An Inventory of the Historical Monuments in Huntingdonshire. Originally published by His Majesty's Stationery Office, London, 1926.
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52. KIMBOLTON (B.e.)
(O.S. 6 in. (a)XX N.E., (b)XX S.E.)
Kimbolton is a large village and parish 7 m. N.W. of St. Neots. The principal monuments are the Church and Kimbolton Castle. The latter belongs to the Montagus, Dukes of Manchester; here Katherine of Aragon died in 1536.
a(1). Parish Church of St. Andrew (Plate 96) stands on the N. side of the High Street. The walls are of limestone and pebble-rubble with some ironstone; the dressings are of Weldon, Ketton and Barnack stone and the roofs are covered with lead. The earliest part of the building is the mid 13th-century N. arcade of the Nave. Early in the 14th century the Chancel was re-built, the S. arcade and West Tower built and the South Aisle added; towards the end of the same century the clearstorey was added. In the 15th century the chancel was partly re-built and late in the century the South Chapel and South Porch were added and the S. aisle re-built. About 1500 the North Chapel was added and the North Aisle re-built. The church was extensively restored in the 18th century, when the S. wall of the chancel was re-built, and in the 19th century the Montagu vault was inserted in the N. chapel and the small North Porch to the chapel added. The North Vestry was added in 1847 and there was a general restoration of the church in 1881–2.
The W. Tower has interesting detail and the roofs retain a considerable amount of carved work. Among the fittings the paintings on the screen, the plate and the stained-glass figure are note-worthy.
Architectural Description—The Chancel (41½ ft. by 16 ft.) has an E. window almost entirely modern; the lower part of the E. wall is of the 14th century, but the rest of the wall is of 15th-century ashlar. In the N. wall is a two-centred arch, of c. 1500 and of two moulded orders, the outer continuous and the inner springing from attached shafts, with moulded capitals; further E. is a modern doorway and an early 14th-century window, now blocked, but formerly of three lights with plain intersecting tracery in a two-centred head. In the S. wall is a late 15th-century arch, two-centred and of two chamfered orders on the N. face and three chamfered orders on the S. face; the responds are moulded and have each an attached shaft with a moulded capital and plain base; further E. is a modern doorway. The chancel has an embattled parapet. The early 14th-century chancel-arch is two-centred and of three moulded orders on the W. face, the two outer continuous and the inner springing from moulded shafts with moulded capitals; in the gable above the chancel-roof and showing externally are two blocked openings or panels, that on the N. square-headed, and that on the S. lozenge-shaped.
The North Chapel (23¾ ft. by 16 ft.) is of c. 1500 and has an E. window of four cinque-foiled ogee lights with tracery in a four-centred head, with moulded reveals and label. In the N. wall are two similar windows, but of three lights; below the western window is a modern doorway to the Montagu vault. The chapel is structurally undivided from the N. aisle.
The South Chapel (21 ft. by 18¼ ft.) is of late 15th-century date and has an E. window of five cinque-foiled lights, with vertical tracery in a four-centred head with moulded external reveals and label. In the S. wall are two similar windows, but of three lights only. In the N.W. angle of the chapel is the 15th-century rood-loft staircase, continued up to the roof; the doorways are square-headed. The chapel is structurally undivided from the S. aisle.
The Nave (57 ft. by 23 ft.) has a mid 13th-century N. arcade of four bays, with two-centred arches of three chamfered orders; the columns and responds are alternately round and octagonal and have moulded bases and capitals with nail-head ornament, except the W. respond, which has carvings of fleur-de-lis form (Plate 55); the moulded labels have nail-head ornament and one head-stop. The early 14th-century S. arcade is of four bays with two-centred arches of two chamfered orders springing from round columns and half-round responds with moulded capitals and bases on square plinths. The late 14th-century clearstorey is embattled and has on each side four windows, each of two cinque-foiled lights with tracery in a two-centred head, with a moulded label and stops carved with heads, foliage or roses; the parapet has carved head-corbels.
The North Aisle (13 ft. wide) is of c. 1500 and has, in the N. wall, three windows similar to the N. windows of the N. chapel; the N. doorway has moulded jambs, four-centred arch and label. In the W. wall is a partly restored window of three cinque-foiled lights in a four-centred head with moulded external reveals and label, with a re-used stop, carved with a double rose. The bases of the walls at the N.W. angle stand on earlier foundations.
