An Inventory of the Historical Monuments in London, Volume 5, East London. Originally published by His Majesty's Stationery Office, London, 1930.

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'Stepney', in An Inventory of the Historical Monuments in London, Volume 5, East London, (London, 1930) pp. 69-101. British History Online [accessed 25 April 2024]

In this section


(O.S. 6-in. London, Sheet K.)

The Borough of Stepney includes the parishes of Ratcliff, St. Anne Limehouse, St. Paul Shadwell, Mile End Old Town, St. George in the East, St. John Wapping, Whitechapel, Mile End New Town, Christchurch Spitalfields, the Liberty of Norton Folgate, the Old Artillery Ground and part of the parish of St. Botolph Without Aldgate. The principal monuments are the Tower of London, the church of St. Dunstan, Stepney, Trinity Almshouses and the house No. 37 Stepney Green.


(1) Parish Church of St. Dunstan, Stepney, stands on the N. side of Stepney High Street. The walls are of rag-stone rubble with limestone dressings; the roofs are tiled. The earliest part of the existing building appears to be the Chancel which, from the detail of the restored sedilia, is of mid 13th-century date. The chancel seems to have been again largely re-built late in the 14th century. The rest of the church, including the Nave, North and South Aisles, a N. Vestry and the West Tower, was probably re-built late in the 15th or early in the 16th century, when the chancel-arch was removed and the arcades continued two bays to the E. The church was extensively restored in the 19th century and the North and South Porches and the North Vestries are modern.

Stepney. Parish Church of St Dunstan.

The church is of little architectural interest, but among the fittings the carved rood and some of the monuments are noteworthy.

Architectural Description—The Chancel (formerly 49½ ft. by 23¼ ft.) included the two eastern bays of the existing nave. The E. window is modern except for the shafted splays, moulded rear-arch and label, which are probably of late 14th-century date, restored in cement. In the N. wall is a late 15th-century doorway with moulded jambs and four-centred arch in a square head, with blank shields in the spandrels; W. of the doorway is a round-headed squint to the N. aisle, much restored. In the S. wall is a modern window inserted in the blocking of an earlier window, of which the E. jamb and parts of the rear-arch are visible; further W. is a late 15th-century doorway with moulded jambs and four-centred arch in a square head. Above the two eastern bays of the S. arcade (described under nave) are remains of the heads of two windows similar to the blocked window in the E. bay, already described; there are remains of a similar window over the E. arch of the N. arcade.

The Nave (formerly 64 ft. by 23¼ ft.) was originally of five bays, but now includes one of the bays of the quire. The N. and S. arcades (Plate 113) are both of late 15th-century date and of seven bays with two-centred arches of two moulded orders; the columns have each four attached shafts divided by hollow-chamfers and having moulded capitals and bases; the second pair from the E. and the W. arch on each side are four-centred; the S.E. arch springs from a short length of shaft with a moulded capital and resting on a boss carved with foliage and a monster, either modern or reused 13th-century work; the N.E. arch springs from a moulded corbel carved with a winged beast; the corresponding corbel at the W. end has a beast's head and the corbel at the W. end of the S. arcade is moulded only. Above the second pier on the N. are traces of the cutting away of the former chancelarch. The clearstorey has on each side of the original nave five late 15th-century windows, each of two trefoiled lights in a square head. Above the second column of the N. arcade is a brick doorway with a segmental head, at the level of the former rood-loft.

The North Aisle (14 ft. wide) has in the E. wall a re-cut 15th-century doorway with moulded jambs and four-centred head. In the N. wall are six windows, all, except the second, of late 15th-century date, much restored, and of three cinquefoiled lights in a segmental-pointed head with a moulded label; the second window is of early 14th-century date, reset, and of two trefoiled ogee lights with tracery in a two-centred head with a moulded label; the late 15th-century N. doorway has moulded jambs and two-centred arch in a square head with a moulded label and quatrefoiled spandrels. In the W. wall is a window all modern except the 15th-century splays and rear-arch.

The South Aisle (15 ft. wide) has a four-light E. window, all modern except the 15th-century moulded splays and rear-arch. In the S. wall are five windows, the two easternmost are similar to that in the E. wall, but of three lights; the other three windows are similar to the corresponding windows in the N. aisle; the late 15th-century S. doorway has moulded jambs and four-centred arch in a square head with a moulded label and trefoiled spandrels; between the second and third windows is the 15th-century rood-loft staircase, set in a rectangular projection; it has two pairs of doorways, the earlier consisting of two with four-centred heads and the later pair set at a correspondingly higher level, and the lower of brick and set partly in the blocking of the higher doorway of the first period. In the W. wall is a modern window set in a larger 15th-century opening similar to that of the adjoining window in the S. wall.

The West Tower (15¼ ft. by 16¼ ft.) is of late 15th-century date and of three stages (Plate 92) with an embattled parapet. The two-centred tower-arch is of two moulded orders, the outer continuous and the inner resting on restored attached shafts with moulded capitals and bases. The restored W. window is of three cinquefoiled lights with vertical tracery in a two-centred head; the W. doorway has moulded jambs and two-centred arch in a square head with a moulded label and trefoiled spandrels. The second stage has in the E. and W. walls a single-light window with a modern cinquefoiled head; there are two similar windows in both the N. and S. walls. The bell-chamber has in each wall a window all modern except the splays and rear-arch.

The Roofs of the chancel and nave are modern, but may incorporate some old timbers. The flat roof of the N. aisle is of the 15th century, except the modern E. bay; it has moulded main timbers. The flat roof of the S. aisle is of similar date and character; the roof of the two eastern bays is rather higher than the rest; the roof is supported by curved braces on carved angel-corbels.

Fittings—Bells: 7th given by Prisca Coburn, 16.5. Brass and Indent. Brass: In chancel—on S. wall, to Thomasine, wife of John Brewster, 1596, achievement-of-arms and inscription-plate in Purbeck marble tablet. Indent: In nave—of large and elaborate brass, much defaced. Coffin Lid: In N. aisle—against E. wall, double hollowchamfered slab with simple raised cross, probably 13th-century. Doors: In N. and S. doorways— two doors with bolection-moulded panels, partly restored, late 17th-century. In tower—in upper doorways to turret staircase, two nail-studded, battened doors with hollow-chamfered rib carried round, late 15th-century. Image: In chancel— above doorway to vestry, carved stone panel (Plate 125) of the Annunciation (?), under a cinquefoiled, gabled head with crockets and side pinnacles, remains of pointed head above, 14th-century, probably part of reredos. Monuments: In chancel—on N. wall, (1) to William Dawtrey, 1589, alabaster and black marble tablet with panelled side pilasters and five shields-of-arms; (2) to Sir Henry Collett, 1510, twice Mayor of London, combined altar-tomb and recessed wall-monument (Plate 127), altar-tomb of Purbeck marble, with moulded plinth and slab and front of three bays each with a cusped and quatrefoiled panel enclosing a shield, recess of stone much restored, with shafted jambs, moulded cornice and quatrefoiled attic and having a row of pendant cinquefoiled arches in front, sides and back of recess with two tiers of cinquefoil-headed panels, vaulted soffit to recess in four bays; (3) of Robert Clarke, 1610, and Frances his daughter, alabaster and marble wall-monument with kneeling figures of man and wife at prayer-desk, panelled pilasters at sides supporting entablature, cartouche and shield-of-arms, enriched tablet with inscription, above figures; on S. wall, (4) to Sir Thomas Spert, 1541, founder of Trinity House, monument erected 1622 and subsequently repaired, marble wall-monument with round-headed enriched panel flanked by Corinthian columns supporting a cornice, obelisks and achievement-of-arms, on apron panel with a ship carved in relief. In N. aisle, (5) of John Berry, 1689–90, black and white marble tablet with gadrooned base, niche with bust, side pilasters and pediment; (6) of Elizabeth widow of Richard Startute, 1620, erected by Captain Michael Merriall and Clare (Startute) his wife, alabaster and marble wall-monument in the form of two tablets one above the other and both having Corinthian side-columns and entablature, upper tablet with kneeling figure of the widow and lower with kneeling figures of man in armour and wife, cartouche-of-arms at top; on W. wall, (7) to Abraham Rallings, and Abraham his son, both died 1644, plain tablet. In S. aisle—on S. wall, (8) to Captain Nathaniel Owen, 1707–8, Mary, 1685, and Bridget, 1709, his wives, draped marble tablet of oval form, with cherub-heads, scrolls and shield-of-arms; (9) to Jane Lady Detheck wife of Alexander Neville, 1606, marble wall-monument, generally similar to (4), with Doric side-pilasters, round-headed enriched panel and cartouche-of-arms; (10) to Rebecca Berry, wife of Thomas Elton, 1696, oval marble tablet with scrolls, cherubheads, shield-of-arms, etc. In churchyard—on E. wall of S. aisle, (11) to Captain Lawrence Browning, 1675, and his three sons, Lawrence, William and Richard, mutilated wall-monument with swags, cherub-head and defaced shield-of-arms; on S. wall, (12) to Thomas Johnson, Jun., 1689, plain tablet; (13) to Anna (Graves) wife of Captain Jonathan Andrewes, 1678, slab with moulded edge and shield-of-arms. On W. wall of N. aisle, (14) to Henry Truin and Elizabeth his daughter, 1645, plain tablet; (15) to Abraham Zouch, 1648, and Mary his widow, wife of Richard Burdin, 1660, plain tablet; (16) to Richard Burdine, 1663, plain tablet. S. of Church—(17) to Captain Richard Mathew, 1663, and Elizabeth wife of John Marsh, his daughter, 1695, table-tomb with cherub-heads at angles; (18) to Grace, 167–, and Esther, 1677, children of Richard Wild (?), others obliterated, table-tomb. Plate (Plate 19): includes flagons of 1675 and c. 1687, cup of 1559, cup of 1631, paten of 1631, paten of 1713, paten of 1686, dish of about the same date, spoon of 1693 and a mace with a silver head, having a medallion of the Tower of London on one side and a ship on the other and inscribed "Ratclife 1700," "beautified" 1804. Rood (Plate 125): On N.E. respond— rectangular stone slab (3¼ ft. by 2¼ ft.) carved with a Crucifixion, the Virgin and St. John and surrounded by a border of conventional foliage of acanthus-type, possibly c. 1000 and formerly fixed over S. doorway. Scratchings: On lowest step of rood-loft staircase, masons' mark. On middle rail of S. door, initials and date I.B. 1685. Seating: In N. aisle—backs of many seats made up of 17th-century panelling. Sedilia: In chancel—in S. wall, of three bays with two-centred moulded arches and labels, middle arch carved with running foliage, double shafts with moulded capitals and bases, mid 13th-century style, but largely or wholly modern. Stoups: W. of N. doorway, round-headed niche with broken round bowl. W. of S. doorway, recess with three-centred head and broken round bowl, both late 15th-century. Miscellanea: In S. aisle—on S. wall, rectangular stone with inscription recording that it formed part of the walls of Carthage with the name and date " Thomas Hughes, 1663." In tower—above screen, four carved wooden consoles, from former organ-case and carved wooden finial.

Condition—Good, much restored.

(2) Parish Church of St. John, Wapping, was re-built in 1756, but retains from the earlier church the following:—

Fittings—Plate: includes a cup, probably of 1695, engraved with a figure of St. John the Evangelist; the head of a beadle's staff (Plate 7) given to the beadle by the churchwardens and others, 1705–6, "in memory of the battle of Rammelies 1706," on the top is a figure of St. John and on the sides a figure of Marlborough (?) and a castle; the head of a second beadle's staff (Plate 7), bought in 1709, and surmounted by a medallion with a figure of Marlborough on each side and the inscription "Great Marlborough." Royal Arms: On E. wall of vestry—carved and painted wooden achievement of William III.

At the S.W. angle of the old churchyard is a gateway with wrought-iron gates and an elaborate overthrow of early 18th-century date.

(3) Parish Church of St. Mary Matfelon, Whitechapel, was entirely re-built in 1875. It contains from the old church the following:—

Fittings—Doors: over doorways to church-room, S. of chancel—two overdoors with scrolled and broken pediment, carved brackets resting on panelled pilasters carved with fruit and flowers, early 18th-century. Monument: In S. aisle—at W. end, to William Meggs, 1678, black and white marble tablet with Corinthian columns at sides, pediment and achievement-of-arms. Painting: In N. Vestry—painting on canvas of Rev. R. Gardener, rector, 1570–1619. Royal Arms: In church-room—Stuart arms and supporters in carved wood. Miscellanea: On E. side of tower— stone tablet with date and initials, S.M.W. 1673. In church-room—at N. end, one bay of gallery-front, with carved panel of David playing the harp, flanked by various musical instruments, also two pedestals with carved panels, resting on separate entablatures and supporting carved capping, early 18th-century. In churchyard—much weathered and broken bowl, probably a font. At W. end of churchyard—fragment of tablet recording erection of eight alms-houses, in 1613, by George Clarke, Vintner, for the poor of Whitechapel.

Church of the Holy Trinity, Minories.

(4) Parish Church of St. Paul, Shadwell, was entirely re-built in 1817–21. It contains from the old church the following:—

Fittings—Plate: includes a flagon, cup and cover-paten and a stand-paten all of 1670, repaired in 1820, with inscription; alms-dish of 1710, dated the same year, a staff with fluted ball-cap surmounted by a figure of St. Paul, date and names of church-wardens for 1683, repaired 1713, purchased by William Jepson, constable, 1729; Royal Arms: over doorway at W. end—Stuart arms and supporters in plaster coloured and gilt.

(5) Church of the Holy Trinity, Minories, stands at the E. end of St. Clare Street, Minories. The walls are of brick and rubble and the roofs are covered with slates. The Abbey of the Grace of the Blessed Virgin was founded in 1293 for Minorite or Franciscan Nuns. After the dissolution a portion of the conventual church was retained as a parish church, and the N. wall of the existing structure formed part of this building and dates perhaps from the end of the 13th or the beginning of the 14th century. The rest of the church was re-built in brick in 1709. It is now used as the Parish Room of St. Botolph's, Aldgate.

Architectural Description—The Church (66 ft. by 26 ft.) is structurally undivided, but has a slight projection on the S. and a W. porch. In the E. wall is a round-headed window flanked by two circular windows. The N. wall is of rubble, but except for a small portion is now plastered internally; in it is a large window with a two-centred head, probably of late 13th or early 14th-century date, but now blocked and invisible; further E. is a second blocked window, probably of the 17th century. The S. wall has two ranges of windows with segmental heads and one small round window; the S. doorway is flanked by panelled pilasters of wood with shaped brackets and a flat moulded hood. The W. wall is plastered and painted and has a modern W. doorway with a round window above it. The bell-turret stands on the porchprojection; it is of timber, with a round-headed opening in each face, and was probably finished with a cupola, which has been removed.

Fittings—Bells: two, inaccessible. Brass: In chancel—of Constance, daughter of Thomas Lucy, jun., 1596, small figure with foot and upper strip of marginal inscription. Communion Rails: with, slender turned balusters, groups of five to form standards, heavy rail and sill, early 18th-century. Doors: In S. and W. doorways, panelled doors, probably early 18th-century. Galleries: W. gallery with panelled front, moulded capping and beam; panelled enclosure to stairs and panelled door. Side gallery with plain panelled front, stairs with moulded string and rail, early 18th-century. Monuments: On N. wall—(1) to Admiral the Rt. Hon. George Legge, Lord Dartmouth, 1691, large white marble tablet (Plate 17) with broken and scrolled pediment, urn and achievement-of-arms; (2) to Col. William Legge, 1670, and Elizabeth (Washington) his wife, white marble tablet with side-pilasters, broken pediment and cartouche-of-arms. Panelling: On part of N. and E. walls, high dado of early 17th-century panelling; similar panelling forming enclosures of pews and dado in gallery; incorporated in screen at W. end, some late 17th-century panelling and three panels of Jacobean strapwork at the top, dated 1620. Paving: within altar-rails, of white marble squares with black marble step, early 18th-century. Reredos (Plate 44): In three bays with four fluted Corinthian pilasters supporting an entablature with a segmental pediment over the middle bay; in tympanum the Holy Dove carved in high relief; in bays, round-headed panels with carved ornament, cherub-heads and swags above, early 18th-century. Royal Arms: On front of W. gallery—of Queen Anne, after the Union, in carved and painted wood.


(6) Church of St. Benet, Stepney, on the N. side of Mile End Road next to the People's Palace, is a modern building, but contains, from St. Benet, Gracechurch, and All Hallows, Lombard Street, the following:—

Plate: cup and cover-paten of 1631; cup and cover-paten of 1637, given by Gilbert Havers and with his arms on the cup; stand-paten of 1628; all the above from St. Benet, Gracechurch; also a flagon of 1615, originally from All Hallows, Lombard Street.

