An Inventory of the Historical Monuments in Herefordshire, Volume 3, North West. Originally published by His Majesty's Stationery Office, London, 1934.
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47 LEOMINSTER OUT (D.c.)
(O.S. 6 in. (a)XII, S.W., (b)XII, S.E., (c)XIII, S.W., (d)XIX, N.W., (e)XIX, S.W., (f)XIX, N.E., (g)XIX, S.E.)
Leominster Out is a parish surrounding Leominster town except on the N. side. Wharton Court, Eaton Hall and Ivington Camp are the principal monuments.
d(1). Homestead Moat at Lower Hyde, 3½ m. S.W. of Leominster church.
e(2). Homestead Moat, 100 yards N. of Upper Wintercott and 3½ m. S.S.W. of Leominster church.
b(3). Eaton Bridge, crosses the river Lugg ¾ m. S.E. of Leominster church and is a stone structure of three spans. It was built probably in the 16th century. The middle arch was re-built and heightened, perhaps when the bridge was widened towards the N. in the 18th century. The two lower side arches are original and of semi-circular form with three square ribs on the soffit. The piers have cut-waters both up and down stream, but those on the N. side are largely involved in the later widening. The original ashlar is preserved in the lower half of the piers.
f(4). Wharton Court, house, outbuildings and moat, nearly 2½ m. S.S.E. of Leominster church. The House is of three storeys with attics and cellars; the walls are of stone and the roofs are covered with stone slates. It was built in the first half of the 17th century, the slightly later porch being dated 1659; according to Price (Account of Leominster) the house was built by Richard Whitehall in 1604.
The house is of unusual type and plan, and the staircase is one of the finest in the county.
The W. front is symmetrically designed with stringcourses between the lower storeys and a central two-storeyed porch. Flanking the porch the lower windows have been modernised but the openings are old and have each a segmental relieving arch. The windows above have moulded oak frames, transom and mullions forming four lights, probably modern; against the porch, which is cut back to avoid them, are two oval panels each with four lozenge-shaped key-blocks. On the second floor are two similar windows and also two oval panels set over the walls of the porch, the flat roof of which is approached by a central doorway. The attic-storey has three small two-light windows, with old moulded oak frames and mullions. The porch (Plate 116) has an elliptical-headed archway in each free face, with key-stones bearing the initials and date R.L. 1659, on the W. and the date only on the N. and S. The W. arch is flanked by fluted columns on pedestals and the other arches by fluted pilasters; the entablature is carried round the porch. The inner entrance to the house had moulded jambs, imposts, segmental arch and pendant key-stone; it is fitted with a nail-studded door with strap-hinges; flanking the outer entrance and E. of the side arches, within the porch, are ornamental niches with fluted heads. The upper storey of the porch has a window similar to those on the same level of the main front; it is flanked by pilasters supporting a second entablature carried round the porch; the balustrade above is probably a modern restoration; below the window is a carved panel covered by creeper. In the side walls are blocked oval windows. At the four corners of the house are chimney-stacks with moulded cornices or strings. The E. side or back of the house has windows generally similar to those on the W. front, and some of them retaining their original frames; in the middle of the ground floor is a square-headed doorway with an original moulded frame and a nail-studded door with ornamental strap-hinges. The S. side has two windows in each storey, with old openings but with modern frames except perhaps those to the attics. The N. side was probably similar, but there is a low addition against the lower part; the windows of the second floor retain their old frames and transoms but no mullions. The roof is hipped at the angles and has a valley in the middle; the eaves have a moulded cornice with carved pendants at intervals.
Interior—The ceilings of the three main storeys have original moulded ceiling-beams and many of the original stone fireplaces remain in the angles of the building; they have moulded jambs and flat four-centred heads. On the ground floor, the N.E. room has a dado of original panelling and the N.W. room has an early 18th-century cupboard, of semi-circular form with a semi-domed head; the S. rooms are lined with panelling partly original but made up with 18th-century work; the partition, S. of the staircase, on this and the floors above, appears to have been an open screen and has moulded posts. The first floor has a little 17th-century panelling. On the second floor, the N.E. fireplace (Plate 51) retains one flanking pilaster with an Ionic capital and an overmantel of three enriched arcaded panels, with a range of panels above and below them, all of early 17th-century date; the N. and E. walls are lined with contemporary panelling and there are two panelled doors; there is a little similar panelling elsewhere on this floor. The attic-floor has wall-posts with moulded heads. The original staircase (Plate 145) is of well-type with heavy turned balusters, moulded hand-rails and strings; the square moulded newels have tall finials elaborately carved with acanthus foliage and pendants carved with bunches of grapes; the stair risers are moulded; the lowest flight has been rearranged and partly restored, but otherwise the staircase is unaltered. The staircase to the attic-floor has turned balusters and square newels with faceted terminals.