The South Aisle (14¼ ft. wide) has an embattled parapet and the stumps of pinnacles over the buttresses. It is of late 15th-century date and has in the S. wall three windows similar to the S. windows of the S. chapel; the S. doorway has moulded and shafted jambs and moulded two-centred arch in a square head with traceried spandrels and a moulded label. The wall, W. of the S. porch, and also the W. wall appear to have been restored, in the 17th or 18th century, with the old materials. In the W. wall is a window, with a head largely modern, but with original moulded jambs and mullions; above it is re-set a beast-stop.
The West Tower (about 13 ft. square) is of early 14th-century date and of three stages (Plate 96) with a moulded plinth and a cornice, at the base of the spire, carved with beasts, bird, heads, etc. The two-centred tower-arch is of four chamfered orders; the responds are of three orders and have each an impost-moulding. The W. window is of two pointed lights with a plain spandrel in a two-centred head with a moulded label and head-stops; the partly restored W. doorway (Plate 67) has a two-centred arch of four moulded orders, the three outer enriched with ball-flower ornament and all springing from attached shafts with moulded capitals and bases; the moulded label has beast-stops. The second stage has in the E. wall a door-way with chamfered jambs and two-centred head; the opening through the wall is blocked on the E. face. In the N. wall is a small loop-light with a square head; in the S. wall is a modern clock-face and in the W. wall is a recess with a plain two-centred head, partly filled in. The bell-chamber has in each wall a window, of two pointed lights with a plain spandrel in a two-centred head. The spire is ashlar-faced with two string-courses and has three tiers each of four spire-lights, facing the cardinal points; the windows of the lowest tier are each of two pointed and transomed lights with a plain spandrel in a two-centred head; above the head is a gable with a quatrefoil or a trefoil in the tympanum. The windows of the middle tier are each of two trefoiled and transomed lights with a quatrefoil in a gabled head. The windows of the highest tier are each of one pointed light in a gable, except the E. window, which has an ogee head to the light.
The South Porch is embattled and of late 15th-century date; it has an outer archway with moulded and shafted jambs and a moulded two-centred arch in a square head with pierced foliated spandrels and a moulded label. The side walls have each a recess with chamfered jambs and four-centred head, enclosing a window, formerly of two cinque-foiled lights with tracery in a four-centred head but now blocked and otherwise damaged.
The Roof of the chancel is apparently modern, but may incorporate some old work including the carved figure at the W. end of the ridge. The roof of the N. chapel and aisle is of c. 1500 and of pent-form; it is of six bays with moulded main timbers and subsidiary principals; the main principals have curved braces and against the wall-posts are carved figures of S.S. Philip, Peter (Plate 95), Simon or Jude, James, John the Evangelist and Bartholomew; at the feet of the intermediate principals are carved figures of St. Michael (Plate 95), and angels holding shields with the emblems of the Passion, a book, etc.; the stone corbels are carved with angels or grotesques. The late 15th-century roof of the S. chapel is of flat pent-form and of one bay, sub-divided into twelve panels; the main timbers are moulded and at the main intersections are bosses carved with the symbols of the Evangelists, roses, half-angel, shield bearing a cheveron, shield with the initials I H C within a crown of thorns, chalice with grapes and an Agnus Dei; the main principals have curved braces and carved figures of St. Thomas and St. Andrew (Plate 95) standing on stone corbels carved with half-figures of a man and an angel; at the feet of the subsidiary principals are carved figures (Plate 95) of St. Michael and an angel in an alb holding a chalice and wafer; the N. wall-plate has applied foliage and flowers and the S. wall-plate or cornice is embattled and has a series of half-figures of angels, mostly playing musical instruments or holding scrolls; two scrolls are inscribed in 17th-century letters—"Surgite Mortui" and "et venite ad judic(i)um"; these inscriptions together with the boarded soffit with stars of the two adjoining panels form part of the scheme of Monument (3) below. The 15th-century roof of the nave is low-pitched and of four bays; it has moulded main timbers and cambered tie-beams with curved braces; the 14th-century moulded corbels are carved with heads or figures, mostly grotesque, three holding shields (a) a bend sinister; (b) a saltire; (c) three cheverons. The late 15th-century roof of the S. aisle is of pent-form and of four bays, with moulded main timbers; at the main intersections are bosses carved with—1st bay, (a) eight bells placed radially, (b) foliage, (c) two hearts, bound together and with a scroll inscribed "Be trew," (d) foliage, (e) pomegranate tree; 2nd bay, (a) man riding an ass, (b) foliage and a shield— a cheveron impaling a saltire, (c) dogs attacking a hart, (d) swan; 3rd bay, (a) cripple, (b) man with hand-bells, (c) rosettes; 4th bay, (a) mermaid, (b) grotesque beast, (c and d) rosettes; at the feet of the main principals are carved figures of St. James the Less (?), St. John the Evangelist and St. Stephen (?); at the feet of the intermediate principals are angels (Plate 95) holding shields, one with a saltire, one the crowned initials I H C, and one holding a crown of thorns; the stone corbels are carved with figures of angels and a grotesque figure. The roof of the S. porch is modern except for the late 15th-century N. tie-beam which is moulded and carved with a rose.