(7) Burial Ground of the Sephardi Jews in rear of No. 253 on N. side of Mile End Road, was founded in the middle of the 17th century. On March 24th, 1656, "the Hebrews at present residing in this citty of London" petitioned Oliver Cromwell for leave to purchase the burial ground; permission was granted and the first interment took place in 1657. The cemetery covers approximately one acre of ground, the whole area being covered with graves of 17th or 18th-century date. The existing stones appear to consist of large slabs with moulded edges and would seem to have been originally raised slightly above the ground level, but the grass has now grown and turf is level with and in many cases covers them in part. Many slabs have disappeared and still more have had the inscriptions totally destroyed by weather. The tomb-stones include the following, all inscribed in Portuguese or Spanish and in some cases with marginal inscriptions in English:—northernmost row, or Row 1, from W. to E.—(1) name illegible, 5462 (a.d. 1702); (2) to . . . M. Hisquiahu Carvajal, table-tomb, restored and partly modern with modern inscription to "Antonio Ferdinando Carvajal (otherwise known as Abraham Israel Carvajal) 28th Oct. 1659"; (3) to Rahel daughter of Abr(aham) de Morais, 54(25)? (a.d. 1665); (4) to Grasia, daughter of Ishak Is Nunes, Sebath 5426 (a.d. 1666); (5) to Jacob (? Moses) Israel Nunes 5434, 2 Sebat (a.d. 1674); (6) to Semuel de Paiva 1666; (7) to Jeudit de Vitoria, 18 Hesvan 5431 (a.d. 1671); (8) defaced; (9) to Jacob de Morais, 5435 (a.d. 1675); (10) to Sarah, wife of Abraham Hizquiau Marques, 5438 (a.d. 1678). Row 2—(11) illegible, but with modern plate to Moses Israel Athias who died of the Great Plague, 1665–6; (12) with illegible inscription, but at top cartouche carved with nude figure holding sash and surmounted by helm and mantling; (13) to Ester, daughter of Moseh de Jesurun, 8 de Kis 5446 (a.d. 1686). Row 3– (14) to Abraham Roiz da Costa, 54(3)9 (a.d. 1679); (15) to Yshak Roiz da Costa, 5439 (a.d. 1679); (16) to . . . son of Abraham de Morais, probably 17th-century; (17) to Hester, daughter of Joseph Frances, 5440 (a.d. 1680); (18) to Ishac Fernandez Carvajal, 5444 (a.d. 1684); (19) to Abraham Jahacob Abendana, 1696; (20) to Abraham Israel de Sequeira 543(8) (a.d. 1678). Row 3a—(21) to Moses, son of Ishac Roiz (M)ogado(uro), 5458 (a.d. 1698); (22) . . . son of Abr. Lopez de Pereira, 169–; (23) to Abraham son of Ishak Lopez de Pereira, 5448 (a.d. 1688); (24) to Moh son of Abraham Haim, 5461 (a.d. 1701); (25) to Lea, daughter of Yahacob Gonsales, 5449 (a.d. 1689). Row 4—(26) to David Ysrael Pessoa, 5445 (a.d. 1685); (27) to Abraham Berahel, 5445 (a.d. 1685); (28) to Hanah de Paiva, 5445 (a.d. 1685); (29) to Leah, wife of Aron Franco Pacheco, 5446 (a.d. 1685); (30) to Jeudith Coen Arias, 1688; (31) to Benjamin del Francia, 5449 (a.d. 1689), with almost illegible achievement-of-arms; (32) to Benjamin Ishac Roiz . . ., probably late 17th-century; (33) to [Ribca] de Francia, 1684; (34) to [Ester Mend]ez [wife?] of Abr. [Mend]ez de Brito, 5445 or 1684 and . . . Mendez de Brito, 1665; (35) to Jahacob Berahel, 5436 or 1676, table-tomb. Row 5–(36) to Sarah, wife of Ysrael Nunes, 5451 or Nov. 1690; (37) to Sarah Bernal, 5452 (a.d. 1692); (38) to Joseph Mendez Henriquez, Oct. 1692; (39) to Rib(ca) Mendez de Castro, widow of Francisco Mendez de Castro, Dec. 1691; (40) to Semuel, son of H. H. R. Yahacob Sasportas, 5452 (a.d. 1692); (41) to Ribcah Lopes Mellado, 1692; (42) to Yshac Hisquiyahu Gomes Serra, son of Yahacob Gomes derra, 1694; (43) to Gracia, wife of Jacob EscuSero, 1692 or 5453; (44) Jehudith Lindo . . . 5455 (a.d. 1695); (45) to Aaron Ishak de Francia, 5455 (a.d. 1695), with achievement-of-arms, and carved skull and cross-bones; (46) to Rahel, wife of Yshak de Mercado, 1695; (47) to Abigail Franks, wife of Abraham Franks, 5456 (a.d. 1696). Row 5a—(48) to Moseh Ysrael Nunes, 5455 (a.d. 1695); (49) to Sara, daughter of David Penso, 545– (a.d. 169–); (50) to Joseph . . . de Ishack da Costa, 5466 (a.d. 1706); (51) to Menaseh, son of Joseph Pereira, 1701. Row 6–(52) to Judith do Porto, 5456; (53) to Sara, wife of Moseh Israel Nunes, daughter of Daniel Jesurun Lo . . . 5456 (a.d. 1696); (54) to Blanca Baruh Alvares, 5457 (a.d. 1697); (55) to Sarah, wife of Mos . . . 1706; (56) to Lea Ribca Telles da Costa, 5460 (a.d. 1700); (57) to Rachel . . . of . . . Gideon, 1701; (58) to . . . Binjamin Vega, 5461 (a.d. 1701); (59) to Hannah, wife of Binjamin Vega, 1704 or 5465. Row 7–(60) to Jahacob Escudero, 5462 (A.D. 1702); (61) to Raquel Francoa . . .; (62) . . . 5463 (a.d. 1703); (63) to Rahel Miryam de Mattos, 5464 or 1704. Row 8–(64) to Ester, wife of Ra(pha)el Penso, 5463 (a.d. 1703); (65) David Franco Mendes, 1705, with carving at base of figure of man touching tree with his staff; (66) to Rahel, wife of Binjamin . . . Carmi 5466 or 1706; (67) to Ishack Semah de Valencia, 1707; (68) to Rachel, wife of Ishack Semah de Valencia . . .; (69) to Deborah Gomez Serra, 5467 (a.d. 1707). Row 9—(70) to Rahel, wife of Dr. Ishack de Avila 5(4)67 (a.d. 1707); (71) to . . . Sar . . . 5468 (a.d. 1708); (72) . . . 1709; (73) to Rac(hel) wife of Iah . . . es de Brito, 170–. Row 10–(74) to Sarah, wife of (? Ishac) Senior Henriquez, 5470 (a.d. 1710). Row 11—(75) to Ester Rodrigues Portello, 5472 (a.d. 1712); (76) to Don Isaac Lindo, 1712, modern restoration; (77) to Leah Lindo, 5473 or 1713, with re-cut inscription; (78) to Ester, wife of Joseph Barzilay, 5473 (a.d. 1713); (79) to Yehudith Cahanet, 5474 (a.d. 1714). Row 12—(80) to Abraham Soriamo, 5474 (a.d. 1714). Against N. wall are four ends or panels of a table-tomb each carved with a skull and cross-bones.

The wall along the N. side of the burial ground, though largely repaired, still contains a good deal of the old brickwork. Set in the middle of the wall is a stone tablet, flanked by scroll-brackets and surmounted by a moulded cornice and scrolled head and resting on a carved cherub-head with outstretched wings; the tablet is inscribed in Portuguese with the following inscription—" The first stone of this wall was laid on the 21 Tamuz 5444 or 27th of June 1684, Ishac Barzilay, Aaron Levi Rizio, Parnasim of the Holy Congregation, Abraham Roiz Pinhel, Parnas of the Hebra, David Israel Nunez, Administrador."



(8) The Tower of London (Plate 128), castle and moat, stands at the S.E. angle of the city. The materials and roof coverings will be dealt with under the descriptions of the individual parts. The first fortress on the site was constructed by William the Conqueror in the S.E. angle of the pre-existing (Roman) walls of the city. His work included the, at any rate partial, erection of the White Tower or Keep, Gundulf Bishop of Rochester being in charge of the works (see the Registrum Roffense). The White Tower stood close to the Roman wall on the E. of the site and at a somewhat greater distance from the supposed lines of the S. wall, represented by the existing inner lines of fortifications on this side. It seems probable that a wall or palisade was built from the S.W. angle of the White Tower to this S. wall, to enclose an inner baily, and that the original entrance was by a gateway on the site of the later Coldharbour Gate or Tower, adjoining the S.W. angle of the keep and now destroyed. The White Tower itself was entered from the S. side by a forebuilding and staircase leading up to the still existing doorway at the main floor-level; all trace of this structure has, however, been removed. The inclusion in the first fortress of an outer baily is quite uncertain. In 1091 mention is made (A.S. Chron.) of the building of a wall round the tower, but its position is indeterminate. Little further is known of the history of the building till the reign of Richard I. Mention is made, however, under Henry II of the king's houses within the baily, and of the chapel, kitchen, etc. The superstructure of the Wardrobe Tower, built on the base of a Roman bastion, may perhaps be of this date and have formed part of the king's houses. Under Richard I very extensive works were undertaken, the sum of £2,881 being expended in his second year (Pipe Roll). The work was in the hands of the chancellor William Longchamp, Bishop of Ely, who is said to have made a wide and deep ditch which was filled with water from the Thames. During the operations the chancellor seized land belonging to Holy Trinity Priory, in E. Smithfield and to St. Katherine's Hospital, both lying to the E. of the Roman citywall and evidently implying an extension of the fortress in this direction. In 1194 a palisade furnished with mangonels was made "about the Tower of London." It would appear that this work of Richard and his chancellor consisted mainly of the earthwork defences of an extended area, perhaps represented by the existing inner circuit of the fortifications; for the first time the area was extended to the E. of the city-wall. The PosternGate in the city wall, to the N. of the Tower, is said to have been undermined by the digging of the Tower ditch at this period. The surviving remains of masonry-building, of this period, consist of the Bell Tower and the adjoining stretch of the S. curtain, to a point about 56 ft. W. of the Wakefield Tower. King John spent about £420 on the Tower; he repaired the king's houses, deepened the ditch on the N. and built a mud wall round the Tower Liberties; in 1210 occurs the first mention of St. Peter's Chapel. Considerable evidence is available for the work done under Henry III. In 1221 he built a new tower, with an oratory, adjoining the Great Hall, which stood against the curtain, S. of the White Tower; this new tower is certainly the existing Wakefield Tower, and with it was built the outer archway of the Bloody Tower. He subsequently re-built the Great Hall itself, finishing it about 1236. The Tower-Wharf is first mentioned in 1228, and though its original date is uncertain, it cannot have existed in its present form when the Bell Tower and its adjoining curtain were built. On it Henry III built a new water-gate which, owing to bad foundations, fell in 1240 and again in 1241. Legend connected the fall with St. Thomas of Canterbury, and related that at the third re-building an oratory dedicated to the saint was included in the structure, ensuring its final stability. This gate was hence called St. Thomas's Tower, but was, however, re-built about the end of the century, with the exception of the lower part of the walls. In 1241 the White Tower was whitewashed together with "the old wall round the Tower." There is architectural evidence that the main angle-towers, except the Bell Tower, on the inner circuit of the walls, were built in this reign. These were the Devereux, Bowyer, Martin and Salt Towers, and the Well Tower on the river front is of the same date. In 1263 two posterns were made in connection with the palace, S. of the White Tower. Under Edward I the earthwork defences were remodelled. Previous to his time the great ditch, in all probability, skirted the inner curtain and included the area between them and the later outer curtain. The making of the existing great ditch spread over twelve years, and most probably included the retaining-wall forming the existing outer curtain. The new ditch perhaps occupied the outer part of the area of the older ditch which was greatly widened outwards. In connection with these works the two gateways called the Middle and Byward Towers were built, an outwork called the Lion Tower and Gate constructed and the eastern approach, consisting of the Iron Gate, Develin and Galleyman Towers, erected. The Beauchamp Tower was added, and the whole of the inner W. curtain was re-built c. 1300, and it is possible that the other intermediate towers —the Flint, Brick, Constable's and Broad Arrow— were added at the same time, though some of them may be of earlier date. Other works of Edward I included the re-building of St. Peter's Chapel and St. Thomas's Tower. The Cradle Tower or water-gate of the palace was built or re-built about the middle of the 14th century, and to the time of Richard II belong the back part and superstructure of the Bloody Tower and part of the postern of the Byward Tower. The work on the Tower in the 15th century was of little importance, and the next series of alterations belongs to the reign of Henry VIII. There can be little doubt that he was responsible for the construction of the two angle-bastions known as Brass Mount and Legge's Mount, which appear on a drawing of Edward VI's time. Extensive repairs were made in 1532 when new battlements were everywhere added, the walls rough cast, and repairs made in Caen stone and brick. About the same time the timber-work of the Byward and St. Thomas's Towers was added or reconstructed and the chapel of St. Peter entirely re-built. The King's House or Lieutenant's Lodging is also a structure of this period.

The Tudor and succeeding periods of the history of the Tower are illustrated by a series of drawings and engravings of which the most important are Wyneguarde's view of c. 1550, a bird's-eye view of 1597, Lord Dartmouth's picture-plan of c. 1685 and Lempriere's scale-plan of 1726. These permit of a superficial view of the various alterations made in the buildings of the Tower during the 16th, 17th and early 18th centuries. As, however, most of these later alterations have since been swept away it will be sufficient to detail the alterations and additions of which actual remains survive. The majority of these belong to the latter part of the 17th and the first half of the 18th century, and include the erection of the Horse Armoury some time before the date (c. 1685) of the Dartmouth Plan; the building of the Great Storehouse under William and Mary, before 1692; and the erection of a block of houses on the W. side of the Parade, about the same time. In 1717 the Middle Tower was refaced. The White Tower was re-conditioned during the first half of the 18th century, beginning about 1709, the date on the rain-water heads; the brick vaults were added in the basement in 1733–4, and further repairs done to the exterior about 1750. The Great Storehouse was burnt down in 1842, and from about that date onwards a general restoration of the Tower-buildings took place under the War Office and the architect Salvin. This restoration included the entire re-building of the Flint, Brick and Lanthorn Towers, the partial re-building of the Bowyer and Constable's Towers and the general re-building of the upper parts and battlements of various parts of the building. The great storehouse was replaced by the existing block of barracks.

Work in the 20th century has been confined to the repair of the old work, the opening out of ancient features concealed by later work and the general maintenance of the building. The only entirely modern building is the Guard Room, N. of the Wakefield Tower.

The Tower of London is probably the most valuable monument of mediæval military architecture surviving in this country. The Tower was a palace and state-prison as well as a fortress. Several mediæval royal children were born here, and hence bore the words "de la Tour" after their names. Amongst the celebrated prisoners, within the Commission's period, mention may be made of the Welsh prince Griffith, Henry VI, George Duke of Clarence, Edward V and his brother Richard Duke of York, Edward Earl of Warwick and Margaret Countess of Salisbury his sister, Edward (Stafford) Duke of Buckingham, Anne Boleyn and Catherine Howard, queens of Henry VIII, Edward (Seymour) Duke of Somerset and John (Dudley) Duke of Northumberland, Lady Jane Grey, Archbishop Cranmer, Robert (Devereux) Earl of Essex, Sir Walter Raleigh, Thomas (Wentworth) Earl of Strafford and Arch bishop Laud. In addition to these, David II King of Scotland captured at Neville's Cross, John II King of France captured at Poitiers and Charles Duke of Orléans captured at Agincourt were lodged at the Tower for a long or short period.

N.B.—In the following account the numbers attached to the prisoners' inscriptions, in the various towers, are for convenience of reference and do not accord with the modern enamelled disks attached to the walls.

Architectural Description—The Tower of London is a fortress of the concentric type with a double circle of defences, a keep within the inner defences and an inner baily to the S. of it, formerly divided off by walls and entered by a gate, the Coldharbour Tower, now destroyed. The main approach to the castle was on the W. side, through an outwork, beyond the ditch, called the Lion Tower, and two gateways called the Middle and Byward Towers giving access to the outer enclosure, and a third gateway called the Bloody Tower giving access to the inner enclosure. The secondary approach, from the E., was by means of an outer gate called the Irongate, now destroyed, and an inner gate called the Develin Tower. There was in addition the main water-gate on the river front called St. Thomas's Tower, and a minor water-gate called the Cradle Tower; both these still exist. The description will begin with the moat, the western gateways and the outer circuit of the fortifications, passing to the inner circuit and the buildings within it—the keep, St. Peter's Chapel, the King's House, etc.

The Moat surrounds the landward side of the fortress. It has an average width, at present, of 120 ft. and maximum depth below the pavement of the adjoining road of 22 ft.; it is now used as a parade ground. The eastern arm was encroached upon by the roadway when the Tower Bridge was built. Between the fortress and the Tower Wharf is a much narrower ditch averaging 36 ft. in width and 8 ft. in depth.