The Outbuilding, E. of the house, is of close-set timber-framing, but this appears to be old material re-used. The range of farm buildings, N.W. of the house, is of the 17th-century and timber-framed; it consists of a barn of four bays, a two-storeyed stable and a singlestoreyed building of two bays at the S. end.
The Moat lies 70 yards E. of the house, and has a very small rectangular island surrounded by a broad wet moat.
Condition—Of house, good.
f(5). Eaton Hall, house, outbuildings and bridge, 1 m. S.E. of Leominster church. The House is of two storeys; the walls are of stone and timber-framing and the roofs are slate and tile-covered. The property belonged to the family of Hackluyt, and Leland records that William Hackluyt, who was with Henry V at Agincourt, built a house in the village. The existing building, however, appears to date from about the middle of the 14th century and consisted of a hall with cross-wings at the E. and W. ends; of this the greater part of the hall with the stone solar-wing at the W. end survives, but the screens and the buttery-wing were re-built probably in the 18th century. The extension of this wing, towards the N., was made probably early in the 15th century. At some uncertain period the hall was divided into two storeys and the walls faced with stone; the upper storey of the solar-wing is also a later reconstruction of timber-framing. The W. wing has, at the N. end, a blocked mediæval doorway with chamfered stone jambs and segmental-pointed head; in the W. wall is a window of two rectangular lights, probably also mediæval. Inside the building, the former hall (32 ft. long without the former screenspassage) has an original roof of two main bays, partly concealed by later additions; the main truss (Plate 39) has upper and lower collar-beams, the latter moulded and with long curved braces, perhaps formerly carried down to the ground floor, but now cut back about 3 ft. above it; the upper collar-beam also has curved braces, and the beams above are cut to form a trefoiled opening; each bay has a subsidiary truss with a single upper collar-beam similar to that in the main truss. In the E. wall is a spere-truss, formerly dividing the hall from the screens; it rests on a pair of heavy posts or speres, set 2–3 ft. within the side walls; the general arrangement is similar to that of the main truss, but the head of the arch formed by the main braces is cut into the tie-beam. The truss forming part of the W. wall has plain upper and lower collars and below the latter are studs and braces forming trefoiled ogee heads to the wall-panels. The main purlins are moulded, and above them are two ranges of foiled wind-braces, the lower braces having pierced spandrels to the cusps. To the W. of the main truss are traces of the former louvre of the hall; on the W. of the former opening is a pair of cusped trimmers or rafters resting on the upper purlins and against which the upper wind-braces are stopped. All the timbers are smoke-blackened. The extension of the E. wing has some of its 15th-century framing and ceiling-beams exposed; the roof is of four bays with the middle truss incorporated in a partition; the subsidiary trusses have curved braces below the collars.
The Outbuilding, S.W. of the house, consists of a 17th-century cottage, now stables, and a barn. The timber-framing is mostly exposed, and there is an original chimney-stack with two brick shafts and diagonal nibs on the outer faces; the barn is of three bays. The outbuilding, S. of the house, includes a 17th-century timber-framed barn of three bays.
The Bridge, over the Lugg, S.W. of the house, is of stone and of two spans with round arches and cut-waters both up and down stream; it is of the 17th century or earlier, but the parapets are modern. A stone garden wall, running S. from the house, has remains of a gate and a wall-recess with a four-centred head.
Condition—Of house, good.
d(6). Upper Hyde, house and moats, 3½ m. S.W. of Leominster church. The House is of two storeys, timber-framed and with slate-covered roofs. It has been much altered, but the W. wing retains some exposed timber-framing of the 17th century. Inside the building, the staircase incorporates some turned 17th-century balusters.
The Moat, formerly surrounding the house, is fragmentary, but about 50 yards N.W. of the house is a small oval island surrounded by a wet moat.
The following monuments, unless otherwise described, are of the 17th century and of two storeys, timber-framed, and with tile, slate or stone-covered roofs. Many of the buildings have exposed external timber-framing and internal ceiling-beams.
Condition—Good or fairly good, unless noted.
d(7). Knoake's Court, house and outbuildings, 500 yards N.E. of (6). The House has an early 18th-century front block of red brick, with earlier work in the E. or back wing. The front block has a brick band between the storeys and flush frames to the windows. Inside the building the early 18th-century staircase had straight strings, turned balusters and newels.
