An Inventory of the Historical Monuments in London, Volume 2, West London. Originally published by His Majesty's Stationery Office, London, 1925.
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13. ST. PANCRAS.
(O.S. 6 in. London (a)G. (b) K.)
The borough of St. Pancras is conterminous with the old civil parish of the same name. The fittings of St. Katherine, Regents Park, are of unusual interest.
a(1). Old Church of St. Pancras stands on the E. side of Pancras Road. The walls are of ragstone-rubble with freestone dressings; the roofs are covered with slates. There is little evidence of the date of the Chancel and Nave, the earliest detail being a late 13th-century piscina in the chancel. The average thickness of the walls (2½ ft.) is against a much earlier date for the structure. A W. tower and S. porch of uncertain date were destroyed in 1847–8, when the W. extension of the nave was built, the North Vestry and South Tower added, and the whole building remodelled in the 'Norman' style.
Architectural Description—The Chancel (23 ft. by 17½ ft.) has no ancient features. Under the E. end, and extending eastwards into the churchyard, a cavity was found in 1923.
The Nave (42 ft. by 21 ft.) has no ancient features.
The Roof, above the plaster ceiling, is said to be ancient but is not now visible.
Fittings—Altar: let into modern communion table, small slab, 1½ ft. by 9½ in., with five consecration crosses. Brass and Indent: In chancel —on N. wall, to Mary (Glover), wife of John Beresford, 1588, inscription, shield-of-arms and initials I.B.M. Indent: see Monument (7). Font-cover: of wood with moulded base, enriched drum and ogee-shaped capping, terminating in a crown, early 18th-century, base probably later. Gallery: modern front, incorporating several panels with carved scroll-work, early 18th-century. Monuments and Floor-slabs—Monuments: In chancel on N. wall, (1) to John Offley, 1667; Elizabeth (Moore), his wife, 1678; and Robert, 1678; Thomas, 1667; Edward, 1668; Stephen, 1673; and Ann, 1669, their children, marble wall-monument (Plate 10) with enriched apron, scrolled sides and double pediment, two shields-of-arms. On S. wall—(2) to Daniell Clarke, 1626, master-cook to Elizabeth and James I., and Catherine, his wife, 1613, marble tablet with architrave, cornice and cartouche-of-arms; (3) to Richard Fitz-Gerald, 1702, plain white marble tablet; (4) of William Platt, 1637, and Mary (Hungerfoord), his widow, and wife of Edward Tucker, 1687, wall-monument of two bays divided and flanked by pilasters and each with oval recess enclosing bust, enriched sides and cresting, and thirty-seven shields-of-arms, removed from Highgate Chapel, in 1833, and renovated. In nave— on E. wall, (5) to Thomas Doughty, 1694, oval marble tablet with wreath, vase, festoons and shield-of-arms; (6) to Samuel Cooper, 1672, (miniature painter) and Christina, his wife, 1693, shaped marble tablet with scrolls, cherub-heads, palette and brushes, and shield-of-arms; in N. wall, (7) recess with moulded and shafted jambs, flat head with rounded angles, frieze of quatrefoils and embattled cornice, reveals and head of recess panelled, with cinquefoiled heads to the panels; at back, indents of two men with two and three sons respectively, woman with eight daughters, scrolls and three shields, early 16th-century, now painted; on S. wall, (8) of Philadelphia, wife of Thomas Wollaston, early 17th-century, marble wall-monument with curtained recess containing reclining effigy of woman, recess flanked by figures of women, entablature with pedimented centre-piece, and two obelisks, lozenge and cartouche-of-arms. In churchyard—against S. wall of chancel, (9) to Elizabeth Green, 1698, and Thomas Green, her husband, 1715, head-stone. Floor-slabs: In chancel—(1) to Richard Nicolls, 1612, and Isabell (Clarke) Nicolls, 1652, slabs with white marble insets with five shields-of-arms. In nave—(2) to Catherine, wife of Richard Sare, 1706, and others later; (3) to William Talbot, 1660, with defaced shield-of-arms; (4) to Frances (Tirwhitt), wife of Anthony Monson, 1658; (5) to Mary [Frances] (Monson), wife of Henry Tasburgh, 1706; (6) to Ann and Isabell, 1680, daughters of Sir Valentine Brown, with defaced lozenge-of-arms. Piscina: with moulded jambs and trefoiled head, 13th-century, but completely restored. Sedile: with hollow chamfered jambs and four-centred head, 15th-century.