The Middle Tower (Plate 129), forming the outer gatehouse from Tower Hill, is of two stages; the walls are of rubble, mostly faced with Portland stone. It was built late in the 13th century and consists of a gate-hall flanked by round towers each having a rectangular projection at the back. The external facing and the upper stage are almost entirely of 1717, and externally all the windows are of this date. The gate-hall has an outer archway, partly original and with jambs and segmental-pointed arch of two chamfered orders; in the arch is a portcullis-slot and in the jambs are round grooves for the same purpose; in the inner part of the arch are three circular holes communicating with the floor above, and this part of the arch is rebated for a door; further E. are grooves in the side walls for a second portcullis. Above the arch on the outer face of the wall is a stone carving of the royal arms of George I. The inner or E. arch (Plate 130) of the gate-hall is segmental-pointed and of two chamfered orders, the inner dying on to the side walls and the outer continued down the jambs. The flanking towers are round without and octagonal within, and have each a stone vault with chamfered ribs meeting in the middle and springing from octagonal shafts in the angles of the building with moulded capitals and bases. Each room has a spy-hole looking into the gateway and two arrowloops; the N. room has two and the S. room three modern windows; the fireplace in the S. room has a square chamfered head and a pyramidal hood. The two rooms are approached by short passages with pointed barrel-vaults and doorways with two-centred heads. In the ground-floor of the S.E. part of the gatehouse are two small chambers each with a pointed barrel-vault. Part of the external E. face of the gatehouse is of original rubble. On the first floor of the S. tower is an original doorway, with a pointed head.

The Bridge over the moat, between the Middle and Byward Towers, is almost entirely of the 18th century. The drawing of 1597 shows three small arches where there is now a single arch. A portion of the N. wall of the causeway, near the E. end, is of rough rubble and there is a low rubble projection near the middle of the bridge; both these are probably of the 18th century.

The Byward Tower (Plates 131,132), called in the 16th century the Wardyng Gate, is the main gatehouse of the outer ward of the castle. It is generally of three storeys and is built of coursed Gatton and Caen stone, partly refaced with Portland and other stone. The gatehouse was built at the end of the 13th century and the two-storeyed postern (Plate 133) on the S.E. was added about a century later and extended early in the 16th century. In plan the building nearly resembles the Middle Tower with the added postern-wing on the S.E. terminating in a wedge-shape towards the S. The timber superstructure on the inside or E. face of the gatehouse dates from early in the 16th century. On the W. front the structure is original but partly refaced up to the top of the second storey; the top storey is very largely of 18th or early 19th-century date. The gate-hall is entered on the W. by an original double archway with jambs and segmental-pointed head of two chamfered orders; it has a portcullis-slot, grooves, door-rebate and vertical holes similar to those in the Middle Tower; further E. the walls of the hall have a second pair of grooves for a second portcullis; the arch at the E. end of the gate-hall is similar to the corresponding arch in the Middle Tower. The ceiling is of timber. The two flanking towers of the gatehouse are round without and octagonal within. The ground-floor room in each has a modern stone vault with chamfered ribs meeting in the middle and springing from modern octagonal shafts in the angles of the room with moulded capitals and bases. Each room has a spy-hole opening on to the gateway; the N. room has four and the S. room five arrow-loops, one now blocked; all these openings are set in embrasures with pointed heads. The N. room has in addition an original fireplace with a plain flat lintel resting on moulded and shaped corbels and having a partly restored pyramidal hood of stone. The upper windows of this stage are modern. The short passages leading to these rooms have each a pointed barrel-vault with a chamfered cross-rib and doorways with chamfered jambs and two-centred heads. E. of the passage in the N. tower is a square room with a modern quadripartite vault; the ribs spring from original moulded corbels; in the E. wall is a 15th-century window of two trefoiled lights in a square head; the original doorway in the N. wall, leading into the stair-turret, is now blocked and replaced by a late 15th or early 16th-century doorway in the external E. wall of the stair-turret; it has chamfered jambs and a four-centred head. E. of the passage in the S. tower are two small rooms with pointed barrel-vaults. The inner part of the postern is of late 14th-century date, but the outer half was added probably early in the 16th century; the outer doorway is modern externally, but has a four-centred rear-arch of brick, probably of early 16th-century date. The postern-tower is entered by an arch on the N. with a four-centred head and opening into a small porch. The porch has a late 14th-century segmental-pointed barrel-vault with intersecting ribs and a round boss enclosing a lion's head, all much restored; in the W. wall is a deep recess; in the S. wall are two doorways, one within the other and both having segmental-pointed heads; the inner doorway has a pair of 16th-century wooden gates, one with a wicket. A second pair of similar gates is fitted in the outer doorway of the postern. On the first floor, the space above the gate-hall is occupied by a passageroom between the towers and a large room to the E. of it. The passage has a restored pointed window in the W. wall set in an embrasure with a two-centred head. Against this wall is the wooden portcullis (Plate 136) of the gate below; the woodwork is mainly ancient, perhaps 16th-century, and the mechanism is still intact. Between the passage and the room to the E. is a 16th-century timber partition, the upper part having a range of nineteen lights with four-centred heads and moulded mullions. The room to the E. has early 16th-century timber-framed outer walls and a heavy chamfered ceiling-beam, stencilled, in gold, with a design of fleurs-de-lis, leopards and falcons (?). In the window are two medallions made up of fragments and representing the 16th-century royal arms and the Prince of Wales feathers in wreaths. The first-floor room in the N. tower has embrasures with two-centred heads and three modern windows; the fireplace was similar to that in the room below, but only parts of the flat lintel and hood are ancient. The ceiling has a heavy beam resting on wall-posts and moulded corbels, one of which is modern. In one of the embrasures are some 14th-century slip-tiles bearing the leopards of England, a hart and geometrical or foliated designs. The room in the S. bastion is similar, but has a 16th-century brick partition screening off the entrance. It retains part of an original arrow-loop, now blocked, and in the S. side is a 14th-century fireplace, probably reset in the 16th century; it has a chamfered lintel carried on shaped corbels; one stone of the lintel is part of a 12th-century scalloped capital re-used. The door in the N. wall is probably of the 17th century and has strap-hinges. To the E. of this tower is a small square room entered by an original doorway with a two-centred head; in the E. wall of the room is a flight of steps and a 14th-century doorway with a two-centred head leading into the upper floor of the postern-tower; above it is a squareheaded window; a second doorway, further S., led on to the wall-walk, but now opens into a room. The second-floor rooms of the main structure have no features of interest except that there is a 16th-century door in the N. tower with moulded ribs and strap-hinges. Above the second storey of the N. part of the postern-tower is an early 16th-century timber-framed addition of two storeys with exposed timber-framing. The two storeys project on the N. front with moulded bressummers; each storey has a projecting bay-window, of rectangular plan with three lights on the face and one on each return; the lights have four-centred heads and modern mullions. The top storey, on the S. face, projects on curved brackets.

The Byward Tower contains the following carved inscriptions—In the gate-hall, (1) N.W. 1645; (2) G. Lovell, Batstoll (?) 1677; (3) E.B. 1629; (4) Ford; (5) 1617 Sep. and a monogram; (6) 1616; (7) Peter C. Arundel; (8) IMB; (9) WP. 1611; (10) IC; (11) IS; (12) SP, WC; (13) 166–; (14) 16–9; (15) GT; (16) WB; (17) IS. In the ground-floor N. tower, (18) Samuel Bird; (19) SITG; (20) A.R., RC, SB, TCT. In stair-turret, (21) "I left my dear R.F. 1694. A. DTE"; (22) WK 1694; (23) "A. Thomas Jenkins 1688, IA, FK, 11 May"; (24) IDI, G, M, MR, Tho. KIN, TH, 1675; (25) "Richard Field left my love in Ierland," and others of later date. In the first floor of N. tower, (26) TC, RR, 1705; (27)— 1672. In Warders' Hall, (28) Willun Dorhill, Wardr. 1605; (29) Esekhiell Wood, Ward.; (30) E.T. 1607, May 9; (31) Roger Tirrell, 1622, Mary Linnet.

The Curtain Wall between the Byward Tower and St. Thomas's Tower is of rag-stone rubble with a considerable amount of modern repair; the parapet is entirely modern. Near the W. end is a 17th-century window lighting a modern annexe to the Byward Tower. This annexe stands on the site of an older building shown in the late 16th-century drawing of the Tower.

St. Thomas's Tower (Plate 135), also called the Traitors' Gate, is the principal water-gate of the Tower. It was originally built by Henry III, c. 1240–45, but was largely re-built c. 1300. The base of the internal wall is in Barnack stone and belongs to the early work; the great arch, added c. 1300, is built against the earlier walls. The upper stage on the landward side was reconstructed in 1532. The whole building has been extensively restored and the bridge connecting it with the Wakefield Tower is entirely modern. St. Thomas's Tower is now the residence of the Keeper of the Crown Jewels. The building is of rectangular form with short wings projecting N. at either end and round turrets at the southern angles; these turrets, together with the stair-turret at the end of the N.E. wing, are carried up above the roof. The walls are of ragstone rubble with dressings of freestone and the roof is lead-covered. The ground-stage of the building encloses a pool, now dry, communicating with the river by a gateway in the S. wall; this much restored gateway has jambs and segmental-pointed head of two orders, the inner slotted and grooved for a portcullis. The back or N. wall of the main block is carried on a segmental-pointed arch of two chamfered orders and 61 ft. in span; the inner order of the arch is built of joggled voussoirs and the whole has been much restored. The arch was supported in 1532 by two added piers which have now been removed. In the thickness of the walls surrounding the pool on the E., W. and S. sides are narrow corridors with embrasures and arrow-loops on the outward side and arrow-loops towards the pool. The corridor on the S. side is interrupted by the gateway and has a pointed barrel-vault with cross-ribs at intervals; this vault is interrupted in the middle of both the E. and W. corridors; the rest of these corridors have a plastered ceiling; near the middle of the E. corridor is an early 16th-century brick arch; the presence of straight joints in the wall, towards the pool, seems to indicate that between the outer arch and the great arch these walls were only carried up to a sufficient height to enclose the arrow-loops; the upper part of the wall is evidently modern and contains 18th-century re-used material. In the inner wall of the S. corridor, E. of the gateway, is a wide blocked opening and further E. a blocked lamp-niche with a pointed head; in the corresponding wall, W. of the archway, are three blocked openings. The chambers in the two turrets are hexagonal on plan and are entered by doorways of c. 1300 with chamfered jambs and two-centred heads; each chamber has a stone vault, of the same date, with chamfered ribs meeting in the middle and springing from a vaulting-shaft in each angle, with a moulded capital and base. The upper storey of the tower is lit by modern windows. The two chambers in the turrets are similar to those in the ground-storey; the E. chamber formed an oratory (Plate 137) and two of the window-sills are of Purbeck marble and have round sinkings, one provided with a drain. The N. wall of the main block is of timber-framing and of early 16th-century date; the external timbering is exposed, but is almost entirely modern.

The Curtain Wall between St. Thomas's and the Cradle Tower is of rag-stone rubble with a modern gateway about half-way between the two towers. W. of it is the outlet of a drain, communicating with a well, near the S.W. angle of the White Tower. Near the Cradle Tower is a blocked 17th-century culvert-arch.

The Cradle Tower formed the water-gate to the royal apartments, which stood within the inner curtain immediately to the N. of it. It is of two storeys, much restored and refaced externally; the walls are of rag-stone rubble with Reigate-stone dressings and the roof is lead-covered. The tower was built in the middle of the 14th century, but the upper storey has been re-built in modern times. The plan is T-shaped, the middle part forming the gateway, with lodges on either side. The gateway has an original two-centred and moulded outer arch with a portcullis-slot and groove and a segmental-pointed rear-arch; this portion of the building projects into the moat and on either side of it, externally, are arched recesses of varying width; under the same part of the tower was a water-way or drain covered by a half-arch. The N. or inner front (Plate 138) of the tower has a two-centred archway, of two moulded orders, in the middle with a portcullis-slot and groove, and a moulded, segmental-pointed inner arch; flanking the arch are single-light windows with cinquefoiled heads. The gate-hall has a doorway in each side wall with a two-centred head. The stone vault (Plate 140) is in two bays, with moulded transverse, diagonal, ridge and wall-ribs and a hollow circle at the intersection; the ribs spring from embattled or moulded corbels, two of which are carved with rabbits. The two lodges have each a quadripartite vault with chamfered ribs springing from embattled corbels. The turret-staircase on the W. of the W. lodge is entered by a restored doorway with a segmental head; only the lower part of the staircase itself is original.

The Curtain Wall between the Cradle and Well Towers is of rag-stone rubble; the upper part and parapet is entirely modern.

The Well Tower is a rectangular two-storeyed structure with a square projecting staircase-turret on the E. The walls are of rag-stone with freestone dressings. It was built about the middle of the 13th century, but the parapets are modern. The ground-floor contains a single room (10 ft. by 14 ft.) entered by a doorway in the W. wall, with chamfered jambs and segmental-pointed head. In the E., W. and S. walls are restored arrow-loops opening over the moat, and in the N. wall is another loop and a modern window and fireplace; the doorway to the stair-turret has a square head. The stone vault is in two quadripartite bays with chamfered diagonal, cross and wall-ribs, springing from moulded corbels. The upper storey has loops corresponding to those in the ground-storey, and two doorways with two-centred heads opening respectively into the stair-turret and the parapet-walk of the cross-curtain on the N. In this room are the following carved inscriptions— (1) "Be vertuouus and assure thyselfe thou canst not then but thrive in only vertw is it sayfe that men themselves survive"; (2) partly illegible, the words "Turris fortissima" and "Typpynglt" remain; (3) "As for the vicious such they are as is the heedles flye" followed by a number of disconnected letters, initials and words; (4) Christofer Rower 1585; (5) "IHS Thomas Leithweite Prisoner Febri 1608"; (6) design with letter S and date 1586; (7) Nicolas [Ros]carrocke (Roman Catholic priest, 1580–6); (8) W. Clerk P. (Priest), 1603, with a merchant's mark; (9) Jam. Bosgrave Priest Jesuite, 1582; (10) Ja. Bosg[ra]ve vinculis(?) fide cath, 15[8]9; (11) John Bowler, 16—; (12) Whi . . . fi., priste; (13) Jero . . .; (14) Jesus . . .; (15) IB; (16) WD; (17) part of an inscription mostly illegible; (18) merchant's mark and monogram; (19) William Davis; (20) Jaakob Vandermast; (21) "Christ save King Phillippe . . . Reyall King . . . to flourish."

The Curtain Wall connecting the Well with the Salt Tower only survives in its southern part and in the broken end adjoining the Salt Tower. It is of rag-stone rubble and the southern part contains two embrasures with modern heads and arrow-loops; at the point where the wall breaks off are traces of a door-jamb.

The Curtain Wall between the Well and Develin Towers is of rag-stone rubble; the upper part, parapet and the buildings against the N. face are modern.

The Develin Tower or Iron Gate Tower (Plate 139) is of late 13th or early 14th-century date and formed a postern towards the open country. The walls are mainly of rag-stone rubble largely refaced and with a modern parapet. The Tower is of rectangular form and of two storeys. The upper storey has in the E. wall a late 17th-century doorway with a round head, key and impost blocks; it is now blocked. There are no other ancient features.

The Curtain Wall (Plate 139) between the Develin Tower and the Brass Mount is of rag-stone rubble; the lower 10 ft. of the wall is ancient, but the remainder is largely modern or refaced. About 100 ft. S. of the Brass Mount is a rectangular projecting tower, entirely modernised internally. The buildings against the W. face of the curtain are modern.

The Brass Mount was built by Henry VIII. The recent clearance of the earth-filling of the bastion has shown that the earlier curtain-wall was carried round the corner with a rounded angle. The walls are of rag-stone rubble and the form is semi-circular. In recent years the interior has been reconstructed, and all that remains of the original work is the lower part of the outer wall with its wall-passage. The N. side of this passage is lined with brick and the S. side with rag-stone; the vault is of pointed barrel-form; there are thirteen embrasures, each containing a loop. Near the middle of the S. wall is a doorway with a rough two-centred head, which formerly communicated by a passage with a circular staircase in the middle of the bastion.

The Curtain Wall (Plate 141) between the Brass Mount and Legge's Mount is in two parts, divided by the modern North Bastion. The wall is of rag-stone rubble, but only the lower part is old. To the W. of the N. bastion, at the ground-floor level, are two pointed archways, filled in flush with the outer face of the wall and each with a loop in the filling.

Legge's Mount (Plate 141) was built by Henry VIII and is similar in general form to the Brass Mount. The interior with the S.E. wall was re-built or remodelled late in the 17th century. It is now used as Warders' quarters. The S.E. wall is of brick and of three storeys divided by band-courses; the first floor has six windows and the second floor two narrow loops. On the outer face the first floor has six windows dressed with 17th-century brick. Inside the building the ground-floor has some chamfered ceiling-beams, exposed joists, moulded panelling and cornices, all of late 17th-century date.

The Curtain Wall (Plate 142) between Legge's Mount and the Byward Tower is of rag-stone rubble and appears to have been mainly re-built by Henry VIII; the parapet is modern. A square stone, in some 17th-century repair, is inscribed 1614 and W.B. 1691.