The Outbuilding, S.E. of the house, has a lower storey of rubble. In the N. wall is a doorway and two two-light windows all with moulded frames; the heads of the doorway and one window have the incised initials T. W. Another window of two lights has square jambs and a moulded mullion. Inside the building are some original moulded ceiling-beams. Other old out-buildings include a weather-boarded cow-house and a barn of five bays.
d(8). Upper House and outbuildings, at Ivington Green, ¾ m. S.W. of Ivington church. The House has been partly re-built in stone; it is of L-shaped plan with the wings extending towards the W. and S.
The Outbuilding, S.W. of the house, has a lower storey of rubble. The barn, S. of the house, is of six bays.
d(9). Lower House Cottage, ¼ m. N.E. of (8), was built early in the 16th century. The lower storey is of rubble and the upper has close-set timber-framing; the roof has been covered with corrugated-iron. On the S. side are the moulded projecting sills of two former windows.
d(10). Ivington Court, house, 750 yards W. of Ivington church, is of two storeys with attics. There is a moulded early 16th-century beam in the re-built W. part of the house, but the surviving E. cross-wing is of 17th-century date. The chimney-stack has attached diagonal shafts of brick.
d(11). Chipp's House, 60 yards S. of Ivington church, was perhaps built late in the 16th century. To this date belongs the S. part of the house; the N. part is a 17th-century extension or rebuilding, and there is a modern addition at the back. The S. chimney-stack has three 17th-century detached shafts with projecting nibs on the outward faces. Inside the building are several doors of moulded battens, one fitted with cock's-head hinges.
d(12). The Old Workhouse, 100 yards N.E. of Ivington church, was formerly two cottages, of which the northern appears to be the earlier.
d(13). Gatehouse (Plate 36), at Ivington Bury, 220 yards N. of Ivington church, consists of a stone lower storey forming the entry, and probably of mediæval date, and a timber-framed and gabled upper storey of early to mid 16th-century date. In the S. wall is a blocked window or opening with a segmental-pointed head, and above it is a loop lighting the staircase to the upper storey which is in the thickened S. wall. The ceiling of the gateway has heavy chamfered beams and the upper storey has close-set timber-framing, that in the gable being set herring-bone fashion; the framing is plastered externally. The two gables project on curved brackets.
d(14). Cottage, at Newtown, 720 yards N. of (13).
f(15). Barns, at Dishley Court, about 2,000 yards S.W. of Leominster church, are both N. of the house and are single-storey buildings of three bays forming one range. The S. barn now has brick walls.
a(16). Cornhill Cop, house and outbuildings, 1¾ m. W.S.W. of Leominster church. The House is mainly of early 18th-century date but incorporates remains of earlier building. The S. side is faced with brick. The Outbuildings include a barn of three bays W. of the house, a granary E. of the house, and a tallat S. of the house with an open framed upper storey.
a(17). Stagbatch, house and outbuildings, 500 yards S.W. of (16). The House (Plate 22) is of irregular plan with wings extending towards the N., S.E. and W. The N. wing dates from the 14th century and the S.E. wing is a late 16th-century addition. The main W. wing is of uncertain date but was much altered and heightened in the 17th century and has a modern S. front. The original N. wing has square framing, the N. bay being a 17th-century addition; the early part is of two bays with a passage at the N. end; it retains portions of an original crutch-truss with remains of foiling, but the collar and tie-beams have been cut away. The S.E. wing has close-set framing to the upper storey which projects on two sides on curved brackets; the gable also projects on shaped brackets.
The Outbuilding, N. of the house, includes a mediæval barn (Plate 37) of four bays with crutch-trusses, from which the tie-beams have been removed. N.W. of the house is another outbuilding, probably once a 17th-century cottage. Other buildings show structural remains of the same date.
a(18). Cottage, 110 yards E. of (17), has a modern extension on the E.
a(19). Outbuilding, formerly cottage and barn at Stagbatch House, 100 yards E. of (18). The Cottage has been much altered and added to. The Barn, N.E. of the house, is of three bays.
a(20). Ebnall, house and barn, about 1½ m. W. of Leominster church. The House is of stone with three timber dormer-windows on the N. side; the middle window is of three lights with moulded frame and mullions and a moulded base-beam to the gable; all three dormers have moulded and dentilled bargeboards and a pendant at the apex. The Barn, N.E. of the house, is of three bays.
a(21). Cholstrey Court, house and barns, about 2 m. W. of Leominster church. The House was originally of T-shaped plan with the cross-wing at the E. end. At a later date the cross-wing was extended towards the N. and a wing added on the E. side. Inside the building, the modern staircase incorporates some late 17th-century balusters, and there is a mediæval doorlintel re-used.