Fittings—Bells: five; 1st by Henry Bagley, 1702; 2nd by John Grene, 1571; 3rd by Henry Penn, 1713; 4th by William Eldridge, 1660; 5th by Watts, 1634 (Plate 7); bell-frame with damaged inscription "1619 . . . . Allen, Thomas You(ng) C. W." Chests: In N. vestry— panelled front carved with conventional foliage in lozenges, carved top rail, panelled lid and old lock-plate, mid 17th-century. In N. aisle—plain boarded chest, lid in two parts, two locks, 17th-century, repaired. Doors: In S. chapel—in doorway to rood-loft staircase, with two cinque-foiled-headed panels with foliated spandrels, early 16th-century, repaired. In N. doorway—of battens and of two folds, on trellis-framing, with fillets planted on face, two pairs of strap-hinges, early 16th-century. In S. doorway—battened and of two folds, with fragmentary applied tracery and rows of nails, trellis-framing at back, door pierced with holes, traditionally bullet-holes, late 14th-century. Font: square bowl with hollow-splayed angles, 13th-century or earlier, much worn, brought from Little Stukeley. Funeral-helms, etc.: In chancel —various remains of funeral-trophies, including, on N. side, two standards for flags, tabard, helm with crest, two coronets, a gauntlet and a sword; on S. side a sword, two spurs, a pair of gauntlets, four standards with remains of flags and a helm with crest, 17th-century. In S. chapel— a tabard, helm and two coronets, 17th-century. Glass: In N. chapel—in E. window, fragments of 15th-century tabernacle-work, 17th-century crest of the Montagu family, acanthus foliage, helm and coronet. In S. chapel—in E. window, various quarries with stars, the letters M R and X P C, etc., c. 1500; in S.W. window, quarries with star, sun and rose, also a figure (Plate 157) in ermineined robe with ermine cap, under canopy of tabernacle-work, below a scroll with the name Symon, 15th-century. Monuments and Floor-slab. Monuments: In S. chapel—on E. wall, (1) to Lady Isabella (Rich) wife of Sir John Smyth, 1632, tablet with black marble inscription-slab flanked by Doric columns resting on a moulded shelf and supporting an entablature with a lozenge and two shields-of-arms; in S.E. corner, (2) to Essex (Cheeke), wife of Edward, Earl of Manchester, 1658, tablet (Plate 25) of black marble and alabaster in the form of a cartouche, at top, a crescent and a cross and at base, a cherub with a cartouche-of-arms; against S. wall (3) to Henry, 1st Earl of Manchester, , Chief Justice, Lord High Treasurer, President of the Council and Lord Privy Seal, altar-tomb and wall-monument of black and white marble; altar-tomb with black marble slab supporting a large cushion and resting on Ionic columns at the angles and an open arcade in front of two bays with a shield-of-arms on the middle pier; on wall above, an enriched oval tablet with a large achievement-of-arms above it; flanking the tablet and above the achievement, three Corinthian columns surmounted by skulls and a helm and crest; fixed on wall, flanking middle column, a sun and moon; in S.W. angle of chapel, (4) to Lady Anne (Rich), wife of Edward, Earl of Manchester, 1641, tablet generally similar to (2). Floor-slab: In S. chapel—to Lady Essex (Rich), wife of Sir Thomas Cheeke, and to her daughter Essex, Countess of Manchester, 1658. Niches: In nave—in E. wall, N. of chancel-arch, recess with cinque-foiled head with crockets, finial and ribbed soffit, flanked by crocketed pinnacles, late 15th- or early 16th-century, sill modern. On S. porch— over outer archway, with defaced head and remains of ribbed soffit, pedestal at base, late 15th-century. Piscina: In S. chapel—in S. wall, double recess with hollow-chamfered jambs and four-centred arches in a square head, two round drains, c. 1500. Plate: includes large late 16th-century cup (Plate 136) with enriched base and stem with brackets, engraved on bowl, a scene from Bel and the Dragon (Daniel XIIII), showing Daniel in the lions' den and Habakkuk being transported through the air by the angel; cup of 1665, given by Henry Ashton and bearing his achievement-of-arms; 17th-century paten and a large alms-dish (Plate 137) of c. 1660, covered with repoussé work of flowers and leaves. Scratching: In S. porch—on W. wall, initials and date, I.M. 1649 D.E. Screens: Between N. chapel and aisle—of four bays (Plate 41) with part of a fifth, middle bay being double and forming an entrance, each bay with cinque-foiled and sub-cusped ogee head, with crockets and finial and traceried filling above, moulded posts with buttresses and pinnacles, late 15th-century, standing on modern wall and made up with modern work, cornice