Condition—Good, much restored.
a(2). St. Katherine's Hospital was transferred to the E. side of Regent's Park in 1827, when the old buildings were destroyed on the formation of St. Katherine's docks. The existing building is therefore entirely modern but contains the following:—
Fittings—Brass: see Monument (5). Chairs: (Plate 68). In the chapter-room and church— one with pierced and carved back, carved arms and turned legs; two with pierced and carved backs, scrolled legs and carved front rails, four similar to last but with lower backs, all late 17th-century. Font: hexagonal and made up of six carved Renaissance panels separated by pilaster-strips and finished with carved cornice, carved cylindrical stem, early to mid 16th-century. Gallery: incorporated in front of organ gallery, three large pierced panels, carved with scrolls, cherubs and musical instruments, late 17th-century. Lamp: (Plate 160) hanging from gallery-front, hexagonal and of bronze, consisting of moulded and embattled base with trumpet-shaped crocketed pendant terminating in a lion's head and six pinnacled uprights with traceried and crocketed supports to moulded centre-piece on which is a lion holding a shield, 15th-century, said to have come from the Holland chantry, six curved branches for candles, added to uprights, 17th-century. Monuments and Floor-slabs— Monuments: Against N. wall—(1) of John Holand, K.G., Duke of Exeter, etc., 1447, and Anne (Stafford) and Anne (Montagu), his first and third wives (Plates 136, 137), altar-tomb of stone with alabaster effigies and elaborate canopy; the altar-tomb has a plain front with a moulded cornice enriched with male heads with varying head-dresses; effigy of man in civil costume with long cloak and coronet, head on crowned helm and feet on lion; effigies of two wives with horned head-dresses and coronets, angels supporting heads and at feet of one a hound and at feet of the other two small dogs; the canopy has an open arch in front of four-centred form, elaborately cusped and sub-cusped; the main spandrels are carved with large draped angels blowing trumpets and on the smaller spandrels angels with censers, foliage and doves; the cusp-points have leaf-ornaments and heads, alternately, except the main points, which are carved with half-angels holding shields of (a) Montagu quartering Monthermer and (b) Stafford; the moulded responds of the arch have each a moulded shaft on the front face with a foliated band at the springing level and an attached buttress with crocketed pinnacles; the hollowmoulding of the responds is carved on the E. side with foliage, birds, Bohun swans, monkey, fox, etc., and on the W. side with a stag-hunt, hare coursing, and four fox and goose groups including a fox being hanged by a goose; the main S.W. angle has carved human figures; the main cornice is carved with six crouching figures of angels and three coloured achievements of the arms of Holand —England with a border of France; each has a helm crested with a crowned leopard standing on a hat of estate; above the cornice rises a lofty attic with thirteen niches each with a foliated pedestal and a vaulted canopy of tabernacle work; the middle niche is larger and taller than the rest and rises above the top cornice; this cornice is carved with square flowers; the W. end of the canopy is mainly modern but may incorporate some old work; the N. side of the canopy has an arch of similar form to that in front with original carving in spandrels and at sides; the four-centred soffit of the canopy has two rows of sub-cusped quatrefoils each enclosing a leaf-ornament; at the E. end of the canopy internally are three niches with panelled and foliated pedestals and vaulted canopies of tabernacle work; above them are a coloured achievement similar to those on the S. front and two shields-of-arms (a) France and England quarterly with a label and (b) Holand, impaling or a cheveron gules for Stafford. On N. wall, (2) to Joanna (Caesar), wife of John Rampayne, 1694, oval marble tablet with cartouche-of-arms; (3) to Frederic Becker, 1663, rectangular black marble tablet with architrave and cartouche-of-arms. On S. wall, (4) to the Hon. George Montagu, 1681, Master of the Hospital, black and white marble wall-monument (Plate 11) with Corinthian side columns, entablature, broken pediment and cartouche-of-arms; (5) of William Cuttinge, 1599, dark marble tablet with side pilasters, pediment, and achievement-of-arms, and round arch with guilloche ornament and shields-of-arms in the spandrels enclosing copper-gilt plate with kneeling figures of man and woman at prayer-desk and achievement-of-arms in colour; (6) to William Waterson, 1710, and Edmund, his son, 1713, black and white wooden tablet with cornice, drapery, festoons and cartouche-of-arms. Floorslabs: (1) to John Hickox, 1706, with achievement-of-arms; (2) to members of the Dummer family, probably early 18th-century, with achievement-of-arms; (3) to Susanna, wife of Emmanuel Dudson, 1690; (4) to the Hon. George Montagu, 1681, with achievement-of-arms. In W. lobby, (5) to Eleanor Dudson, 1703, and John Dudson, with defaced shield-of-arms. Plate: includes two cups of 1652, (Plate 138) and two stand-patens and a salver of 1707, given by Lewis, Earl of Feversham. Pulpit: (Plate 5) of oak, hexagonal, with Ionic pilasters at angles, quadrant-shaped cornice and arched panels in each face all with arabesque ornament; in panels six perspective views in low relief of buildings, churches, castles, etc.; raised lower panels with scrolled brackets at the angles; on rail painted text (from Nehemiah chap. viii, verse 4); book-rest supported by two carved and pierced scrolls with eagle-heads; stem modern, pulpit given by Sir Julius Caesar before 1636. On S. of chapel is a twisted Corinthian column (Plate 139) with vine enrichment and a drum carved with conventional foliage and figures of St. Blaise and St. Katherine; it is said to have supported the sounding-board. Stalls: In chapel —four on each side and six at W. end with cinquefoiled and sub-cusped canopy-heads with ogee crocketed gables and embattled cornice and pinnacles; spandrels carved with grotesque beasts, foliage, etc.; panelled backs with similar heads and ribbed vaults to canopies; stall-fronts (Plate 139) with cusped and traceried heads and spandrels carved with grotesque beasts, angels, sunflowers, vine-ornament, etc.; seats at W. end with moulded arm-rests and shaped haunches (Plate 140) with carved foliage, beasts, mitred heads, etc.; misericords (Plate 143) at W. end carved with (a) a hawk striking a duck, leaves at sides; (b) elephant and castle, beasts with men's heads at sides; (c) lion fighting a dragon, snake-monsters at sides; (d) wyvern, leaves at sides; (e) bearded head, man-headed monsters at sides; (f) woman riding on a man-headed beast, grotesque faces at sides; in chapter-room, seven more stalls of the same series with heads of king and queen, beasts, etc., on arms (Plate 141) and misericords (Plate 142) as follows:—(a) bearded head, leaves at sides; (b) grotesque head, leaves at sides; (c) pelican in her piety, swans with crowns round necks at sides; (d) winged devil over two women's busts, demon holding deed and centaur-like figure at sides; (e) angel with bag-pipe, lions' faces at sides; (f) bearded head, roses at sides; (g) large leaf, leaves at sides; all late 14th-century. Stall-fronts at sides of chapel incorporate eight carved Renaissance panels (Plate 139) with enriched frames and each enclosing a medallion with a man's bust, one also on N. wall, early to mid 16th-century, foreign. Miscellanea: In chapel—incorporated in altar, three traceried panels similar to those on stall-fronts; at W. end, carved group (Plate 139) in the round, with five angels playing musical instruments, late 15th or early 16th-century; on ends of stalls—four small figures in the round, possibly Faith, Hope, Charity and a man with a scroll, early 16th-century. Incorporated in two chairs, panels of flamboyant tracery, etc., c. 1500; painted cartouche-of-arms of Montagu, late 17th-century. In chapel—wooden bands of pierced carving with drapery, fruit, foliage, birds, serpents, etc., mid 17th-century; in chapter-room—panels from standard of former sounding-board of pulpit, incorporated in cabinet, including cartouche with shield-of-arms.
a(3). Column, etc., in St. Dominic's Church, Southampton Road. The column is of the 13th-century and of Purbeck - marble with moulded capital and base and formed part of a building on the E. side of the cloister of the Blackfriars convent, near Ludgate; there are also fragments of shafting, etc., from the same place.
b(4). Lauderdale House, on the S. side of "The Bank," nearly 2½ m. N.N.W. of Old St. Pancras Church, is of two storeys with attics; the walls are partly of brick and partly of timberframing; the roofs are tiled. It was built probably early in the 17th century and is of half H-shaped plan with the wings extending towards the N.W. The upper storey projects on the S.E. front and on this side there is an original doorway with a stop-moulded frame and square head. The other fronts have no ancient features. Inside the building, the entrance hall has two original doorways with round heads, radiating panels and two-fold doors, one of which was altered early in the 18th century. At the N.W. end of the room is a late 17th or early 18th-century recess (Plate 100) flanked by fluted Corinthian pilasters supporting an enriched entablature; the lower part of the recess has marble facing and a shaped marble shelf. The main room on the S.E. side has an original ceiling-beam and doorway with a moulded frame and four-centred arch in a square head with enriched spandrels on the outside; the walls are lined with panelling, largely original, and there are 17th and early 18th-century doors. The main staircase (Plate 6) is of late 17th-century date with turned and twisted balusters and heavy moulded handrail and string; above it rises an octagonal lantern with a coved plaster cornice enriched with fruit and flowers and with a raised panel in each face; in the S.W. wall of the staircase is a round-headed doorway, similar to those in the hall.
In the garden S.W. of the house is a brick wall with a recess having a roughly four-centred head; S.E. of the house is a terraced garden with 18th-century wrought-iron gates and brick and stone gate-piers and vases (Plate 170).
Condition—Good, much altered.
b(5). Englefield House, on the S. side of High Street, and about 300 yards W.N.W. of (4), is of two storeys with attics and cellars; the walls are of brick and the roofs are tiled. It was built probably at the end of the 17th century. There is a moulded brick band between the storeys and a modillioned eaves-cornice. Inside the building the original staircase (Plate 6) has square newels, turned balusters and straight string. Some of the rooms have early 18th-century panelling and cornices, and the front door is original, with large strap-hinges.
b(6). The Old Hall, about 270 yards W.S.W. of (5), is of three storeys with cellars; the walls are of brick and the roofs are tiled. The N.E. end of the house was built possibly in the 16th century, but the remainder of the house was rebuilt early in the 18th century. Inside the building is some original and later panelling, and in the basement one room has a 17th-century ceiling-beam and cornice.
b(7). House, next S.W. of St. Michael's Church, is of three storeys with cellars; the walls are of brick and the roofs are covered with slates. It was built probably late in the 16th or early in the 17th century but was refronted and altered in the 18th century. Inside the building the upper flights of the staircase have early 17th-century turned balusters and straight string.
Condition—Good, much altered.
The following monuments were all originally of two storeys with attics and cellars, and were built late in the 17th century on the site of Dorchester House. The walls are of brick and the roofs are tiled.
Condition—Good or fairly good.
b(8). 1 and 2, The Grove, has a brick band between the storeys and a modillioned eaves-cornice. Both houses have original staircases, with twisted balusters and straight strings, and several rooms have original panelling. In the gardens at the back is a brick retaining wall, possibly of the 16th century. This wall extends behind the other houses in the row, and has various arches with four-centred heads and recesses, one with a rough pediment above it.
b(9). 3 and 4, The Grove. The first of these houses was much altered in the 18th century, the second house has a modern eaves-cornice. Inside No. 4 is an original staircase similar to those in (8). There are also some original doors and panelling, and in the kitchen is a large dresser with moulded uprights.
b(10). 5, The Grove, has an added storey. Inside the building is some original panelling, and a terrace at the end of the garden has a bastion-like projection of trefoiled plan.
b(11). 6, The Grove, has an original modillioned eaves-cornice, and inside the building are some old battened doors.
b(12). Mound, known as Boadicea's Grave, in Parliament Fields, 400 yards W. of the second from the S. of the Highgate ponds. It is about 118 ft. in diameter and 10 ft. high and has a berm on the slope; round it is a dry ditch. The mound was excavated in 1894–95. All trace of the original burial had disappeared, leaving only a hole full of charcoal; it was thought that the burnt bones had entirely decomposed and, because there was no furniture, that it was the grave of a poor person, probably of the early Bronze Age. A mound of bluish much burnt earth had been added on the N. side within the last 200 years, and is probably the result of beacon fires. C. H. Read, in Midd. and Herts. N. and Q. I.4 f., and Soc. of Ant. Proc. xv, 240–5, with plan.