The Barn (Plate 37), S. of the house, is of four bays and of mediæval crutch-construction, the S. bay being probably a little later than the others. The upright side-walls have framing in squares, with curved braces. A second barn, S.E. of the house, is of the 17th century, and of four bays.
a(22). Cottage, 20 yards S. of (21), is probably of mediæval origin and has a late 17th-century wing on the E. side and a modern re-built wing on the W.
a(23). Cottage, two tenements, 70 yards S.W. of (21), was extended to the S. probably early in the 18th century. The upper storey of the original building projects slightly at the N. end and on the E. side on a moulded bressummer. The original mullioned and transomed windows have been reduced in size; the doorway has a moulded frame. Inside the building are remains of an early 18th-century staircase and a wooden fireplace-surround of the same period.
a(24). St. Oswalds, house and barn, 40 yards W. of (21). The House shows evidence of numerous enlargements in the 17th century. The original block was L-shaped with the wings extending toward the N. and E. To this was added a gabled wing in the angle and itself running E. The N.W. wing was added later, one part bearing the initials and date H.H. 1655. There are extensive 18th-century additions in stone on the S. and W. sides of the original block. The upper storey projects at the end of the added 17th-century E. wing on shaped brackets. The Barn, W. of the house, is of three bays.
a(25). Cholstrey Lodge, house and barn, 60 yards N.N.E. of (21). The House has been much altered. The original building is incorporated in the N. angle of the existing house and the end of the S.E. wing was probably once a detached building. The Barn, S.W. of the house, is of three bays.
f(26). Pigeon-house (Plate 26), at Broadward Hall, about 1¼ m. S. of Leominster church, is a square two-storeyed building, gabled to the N. and S. and finished with a hexagonal lantern with arched openings and shaped angle-posts. On the door-lintel in the W. wall is the burnt inscription H.H. 1652.
f(27). Broadward Lodge, house, opposite (26), is modern except for the S. cross-wing, forming an outbuilding.
f(28). Cottage, on the E. side of the road at Elms Green, 770 yards S.S.E. of (27).
f(29). Cottage, two tenements, N.E. of Wharton, and 280 yards S.W. of (4).
f(30). Cottage, on the E. side of the road, 170 yards S. of (29).
f(31). Cottage, two tenements, on the W. side of the road, 80 yards S.W. of (30).
f(32). Cottage, on the E. side of the road, 120 yards S.S.E. of (31).
f(33). Outbuilding, N. of Brickhouse Farm at Brierley, 2 m. S. of Leominster church, has a modern metal roof.
f(34). The Cottages (Plate 22), house, now three tenements, 70 yards S. of (33), has two gables at the N.E. end of the front and exposed framing.
f(35). Barn, at Brierley Court, 140 yards W. of (34), is of three bays.
f(36). Cottage, 50 yards N. of (35).
f(37). Cottage, 30 yards W.N.W. of (36).
d(38). Gott's Gardens, cottage, two tenements, ½ m. S.E. of Ivington church, has been heightened.
d(39). Ivington Park, house, 680 yards S.S.W. of (38), is of two storeys with attics. The W. wing of the house only is old and has an original chimney-stack with four grouped shafts with diagonal nibs on the outward faces.
d(40). Cottage, at Park Gate, 520 yards W.N.W. of (39).
e(41). Upper Wintercott, outbuilding, 1¼ m. S. of Ivington church, stands E. of the house and is of various dates in the 17th century.
e(42). Cross House, on the S. edge of the parish, 550 yards S.S.E. of (41), is of T-shaped plan with the cross-wing at the W. end. The W. front has a central gable and a gabled porch.
e(43). Aulden, house, over 1¼ m. S.W. of Ivington church, was an L-shaped building with the wings extending towards the N. and E. and with modern additions on the S. and E.
e(44). Cottage, 70 yards S.S.E. of (43), has a thatched roof.
b(45). Barn, at Eaton, 350 yards S.E. of the bridge, is a single-storey building of seven bays.
b(46). Cottage, on the S.W. side of the road at Patty's Cross, nearly 1¾ m. E.S.E. of Leominster church.
f(47). Barn, on the E. side of the road at Stretford, 670 yards S.S.E. of (46), is a single-storeyed building of five bays.
f(48). Cottage, 160 yards S.E. of (47), has been refronted in stone.
f(49). Cottage, 80 yards S. of (48).