and cresting mostly modern. Between S. chapel and aisle—of five bays (Plate 41) including central doorway, the latter with cinque-foiled and sub-cusped arch with crocketed label and traceried filling above, side bays similar but narrower and with ogee heads, moulded cornice with paterae and two masks, close lower panels with trefoiled and sub-cusped heads, each panel, N. of doorway, with a painted figure (Plate 19)—(a) the Virgin and St. Anne, (b) St. Michael with a red cross on the shield, (c) St. Edmund, crowned figure in armour and holding an arrow in his hand, (d) St. Edward the Confessor with sceptre and ring, late 15th-century, paintings still partly covered with modern paint. Stoups: In N. aisle—by N. doorway, recess with rounded head and defaced bowl. In S. porch— recess with chamfered jambs and four-centred head, broken bowl on semi-octagonal shaft, late 15th-century, much defaced.
a(2). Kimbolton Castle, about ¼ m. S.E. of the church, is of three storeys with attics; the walls are of brick and Ketton stone and the roofs are covered with lead and slates. Sir Richard Wingfield, according to Leland, largely re-built the mediæval castle in 1525; at that time it was surrounded by a double ditch. Portions of walls of this date survive in the S. range, and it would appear that the general lay-out of the building, round a central courtyard, was not subsequently altered. The house was bought, about 1620, by Henry Montagu, afterwards 1st Earl of Manchester, and extensively remodelled; it was probably also heightened, as the surviving work of this period, also in the S. range, is at the top of the house. Towards the end of the 17th century, Charles, 4th Earl of Manchester, began the reconstruction of the house, with the rebuilding of the fronts to the courtyard; a range was added in advance of the old range on the S. side of the courtyard, the courtyard itself was probably extended towards the N., and projecting bays added in the S.E. and N.E. angles. The reconstruction was continued from the designs of Sir John Vanbrugh, in 1707, who built or refaced the exterior of the building. The S. front was first undertaken and this was nearing completion in 1708; the materials were taken from the ruins of Stonely Priory (5), and the embattled parapet was thought to accord with the history of the house; this rebuilding involved that of the main S. range, only the 16th-century inner wall being retained. There is no evidence of the exact date of the refronting of the other elevations, but the work probably followed on with but little interruption; a large portico was added on the outer or E. face of the older Hall, a corridor and central feature on the W. front of the house and a loggia with rooms above it on the N. front. Practically the whole of the house was redecorated internally. Under the 4th Duke of Manchester, about 1766, Robert Adam built the outer Gatehouse W. of the castle, and the gateway, N. of castle. The house has been repaired and redecorated in modern times, the chief restorations being to the courtyard.
The house is mainly interesting for the late 17th-century work of the courtyard and for the work of Vanbrugh on the exterior. The lead rain-water heads and pipes and some of the ironwork are noteworthy. The historical associations of the house include the residence and death here of Queen Katherine of Aragon in 1536.
Elevations—The early 18th-century fronts of the house are all symmetrically designed and have ashlar-facing, rusticated pilasters at the angles and embattled parapets; the windows have projecting architraves and segmental heads. The lower ground-storey forms a high plinth or podium and the walls have a main cornice below the parapet.
The E. Front (Plate 42) has a projecting central bay or feature of the Doric order with an entablature and balustraded parapet. At the main floor-level it has an open portico with two Doric columns and approached by a wide elliptical staircase with stone balustrades; set within the portico is a round-headed recess; flanking the portico and at the angles of the bay itself are Doric pilasters, the space between the pilasters being occupied by four round-headed niches in two tiers.
The S. Front (Plate 42) is the earliest of the four, being finished in 1708. The central projecting bay has a round-headed doorway, at the main floor-level, flanked by engaged Doric columns, supporting an entablature; it is approached by a double staircase, with an enclosing wall on the S. having a rusticated arch in front, and an elaborate iron balustrade. The windows flanking the doorway are round-headed and have key-stones.