The Bell Tower (Plates 134, 141, 143–4) was built, probably, at the end of the 12th century. The walls are of rag-stone rubble with free-stone dressings. The tower is of two storeys with a solid base; the base and lower storey are of irregular octagonal plan, but the upper storey is circular. It now forms part of the Lieutenant's Lodging. The base of the tower, recently exposed by excavations in the angles of both curtains, stands upon a plinth of seven chamfered offsets, set on a projecting rubble platform; above the offsets the wall is ashlar-faced up to a moulded necking or string-course of Purbeck marble; this base was buried when the Tower wharf was built, early in the 13th century. The room in the ground-floor of the tower is of irregular pentagonal form with a wide skewed and two-centred arch across the E. side; it is entered by a short passage with a right-angled bend and a pointed barrel-vault; the outer entrance has a segmental-pointed head. The chamber itself has an acutely-pointed vault (Plate 137) with plain square ribs meeting in the middle and springing from moulded corbels with carved foliage, three of which remain; there is a foliated boss at the intersection of the ribs. The four sides towards the W. have each an embrasure with an acutely-pointed arch and an arrow-loop, all of which are now blocked except one which has been fitted with a modern window. Opening from the S.E. angle is a small irregular apartment, perhaps a garde-robe, with a loop towards the S.E.; this room is entered by an arch with a round head of 16th-century brick. The room in the upper floor is roughly round on plan, with four embrasures towards the W. with two-centred heads; the northernmost embrasure has a locker on each side and an 18th-century or modern window; the second embrasure has also a similar window, and cut in the N. side is a shallow recess; on the S. side is a blocked opening to a wall-passage between this embrasure and the next; the third embrasure has an 18th-century or modern window; above each of the three windows, externally, are the relieving-arches of the original windows which were each of two round-headed lights; the fourth embrasure has a squint in the E. splay. A small lobby on the N.E. is separated from the main room by a brick partition and from it run two galleries, one towards the N. communicating with the circular staircase to the roof, and one towards the S. terminating in a garderobe; this gallery is lit by two modern windows, set in old embrasures, and is roofed with stone slabs on corbelled projections. On the wall by the stair is a late 16th-century inscription, "Bi torture strawnge my trouth was tried yet of my libertye denyed therfor reson hath me perswadyd that pasyens must be ymbrasyd thogh hard fortun chasyth me with smart yet pasyens shall p(revayl)." On the parapet, on the W. side of the tower, is a late 17th-century timber bell-cote, considerably restored; it has in each face a round-headed opening with a key-block and is finished with a cornice and a pyramidal roof with concave sides; the bell is inscribed "W.B. 1651."

The Curtain Wall (Plate 134) between the Bell and the Bloody Towers is of rag-stone rubble above, re-faced with Caen stone below. It is of late 12th-century date as far as a straight joint, 56 ft. W. of the Wakefield Tower, and has the offsets and necking of the Bell Tower continued along its S. face. The eastern part of the wall is of the 13th century. Towards the western end the curtain is pierced by some modern windows of the Lieutenant's Lodging, which abuts against it on the N. side.

The Bloody Tower (Plates 144, 147) is the principal gatehouse in the inner circuit of fortifications. It is of rag-stone rubble with free-stone dressings; the front part was built in the first half of the 13th century and the back part and superstructure is a late 14th-century addition; the whole has been considerably restored. The building is of three storeys, of which the top storey is largely and the parapet entirely modern. The outer entrance has an archway with jambs and segmental-pointed arch of two chamfered orders and of small voussoirs, with a blocked shute in the soffit; the inner part of the arch is of similar form with a door-rebate; between them is a portcullis-slot and grooves. The inner entrance is of similar general form, but with large voussoirs and defaced moulded label. The gatehall has a late 14th-century stone vault of two bays, now mostly restored in Roman cement; it has ridge, diagonal, and intermediate moulded ribs, springing from lion's-head corbels and having restored bosses at the intersections, enclosing lions' heads. In the E. wall is a doorway, with a two-centred head, opening into the turret-staircase. The second storey is entered by a late 14th-century doorway in the W. wall with moulded jambs and two-centred head; the door has strap-hinges and is perhaps of the 17th century. The southern part of the interior is cut off by a 16th-century timber partition and contains the wooden portcullis (Plate 136) with its machinery. In the N. wall of the tower, at this level, is a low recess with a restored segmental head, for a second portcullis, now removed. In the W. wall (Plate 148) is a late 14th-century window of two transomed lights in a square head and rebated for shutters; the other windows are largely modern. In the W. wall are remains of a late 14th-century fireplace. The lobby to the turret-staircase has a pointed barrel-vault with a chamfered cross-rib; N. of the lobby is a small room, perhaps a garde-robe; it has a segmental-pointed barrel-vault with a chamfered cross-rib.

On the walls of this storey are the following incised inscriptions—(1) David Roch, 1597; (2) IS. 1666; (3) IATMR, RS; (4) "Art thou come here a prysonere, and welcom here, welcom . . . what end"; (5) a nine-line inscription, mostly illegible; (6) "S(ana?) conscientia munus Henricus Stapleton 20 Nov. 1583" (Plate 37) with an ornamental obelisk; (7) "arbell b . . ."; (8) "Jamys Davrinson, Thomas . . . enung, Jam[es], 30 . . ., Poole"; (9) Antoni Deloni; (10–12) illegible inscriptions; (13) partly defaced inscription with name T. Thom . . .; (14) partly defaced inscription with the name John, Bishop of Rosse (prisoner 1569–74); (15–21) fragmentary inscriptions with names Thomas . . ., Arthur . . ., and GC.; (22) on fireplace, partly defaced inscription with date 1591. There are 17th-century scratchings on the wooden partition.

The Wakefield Tower (Plate 145), called also the Record and Hall Tower, is of two storeys; the walls are of rag-stone rubble with freestone dressings and ashlar-facing to the lower part; the roof is lead-covered. The tower appears to be that built by Henry III in 1221. It has been extensively restored externally, a brick vault inserted to the basement and the parapet re-built. The basement contains an octagonal room (23 ft. across) with a deep embrasure in each face; each embrasure has jambs and round arch of two chamfered orders and most of them had arrow-loops, all now blocked. The W. embrasure has a modern doorway from the turret adjoining the Bloody Tower; the E. recess had formerly a doorway, now blocked. In this room are stored several pieces of late 17th-century carved stone-work and a royal arms of Queen Anne, before the Union. The upper floor, now the Jewel House, contains an octagonal room (30 ft. across) with a modern ribbed vault of stone springing from partly restored octagonal shafts in the angles. In the N.E., E., S., S.W. and W. sides are embrasures with chamfered segmental-pointed arches; the E. embrasure has an inner pointed archway, opening into a corridor in the curtain-wall and now blocked. The S. embrasure has a blocked doorway with a chamfered segmental head and a skewed opening to the E. of it, restored externally. The S.W. embrasure has a modern two-light window and the W. embrasure a modern single-light window. The N.W. side contains the modern entrance cut through the back of an old embrasure. In the N. side is a fireplace with a modern arch and a back of old herring-bone tile-work. The S.E. side contains a small chapel or oratory; the inner arch has jambs and segmental-pointed head of two chamfered orders and is flanked by projecting octagonal piers. The E. window is modern, but in the N. wall is a round-headed doorway opening into a blocked wall-passage; E. of it is a rectangular locker. In the S. wall (Plate 146) is a piscina with chamfered jambs, square head and a trefoiled drain; further W. is a round-headed sedile. The external face of the tower on the N.E. has a wide segmental cutting-back of the wall-face, extending to the upper storey and finished with a segmental arch. Running N. from this point is a portion of old walling, perhaps forming part of the W. end of the former Great-Hall range.

The Curtain Wall between the Wakefield and the Salt Towers is modern and near the middle stands the modern Lanthorn Tower. This tower was re-built a few feet to the N. of the site of the old Lanthorn Tower.

The Salt Tower, called also Julius Cæsar's Tower, is of four storeys; the walls are of rag-stone rubble with vertical bands of ashlar and square attached turrets on the N. and W. It was built c. 1230–40, but has been extensively restored externally and the parapets are modern; the external form is round and the tower stood at the junction of four curtain-walls (Plate 147), two on the E. and S. sides of the inner ward, and the other two cross-walls connecting the tower with the curtain of the outer ward on the E. and with the Well Tower on the S. The room in the ground-storey is of irregular pentagonal form, each face having a splayed embrasure with a segmental-pointed head and an arrow-loop; above the W. embrasure is a shaft with a two-centred arch running diagonally up to the parapet-walk of the adjoining curtain-wall. The room is entered by a short passage and a modern doorway in the N.W. angle; adjoining the passage is an original doorway with chamfered jambs and segmental-pointed head, opening into the stair-turret. Adjoining the staircase on the N. is a small room in the thickness of the curtain-wall; it has a barrel-vault with chamfered cross-ribs. The room in the second storey is generally similar to that below, but on the S. side is an original stone fireplace (Plate 135) with a joggled lintel carried on shaped corbels and capped by a moulded string-course; above the string rises a pyramidal stone hood. On the W. is a modern two-light window, representing an old feature, and N. of it is a pointed doorway leading to the parapet-walk, but now blocked. The room in the third storey is similar to that in the second, but has three larger loops and no surviving fireplace. In the W. wall of the W. turret is a two-light window, similar to that in the stage below. The room in the top storey has been entirely modernised; it is entered by a doorway in the N. wall with a shouldered head. A small room at the top of the staircase has three loops. The Salt Tower contains the following incised inscriptions. In the second storey—(1) an elaborate horoscope (Plate 36) with the inscription "Hew Draper of Brystow made thys spheer the 30 daye of Maye anno 1561" (astrologer, imprisoned for sorcery and magic); (2) the word or name Wadiall (?); (3) EH, 14 Aug. 1590; (4) R.W.; (5) Francis Berty, 1(6)72; (6) a heart with the letters IHS and MA.; (7) Jhon; (8) Jh . . . g; (9) E. Pol, 1567; (10) John Monyngson; (11) J. Lyon, 1574; (12) "Dū spero per." (Dum spiro spero); (13) illegible inscription with date 1553; (14) illegible; (15) inscription with name Tho (?) King; (16) Danyel; (17) John Lion (figure of Lion) Julii 2, 1574; (18) Mychael Moody, May 15, 1587 (Plate 37) (conspirator); (19) 1556 Augusti 14, me E., John Baptiste, Cristofer Per . . n, P, Cristofer Nor[to]n (Plate 37) (Ridolfi conspiracy 1570); (20) panel with a sphere and the initial E. (Plate 37); (21) long inscription in various languages, mostly illegible, but with the name William Phaer (?) and date 1576; (22) Ambros; (23) unintelligible, but with small shield-of-arms; (24) IHS. Hen. Walpole (Jesuit priest, 1594); (25) panel with scrolled border and illegible inscription; (26) Henry Walpole, Hieronimus, Ambrosius, A(ugustinus), Gre(gorius); (27) Ricard. Wiam; (28) Harman Barrester, 1572; (29) "IHS, Maria, Ad majorem Dei gloriam Scti . . ."; (30) Latin inscription, partly illegible; (31) IHS. MA. Hen. Walpol Societatis Je. Presbiter; (32) over last the initials A.W.; (33) a cross; (34) Maria; (35) IHS several times repeated; (36) hand with a wound; (37) Latin and French inscription with shield-of-arms and date 1593; (38) "Vivat et vincat rex Jacobus"; (39) "Feare fortuns flateri, fraile of felicitie, dispayre not in dainger, God is a defender"; (40) Daniell Assai; (41) "Harry Clarke, in ano. 1553, IHS"; (42) "Mense Maii 1552 Humfry Michel"; (43) Cristofer Lew . . tye, . . . Maey 15 . ., Humfrey Holt, IH, 155.; (44) illegible with initials I.W. and RBC; (45) "Hew Draper of Brystow, the 27 day Janry . . ."; (46) "E. H. Iris . . ., WM, Edwardus Hyrste, 1587, January 24, R. Custos MM., hoc scripsit"; (47) William Blo . . w; (48–51) devices and illegible inscriptions, one with later initials RC. above; (52) cross on a calvary; (53) wounded hand(?). In third storey—(54) "Blessed ar they that suffer persecution for righteusnes"; (55) nail and heart; (56) heart pierced by arrow; (57) IG., GA.; (58) "Egremond Radclyff 1576, pour parv(eni)r, TH" (rebel); (59) G. Boles; (60) "Emongste the worldly sorowes all, to man more grefe there canot be, then from feliscite to fawle, into this captivitie, WI., F. Digbi, 1553, HD. 1553, West, John . . ." (Plate 36); (61) fragmentary inscription with date 1551; (62–67) partly illegible inscriptions, including John Colleton Priste (1581–4), Perne, 1567, etc.; (68) R. Buxton, 1555; (69) William Andros; (70) HC (?) TW., RG.; (71) a sphere with a fish, fleur-de-lis, sun in splendour and the initials AP. and NP.; (72) Thomas Wright (Priest, 1577–85); (73) Arthur Pool, Edmund Poole, Arth . . . (conspirators, 1562–70); (74) design with initials HL and part of date 15 . .; (75) HL and a device. In top storey—(76) shield with a non-heraldic device.

The Curtain Wall between the Salt and the Broad Arrow Towers is of rag-stone rubble; the southern half has a modern added facing, but the northern part is original except at the top. Near the Broad Arrow Tower is a 13th-century doorway at the ground-floor level, opening on to the moat and having jambs and segmental-pointed arch of two chamfered orders. Further S. are three cruciform arrow-loops, one of which is blocked; the others have embrasures with two-centred heads. At the back or inside of the curtain stands the Horse Armoury.

The Broad Arrow Tower (Plate 147) is of three stages with a fourth storey in the S. turret. The walls are of rag-stone rubble with a high plinth and square turrets on the N. and S. It was built either by Henry III or Edward I and has been restored on the inner or western face and at the top. The ground-storey contains a rectangular room with rounded eastern angles and three embrasures with pointed heads; the E. embrasure has a modern two-light window, but the other two have cruciform arrow-loops. The room is entered by a doorway in the W. wall with chamfered jambs and two-centred head; the doorway to the staircase in the N. turret has a shouldered head and the short connecting corridor has a pointed barrel-vault. The room in the second storey has a triangular end towards the E.; it has three embrasures with two-centred heads and cruciform arrow-loops; on the S. side is a completely restored stone fireplace with a flat lintel on shaped corbels and a pyramidal stone hood. The S. turret, at this level, contains two narrow chambers each with a pointed barrel-vault; the western forms a corridor leading to the parapet-walk of the curtain. The third storey has no ancient features. The Broad Arrow Tower contains the following incised inscriptions, etc. In the ground-storey—(1) device with the name N. H. Blond (Plate 34); (2) shield with three cheverons and the initials I.P.; (3) "cudure"; (4) "William"(?) with foliated device (Plate 34); (5) the word Christ and a cross; (6) R. Ithell. On staircase—(7–9) various 'black-letter' scratchings, including the words Blond, "dublanfosr" and a shield with a cheveron. In the second storey—(10) John Daniell, 1556 (executed); (11) partly defaced Latin inscription with the name and date R. Ithe[ll] lapsus, 1587; (12) as (11) with same name and defaced date; (13) J. Hoyden; (14) defaced inscription with the name Darwin; (15) inscription and name Everard Digby (Gunpowder Plot); (16) defaced Latin inscription; (17) long Latin quotations from Ecclesiastes, etc.; (18) "John Homes and William Shorter came to keep Master Barnewell the firste of September 1586 and went from hence the . . ." (Babington's conspiracy); (19) defaced inscription; (20) NH, IHS, J. Stoughton; (21) IHS, Rodue-d, H-d; (22) Italian inscription with name and date Giovanni Battista Castiglione, 1556 (Italian Master to Queen Elizabeth); (23) Latin fragment; (24) Italian inscription; (25) IHS, MA,; (26) IHS, MA, miserere mei, . . . pro me, R. Ithel[l]; (27) defaced Latin inscription; (28) defaced English and Latin inscription; (29) John Stou[ghton], 1586, and other fragmentary inscriptions and initials.

The Curtain Wall between the Broad Arrow and Constable's Towers is of rag-stone rubble and the S. part is original for about half its length; the N. part has been refaced or re-built.

The Constable's Tower is similar on plan to the Broad Arrow Tower, but except for the rubble walls of the ground-storey has been almost entirely re-built.

The Curtain Wall between the Constable's and the Martin Towers has been entirely refaced or re-built.

