.E. of the churchyard, is of two storeys, timber-framed and with tiled roofs. It was built in the 15th century and was formerly a school-house. Some repairs were made c. 1674 and the projecting N. wing may be of this date. The building was restored in the 19th century when the upper floor was removed and the porch added. The timber-framing is exposed on all sides. The upper storey projects on the N. and S. sides and at the W. end, on original moulded bressummers and curved brackets and octagonal shafts on the angle-posts. Across the middle of the upper storey is an original moulded string-course, partly restored. On the N. side is a re-built chimney-stack incorporating a stone inscribed "Church Wardens, Richard Turner, William Bullock, 1674." The interior has had the first floor removed except for the main beams; the largely reconstructed roof is of five bays.
c(5). Barrow Mill, house, nearly 1¾ m. N. of the church, is of two storeys with cellars; the walls are timber-framed and the roofs are slate-covered. It was built early in the 17th century on a half H-shaped plan with the wings extending towards the W. and there is a modern addition between them.
The porch and staircase are good examples of the period.
The timber-framing is exposed on the W. side. The two-storeyed porch (Plate 31), on the E. front, has shaped brackets under the moulded bressummer and symmetrically turned balusters in the side walls. Inside the building, the chamfered ceiling-beams are exposed, one in the S. room being supported on shaped brackets. The fireplace, in the middle room, has stone jambs and an oak lintel. The staircase (Plate 124) is contained in a small wing on the W. of the house; it is of narrow well-type with moulded strings, large flat balusters with raking mouldings and square newels with moulded pendants and tall square terminals with ornament in relief.
The following monuments, unless otherwise described, are of the 17th century and of two storeys, timber-framed and with tile or slate-covered roofs. Most of the buildings have exposed external timber-framing and internal ceiling-beams, and some retain original chimney-stacks.
Condition—Good or fairly good, unless noted.
c(6). Old Norrest, cottage, about 2 m. N.N.E. of the church, is of late 16th or early 17th-century date and has a chimney-stack with three shafts, two of which are set diagonally.
c(7). Byfields, house, about 1¼ m. N.N.E. of the church, is of L-shaped plan with the wings extending towards the N. and E.; the E. wing is of later date than the N. wing. Inside the building, one room has original moulded ceiling-beams.
c(8). House at Crumpton Hill, about 1¾ m. N.E. of the church, has been extended and heightened.
c(9). Whippets, cottage, about 1¾ m. E.N.E. of the church, was built probably early in the 18th century.
c(10). Hill Farm, house, about 1½ m. N.E. of the church, is of two storeys with cellars and attics. The E. wing and the middle block are of late 16th or early 17th-century date, but the long W. wing and barn were added or re-built late in the 17th century. The lean-to addition at the N. end is of the 18th century. Inside the W. wing is a re-used 15th-century moulded beam.
d(11). Cowleigh Gate Farm, house, about 1¼ m. E.N.E. of the church, has a large modern addition on the S. W. side. The central chimney-stack has two square shafts with diagonal nibs.
d(12). Upper Vinesend Farm (Plate 24), house and barn, nearly 1 m. E.N.E. of the church. The House is of two storeys with cellars and attics. The main block was built in the 16th century and originally extended further to the N.E. Early in the 17th century, the S.W. wing was added together with the porch of the main block. The timber-framing of the main block is set diagonally and in herring-bone fashion in alternate bays; the timbers are close-set. On the first floor is a 16th-century window of three lights with moulded mullions. The S.W. wing has square framing and two 17th-century windows each of four lights; the chimney-stack has two square brick shafts with diagonal nibs. Inside the building, the staircase retains a 16th or 17th-century octagonal newel with an ogee-shaped terminal. There are several old battened doors.
The Barn and cider-mill, N.W. of the house, is probably of early 18th-century date.
Condition—Of house, derelict and ruinous.
d(13). Lower Vinesend Farm, house, 200 yards S.W. of (12), is of two storeys partly with attics. It is of T-shaped plan with the rather later cross-wing at the S. end. The central chimney-stack has two square shafts with diagonal nibs.
d(14). Hill House and outbuildings, ½ m. N.E. of the church. The House has been much altered and has 18th and 19th-century additions on the N. and S. Inside the building are two early 18th-century staircases with turned balusters. The Outbuildings are now connected with the house by a modern wing.
d(15). Cottage, on the N. side of the road, 400 yards N.N.E. of the church, has a thatched roof.
d(16). Cottage, two tenements, on the S. side of the road, 130 yards W. of (15), has a thatched roof.
d(17). House, now two tenements, on the W. side of the road, 60 yards W. of (16), has an original chimney-stack with two square shafts having diagonal nibs.
d(18). Cottage, on the E. side of the road, 100 yards S. of (17).
d(19). House, now post-office and shop, immediately S. of (18), is of T-shaped plan, the S. cross-wing being of earlier date than the N. wing. The upper storey projects slightly at the W. end of the cross-wing, on a moulded bressummer and shaped brackets. The central chimney-stack of the cross-wing has four grouped shafts, set diagonally.
d(20). Cottage, on the W. side of the road, 25 yards S.E. of (19) and 170 yards N.N.W. of the church, has a thatched roof.
d(21). Cottage, opposite and S.E. of (20).
d(22). Cottage, E. of (21).
d(23). Church Cottage, on the S. side of the road, 40 yards S. of the church.
d(24). Cottage, E. of Pound Bridge and 350 yards W.N.W. of the church, was built late in the 17th or early in the 18th century.
d(25). Cottage, on the S. side of the road, W. of King's Bridge and 650 yards W.S.W. of the church, is of late 17th or early 18th-century date.
d(26). Crown Inn, on the W. side of the road, 1,050 yards W.S.W. of the church, has been heightened and extended towards the W.
d(27). Cottage, on the S.E. side of the road, 100 yards S. of (26), was built probably early in the 18th century.
d(28). House, 50 yards S.W. of (27), has been largely extended towards the S.W. and S.E. and entirely modernized.
d(29). Sturt Cottage, 270 yards S.W. of (28), has a thatched roof.
d(30). Lower Tanhouse, house, two tenements, 1,470 yards S.W. of the church, has a thatched roof. There is an early 18th-century extension at the W. end.
b(31). Pitlick Farm, house, 560 yards W.S.W. of (30), was built late in the 16th or early in the 17th century, and has a thatched roof.
d(32). Birch Cottage, on the E. side of the road at Stoney Cross, nearly ¾ m. W. of the church, has a thatched roof.
d(33). Cottage, E. of crossroads and 1,600 yards W. of the church, has a thatched roof.
d(34). Coomb Farm, house and barn, about 1 m. N.W. of the church. The House retains its original S. cross-wing, but the rest of the structure was re-built or added in the 18th century and later times. The Barn, N. of the house, is now roofed with corrugated iron.
a(35). Mines Farm, cottage, 220 yards N.N.W. of (34), was built late in the 17th or early in the 18th century.
c(36). Upper House (Plate 29), 380 yards N.E. of (34), is of L-shaped plan with the wings extending towards the S. and E.; there is also a small staircase-wing on the E. side of the S. wing. Two crutches in the N. end may indicate that parts of a mediæval building are incorporated in the structure. The timber-framing, in squares, is completely exposed. The central chimney-stack has two shafts with diagonal nibs. The N. chimney-stack and shafts are entirely of stone.
d(37). Red Lion Inn, on the S.E. side of the road, at Stifford's Bridge, 1,000 yards N.N.W. of the church, has 18th-century and later additions on the N.W. side and at both ends. Inside the building is an original fireplace, with an oak lintel cut to a flat arch on the soffit.
c(38). Cottage, on the N. side of the road, 120 yards N.E. of (37), has been much altered.
c(39). Cottage, adjoining Smithy, 70 yards N.W. of (38).
c(40). Cottage, 130 yards N.N.W. of (39), has an early 18th-century addition on the E. The roof is thatched.
c(41). Harrells, range of tenements on the W. side of the road, about 1¼ m. N. of the church, is in two parts; the northern is an early 18th-century addition.
c(42). Burysgate, cottage, 160 yards N. of (41), is probably of early 18th-century date.
c(43). Lower Nupend, house, about 1 m. N.W. of the church, has an E. cross-wing built c. 1600 and heightened in the 18th-century; it is now of three storeys. The rest of the house was re-built in the 18th century. Inside the cross-wing the S. room has moulded beams (Plate 44), dividing the ceiling into nine bays; the panels have simple geometrical designs in plaster, of varying form.
a(44). House, now store, on the W. side of the road, 2 m. N.W. of the church, was formerly part of a larger building. The upper storey projects on the E. side on a moulded bressummer and shaped brackets.
a(45). Cottage, on the N.E. boundary of the parish, 2½ m. N.W. of the church.
c(46). Mound, near the E. side of the road, nearly 1½ m. N.E. of the church. A roughly circular natural knoll, approached by a causeway on the N.E., appears to have been artificially heightened.