The W. Front (Plate 97) has projecting wings at the sides, rising above the general level of the building. The central feature has a wide gateway leading into the courtyard; the round arch has a moulded archivolt and springs from panelled responds with moulded cappings; the double doors are panelled.
The N. Front has an added storey to the middle part. The ground-floor of the same part of the front forms a loggia with a groined vault of four bays and is fronted with a range of five elliptical arches with key-stones; the arcade has rusticated piers and responds with moulded cappings; three of the arches are open.
The Courtyard is flanked by late 17th-century ranges, built of red or lighter-coloured brick with stone dressings. The elevations, except that on the E., are of three storeys with a modillioned eaves-cornice and square-headed windows; the windows of the lower ground-floor have moulded architraves and scutcheon key-stones, with the Montagu arms, badge and monogram; the upper windows have similar key-stones or masks, flanked by acanthus-scrolls. The round-headed archway in the W. wall has a moulded archivolt, panelled pilasters at the sides and a key-stone with the Montagu crest. The projecting bays in the eastern angles of the courtyard have rusticated stone quoins. The E. side of the courtyard (Plate 98) is of two storeys only, the lower with a range of windows similar to the corresponding windows on the other sides; the upper storey has three tall windows lighting the Hall, and a dummy-window, all similar to, but much larger than, the upper windows at the other sides of the court; the wall is divided into five bays by Corinthian pilasters standing on tall pedestals and supporting an entablature, the cornice of which is continued round from the adjoining ranges. In the middle bay is a doorway flanked by engaged Ionic columns supporting an entablature and segmental pediment; the frieze bears the Montagu crest, the pediment, the monogram of the 4th Earl and on the wall above is a full achievement of the Montagu arms. The doorway is approached by a broad staircase, with balustrades of scrolled ironwork and panels of the monogram of the 4th Earl, also in ironwork. Round the courtyard are eight lead rainwater-pipes and heads (Plate 159), of late 17th-century date; the heads have the Montagu monogram, arms or crest and are enriched with acanthus and swags; the down pipes have rich foliage-ornament and the straps have leopards' heads and the Montagu crest, supporters, coronet or arms.
Interior—The Lower Ground-floor of the S. range incorporates one early 16th-century wall of rubble, containing a doorway with moulded jambs and four-centred arch in a square head, with a moulded label; further W. is a blocked window of the same date, with a segmental pointed rear-arch. The room at E. end, towards the courtyard, has some re-used moulded ceiling-beams of the 16th century; other rooms have chamfered ceiling-beams. The E. range incorporates part of the 16th-century return wall of the courtyard, at its S. end; in it is a doorway with moulded jambs and four-centred arch. The floor of the great Hall, called the White Hall, above, is carried on square piers supporting heavy beams; beneath the steps, leading up to the Hall, are barrel-vaults of brick. The N. range contains the Servants' Hall, which has chamfered ceiling-beams and a carved wood cartouche over the fire-place with palms, the Montagu crest and a cherub-head. In the W. wing is some 17th-century panelling and some doors of the same date. The Principal Floor contains, in the E. range, the White Hall. It has four doorways with panelled doors in two leaves, moulded architraves and enriched panels above each filled with a painted landscape; flanking the doorways are Ionic enriched pilasters, supporting a deep cornice with acanthus-ornament, carried round the room; the ceiling is coved and the walls have large bolection-moulded panels between the pilasters. The Dining-room, N. of the White Hall, has large bolection-moulded panels on the walls; these are filled with thick stamped wall-paper in black and gold; the fireplace has a moulded surround of coloured marble and an old iron fire-back; the panel over the door to the White Hall has a painted landscape. The Saloon, the middle room of the S. range, has been considerably altered but the general arrangement is presumably that of Vanbrugh; the N. side is divided into bays by fluted Corinthian pilasters and columns supporting a deep entablature, which is carried round the room; the fireplace has a marble surround finished at the top with a large shell-ornament, swags and flanking cornices; there is an old iron fire-back. The Green Drawing-room and the rooms at the W. end of the range retain some early 18th-century panelling and a fireplace with a moulded surround. The boudoir, at the W. end of the range, has a fireplace with a moulded marble surround, an old fire-back, and a coved and painted ceiling of Venus and Cupid. In the W. range the chapel and gateway are the height of the lower ground and main floors. The Chapel has the altar at the N. end and a gallery at the S. end and W. side (Plate 119); the walls have moulded panelling and a cornice, above which, on the W. side, are three round arches, opening into the gallery and having panelled casing and moulded imposts; the gallery-front, in the three openings, has a balustrade of turned balusters. The gallery-front, at the S. end, is simply panelled and the central door-way has swags and festoons of carved drapery. The reredos is flanked by fluted Corinthian pilasters, supporting an entablature and broken segmental pediment. The Gateway, N. of the chapel, has walls lined with bolection-moulded panelling, with a round-headed niche in the middle of each side wall. The Great Staircase (Plate 100), leading up from the principal to the second floor, is probably modern but some of the panelling is old; the staircase passes through a wooden screen, with two round-headed openings at the level of the first landing and one similar opening below, crossing the corridor adjoining the staircase; these openings have panelled responds, palm-leaf enrichment over the arches and cartouches with the Montagu crest; between the upper bays is a fluted Corinthian pilaster, supporting an enriched entablature and supported on a carved and panelled pilaster with a scrolled bracket at the top. A staircase in the N. range has turned and twisted balusters. On the Second Floor most of the rooms and passages are panelled and the doorways have moulded architraves. The main passage in the S. range has three 17th-century windows each of two square-headed lights with moulded jambs and mullions. In a passage at the W. end of the range is some 17th-century re-used panelling, with arcaded enrichment. At the W. end of the N. wing is a 17th-century staircase with flat wavy balusters and a small room, near the staircase, has some exposed timber-framing.
Condition—Fairly good, but the E. portico is out of true.
b(3). The Mound, formerly known as Castle Hill, in Kimbolton Park, ½ m. W.S.W. of the Castle, consists of an oval island about 50 yards by 40 yards surrounded by a wide ditch.
a(4). Moat in the Vicarage Garden, about 100 yards S.W. of the church.
a(5). Stonely Priory, house (Plate 47) and moat, nearly 1 m. E.S.E. of the church, is the site of a house of Austin Canons founded in the 12th century. The House is of two storeys of roughly coursed stone-rubble and modern brick; the roofs are tiled. It is a small rectangular building of 15th- or early 16th-century date and is reputed to have been part of the priory buildings. Only the four external walls of the original building remain. The upper part of the first floor has been re-built and a brick parapet has been added to the W. wall. In the W. wall is a doorway with chamfered jambs and four-centred head. Inside the building one of the ground-floor rooms has a chamfered ceiling beam and in the other room the ceiling has exposed joists.
The Moat of irregular trianglar form, surrounds the house, but is fragmentary.
Condition—Of house, poor.
The following monuments, unless otherwise described, are of the 17th century and of two storeys, timber-framed and plastered; the roofs are tiled. Some of the buildings have original chimney-stacks and exposed ceiling-beams.
Condition—Good or fairly good, unless noted.
a(6). Cottage, 60 yards N. of the church, was built c. 1700.
a(7). House, 30 yards N.W. of the church, has an early 18th-century wing on the N.E. The front entrance has a stone slab as a threshold, possibly a portion of a head-stone, on which are traces of illegible lettering. Inside the building one door is hung on a pair of 'cock's head' hinges and the cupboard-door under the staircase is hung on a pair of old angle-hinges.
a(8). Range of two houses and shop, at N. end of the High Street, 40 yards W.S.W. of the church, has been remodelled and added to at the back late in the 18th century. The upper storey projects at the E. end of the S. elevation.
High Street (Plate 3). N.E. side
a(9). House and shop, 10 yards S.E. of the corner and 50 yards S. of the church, is of two storeys with attics. It was remodelled and refronted in the 18th century when the front part was converted into a shop. The central portion of the back part of the building has been raised and the back wing has been altered in modern times. In the back part of the building is some exposed timber-framing with modern brick nogging.
a(10). Range of two houses and shops, adjoining (9) on the S.E., is of two storeys with attics. The shop-fronts are later alterations and the building has been added to at the back. Between the shops is a central passage-way with the timber-framing exposed in the walls.
a(11). House and shop, adjoining (10) on the S.E., is of two storeys with attics. It was built c. 1700 but has had a modern shop-window inserted on the S.E. end of the front and modern additions at the back. The front to the street has a wooden modillioned cornice at the eaves-level.
a(12). White Horse Hotel, adjoining (11) on the S.E. is of two storeys with attics; the roofs are covered with slates and tiles. It was built c. 1640 but has been added to and altered at a later date, and in modern times. The front is covered with modern stucco and has a carriage-way towards the S.E. end, and with an exposed beam and joists in the ceiling. There is some exposed timber-framing in the S.E. wall of the passage at the back of the building. Re-set in the back wall is a stone with the date 1640.