The Martin Tower (Plate 146), called also the Brick and Jewel Tower, is of three storeys; the walls are of rag-stone rubble much patched and partly refaced with brick and flint. It was built about the middle of the 13th century, but was much repaired in brick in the 17th century. It stands on a base or offset of different plan and construction. The plan of the tower itself is an irregular circle flattened near the points of junction with the curtain and having two rectangular turrets standing on the curtains. The room in the ground-storey is entered by an early 16th-century doorway on the W. with chamfered jambs and four-centred head; the short corridor to the E. has a pointed barrel-vault with a skewed cross-rib; to the E. of this corridor is a narrow passage with two right-angled bends, a barrel-vault and cross-ribs; at the N. end are remains of an arch or recess with a two-centred head. The room in the ground-storey of the tower is of irregular hexagonal form and had, in five sides, an embrasure with a two-centred arch and arrow-loop; on the N. and E. sides these embrasures have been extended in the 17th century and now contain modern windows; the arch of the E. embrasure has been cut away; the N.E. and the S. embrasures have modern single-light windows. In the S.E. wall is an original fireplace-recess, now partly blocked with modern brick. There are two chamfered beams in the ceiling. The second storey is entered by an external doorway of c. 1700, approached by a modern staircase; the doorway has a wooden hood, and near it are some turned balusters of the same date. The N.W. turret has a recess in the wall, probably a garde-robe, with a two-centred head. The main room is similar in plan to that of the storey below; on the S. side is one jamb of an original fireplace, with a late wooden lintel; the embrasures have mostly been altered, but that in the E. wall retains its original two-centred arch, but has a modern window inserted; the W. embrasure also retains its original arch. The third storey has a 17th-century inserted floor, and the original window-recesses have been fitted with modern windows. The S. recess is lined with early 17th-century panelling and two other recesses with panelling of c. 1700. There are two small rooms, at a higher level, to the N. of the staircase, each with a 17th-century door hung on strap-hinges. The Martin Tower contains the following incised inscriptions, etc. In the ground-storey, (1) Edman Jaret, 1606, with a device; (2) IHS George Beisley, priest, 1590, with a Latin text, two shields, etc. (Plate 35); (3) a cross, IHS and the initials E.I; (4) IHS, Edman Jaret, 1606; (5) Henry . . ., unfinished; (6) cross-device; (7) cross, IHS and name Edman Jaret, 1606; (8) two cross devices and initials EI.; (9) various disconnected initials, etc. In second storey, (10) GG. and a mutilated inscription; (11) two English verses, "and doth about him looke, (this) place is fittest for a cooke"; (12) Ambrose Rookewoode (Gunpowder Plot); (13) initials LE. twice repeated and the word "bouttell"; (14) fragmentary inscription and defaced shield; (15) Irish inscription (Plate 35) with the name MacCarthy and the date 1603 (probably Florence MacCarthy Reagh, Irish chieftain); (16) "Gray"; (17) Stephen Wood, shield, etc.

The Curtain Wall between the Martin and the Bowyer Towers has been re-built or entirely refaced. Projecting from it is the re-built Brick Tower, called also the Burbidge Tower.

The Bowyer Tower is of two storeys. It was built about the middle of the 13th century, but the exterior has been entirely refaced and the upper storey re-built. The base is solid and incorporates a portion of the Roman City-wall, which was uncovered in 1911. The ground-storey is original and contains one room with a rounded N. end and a quadripartite vault of stone with chamfered ribs dying into the side walls at the springing-level. The room has three original embrasures, two fitted with modern windows and one, on the W., retaining its original arrow-loop. In the E. wall is a double locker with a square head and wooden shelf. In the W. wall is a brick-lined recess with a round head.

The Curtain Wall between the Bowyer and Devereux Towers has been almost entirely refaced or re-built; a little original rubble remains in the upper part. Projecting from the wall is the Flint Tower, which has been re-built on the site of a tower destroyed c. 1800.

The Devereux Tower, also called Robert the Devil's Tower and the Develin Tower, is of two storeys; the walls are of rag-stone rubble with free-stone dressings. It was built early in the 13th century, but has been entirely refaced, externally, in modern times. On plan it forms an irregular circle with a staircase-turret on the S.E. side. The lower storey contains an apartment of irregular form with a segmental N. end and a stone vault; the vault is in two bays with a chalk web, the northern bay with three chamfered ribs meeting in the middle, and the southern with four similar ribs, all of Caen stone. The lower courses of the ribs form a tas-de-charge. In the E., N. and S. sides are round-headed embrasures, that on the N. with a modern arrow-loop and the others fitted with modern windows. In the S.E. angle are two doorways, the one on the E. with a segmental head and opening on to the staircase, and the one on the S. with a two-centred head and opening into a Tudor casemate. Opening off the staircase is a small chamber, probably a 13th-century garderobe, in the thickness of the adjoining curtain-wall; it has a partly original loop in the S. wall. The upper storey of the tower contains no ancient features.

The early 16th-century brick casemate, to the S. of the tower, has a four-centred barrel-vault, and two arched recesses in the S. wall. The W. wall is the curtain of c. 1300 and has two embrasures, pierced by modern windows.

The Curtain Wall between the Devereux and the Beauchamp Towers was re-built c. 1300, but has been partly refaced in modern times. In the basement of the Chaplain's House, which backs on to the curtain, are three embrasures of brick and ashlar. The house contains an early 18th-century staircase with moulded rails and strings and turned balusters.

The Beauchamp Tower (Plates 143, 149), also called the Cobham Tower, is of three storeys; the walls are of rag-stone rubble, with vertical bands of ashlar on the exterior, but the internal walls contain much brickwork; the plan is semi-circular with square flanking turrets, rising above the roof on the N. and S. It was built probably c. 1300. It has been much restored, externally, in recent times and the parapets are mostly modern. The room in the ground-storey has a semi-octagonal termination towards the W., each face had an embrasure with a segmental-pointed head and an arrow-loop; the loops on the N., N.W., W. and S. remain, the S.W. embrasure has been utilised for a modern fireplace. In the N. wall is a doorway with a two-centred head opening into a short corridor, with a garderobe at the N. end and in the W. wall an embrasure with a loop; in the E. wall are two loops, both modern externally; the corridor has a barrel-vault of brick. In the S. wall of the main room is a partly restored doorway with a two-centred head, communicating by a short corridor with the turret-staircase. The room in the second storey is similar on plan to the room below; each embrasure has a cruciform loop except the S.W., which has a fireplace with a plain lintel. In the E. wall is an embrasure with a modern two-light window; the arrangement of the N. turret is generally similar to that in the floor below. The main room has old ceiling-beams and plain stone corbels. The room in the third storey is of similar form to the room below, but retains no ancient features; opening out of it is a small chamber in the N. turret.

The Beauchamp Tower contains the following incised inscriptions, etc. (Plates 29–34)—In the ground-storey, (1) device with the words "Extremae Cristus"; (2) Walter Paslew, 1570; (3) Walter Paslew, 1569; (4) Robart Dudley (1553–4); (5) inscription with the name Johan Decker; (6) cross on a calvary; (7) device; (8) Latin inscription with name C. Bailly (Ridolfi conspiracy 1571); (9) "1584 wfc"; (10) monogram and date 1571; (11) as (6). In staircase, (12) Robart Ti . . . ir and IHC; (13) Latin inscription with name Thomas Jenkins, 1672. In corridor leading to room in second storey, (14) various initials—IA, HB, RC, WS, RE, HB 1601, IG, AD, RF, IR 1661, PHR, IR, PR 1691, name Wyllyam and the outline of a church-tower. In room in second storey, (15) Marmaduke Nevile, 1569; (16) collection of devices with shield-of-arms of T. Peverel (Plate 34); (17) monogram IC; (18) William Beveridg, 1562; (19) Italian inscription "Dis poi che vole la fortuna che la mea speransa va al vento pianger ho volio el tempo perdudo e semper stel me tristo e discontento Willim Tyrrel 1541" (Plate 34); (20) Latin inscription with names I. Petri . . . and Jhon Ba . . . and date 14 Sept.; (21) "Quanto plus afflictionis pro Christo in hoc saeculo tanto plus gloriae cum Christo in futuro Arundell, June 22, 1587" (Philip Howard, 1st Earl of Arundel); (22) "Gloria et honore eum coronasti domine in memoria aeterna erit justus"; (23) the name Bagot; (24) illegible inscription or name; (25) carved panel with the Dudley badge and border with roses, honeysuckle, acorns and gilly-flowers, the name John Dudle (Earl of Warwick, 1553) and the inscription "Yow that these beasts do wel behold and se, may deme wthe ease wherfore here made they be, withe borders eke wherin a[re to be found], 4 brothers names who list to serche the ground" (Plate 33); (26) rough drawing of a man kneeling at an altar with defaced inscription; (27) "Vincet qui patitur Ro. Baynbridge"; (28) "Dolor patientia vincitur G. Gyfford August 8 1586"; (29) inscription "Wise men ought [circums]pectly to se wh[at they] do, to examine [before th]ey speake, to pro[ve before] they take in hand [to be]ware whose compa[ny the]y use and above al [things to] whom they [truste]," with name Charles Bailly and date 10 April 1571; (30) inscription "Typping stand and bere thy cross, for thow art catholyke, but no worce and for that cause this 3 yeer space thow hast conteanewed in great disgrac yet what happ will hitt I cannot tel but be death or be wel content swet Good"; (31) John Store, Doctor, 1570; (32) Charles Bailly, 1571; (33) "O Lord whic art of Heavn King grawnt gras and lyfe everlastig to Miagh thy servant in prison alon with spedy inlargdment henc to be, Thomas Miagh"; (34) head with initials A.F., G.C.; (35) Laurens Mylford, 1559; (36) William Rame, 1559; (37) Henry, 1574, Henrye (Co)ckyn, 157– (agent of the Bishop of Ross); (38) Edward Smalley; (39) Wyllyam Pollard, 1558; (40) shield-of-arms, a trefoil between three molets; (41) "Better it is to be in the howse of mornying then in the howse of banketing. The harte of the wyse is in the morning howse. It is better to have some chastening then to have over moche liberte. There is a tyme for all things, a tyme to be borne and a tyme to dye ande the daye of deathe is better then the daye of berthe. There is an ende of all things ande the ende of a thinge is beter then the begenyng. Be wyse and pacyente in troble for wysedome defendith as well as mony. Use well the tyme of prosperite ande remember the time of mysfortewn, xxii die Aprilis Ano. 1559, William Rame" (Plate 33); (42) "1578. Hit is the poynt of a wyse man to try, and then truste, for hapy is he whome fyndeth one that is just. T.C." (probably Thomas Clarke); (43) device of an oak-sprig with motto and inscription "I gave credit to mi frinde in time did stande me moste in hande so woulde I never do againe excepte I hade him suer in bande and to al men wishe I so unles ye sussteine the leke lose as I do. Unhappie is that mane whose actes doth procuer the miseri of this hous in prison to induer. 1576. Thomas Clarke"; (44) "Thomas Miagh whiche lieth hire alon, that fayne wold from hens be gon. By tortyre straynge mi troyth was tryed, yet of my libertie denied. 1581. Thomas Myagh" (Plate 32); (45) various devices with initials GG, GIF, FR (Plate 32); (46) shield of the arms of Gifford, Latin inscription and name G. Gyfford, 1586 (Plate 32); (47) Latin prayer and name Thomas Peverel, 1571 (Plate 32); (48) Robert Maleri, 1558; (49) shield-of-arms, three roses bendwise a chief indented; (50) initials BPA and WW; (51) worn Latin inscription with name E. Poole, 1561 or 62; (52) "Close prisoner here 8 monethes, 32 wekes, 224 dayes, 5376 houres" (Plate 32); (53) Thomas Clarke; (54) panel with shield-of-arms, devices and name T. Salmon, 1622 (Plate 32); (55) 1576 Thomas Foull; (56) Richard . . . ood, 1581; (57) fragmentary English inscriptions; (58) device with skeleton, etc., initials TW and DA and inscription "Thomas Willyngar, goldsmythe. My hart is yours tel dethe"; (59) James Gilmor; (60) Edward Smalley; (61) panel with English inscription and date 1568; (62) Thomas Rooper, 1570; (63) "Per passage penible passons a port plaisant"; (64) G. Poole; (65) Edward Cuffyn, 1562, NC, WB; (66) W. Beverig, 1562; (67) Geffrye Poole, 1562; (68) ditto; (69) William Belmalar; (70) Edmonde Poole; (71) incomplete inscription with the name Jane (Plate 30); (72) H. Lasels; (73) Antony Tuchiner; (74) various scratchings, including two shields, initials IC, etc.; (75) ornamental panel with inscription "Anno D. 1571, 10 Sept. The most unhapy man in the world is he that is not pacient in adversities, for men are not killed with the adversities they have but with ye impacience which they suffer." "Tout vient a poient quy peult attendre." "Gli sospirine son testimoni veri dell angoscia mia. Aeq. 29. Charles Bailly" (Plate 31); (76) "I.H.S. A passage perillus makethe a port pleasant Ao. 1568 Arthur Poole, Ao. Sue 37." and monogram; (77) "I hope in the end to deserve that I wold have. Men. Novem. A. 1573. Hugh Longiworthe" (warder?); (78) Johni Reile, 1562; (79) Hugh Longworthe, 1573; (80) Lawrens Myle; (81) unfinished ornamental panel with shield-of-arms and date 1573 (Plate 29); (82) Edmound Poole, 1568; (83) "Deo servire, penitentiam inire fato obedire regnare est. A. Poole, 1564, I.H.S." (Plate 31); (84) panel with scales, etc. Thomas Bawdewin Juli 1586 and inscription "As vertue maketh life, so sin cawseth death" (Plate 31); (85) "Waldram" initials HR and a partly defaced name; (86) Thomas Fitzger[ald] (Earl of Kildare, 1535–7; (87) "Adam Sedbar, Abbas Jorevall, 1537" (Plate 29); (88) two shields-of-arms and the initials WH and MH; (89) device with man praying, shield-of-arms of Peverel and part of name (Plate 29); (90) W. Wodhus; (91) "Spiritus certo loquitur nam in hoc laboramus et probris afficimur quod spem fixam habeamus in Deo vivente qui est salvator omnium maxime fidelium. I. Timoy, 1581"; (92) English text, initials IC and date 1558 (or 38); (93) Thomas Abel (rebus) (1532–4); (94) Doctor Cook 1540 (priest); (95) panel with name Thomas Cobham, 1555, and an added name above, Yaxlee (agent of Mary, Queen of Scots, 1562); (96) Italian inscription; (97) shield-of-arms; (98) "Lancaster Herald" and two names with crosses, Francis and Evea; (99) Jhon Seymor, GG, HO, WI, 1553; (100) French inscription with initials IC, 1538; (101) acornspray with initials RD; (102) Thomas Steven, James Rogers; (103) "Saro fideli Inggram Percy, 1537"; (104) Latin text and name John Prine, 1568; (105) crosses with name John Waw(?); (106) motto, acorns, monogram and date 1587; (107) shield-of-arms and name Francis Owdal, 1541; (108) French motto and name R. Page, name and initials C. How and A.T., scratched over; (109) Raulef Bulmar, 1537; (110) George Ardern, 1538; (111) John Colleton, prist, 1581 (or 7), July 22; (112) "Jane"; (113) inscription with name Richard Blount, 9 Julii 1553; (114) Eagremond Radclyffe, 1576, "pour parvenir"; on walls of N. passage—(115) Daniel; (116) James Gilmor, 1569; (117) small crucifix; (118) Thomas Talbot, dated 1462 but apparently 16th-century; (119) Essex; (120) W.D.; (121) partly illegible; on splays of loops to staircase, etc.; (122) RW, C. Poole; (123) "Haricro . . . IC"; (124) "Sicut peccati causa vinc . . . opprobrium itaque contra pro Cristo custodiae vincula sustinere, maxima gloria est. Ambro Arundell, 26 of May 1587"; (125) panel with initials, etc. PIW-MP, 1686; (126) "Thomas Rose, within this tower strong, kept close by those to whome hee did noe wrong. May 8th 1666."

The Curtain Wall (Plates 143, 144) between the Beauchamp and the Bell Towers is of c. 1300 and of rag-stone rubble and retains eleven embrasures with segmental-pointed arches and loops; six of these open into Nos. 4 and 5, The Parade, four into the "Cowshed" and one into the King's House. The raking plinth, on the external face, stands on three square offsets, below the ground level, and indicating that the adjoining moat was already filled in when the curtain was built. This plinth is built against the earlier plinth of the Bell Tower.

The White Tower (Plates 150–158) or Keep was begun by William I. It was restored at the top by Henry VIII and again restored during the first half of the 18th century, when the lower windows and external doorways were remodelled, perhaps about 1709, the date on three rain-water heads; the brick vaults of the basement were inserted, about 1734, and the upper windows altered about 1750. The structure has been several times restored in the 19th century. The tower is of rag-stone rubble with ashlar dressings, mainly Portland stone on the exterior and Caen stone in the chapel; the roofs are lead-covered.

Exterior.—The plan is rectangular (118 ft. by 97 ft. externally), and is divided by pilasterbuttresses into five bays from N. to S. and four bays from E. to W.; this scheme is interrupted at the S.E. angle by the projecting apse of the chapel, which is semi-circular and divided into five bays; the N.W. and S.W. angles of the tower have each a pair of wide flat buttresses and the N.E. angle has a circular stair-turret.