c(50). Hennor, house and barns, about 2½ m. E. of Leominster church. The House, of stone and brick, is largely modern but incorporates a 17th-century building in the main block and N. cross-wing. In the S. wall of the E. part of this wing is a stone with the initials and date R.C. 1679, not in situ. A Barn and outbuilding N.E. and N. of the house are of the 17th century. A second barn, 200 yards W. of the house, is of the same period.
c(51). Cottage, two tenements, 50 yards N. of (50), has a hipped roof.
g(52). Ivington Camp, 3 m. S. of Leominster, occupies the S.W. end of a ridge (550 ft. above O.D.). The ground slopes down from the enclosure in all directions except the N.E. The area within the defences is about 24 acres and with the defences and outwork the camp covers approximately 48 acres. The earthwork has suffered much damage from agricultural operations, quarrying and a dense growth of trees on the ramparts; it is, however, still one of the most important works in the county. The strength of its entrances, the S. one especially, and the height of the inner rampart (which rises in one part to over 20 ft. above the enclosure level) make it notable, while the rampart has, for much of its length, the very unusual feature of a berm along its inner scarp forming a walk. The ramparts are of Early Iron Age type, and the form of the entrances and the berm on the E. side suggest a rather late date in the period.
The defences follow the natural contours except on the N. half of the E. side, where they cross the ridge top and, for that distance, consist of a high inner rampart with outer ditch and a berm, beyond which is another ditch. As the defences approach the N. angle the berm narrows down to form a rampart, while approaching the S. side of the ridge the berm is sub-divided into two ramparts with a medial ditch. The remainder of the E. side, the W. side and the S. end, are defended by two ramparts with a medial ditch, but the latter end is further protected by the outworks of the S. entrance which will be described later. The N. side would appear to have been defended by an inner rampart with an outer ditch and parapet but the two latter features have become flattened out and now only form a rough berm. The N.W. angle has been quarried and all traces of the original defences destroyed. The enclosure would appear to have been artificially flattened, probably to obtain material for the ramparts, and is divided into two parts by a crescent-shaped rampart with faint suggestions of a ditch on its E. side. The level of the W. enclosure is about 6 ft. above that on the E.
There are five existing entrances. Those on the W. and on the N. appear to be modern, while the E. entrance has been much cut about in modern times and, in any case, is probably not original. The S.E. entrance (Plate 3) is extremely elaborate. It has the inner rampart turned inwards on the W. side of the opening, while on the E. side the inner rampart branches inward and also outwards, curving down the slope of the hill to form (with the artificially scarped hillside on its N.W.) a long sunken entrance way with a rampart on the outer side. Furthermore, immediately E. of the entrance there is a small flattened natural spur, to obtain command of which the outer rampart is curved sharply outwards and a species of traverse formed in the space so left between the two ramparts; the outer rampart is carried on in a S.W. direction down the hillside, parallel with, and thus forming a further outer rampart to the sunken entrance way, though the slight ditch between them is largely filled in. The entrance (Plate 3) at the N.E. angle is formed by the turning inwards of the inner rampart on the S. side of the opening and the carrying outwards in a curve of the N. rampart, to form a long passage-way with what is practically a traverse. On the N. side of the opening there is an outer rampart and from the latter a bank runs in a N.E. direction for approximately 40 yards, while beyond the outer rampart a further small rampart is returned towards the N.E. and forms (with the bank mentioned above) a small triangular enclosure. There is nothing to show if this triangular enclosure is original, but it seems probable that tillage of the adjoining field has destroyed further work at this point which might have given some clue to the purpose of this outwork.
The question of the entrances to the inner—or W.— enclosure cannot be decided owing to the damage to and cutting of the dividing rampart, but it seems likely that access was obtained at each end of the dividing rampart where it abuts on the main ramparts.
As to whether there was an entrance at the N.W. angle nothing definite can be said, as the defences are entirely destroyed at this point; a sunken way with a rampart, however, leading up the hillside until obliterated by the fallen spoil, perhaps indicates that such an entrance existed.
Reference to the plan will show that about 50 yards below the outer rampart on the W., a scarp with a slight ditch and parapet (now forming little more than a double lynchet for much of its length) runs from the end of the S. entrance sunken way until it reaches the sunken way approaching the N.W. angle; while for part of its more northerly half there is a further ditch and parapet. It is difficult to say if this is original, but its slight strength in relation to the main work of the inner defences is analogous to the outwork at Croft Ambrey.
Beyond the outer rampart on the southern half of the E. side is a small rectangular mound (approximately 15 yards by 4 yards by 4 ft. high), possibly the surviving portion of another rampart.