a(13). Block of three houses and shops, adjoining (12) on the S.E., is of two storeys with attics and has had the front much altered and replastered. It has later additions at the back.
a(14). House, shop and inn, 30 yards S.E. of (13) is of two storeys with attics. It was built in the 16th century and was added to at the back late in the 17th century when portions of the upper floor which originally projected were re-built. Later alterations include the insertion of a shop-front at the N.W. end of the building, the under-building of the upper floor which originally projected along the whole of the front to the street, the remodelling of the upper part of the front and the re-roofing of the building. In the back of the building is an old two-light transomed and mullioned window and in the central passage is some exposed timber-framing including two brackets which supported the former projecting upper storey.
a(15). House and shop adjoining (14) on the S.E. has had a modern shop-front inserted on the ground-floor and has modern additions at the back. It has been much altered and has a modern slate roof.
a(16). House and shop, 15 yards S.E. of (15) is of two storeys with attics. It has been converted into a shop in modern times and added to at the back.
a(17). House, adjoining (16) on the S.E. is of two storeys with attics. The upper storey on the street-front projects but has been partly under-built by the addition of two bay-windows.
a(18). Range of two houses and shop, adjoining (17) on the S.E. is of two storeys with attics. It has been considerably altered and has modern additions at the back. Inside the building one of the ceiling-beams is moulded.
a(19). George Hotel, adjoining (18) on the S.E. at corner of High Street and George Street, is of two storeys with attics. It was built as a dwelling-house on a rectangular plan but extended at the back in recent years and converted into a hotel. Inside the building some of the timber-construction is exposed. On the first floor is some bolection-moulded panelling. The staircase (Plate 165) has moulded strings and handrail, square newels and turned balusters.
a(20). House, 10 yards S.E. of (8) is of two storeys with attics and a cellar. The walls are of brick and plastered timber-framing. The original house was built on a rectangular plan with a projecting staircase at the back. About 1700 the house was to a great extent remodelled and an L-shaped wing was added on the N. with a passage-way adjoining the original building and the long wing projecting towards the S.W. In recent years additions have been made at the back of the earlier part of the house. The elevation to the street has been refronted. Inside the building the ground-floor rooms of the original house are lined with moulded panelling with moulded skirtings, dado rails and cornices. The 17th-century door to the staircase leading to the cellar is hung on two strap-hinges and above it are some re-used flat, shaped balusters. In the W. wing some of the timber-construction is exposed. One of the bed-rooms in the main building has some bolection-moulded panelling. The staircase (Plate 164) leading to the attics has some re-used symmetrically turned balusters of early 17th-century date, some late 17th-century turned balusters and square newels with ball-tops. In the attics are some 17th-century doors.
a(21). House, adjoining (20) on the S.E. is of two storeys with attics. It is of L-shaped plan with the wings extending towards the N.W. and S.W. The N.W. wing was re-built early in the 18th century and both wings have modern additions at the back.
a(22). House and offices, 50 yards S.E. of (21) has N.W. and S.E. wings extending towards the S.W. at the back. Both wings and the central block have modern additions at the back and the building has been much altered both internally and externally. Inside the building some of the timber-construction is exposed and one of the ground-floor rooms is lined with bolection-moulded panelling with a moulded architrave to the doorway.
a(23). House, 25 yards S.E. of (22) is of three storeys. It was built c. 1700 on an L-shaped plan with the wings extending towards the S.E. and S.W. It has since been considerably remodelled; both wings have been added to at the back, the elevation to the street has been refronted and the main block has been re-roofed. Inside the building a small amount of the timber-construction is, in places, exposed.
a(24). House, now three tenements, adjoining (23) on the S.E. is of two storeys with attics. It was built about c. 1600. About 1700 a gabled addition was built at the back of the middle part of the building and the N.W. end extended further towards the S.W., but the extension has since been practically re-built. At a later date the house was partly remodelled and the S.E. end extended towards the S.W. at the back. The street-front has at the northern end a coved moulded eaves-cornice of wood. Inside the building one of the exposed ceiling-beams is supported at one end on a shaped and moulded bracket.
a(25). House, adjoining (24) on the S.E., at southernmost end of the street, had the block fronting the High Street remodelled and heightened c. 1700. The front to the High Street has a coved plaster-cornice at the eaves. The return front is gabled at the N.E. end and the S.W. end is lower than the gabled portion.
East Street. N.E. side
a(26). House, 60 yards E.S.E. of the church is probably part of a larger house. On the streetfront two later bay-windows have been added on the ground-floor but above them, on the first floor, are two mullioned and transomed windows with old frames. Between them is a late 17th- or early 18th-century sundial with painted black figures on a white ground; it has a moulded rim and is surmounted by a moulded cornice. At the eaves is a coved plastered cornice enriched with modelled amorini, grapes, etc., but now in a very bad condition. Inside the building on the first floor some of the timber-framing is exposed.
a(27). House, 10 yards S.E. of (26) is of two storeys with attics. A late 17th-century wing has been added at the back and later work includes a considerable amount of remodelling and further additions. Inside the building in one of the ground-floor rooms is a moulded ceiling-beam. In the back wing is a six-panelled 17th-century door.
a(28). House, 10 yards S.E. of (27) has modern additions at the back.
a(29). House and shop, 80 yards S.E. of the church has had a modern shop-front inserted on the ground-floor. Inside the building some of the timber-construction is exposed.
a(30). House, 50 yards S.E. of (29) was built on an L-shaped plan with the wings extending towards the S.E. and S.W. Late in the 18th century it was extensively altered when additions were made to the S.E. wing. On the street-front the N.W. end is gabled and originally projected on the upper floor but has since been under-built.
a(31). Cottage, on N.W. side of George Lane, 100 yards N.E. of (19) was built early in the 18th century.
a(32). Barn about 40 yards back from N.E. side of East Street and 120 yards E.S.E. of the church has had most of the plaster-work replaced by brick-nogging and the timber-framing exposed; it stands on a brick plinth which has been mostly re-built. It is internally in three bays with struts supporting the tie-beams, collars and rafters.
a(33). House, two tenements, on N.E. side of the road to Tilbrook, 230 yards N.W. of the church has had a modern gabled addition built on the front and modern extensions on the back.
b(34). Cottage on S.W. side of Hatchet Lane, about 1,130 yards S.S.E. of the church has a stone plinth and modern pantile roof. It has been added to on the N.W. and S.W. Inside the building on the first floor some of the timber-construction is exposed.
b(35). House on S.W. side of Hatchet Lane, 50 yards S.E. of (34) has been added to on the S.E. The N.W. end of the front to the lane is gabled and has original barge-boards, with a slight enrichment carved on the under edges. On the first floor is an original three-light window with moulded wood frame and mullions. On the back elevation, the N.W. end projects slightly and is gabled. Inside the building one of the bedrooms has a segmental plaster ceiling.
b(36). Cottage, on N.E. side of Hatchet Lane opposite (35) has been much altered and converted into a one-storey residence.
b(37). Cottage, on S.E. side of the St. Neots road, 1600 yards S.W. of the church is of two storeys with attics. It has a modern addition on the S.W.
a(38). Warren House, on border of Warren Spinney, 1,000 yards N.E. of the church was built probably as a 'standing' and largely with re-used 16th- and early 17th-century material probably brought from the old Castle late in the 17th century. It is a small square building of brick and stone with a projecting rectangular porch in the middle of the S.W. front and later additions at the back. The S.W. or front elevation has a brick plinth and a stone frieze and moulded cornice with a stone parapet above with a moulded coping surmounted in the middle by a gable. The porch has a moulded stone cornice and parapet formed of re-used window-sills and a round-headed entrance-doorway with moulded brick imposts and label. On the first floor is a central round-headed window with moulded stone jambs and archivolt and square blocks at the springing; the archivolt is returned across the whole front of the building as a moulded string course below the frieze; the central window is flanked on either side by a two-light window with moulded stone jambs, head and mullions; both side windows are now blocked. In the middle of the parapet is a blocked two-light window of similar detail to the side windows on the first floor. The N.W. elevation is gabled and has a fragmentary brick plinth and a projecting chimney-stack with splayed offsets and an L-shaped shaft; on either side of the stack the wall is covered with modern plaster. The S.E. elevation is gabled and covered with modern plaster and the back elevation is hidden by modern additions. The inner door to the porch is of nail-studded battens.
a(39). House (Plate 71), at Wornditch, 1 m. N.W. of the church is of stone, brick and plastered timber-framing. It is built on an L-shaped plan with the wings extending towards the N. and E. and is probably of 16th-century origin but almost entirely re-built in the first half of the 17th century. The N. front has been refaced with modern brick and the S. front is covered with modern rough-cast. The gabled E. wall of the E. wing is of ashlar and is surmounted by a rectangular brick chimney-stack with three conjoined square shafts set diagonally. The central chimney-stack to the N. wing is similar but with two shafts. Inside the building some of the timber-construction is exposed and some 17th-century panelling remains.