The main building is of three storeys with a basement. It has along the S., E. and W. sides a battered plinth and is surmounted by an embattled parapet. The circular N.E. turret is carried up for some height above the parapet and is surmounted by a weather-vane; there are similarly roofed turrets at the N.W. and S.W. angles and above the meeting of the apse of the chapel with the S. wall. Between the buttresses, at the first-floor level and below the parapet, are plain string-courses or ashlar bands. Between the buttresses the wall face of the first floor is set back slightly within a series of semi-circular arched recesses. The doorways and windows generally are round-headed with unmoulded sills, architraves and archivolts, and many have plain impost-blocks and keystones; they are externally mainly of late 17th and 18th-century date, but those to the chapel and its crypt are externally modern. The original entrance was at the first-floor level through a doorway in the westernmost bay of the S. Front. This doorway is now disused and no traces remain either of the forebuilding or the staircase by which it was approached. In the same bay, the top floor has two two-light windows of 11th-century origin; each is divided by a central shaft, the westernmost shaft has a moulded capital and base. The adjoining bay on the E. has, between the basement and first-floor levels, a round-headed doorway with 18th-century dressings leading to a circular staircase. The N. Front has modern square-headed doorways in the easternmost bay and the third bay from the E., both giving entrance to the basement. Above each of the entrances are round-headed doorways with early 18th-century dressings, the eastern one of which is now the principal entrance to the building and is approached on either side by a modern stone staircase. The E. Front (Plate 150) has in the buttress adjoining the N.E. turret an outlet to a garde-robe. The W. Front (Plate 151) has to the southernmost bay a modern porch leading to the basement.

Interior.—The Basement is divided into two main compartments running N. and S. with a sub-crypt below the chapel, entered from the S. end of the easternmost compartment. This compartment, called the Mortar Room, is rectangular and has had 18th-century brick piers inserted, carrying a groined barrel vault of three bays. The entrance to the N.E. stair-turret has a round head partly hidden by later brickwork; the jambs are of ashlar and it is fitted with a late 17th-century door. The three recesses in the E. wall opened through the floor above to the loops from which they obtained light. In the N. end of the W. wall is a doorway with rebated jambs and round head opening into a short barrel-vaulted passage in the thickness of the wall. In the S. wall is an original doorway with jambs, cut away, except at the base, and a semi-circular rear-arch; it is fitted with a 17th-century door with three strap hinges, bolts and a circular handle. The Sub-Crypt has in the circular E. end a round-headed 'shoot' opening through which light is obtained from the floor above. The walls are of rubble, squared towards the E. end, and it is roofed with a barrel-vault showing the marks of centering. Along the N. and S. sides and round the E. end is a low offset. An opening has been cut through the W. wall into the western part of the basement. The W. compartment, called the Cannon Room, is divided into five 18th-century brick-vaulted bays with brick piers as in the eastern basement, and is similarly lighted from the floor above through four recesses in the W. wall. At the N. end of the E. wall is a round headed doorway on the jamb of which are the following inscriptions: (1) "IO, 1667"; (2) "RW. IB"; (3) Latin inscription; (4) "R. Ithell CA." (This name also occurs in the Broad Arrow Tower.) High up in the N. wall is a modern doorway, set in an earlier recess. The exit from the S. end of the room is modern. Within the second bay from the S. is a late 11th-century circular well, lined with ashlar and having modern repairs towards the top.

The Trinity Almshouses

The First Floor is also in two main compartments with the crypt of the chapel at the S. end of the E. compartment. This E. chamber, now called the Record Room, has in the N. end of the E. wall a round-headed doorway leading to the adjoining stair-turret. In the E. wall are three round-headed window-recesses fitted with early 18th-century windows; between the two southernmost windows is a round-headed fireplace with a broken arch, partly of Roman brick. In the N. wall is an 18th-century doorway, set in an early window-recess, and a few feet below the present floor-level. In the S. wall is a wide round-arched recess with a restored round-headed doorway at the W. end leading to the Crypt below the Chapel. In the W. wall, now opening into the W. compartment, are four round-headed recesses, with the backs cut through in modern times, and at each end is a doorway with a semi-circular head. The room is divided into aisles by two rows of 18th-century stop-chamfered timber posts which support the floor above. The Crypt to the Chapel (Plate 152) has a modern barrel-vault. In the E. end is a window-embrasure with a modern arch. The apse has a wide, round-arched entrance, with modern dressings. In the E. end of the N. wall a restored round-headed doorway leads to a small square compartment with a modern groined vault. On the jambs of the door are the following inscriptions—(5) "He that endureth to the ende shal be savid. R. Rudston Dar. Kent An° 1553"; (6) "Be faithful unto deth and I will give the a crowne of life. T. Fane 1554 D. T. L. Culpeper of Ailsford, Kent"; (7) an inscription beginning "Tho" is illegible except for odd letters; (8) practically illegible Latin inscription, also the scratched initials; (9) E.D., M., and T.B. The jambs of the doorway in the W. end of the N. wall have modern repairs. In the S. wall are three window-embrasures with modern dressings, plastered barrel-vaulted heads and modern windows. In the W. wall is a round-arched recess with restored dressings. The western chamber, called the Small Arms Room, has in the W. end of the N. wall a small rectangular recess of two groined vaulted bays; it is entered through two round-headed openings, the easternmost modern, the other of 11th-century date with the E. jamb restored; opening out of the eastern bay is a window-embrasure with a late 17th-century inserted window. In the E. end of the wall is a small recess with a groined vault and a round-headed entrance, the W. jamb of which has been removed. Further W. is a window-embrasure of uncertain date with a segmental head and modern rear-arch. In the upper part of the E. end of the wall is the W. jamb of a wide blocked window. In the W. wall are five round-headed window-embrasures with 18th-century windows; between the second and third windows from the S. is a round-backed fireplace with a broken head containing Roman brick. The S. wall has at the E. end a round-headed window-recess converted, late in the 13th century, into a spiral staircase; further W. is the wide embrasure of the original main entrance with an 18th-century window; in the splays are small square-headed recesses; the heads were originally semi-circular. The room is divided into aisles by 18th-century timber posts which carry the floor above.

The Second Floor follows the plan of the lower floors with the Chapel of St. John at the S. end of the E. side. The N.E. room, called the Sword Room (Plate 158), has three 18th-century windows with 11th-century splays in the E. wall; between the two southernmost is a fireplace with a rough semi-circular back and a modern arch; some Roman bricks have been incorporated in the walling by the fireplace; in the N. splay of the northernmost window is the round-headed entrance to a garderobe; in the splays of the two other windows are small rectangular lockers with wood lintels. The window in the N. wall has wide early 14th-century sloping splays and a segmental rear-arch; at the E. end of the wall is a round-headed doorway leading to the N.E. stair-turret, and in the W. end of the wall is a similar but smaller doorway opening into a small garde-robe of two bays with groined vaults. In the S. wall is an original doorway into the chapel. The W. wall is pierced by three round-headed arches, formerly recesses, cut through at the back in 18th-century or modern times, and at either end is a round-headed doorway, all opening into the W. room. The room is divided into aisles by timber posts supporting the floor above.

The Trinity Almshouses

The Chapel of St. John (Plates 153–156) has an aisled Nave (50 ft. by 14 ft.) of four bays continuous with an apsidal E. end of five bays round which the aisle (7½ ft. wide) is also continued. The dressings and ashlar are of Caen stone. The bays are divided by circular piers with simply carved or cushion capitals with square moulded abaci and moulded bases of varying section; the carved capitals each have a tau-cross carved on each face, and the abaci of the half-round responds against the W. wall are enriched. The columns to the apse support narrow, stilted half-round arches; the arches to the nave are wider and semi-circular; all are of a single unmoulded order. Above the arcade runs a continuous chamfered string-course. In the W. wall is a wide but shallow round-arched recess. The Triforium has a continuous arcade of plain semi-circular arched openings immediately above the arches of the arcade below. Above the arches springs a plain barrel vault across the nave, terminating in a semi-dome over the apsidal E. end. Each column of the main arcade has a corresponding square and recessed respond on the outer wall of the aisle, with chamfered abaci to all except those on the N. wall, which are moulded; from these spring stilted semi-circular arches across the aisle, dividing it into bays. Over each bay is a plain groined vault; a plain semi-circular wall-rib to each bay is carried on projections against the outer walls. In each bay of the apse, except the westernmost, and in each bay of the S. aisle is a modern window set in original splays with semi-circular rear-arches. In the fourth bay from the W., in the N. wall, is a recess with a semi-circular arch, and in the westernmost bay is a doorway. In the W. wall of the S. aisle is a round-arched doorway leading to the adjoining staircase through a short barrel-vaulted passage.

The triforium passage is barrel-vaulted and has windows uniform with those in the aisle below. At the end of the N. wall is a round-headed doorway with modern dressings, and at the S. end of the W. wall is a round-headed doorway to the wall-passage of the adjoining room.

Fittings— Glass: (Plates 38, 39, 40). In apse—in E. window, shield of the quartered arms of France (modern) and England with, above, a crown in yellow glass, 16th-century; two quarries of white with the badge of a garb in yellow stain; lozenge-shaped white quarry with initials "E.R." joined by a knotted cord with crown above, 16th-century; shield-of-arms of Dudley in 16 quarterings set within a garter with yellow and white strapwork and surmounted by a coronet, 16th-century; a lozenge-shaped quarry with the badge of a portcullis. In N.E. window, cartouche of quartered arms of France and England within a border of yellow scroll-work with foliage in ruby, 16th-century, 1st and 4th quarters probably modern; shield-of-arms of Thomas Howard, 4th Duke of Norfolk, K.G., within a Garter, 16th-century, much broken and repaired; shield-of-arms of Henry Hastings, 3rd Earl of Huntingdon, K.G., within Garter, late 16th-century; rectangular panel containing red rose, 16th-century, set in miscellaneous fragments, 16th-century. In S.E. window, shield-of-arms in six quarters of (1) England with a label of five points azure, each charged with a fleur-de-lis or (augmentation granted to Queen Anne Boleyn); (2) old France with label of five points for Angoulême; (3) Guienne; (4) Butler and Rochford quarterly; (5) Brotherton; (6) Warrenne, all within modern Garter, 16th-century; shield-of-arms within a Garter of Henry Carey, K.G., Lord Hunsdon, 16th-century; shield-of-arms within a Garter of Francis Russell, K.G., 2nd Earl of Bedford, 16th-century; a rectangular panel with a red rose, crowned and set in fragments, 16th-century. In S. window, monochrome panel of the anointing of David, within yellow border, early 17th-century; similar panel of the Creation of the world. In S. aisle—in easternmost window, panel with figure-subject representing Esau asking for Isaac's blessing, with figures of Jacob and Rebekah watching from a doorway, early 17th-century; panel painted in brown enamel with landscape, probably Flemish or German, 16th or early 17th-century, broken. In second window from E., small oval panel with painted, in red, figure of Charles the Great, seated in his robes as Emperor; mantle embroidered with fleurs-de-lis and on breastplate imperial eagle, 16th-century; rectangular panel with part of a figure of man in plate-armour kneeling on one knee, holding shield before him, Flemish or German, early 16th-century; two fragments with classical heads, 16th-century; rectangular panel with thorn-bush badge of Henry VII in green and ruby on blue ground with initials "H.R.," late 15th or early 16th-century. In third window from E., oblong panel in brown with figure-subject representing the expulsion from Eden, much broken, late 17th-century; panel, country scene with church on hill in distance, man on horseback with two dogs, probably Flemish or German, early 17th-century. In westernmost window, panel representing patriarch or prophet offering sacrifice with God the Father on left, 17th-century; similar panel of the Creation of the Sun and the Moon. Inscriptions: on columns to the apse, (10) "1656 H.B."; (11) "1656 R H"; (12) "1656 C S"; (13) T N 1656; (14) E C.

The Banqueting Hall or Weapon Room is approached by a circular stair in the S. wall from the S. entrance to the building. The staircase is set within an original window-recess, lit by an 18th-century window; in the E. splay of the recess is a round-headed doorway leading to the S. chapel-aisle. In the W. end of the S. wall is a similar recess or window, in the W. splay of which is a round-headed archway with a passage leading to the S.W. circular stair to the floor above. In the N. splay of the doorway in the N. end of the E. wall is a round-headed doorway to a garde-robe in the thickness of the N. wall; the garde-robe has a groined vault and is lit by a small loop with a triangular head. In the W. wall are four windows as in the floor below, and in the N. splay of the northernmost is a round-headed entrance to the N.W. circular stairs to the floor above. In the N. wall are two windows corresponding to those in the W. wall. The room is divided into aisles by stop-chamfered posts supporting the top floor.

The Tower of London, The White Tower. Section A-A and Section B-B

The Third Floor has the S.E. corner occupied by the triforium of the chapel. The remainder of the floor follows the plan of the floor below, being divided into two main rooms; round the outer walls is a continuous wall-passage. The N.E. room, now called the Tudor Room (Plate 160), has in the E. wall three semi-circular, arched openings into the E. wall-passage; there is a smaller modern opening in the N. wall, and the W. wall is pierced by five round-arched openings communicating with the adjoining room. The W. room, now called the Council Chamber or Horse Armoury, has in the N. wall (Plate 159) two round-headed doorways, the westernmost of which has a restored head, and between the doorways is a round-headed window; all open into the wall-passage. In the S. wall are three-round-headed doorways giving access to the wall-passage. In the W. wall are five semi-circular arched window-recesses. Each of the main rooms is lighted by two skylights in the modern roof. The wall-passage is barrel-vaulted and has cross-arches. It communicates with the circular staircases in the respective N.E., N.W. and S.W. angles, and has round-headed doorways in the S. end of the E. wall and E. end of the S. wall giving access to the triforium of the chapel; the former doorway has some modern repairs, and above the latter is a blocked round-headed window. The windows are generally of late 17th-century date set in the original splays, but the splays to the easternmost window in the N. wall-passage are modern. The Staircase in the N.E. turret rises from the basement to the roof. Carved on the walls are the following inscriptions—(15) "T P 1658"; (16) "E M S"; (17) Thomas Williams 1624 or 8; on wall of passage leading to second floor (18) "T P 1658"; at topfloor level (19) "P O 1668 . . . T.I." The N.W. and S.W. circular stairs rise from the second floor to the roof; the former has a garde-robe opening off it just above the second-floor level; the upper parts of both turrets have been repaired in later brick.

The Chapel of St. Peter ad Vincula (Plate 161) stands on the N. side of Tower Green. The walls are of ragstone rubble with some modern flint-facing and with dressings of Reigate stone. There is mention of a chapel of St. Peter in 1210 which was re-built under Edward III, and the N. wall of the existing building may belong to one or other of these structures, as it differs in character from the other walls and is said to contain remains of earlier windows beneath the modern facing. The rest of the building was entirely reconstructed early in the 16th century. A S. porch is shown on a drawing of 1597 which has now been removed. The chapel has been much restored in modern times, the N.E. Vestry added and the tower re-built. The vaults which lie to the N. of the chapel have been almost entirely refaced with modern brick.

Except for its historical associations the chapel is of little architectural interest, but the Cholmondeley and Blount monuments are noteworthy. In the chapel are buried, without any ancient memorial, Queens Anne Boleyn and Catherine Howard, Lady Jane Grey and Lord Guildford Dudley her husband, the Dukes of Somerset and Northumberland, the Scottish lords Kilmarnock, Lovat and Balmerino and many others.

Architectural Description—The Chancel and Nave (71 ft. by 21 ft.) are structurally undivided and are entirely of early 16th-century date. The much restored E. window is of five cinquefoiled lights in a four-centred head with moulded reveals. In the N. wall is an arcade (Plate 162) of four bays with four-centred arches of two moulded orders springing from columns each having four attached shafts with moulded capitals and bases; the responds have attached half-columns; at the back of the E. respond is a blocked squint; further E. is a blocked window with moulded reveals and a four-centred head. In the S. wall are four much restored windows, each similar to the E. window but of three lights only; between the two western windows was a S. doorway, now blocked. In the W. wall is a modern window and doorway.

The North Aisle (21 ft. wide) has in the E. wall a window similar to the E. window; below it is a modern doorway. In the N. wall is a modern window and further W. a doorway with a segmental-pointed head, restored on the inner face; it is now blocked. In the W. wall is a window similar to those in the S. wall of the nave.

The Vaults have portions of old masonry near the entrance, but the walls and vaulting are, for the most part, of 18th-century and later brickwork.

The Roof of the chancel and nave is of flat tie-beam type and of five bays; the tie-beams, ridge and wall-plates are moulded and the rafters are hollow-chamfered. The roof of the N. aisle is of similar type and of four bays.

Fittings—Bell: by John Hodson, 1659. Brass Indents: In chancel—(1) of small plate. In nave— (2) defaced. In N. aisle—(3) of various defaced figures, etc.; (4) of square plate; (5) of inscription-plate; (6) of inscription-plate and shield; (7) of civilian and wife, inscription-plate and Trinity; (8) of inscription-plate and shield; (9) of armed figure, wife, shield and two inscription-plates. Font (Plate 13): octagonal bowl, each face with a quatrefoiled panel enclosing a flower, plain stem and moulded base, early 16th-century, repaired. Monuments and Floor-slab: Monuments: In chancel— on N. wall, (1) of Sir Richard Blount, Lieutenant of the Tower, 1564, and Sir Michael Blount, Lieutenant of the Tower, his son, and Mary (Moore) his wife, 1592, monument erected by Elizabeth (Lister) widow of Sir Richard Blount, with added inscription to Lyster Blount, 1633–4, alabaster and marble wall-monument (Plate 163) in two main bays (the western being a later addition), divided and flanked by Corinthian columns, standing on pedestals and supporting a continuous entablature; in each bay, two round-headed recesses with kneeling figures of man in armour and wife, Sir Richard with two sons and two daughters and Sir Michael with three sons and one daughter, each arched recess has a delicately carved mask as a key-stone and festoons of flowers in the spandrels; at back of each recess in E. bay, two large shields-of-arms and at back of each recess in W. bay one large shield-of-arms; in base of tomb, below each recess, a balustrade of symmetrical balusters, and on entablature of tomb two achievements, two shields and one lozenge-of-arms; on S. wall, (2) of Samuell, 1649–50, Maria, 1646, and Robert, 1651, children of George Payler, Master Surveyor of the Ordnance and Maria (Jackson) his wife, alabaster wall-monument (Plate 164) with busts of man and wife in oval recesses and recumbent figures of children in two oval recesses, the lower recess flanked by two cherubs; at side of base, two shields-of-arms; (3) to Sir Allan Apsley, Lieutenant of the Tower, 1630, tablet with round-headed panel of black marble, cornice, pediment, and achievement-of-arms; at base a sleeping infant with an hour-glass. In nave—(4) to Talbot Edwards, Keeper of the Crown Jewels, 1674, plain tablet, broken; (5) to Sir Jonas More, 1679, elaborate marble tablet with trophy-of-arms, urn, cherub-head and cartouche-of-arms. In N. aisle—at E. end, (6) of Sir Richard Cholmoundeley [1544] and Elizabeth his wife, alabaster altar-tomb (Plate 165), now standing N. and S., with four cusped panels set lozenge-wise on the W. side, each enclosing a blank shield and having cusped spandrels and upright panels between the lozenges, similar panels at ends and twisted shafts at angles of tomb, moulded base carved with single leaves and moulded slab carved with 'blackletter' inscription on edge; on top, effigy of man in armour, with head on mantled helm, feet on lion, SS. collar round neck and gauntlets by right leg, effigy of woman in pedimental head-dress, head on cushion supported by angels, two small dogs at feet; on N. wall, (7) to Capt. Valentine Pyne, Master Gunner of England, 1677, black marble and alabaster tablet (Plate 17) with enriched frame to inscription, flanked by pilasters with cannon set up against them, enriched entablature, scrolled pediment with cartouche-of-arms and as apron a scrolled plaque with a man-of-war in relief and a cherub-head below it. Floor-slab: In chancel—to Elizabeth, 1704, and Hannah, 1706–7, daughters of John Jones. Organ (Plate 49): from the Chapelroyal, Whitehall, built by Father Bernard Schmidt in 1676, organ-case in three bays, with four towers of pipes, each finished with pierced carving and an entablature at the top and standing on brackets (Plate 15), carved with acanthus-leaves or cherubheads; spaces between towers, with pierced carving and enriched cornices; above middle cornice, royal arms of William III and over side cornices, pierced scrolls, late 17th-century. Piscina: In N. aisle—in E. wall, recess with moulded jambs and two-centred arch in a square head, round drain, early 16th-century. Plate: includes cup of 1559, with inscription, date 1629, and royal initials C.R.; cup of 1637, with similar inscription; patens of 1629 and 1638, with similar inscriptions; alms-dish of 1682, given by Edward Gompers.

The Wardrobe Tower was built on, and probably incorporates portions of, a Roman bastion. The existing remains, consisting of the S. and S.E. parts, are apparently of 12th-century date above the ground level; there are two flat buttresses still in part remaining. At the back of the bastion, which is of roughly semi-circular form and hollow, a portion of the Roman wall, which here made a slight bend, has been exposed by excavation.

Within the modern building of the Main Guard is a thick wall running northwards from the Wakefield Tower. It contains three restored arrow-loops and is, substantially, the old wall which connected the Wakefield with the Coldharbour Tower.

Reset in the wall to the staircase leading up to the Martin Tower, on the W. side, is the Tympanum taken from the Armoury or Great Storehouse. In the middle is an achievement-of-arms (Plate 133) of William III with supporters, flanked by trophies of arms, drums, etc.

The King's House (Plate 166) or Lieutenant's Lodging is an L-shaped block of buildings standing within the angle at the junction formed by the S. and W. walls of the inner line of fortifications; it covers the entrance to the Bell Tower which stands at the S.W. angle of the two wings. It is of three storeys with attics. Except where the curtain walls have been incorporated, the walls are timber-framed with plastered infilling, but parts have been refaced with later brick and modern stucco and rough cast; the roofs are tiled. It was erected towards the latter part of Henry VIII's reign; the outer walls facing the S. and W. were raised on the pre-existing curtain walls, and the lower walls of a 14th-century building were incorporated in the eastern half of the S. wing; a large part of the W. curtain wall appears to have been re-built. The E. end of the S. wing, which incorporates the Guard Room, is probably a later 16th or early 17th-century addition. Towards the end of the 17th century a staircase wing was added on the N. side of the Guard Room, and one-storey additions were built in the angle formed by the meeting of the two main wings. The house has a considerable amount of modern work both internally and externally, and the roofs of the S. wing have been almost entirely re-built.

Elevations. The N. front of the S. wing is in four gabled bays (Plate 167) with an additional quarter bay at the W. end. The easternmost bay, fronting the Guard Room, has had the two lower floors refaced with brick, above which is a plastered gable to the attics. The projecting staircase block, which partly hides the adjoining bay, is of three storeys with projecting bands marking the floor-levels and as a coping to the parapet; it is entirely covered with modern rough-cast. The front to the W. of the projecting staircase-block, except where covered by the one-storey brick addition, has the timber-framing exposed; the framing has ogee curved braces and the bargeboards to the gables are pierced with running tracery. The S. wall of the S. wing is partly hidden by a growth of ivy; the lower part of the wall has a modern ashlar-facing except at the W. end, which is of rubble; the wall of the first floor is of split flints and at the W. end, by the junction with the Bell Tower, is a rough window-opening blocked with 17th-century brick; the second floor is faced with modern brick and all the windows are modern externally. The E. front (Plate 167) of the W. wing is in four bays. The original front to the ground floor has been replaced by a late 17th-century brick wall, standing forward in front of the line of the former wall; it is pierced by segmental-headed doorways and windows. The timber-framing is exposed in the northernmost bay of the upper floors and the gable, and both the second floor and gable project beyond the wall-face below; in the three southern bays the projecting second floor has been under-built with late 17th-century work, which is plastered on the first floor and surmounted by an entablature with the cornice carried up in a triangular pediment in the middle of each of the end bays and a segmental pediment in the middle of the central bay; the timberframing is exposed above this later work and has ogee curved braces; all the gables project over the wall-face below and have traceried barge-boards similar to those to the N. front of the S. wing, but with some modern repair. The W. front, which forms part of the curtain wall, is of roughly coursed rubble with some vertical ashlar courses in the splay at the base; the battlemented parapet is modern, as are also the dressings to the loops. The front to the second floor sets back, leaving a parapet walk communicating between the Beauchamp and Bell Towers and called "The Queen's Walk"; the walling is of 16th-century brick with some modern repairs and has the following inscriptions—(1) "Nosce te ipsum"; (2) "Oliver"; (3) "Respice finem. W.D." The Interior on the ground floor of the S. wing retains no old features in the easternmost block or Guard Room. The adjoining room on the W. has ragrubble walling of the 14th century or earlier date with repairs in 16th-century brick and a 16th-century four-centred brick vault; low down in the S. wall is a loop with badly broken splays. At the N. end of the W. wall is a 14th-century doorway with a two-centred head of a single hollow chamfered order and a two-centred segmental rear-arch. The window and doorway in the N. wall were cut through at a later date. The existing floor is almost two feet above the original floor-level. The passage to the N. of this room has a chamfered plinth to the S., E. and W. walls; across the passage, springing off the earlier rubble walling of the side walls, is a chamfered, four-centred arch of brick. In the projecting staircase block are two 17th-century doors, and the staircase has some late 17th-century turned balusters. The westernmost room has been divided up by the insertion of modern partitions; the E. wall is of 16th-century brick, and low down in the S. wall is a half-arch of chalk-ashlar with rubble walling above. In the N. partition is a 17th-century door. In the S. wall of the chamber, partitioned off in the S.W. corner, is an old loop fitted with a modern window and with a 16th-century brick arch across the embrasure. The doorway to the Bell Tower is fitted with a 16th-century door hung on big strap hinges. On the ground floor to the N. wing, in the W. wall of the chamber still called the "Cow Shed," are the three embrasures with loops piercing the Curtain Wall; a fourth embrasure further S. is obscured by an inserted wall of 17th-century brick and is only visible through a small opening which has been cut through this wall. In the ceiling are some stop-chamfered beams of 17th-century date. On the first floor in the S. wing is some moulded 17th-century panelling and some of the timber-construction is exposed. The Kitchen has an old fireplace spanned by an oak lintel and one 16th and two 17th-century oak doors. On the second floor the 'Council Chamber' (Plate 168) in the middle of the S. wing has been modernised; reset above the fireplace is a contemporary bust in half-relief of James I set within an elliptical panel in a square frame with a modern inscription painted below, "Vivre sans Rêve qu'est-ce." On the wall by the side of the fireplace is a large mural tablet with side pilasters and oval moulded cornice and a central oval panel surrounded by four smaller panels with a long inscription recording its erection on October 9th, 1608, by Sir William Waade, Lieutenant, to celebrate the frustration of the Gunpowder Plot; the names of Conspirators, including five Jesuits and those of the Inquisitors, are given; on the sides, top and bottom of the tablet are shields-of-arms of the Inquisitors. In the W. wing in the N. end some of the timber-construction is exposed in a passage which has a 17th-century doorway and door. The room adjoining has a fireplace of c. 1700. Further S. the bedroom known as 'Anne Boleyn's room' is lined with 16th-century moulded panelling surmounted by a moulded cornice. The stone fireplace (Plate 168) is of the same date and has moulded jambs and flat four-centred arch in a square head; in a panel in the stonework above the head are cut the following initials—"A.N.I.N." with the name "William . . .," followed by a Latin inscription; also the word "Anglia . . ." A room in the S.W. corner of the wing has a similar fireplace with the following inscriptions—"As God preserved Christ His Son in trouble and in thrall so when we cal upon the (Lord) He will preserve us all"; "Upon the twenty daie of June In the yere of our Lord a thousande Five hundred threscore and five was The right honorable Countes of Lennox Grace was commytede prysner To thys logyings for the marege of her sonne my lord Henry Darnley And the Quene of Scotlande Here is there names that do wayte Upon har nobl in thys plase M. Elisabeth Husey M. Jhan Baily M. Elizabeth Chambolen M. Robarte Portyngton Edwarde Cueyne Anno Domini 1566." There are also various indecipherable names, etc. The Roof to the N. wing has some of the original work with queen-posts, ties, collars, curved wind braces and horizontal ties from queen-posts to the principal rafters.

Nos. 4 and 5, The Parade (Plate 167), stand between the Beauchamp Tower and the King's House on the W. side of the Tower Green and are built against the inner face of the inner Curtain Wall. The buildings are of three storeys with attics and a basement. The walls are of brick; the roofs are tiled. They were built towards the end of the 17th century. The E. front has plain projecting bands marking the levels of the floors, and to the attics are three pointed gables, flanked and connected by short parapet walls. The doorways, and the windows to the ground and first floors, except the southernmost window to the latter floor, have segmental heads, the remaining windows have flat heads. The W. front, as high as the second floor, is formed by the Curtain Wall, above which the face is set back in line with the wall to the King's House and is carried up in three gables. Inside the building, on the ground floor, in the Curtain Wall are six deep embrasures with two-centred arches and loop lights. The interiors have been modernised, but the staircase to No. 5 has turned balusters. The roof is of collar-beam construction.

The Horse Armoury (Plate 169), now used as an Army Ordnance Store, is of two storeys with attics. Except on the E. side where it abuts against the Curtain Wall which is of rubble refaced in places with brick, the walls are of brick with rubbed brick-dressings; the roofs are tiled. It was built some time before 1685, on a half H-shaped plan with the short end wings extending towards the W. The exposed fronts have a chamfered plinth, a projecting brick band at the first-floor level, and a deep cove and moulded cornice of wood at the eaves - level. The W. front is symmetrically designed, the windows have flat rubbed brick arches and plain stone sills. The end wings are each of two bays and have the cornice carried up in a hipped gable with a central window to the attics. The return inner faces of these wings are also of two bays. The middle part of the front is in five bays; the middle bay is carried up through the main cornice and finished with a pediment; it has modern doors to each floor fitted with hoisting tackle. The roof has flat-topped dormers to the attics. The windows in the N. and S. fronts are blocked. The E. front is formed by the Curtain Wall. Inside the building the ground floor is divided into aisles of nine bays by two ranges of octagonal oak posts with moulded Doric caps and chamfered stone bases; on the E. and W. faces of the posts are flat pilasters with plain square caps from which spring curved braces to the stop chamfered ceiling-beams. Some of the original moulded joists remain in the ceilings, but most of the joists are modern. The first floor is divided by similar posts to those on the ground floor, but the side pilasters and carved braces are omitted. The second floor has stop chamfered vertical posts supporting plain tie-beams. Modern partitions and floors have been inserted on each floor.


(9) Trinity Hospital (Plates 171, 172), on the N. side of Mile End Road, about 100 yards E. of Cambridge Road, is of two storeys; the walls are of red brick and the roofs are covered with tiles and slates. The almshouses were erected by the corporation of Trinity House in 1695, and then formed an oblong quadrangle open at the S. end and with the chapel at the N. end. To this was subsequently added a second quadrangle at right angles to the first and to the N. of the chapel. In 1873 another almshouse belonging to the same corporation and standing at Deptford was demolished, and various ornamental features were transferred from it to the building under consideration.

The Hospital is an excellent example of a late 17th-century almshouse, and among the fittings the glass in the chapel and the statue of Captain Maples are noteworthy.

Architectural Description—The Chapel (30 ft. 8 ins. by 20 ft.) is a rectangular building and has a modern addition on the N.; it is rendered in stucco and was formerly of two storeys, connected by wings with the ends of the quadrangle. It now stands isolated and the former floor has been removed. The S. Front has rusticated angles and a lower storey with a moulded offset at the level of the former floor and a square plinth; the front is finished with a modillioned cornice and pediment, in the tympanum of which is a cartouche of the royal arms of William III. The central doorway, now disused, is approached by a flight of steps, curved on plan with an iron balustrade and ropepattern moulded uprights; the doorway is flanked by pilasters on pedestals supporting curved and fluted brackets with a continuous cornice and a segmental pediment; the doorway itself is squareheaded and has above it a panel carved with the name Jehovah in Hebrew, flanked by cherub-heads and floral ornament. On either side of the doorway are round-headed windows, each with pilasters, moulded archivolt and lion's-head key-block; below each window is a second, lighting the former lower storey and having square-headed eared architrave and key-block. The southern part of the chapel has a roof hipped at the angles but with a flat top, on which stands a square clock-turret with a clock-face on the S. and small circular moulded panels on the other sides and finished with a cornice and an open cupola; the cupola has turned baluster-posts and a wrought-iron weather-vane with the initials T.H. The side elevations are similar in treatment, but have no windows except a two-light casement to the lower storey, that on the E. having a re-used frame. The N. side has a modillioned cornice, but the remainder is concealed by later additions.

The Trinity Almshouses

Interior—The chapel is in two divisions, of which the N. division is modern, separated only by projecting modern piers with moulded brackets supporting a panelled cross-beam. The ceiling is plain and flat.

Fittings—Bell: In cupola—inaccessible. Doors: In disused S. doorway—five panelled bolection-moulded and fielded and of two leaves. Glass: all brought from Deptford, in S.E. window the following panels—(a) inscription with ornamental border "Jams Ruddam, ano. 1570"; (b) similar with inscription "Heneri Churche, 1570"; (c) oval panel with strapwork and inscription "John Browne gave this, in Ano. 1572"; (d) oval panel with achievement-of-arms and inscription to Chistoffer Warden Sen.; (e) merchant's mark in ornamental border with inscription "William Harris warden in ano. 1587"; (f) merchant's mark and initials G.G. in ornamental border with the date 1572; (g) oval panel with ornament and inscription "John Dryner ano. 1570"; (h) inscription with ornamental border and merchant's mark, "Walter Cook Mr. of this Corporaccion 16(0?)6"; (i) panel as (e) "W.B. Warden 1581, Mr. 1585"; (j) similar panel with merchant's mark and inscription "1637 Anthony Tutchen Mr."; (k) similar panel to (f) with merchant's mark and inscription "1570 William Lawson." In S.W. window, similar panels—(a) oval panel with ornamental border, crest and inscription "1635 John Totton, Mr."; (b) cartouche with merchant's mark, ornamental border and inscription "R.G. (for Rich. Gibbs) Warden 1581, Maister 1587"; (c) oval with cartouche-of-arms (a griffon) and inscription "Henry Collins, Warden 1701"; (d) panel with ornamental border, initials I.E. and G. with true-lover's knot; (e) inscription with ornamental frame "Nicholas Fyshborne, Warden 1572"; (f) oval panel with merchant's mark, ornamental border and inscription "Michell Edmondes Maister"; (g) similar to (f) with inscription "1573 Willm. Thomson"; (h) similar to (e) with inscription "John Dyer gave thys in ano 1572"; (i) oval panel with three fishes, ornamental border and inscription "1617 Robert Salmon Mr."; (i) oval panel with three fishes, merchant's mark and ornamental border, inscription below—"Robarte Samon Mr. 1588"; almost all in yellow or brown on white ground. Pulpit: Hexagonal with ovolo-moulded framing and fielded panels on base with moulded top. The pulpit has a moulded cornice and book-rest. On the book-rest are fixed two 18th-century candlesconces. Reredos: of wood with large bolection-moulded middle panel, square headed, supported by carved scrolls and surmounted by entablature and segmental pediment; at sides narrow bolection-moulded panels with cornice continued over them; the whole on a panelled and bolection-moulded dado or base. Seating: eighteen open benches with turned legs and moulded edges to stretchers, arms with turned posts and ovolo-moulded backs; some benches have plain back legs and arm-supports.

The South Front of the Hospital is composed of the gabled ends (Plate 171) of the two side wings with an enclosing wall between them. The gabled ends are each of two storeys divided by a modillioned cornice, broken in the middle for an inscribed cartouche surrounded by palm leaves with pendant drop of fruit and flowers; the inscriptions are both the same and record the building of the hospital for "28 decayed masters and commanders of ships or the widows of such" by Trinity House in 1695; the ground was given by Captain Henry Mudd of Rattcliff, an Elder Brother; the lower storey has rusticated quoins and brick plinth with moulded stone capping and two square-headed windows, each with moulded architrave and grotesque key-block. The upper storey has a centre-piece finished with a moulded stone pediment and three vases, and having in the middle a round-headed niche with a brick domed head and a stone shell in the middle, flanked by panelled pilasters with moulded impost and archivolt and carved key. Flanking the centre-piece the walls are finished at a lower level with a moulded stone coping, and each supports a carved ship. The enclosure wall has two side and one middle gateway; the middle gateway has piers with moulded caps surmounted by balls and with a buttress at each side surmounted by scrolls; the piers of the side entrances have vases; the enclosure-wall has a wrought-iron railing finished as chevaux-de-frise. Chevaux-defrise are also carried down the inner sides of the side wings above the railing just described.

The elevations of the side wings facing the quadrangle are symmetrical and have each a central projecting bay (Plate 172) with rusticated angles of rubbed brick and a modillioned cornice and pediment, the latter filled with swags, foliage, drapery, fishes, lyre, rudders, etc., and a cartouche of the arms of Trinity House; the cornice is brought forward to form a hood over the door, supported by scrolled brackets enriched with flowers and foliage; on the pediment are three pedestals with balls. Each range is of two storeys, the lower being a half basement, and the cornice of the central feature is carried along below the eaves. The doorways to the tenements are in pairs with a flat moulded hood formed by the projecting cornice, with panelled soffit; the doors have each two large moulded panels and are hung to heavy beaded frames with transom and two-light window with leaded lights and are approached by a flight of steps and a wider landing with a re-built brick balustrade; the lower windows are segmental-headed, but the upper are squareheaded with solid frame, mullion and transom. The interior of the buildings contains a certain amount of plain original panelling and plain panelled doors.

In the later N. quadrangle is a pedestal with moulded cornice and base and supporting a statue (Plate 170) of Captain Richard Maples in naval costume and holding a sextant; at his feet are various nautical instruments; the inscription records his death in 1680, his bequest of £1,300 to Trinity House and the erection of the statue in 1681; it was brought from Deptford. Fixed on the walls of this quadrangle are the following stone tablets—(a) on S. side of N. range in N. quadrangle, an achievement of the arms of Sir Richard Browne on stone slab with projecting central panel with square sill supported by two lions' heads and with segmental pediment; on each side of shield on ornamental knots the date 1670; (b) W. of (a), inscribed tablet recording the giving of the inheritance of the site by Sir Richard Browne, in 1672; (c) panel (Plate 18) similar to (a) but drops of fruit and flowers in lieu of knots and date, with the achievement-of-arms of Trinity House; (d) two other achievements of the same arms, one on face of W. range in same quadrangle with nautical instruments on panel with triangular head, moulded capping and sill with lion's-head brackets; the other similar and situated on W. range of S. quadrangle opposite chapel. On W. side of new portion of S. quadrangle is a moulded stone panel flanked by pendant swags of fruit, acorns, flowers, etc., with moulded base and two lion's-head brackets, moulded cornice and shaped triangular head above same. On wall of opposite range is a similar tablet. Both have repainted inscription, that on the latter one recording gift of £55 and dated 1693. Both are probably of late 17th-century date. All the above tablets appear to have been brought from Deptford almshouses.


Monuments (10–50).

The following monuments, unless otherwise described, are of two storeys, with or without attics and cellars; the walls are of brick and the roofs are tiled; they were built late in the 17th century.

Condition—Good or fairly good, unless noted.

Mile End Road. N. side

(10) House, No. 131, 20 yards E. of St. Peter's Road, is rectangular on plan with a projecting E. wing. The S. elevation was perhaps re-fronted in the first half of the 18th century and is symmetrically arranged; the windows have flat arches, projecting key-blocks and moulded horizontal labels. The dormer-windows, at both front and back, have moulded segmental heads. Inside the building, the entrance-hall has bolection-moulded panelling, with dado-rail and cornice; the doorways have moulded architraves and two-panel doors; opening on to the staircase is an archway with moulded impost and archivolt. The other rooms have similar panelling and the windows have moulded architraves and panelled shutters. The main staircase has straight moulded strings, twisted balusters and square newels with moulded cappings and carved pendants. The back staircase is similar, up to the first half-landing; above this point, the balusters are moulded; the newels of this staircase have ball-terminals. The rooms on the first floor are lined with similar panelling to those below, and one fireplace has a heavy moulded surround. A fireplace in the E. wing has a similar surround.

The court, in front of the house, is entered by a gateway flanked by piers with ball-terminals and fitted with an ornamental wrought-iron screen and double gate.

(11) House, No. 195, 15 yards E. of Globe Road, is timber-framed and weather-boarded in front. Inside the building are some exposed ceiling-beams.

(12) House, No. 401, immediately E. of Frederick Place, is roofed with slates. It was built early in the 18th century, but has a later addition at the back and modern additions at the sides. The S. front has a moulded band between the storeys and a moulded cornice below the parapet; the windows have flat arches and over the doorway is a porch with a flat hood, moulded as an entablature and supported on two Corinthian columns. Inside the building, the S.E. room, on the ground floor, has bolection-moulded panelling with a dado; some of the doors are two-panelled and original. The main staircase has a moulded and ramped hand-rail, twisted balusters, cut strings with carved and scrolled brackets and newels in the form of Doric columns; the newels are repeated against the walls, which are panelled and have a dado; the soffit of the staircase has a bolection-moulded panel. On the first floor, two rooms are lined with bolection-moulded panelling and there is some similar panelling on the landing of the modern back-staircase.

(13) House, No. 37, on the N.E. side of Stepney Green, 200 yards S.E. of Mile End Road, was built c. 1700 on a square plan. The S.W. front is symmetrically arranged and has a band between the storeys and a wooden modillioned eaves-cornice; the windows have flat arches and flush frames and in the roof are five dormer-windows, with pediments; the entrance-doorway (Plate 9), approached by a flight of steps with wrought-iron hand-rails, is flanked by panelled pilasters from which spring the carved and scrolled brackets, supporting the shell-hood. The back elevation has segmental-headed windows except one which lights the staircase, which has a round head; in the roof are five dormer-windows with pediments. Inside the building, the entrance-hall is lined with plain panelling with a dado-rail; opening on to the staircase is an elliptical archway with panelled side-pilasters, moulded archivolt and panelled soffit. The early 18th-century staircase (Plate 25) has a moulded hand-rail, wreathed at the foot of the stairs and ramped at the head of the flights; the balusters, three to each stair, are twisted or fluted and the newels are in the form of fluted columns; the cut string has carved brackets, with the mouldings continued on the soffit of the stairs; the walls have a panelled dado with fluted pilasters, corresponding to the newels. The N. rooms have bolection-moulded panelling with dado-rails and architraves to the window-openings. The rooms on the first floor have bolection-moulded panelling; one room now incorporates part of the former landing of the staircase and has a painted ceiling representing an oval wreath of bay-leaves, with scroll-work in the spandrels; there are several original panelled doors. The basement has exposed ceiling-beams and an old battened door; the staircase has a straight moulded string and turned balusters.

The front garden has a dwarf wall surmounted by an iron railing with ornamental cresting; the gate has wrought-iron ornamental standards and an overthrow with ornamental cresting and a monogram. The path between the gate and the front doorway is paved with black and white marble squares set diagonally.

(14) Houses, Nos. 52 and 54, on the S. side of Redmans Road, 50 yards W. of Jamaica Street, are of three storeys with cellars and attics. They were built early in the 18th century. On the N. front the doorways are flanked by panelled pilasters with scrolled and carved brackets supporting flat hoods; the windows have flat arches except those lighting the basement, which have segmental heads. Inside the buildings, there is some moulded panelling and the staircases have straight moulded strings, twisted balusters and square newels.

(15) Houses and shops, Nos. 212, 214, and 215, on the E. side of Jubilee Street, 80 yards S. of Mile End Road, were built, probably, early in the 18th century. No. 212 has been re-fronted.

(16) Houses, Nos. 5, 7, 9 and 11, on the N. side of Braham Street, 25 yards E. of Leman Street, are of three storeys with cellars and attics. Inside the buildings, the staircases have straight moulded strings and turned balusters.

(17) Houses, Nos. 6, 8 and 10, on the S. side of Braham Street, opposite (16), are of three storeys with attics and cellars. There is a brick band between the two upper storeys. Inside the buildings, each house has a staircase with a central newel.

(18) House and shop, No. 59, on the E. side of Leman Street, 100 yards S.S.E. of Little Alie Street, is of three storeys with attics. It was built c. 1700 and has a brick band between the upper storeys. Inside the building, the staircase has straight moulded strings, turned balusters and square newels with ball-terminals.

(19) House, No. 80, on the W. side of Leman Street, 40 yards S. of (18), is of three storeys with cellars and attics. It was built early in the 18th century and has a front symmetrically arranged with band or string-courses between the storeys. The doorway has a round arched head, with imposts and flanked by Doric columns supporting entablatures and a pediment; the windows above the entrance have shaped cutting on the flat heads. Inside the building, the staircase (Plate 24) has straight moulded strings, twisted or turned balusters and hand-rails ramped up to the square newels. The N.W. room on the first floor has a bolection-moulded panel above the fireplace, and the walls have plain panelling with dado and cornice. In the attics are two old battened doors.

(20) Houses, Nos. 6, 7, 8 and 9, on the S. side of Great Alie Street, 40 yards W. of Leman Street, are of three storeys with cellars and attics. They were built c. 1700 and have brick bands between the storeys and flat arches to the windows. No. 9 has been re-fronted. No. 7 has an original entrance doorway (Plate 9) with a round arched head and flanked by panelled pilasters with carved pendants of fruit and flowers, carved and scrolled brackets with cherub-heads support separate cornices and a pediment. Inside the same house is an original staircase, with straight moulded strings, twisted or turned balusters and square newels.

(21) Houses, Nos. 47 to 50 and 53 to 61, on the N. side of Great Prescot Street, W. of St. Mark's Street, are of three storeys with attics. They were built early in the 18th century, but the fronts have been much altered and those of Nos. 55 and 56 re-fronted. The N. elevations retain the brick bands between the storeys and some original windows with flat arches of rubbed brick. Most of the houses have original staircases, with straight strings, turned balusters and square newels.

(22) Houses and shops, Nos. 59 and 60, on the S. side of Royal Mint Street, 15 yards E. of Glasshouse Street, were built, probably, early in the 18th century, but have been much altered.


(23) Houses and shops, Nos. 21, 23, 25 and 27, on the E. side of Well Street, 75 yards S. of Cable Street, were built early in the 18th century, but have been much altered. Each house has an original staircase with straight moulded strings, turned balusters and square newels.

(24) Old Court House, on the S. side of Well Close Square, and at the E. corner of Neptune Street, was built early in the 18th century; the roofs are slate-covered. The exterior has been much altered, but inside the building is an original staircase (Plate 25), with straight moulded strings, twisted balusters and hand-rails ramped up to the newels, which consist of eight grouped balusters; the newels have carved floral pendants; against the walls is a panelled dado. On the first floor the landing and front room have bolection-moulded panelling, with dado-rail and cornice; the windows have moulded architraves and panelled shutters.

(25) Houses, Nos. 35, 36 and 37, 10 yards E. of (24), were built c. 1700. All three houses have been altered in front, but No. 36 retains a wooden eaves-cornice and No. 37 the brick band between the storeys and the original window openings. Inside No. 36 is an original staircase with straight strings, twisted balusters and square newels.

(26) Houses, Nos. 38 and 39, adjoining (25) on the E., were built early in the 18th century, but have been much altered. The staircase of No. 39 is original and has straight moulded strings and turned balusters.

(27) Houses (Plate 5), Nos. 94, 96, 97 to 104, 109, 110 to 122, 123 to 127 and 134 to 147, on the N. side of Pennington Street, between Artichoke Hill and Old Gravel Lane; house at S.W. angle of Artichoke Hill and houses Nos. 1 to 4 on the E. side of Chigwell Street, were apparently all built in 1678, the date on a stone tablet re-fixed on the modern public-house at the corner of George Street and Chigwell Street; the tablet is inscribed "This is the corner of Chigwell St. 1678 Io. A." The houses Nos. 94, 96 and 114 Pennington Street and the house at the corner of Artichoke Hill have been much altered, and the houses Nos. 1 and 2 Chigwell Street have been re-built, but incorporate some old material. The remaining houses are largely intact and have, generally, brick bands between the storeys and wooden eaves-cornices, many of the windows have solid frames and some houses have also small square or oval windows in the upper storey; the front doorways have small pedimental hoods.

(28) Houses (Plate 5), Nos. 22 and 24, on the E. side of Cannon Street Road, 90 yards N. of George Street, were built c. 1700. No. 22 has a brick band between the storeys and a wooden eaves-cornice; No. 24 has been re-fronted.

(29) Houses, Nos. 11 to 14, on the S. side of Worcester Street and immediately E. of Red Lion Street, were built early in the 18th century. The front has a brick band between the storeys, and two of the houses retain the original wooden eaves-cornice. The doorways have heavy flush-frames and a double light in the head.

(30) House, No. 22, on the S. side of High Street, Shadwell, and at the corner of New Gravel Lane, is of three storeys. It was built, probably, c. 1700, but has been much altered.

(31) Houses, Nos. 39 to 42, High Street, Shadwell, 100 yards E. of (30), were built c. 1700. The walls are timber-framed and the backs are weather-boarded. Nos. 40, 41 and 42 have been re-fronted.

Condition—Poor, some derelict.

(32) House, No. 10, on the W. side of Narrow Street, Ratcliff, 45 yards S. of Broad Street, is of three storeys with attics and cellars. It was built c. 1700. The E. front has a brick band between the upper storeys and a wooden eaves-cornice.

(33) House, No. 67, on the E. side of Church Row, Limehouse, and 35 yards N. of Ropemakers Fields, is timber-framed and was built c. 1700; the front is plastered and the back weather-boarded.


(34) Houses, Nos. 51, 53 and 55, on the N. side of Ropemakers Fields and immediately E. of Church Row, are of three storeys, timber-framed and plastered. On the S. front, No. 51 has been re-built, but the upper storeys of the other two houses project.

(35) Houses, Nos. 68, 70 and 72, on the N. side of Limehouse Causeway, 10 yards W. of Gill Street, are partly timber-framed, but are fronted in brick. They were built c. 1700.

(36) House and shop, No. 27, at the W. angle of Spital Street and Buxton Street, Mile End New Town, is of three storeys with attics. Inside the building are some exposed ceiling-beams.


(37) Houses and shops, Nos. 85, 87 and 89, on the W. side of Brick Lane, Spitalfields, 20 yards N. of Hanbury Street, are of three storeys with attics. They were built, probably, early in the 18th century and have brick bands between the upper storeys. The staircases are of the central-newel type.

(38) Houses and shops, No. 81a Brick Lane, and Nos. 37, 39, 41 and 43 on the N. side of Hanbury Street, adjoining the first named, are of three storeys with attics and cellars. They were built, probably, early in the 18th century and have brick bands between the storeys. The house in Brick Lane has a mid 18th-century staircase, but the rest have staircases like those in (37).

(39) Houses, Nos. 24 and 25, on the S. side of Hanbury Street, 15 yards W. of Brick Lane, are of three storeys with cellars and attics. They were built early in the 18th century, a rain-water head bearing the date 171–. Inside the buildings, the staircases have straight moulded strings and turned balusters; the newels are square except the lowest one, the middle part of which is turned as a column.

(40) Houses, Nos. 34, 36 and 38, on the S. side of Hanbury Street, 30 yards W. of (39), are of four storeys with cellars. They were built early in the 18th century and have brick bands between the storeys. Inside the buildings, the staircases have straight moulded strings, turned balusters and square newels.

(41) