An Inventory of the Historical Monuments in Huntingdonshire. Originally published by His Majesty's Stationery Office, London, 1926.
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77. STANGROUND (C.a.).
(O.S. 6 in. (a) II. S.E., (b) VI S.W.)
Stanground is a village and parish adjoining Peterborough on the S.E. The principal monuments are the Church, Horsey Hill, Lampass Cross and the 14th-century barn.
a(1). S. of Back River and close to its junction with Cnut's dyke (on the site of the Pumping Station), a Roman pottery-kiln was found in 1908; pottery spoilt in the baking had been found in 1902 and 1908 at the same point. In addition, remains of an ancient wharf and road covered with Roman potsherds were found.
a(2). Parish Church of St. John the Baptist (Plate 134) stands at the N.W. corner of the village. The walls are of rubble, generally coursed; the dressings and ashlar are of Barnack stone. The roofs are covered with slates and lead. The presence of a 12th-century capital, re-used under the N.W. respond of the nave, seems to indicate the existence of a church on the site at that period, but there are no remains in situ. The three E. bays of the S. arcade of the nave are largely of mid 13th-century material. About 1300–10 the whole church including Chancel, North Vestry, Nave, North and South Aisles, West Tower and a S. porch was re-built. The rood-loft staircase was added in the 15th century. The church was restored in 1872 and 1908 and the South Porch re-built in 1876.
The church is an unusually complete example of one period. Among the fittings the piscina in the chancel is noteworthy.
Architectural Description—The Chancel (30¾ ft. by 19 ft.) has rubble walls and a plain ashlar parapet. The E. window is of five acute cinque-foiled lights with plain intersecting tracery in a two-centred head with a moulded label and mask-stops. In the N. wall is a doorway with chamfered jambs, segmental-pointed arch and moulded label with mask-stops; further W. is a modern opening and above it a square-headed squint; further W. is a 15th-century doorway with chamfered jambs and four-centred head and above it a modern arch. In the N.W. angle of the chancel is a projecting turret, containing the rood-loft staircase, resting on moulded corbelling and lit by a cruciform loop. In the S. wall are three windows each of two plain pointed lights with a spandrel in a two-centred head with moulded external and internal labels and mask-stops; below the windows are moulded string-courses and below the middle window is a doorway with chamfered jambs, segmental head and moulded labels, the internal with mask and the external with defaced stops; below the western window is a 'low-side' window of three pointed lights, the western rebated for a shutter, with trefoiled spandrels (the middle two only pierced) in a square head with a moulded label. The side walls have each a moulded cornice at the plate-level. The chancel-arch is two-centred and of two hollow-chamfered orders, the responds are of similar section, with moulded capitals and bases, the latter mostly restored; S. of the arch is a recess with moulded jambs, two-centred head and label with a mask-stop; the outer moulding on the N. also has a mask-stop.
The North Vestry has a plain ashlar parapet with a grotesque gargoyle on the N. side. In the E. wall is a window of two pointed lights with a circle in a two-centred head with a moulded label and mask-stops.
The Nave (53½ ft. by 20¼ ft.) has in the E. wall, N. of the chancel-arch, two doorways, the lower modern and the upper of the 15th century, to the former rood-loft; it has a head of two stones gabled together. The N. and S. arcades are each of four bays with two-centred arches of two chamfered orders and moulded labels on both sides with grotesque head-stops. The N. arcade has octagonal piers and semi-octagonal responds with moulded bases; the E. respond and the two eastern piers have moulded and foliated capitals; the third pier and the W. respond have moulded capitals; the capitals of the piers are projected to take the outer order of the arches. The S. arcade is sprung from a much higher level than the N.; the three eastern arches are either of the 13th century with re-cut chamfers or are of 13th-century voussoirs re-used; the E. arch springs from a mid 13th-century moulded corbel on a foliated bracket, apparently in situ; the two eastern piers have 13th-century 'hold-water' bases on square plinths and early 14th-century moulded capitals like those of the N. arcade; the third pier has a similar capital and a moulded base of the same date; the westermost arch is entirely of early 14th-century date and the springing drops lower on to the W. respond which has a foliated capital and moulded base. The clearstorey has on the N. side two and on the S. side four windows each of two square-headed lights in a square head with a moulded label and mask-stops. The nave is finished with a plain ashlar parapet.
The North Aisle (14½ ft. wide) has a parapet similar to the nave; one bay overlaps the chancel and forms a N. chapel. In the N. wall are two windows each of three plain pointed lights with spandrels in a segmental-pointed head with a moulded label and mask-stops; further W. is the N. doorway with chamfered jambs, two-centred arch and moulded label with mask-stops. In the S. wall, E. of the arcade, is a 15th-century doorway to the rood-loft staircase; it has stop-moulded jambs, four-centred arch and label; the staircase itself is now blocked. In the W. wall is a window of three plain pointed lights with intersecting tracery in a two-centred head with a moulded label and mask-stops.
The South Aisle (14 ft. wide) has a parapet similar to the N. aisle. The E. and W. walls have each a window, uniform with the W. window of the N. aisle. In the S. wall is a window uniform with the N. windows of the N. aisle; further W. is the S. doorway with jambs and two-centred arch of two stop-chamfered orders and a moulded label with mask-stops; it may be partly of 13th-century material re-set.
The West Tower (11 ft. square) is of three stages with ashlar buttresses terminating in gables with 'ball-flower' ornament, moulded plinth and a cornice at the base of the spire with 'ball-flower' ornament. The two-centred tower-arch is of three hollow-chamfered orders with a moulded label and mask-stops on the E. face; the responds are of two hollow-chamfered orders with a half-round attached shaft all with moulded capitals and bases. The W. window is of two pointed lights with a quatrefoil in a two-centred head and a moulded label. The second stage has in the N., S. and W. walls a round window enclosing a trefoil with a continuous label. The bell-chamber has in each wall a window of two pointed lights and a plain spandrel in a two-centred head of two chamfered orders with a moulded label and mask-stops.
The octagonal spire is of broach-form and ashlar-faced, with a pronounced entasis; it has two ranges of lights, four in each range; the lower lights are each of two-pointed lights with a blank spandrel in a gabled head; the upper are each of one-pointed light in a gabled head.
The South Porch is modern except for some re-used stones and the re-set outer archway with two-centred arch and responds of two chamfered orders, a moulded label and mask-stops; the capitals and bases of the responds are modern.
Fittings—Bells: four; 1st by W. Haulsey, 1617; 2nd by Tobias Norris, 1622; 4th by Watts of Leicester, 1588. Brackets: In S. aisle—in E. wall, two, one with a moulded square panel on the face, the other with a chamfer only, both with a mask-bracket below, c. 1300. Brasses: In chancel—on N. wall, (1) to Elias Petit, vicar, 1634, inscription with achievement-of-arms; on S. wall, (2) to Robert Smith, 1558, and Alice, wife of Thomas Smith, son of the above, 1595, inscription only. Chest: In N. chapel—plain with iron straps and padlock, 17th-century. Coffin and Coffin-lids. Coffin: In churchyard—with shaped head, 13th-century. Coffin-lids: In organ-chamber—tapering slab. In S. aisle—in tomb-recess, (1) coped slab with moulded edge, ridge with double omega-ornament in middle and scrolled crosses at each end. In churchyard—S. side, (2) similar to (1) but tapering and with stepped calvary at one end instead of cross; (3) tapering and with scrolled crosses at each end and in middle, now broken; (4) fragment, similar to (3); (5) fragment with double omega-ornament and dart, all probably 13th-century. In tower—tapering slabs in floor. Font (Plate 9): octagonal bowl with moulded under-edge, stepped up round two panels with simple traceried heads, stem with central and four detached shafts with four circular or trefoiled shafts set round them, all with moulded capitals and bases and standing on a common octagonal plinth, c. 1300, two inner shafts modern. Glass: In S. aisle—in E. window, shield of England (reversed), early 14th-century. Lockers: In chancel—in N. wall, (1) large rectangular, with rebated edges, c. 1300. In nave—S. of chancel-arch, (2) rectangular, with rebated edges. In vestry—one in N. and one in W. walls, both rectangular with rebated edges. Monuments and Floor-slabs. Monuments: In S. aisle—in S. wall, (1) tomb-recess with moulded jambs, segmental-pinted arch and partly restored label, c. 1300. In churchyard—S. of chancel, (2) to John, son of John and Mary Butler, 1679, table-tomb with ornamental edge re-used for later inscription; (3) to Catherine, daughter of John and Elizabeth Butler, 1669, table-tomb as (2). Floor-slabs: In chancel—(1) to William Forster, B.D. vicar, 1679, with shield-of-arms; (2) to Thomas Benyon, 1691; (3) to Alice, widow of William Forster, 1694–5, and Margaret and Elizabeth her daughters; (4) to Sarah, wife of Henry Thorn, 17th-century; (5) to Robert Coveney, 1665, and Thomas Coveney, 1684–5, on an incised slab mostly defaced but with the base of a cross and part of a marginal-inscription in black-letter with the date 1443; (6) to Jane, infant daughter of Robert Tompion, 1711, white marble slab; (7) to Charles Coveney, 1689; (8) to William Makernesse, vicar 16(80). In nave—(9) to A.H., 1692. In N. aisle—(10) to George Coveney 16(8?)5; (11) to W.F., late 17th-century. In S. aisle—(12) fragment only, late 17th-century. Piscinae: In chancel—double (Plate 140), with two octofoiled drains, moulded jambs and mullion trefoiled heads and tracery in two-centred main head with moulded label and mask-stops, early 14th-century. In S. aisle—with chamfered jambs, trefoiled head and part of round drain, c. 1300. Plate: includes cup of 1703, also the stem and other fragments of a base-metal coffin-chalice found under the church; the knop has twelve projecting lugs, probably 13th-century. Recess: In chancel—in N. wall, plain rectangular recess. Screen: At W. end of N. chapel—part below rail, of four double bays with moulded posts and mullions dividing bays into two panels with cinque-foiled, carved and traceried heads (Plate 51), 15th-century, partly re-arranged and tracery of two N. bays modern. Seating: In chancel—against N. wall, stone seat with shaped ends, c. 1300. In nave— pews with carved popey-heads and some moulded rails, made up with modern work; pews W. of crossaisle mostly old; pews E. of same mostly modern but some old popey-heads including one formed of three fishes (Plate 154), one with male and female heads and one with busts holding shields, 15th-century. Sedile: In chancel—seat in three steps, in recess with hollow-chamfered jambs and segmental-pointed head with a moulded label and one modern and one defaced head-stop, early 14th-century. Sundial: On S. buttress of chancel —round scratched dial. Miscellanea: In nave— under N.W. respond—reversed respond-capital with fluted soffit, late 12th-century. On steps under tower—broken stone with plain incised cross. In vicarage-garden and in garden on site of manor-house, many moulded and panelled stones, including base of gable-cross, various dates. In vicarage-garden, square stone with large crosslet on each face.
b(3). Horsey Hill Fort, stands on the E. bank of the River Nene, in low ground, 300 yards E. of the bridge. The work, about 140 yards long, N. to S. and 110 yards wide and whose area is 5½ acres, consists of a pentagonal fort with bastions, closed at the gorge. It has a continuous rampart, berm and outer ditch, with an entrance in the S. curtain, covered by a slight salient. There are traces round the E. bastion of an outer parapet, shown as continuous on a plan in Stowe, MSS. 1025, p. 56. The inner rampart is 7 ft. above the interior and about 14 ft. above the ditch. The hollow bastions may have served as gun-emplacements. The trace of the work and its flanking bastion suggest a 17th-century origin, probably of the Civil War period. (Plan p. 247.)
a(4). Lampass Cross (Plate 50), now re-erected in the Vicarage garden, S. of the church, is said to have stood, formerly, at the junction of the Whittlesey and Farcet roads. The cross is of Barnack stone and of 11th or 12th-century date; it has a wheel-head and shoulder-projections rather lower down. Above these projections on each side face are two bays of panelled arcading with round arches; below the projections are an interlaced design with a device above, on one side, all much weathered. The base is modern.
a(5). Barn, about 320 yards S.E. of the church, is of rubble with ashlar dressings. It was built in the 14th century but has been almost completely demolished, the only portion remaining being a ruined porch on the W. side with the adjoining wall of the main structure and the return of the S. end. The porch has ashlar buttresses with two tabled offsets and the jambs of the archway are of two chamfered orders; the arch itself has been destroyed. The whole building has a chamfered plinth.
The following monuments are of the 17th century and of two storeys; the walls are of rubble and the roofs are covered with slates or thatch.
a(6). House (Plate 130), on the E. side of the road, 50 yards W. of (5) has a stone band between the storeys and three original ashlar chimney-stacks, the tops of two of which have been re-built. At the back are several original two-light windows with moulded jambs and mullions and square heads.
a(7). Lion Inn, on the W. side of the road, 60 yards S. of (6). An original chamfered ceiling-beam is exposed in the N. room.
a(8). Bell Inn, on the E. side of the road S.E. of (7), has exposed ceiling-beams.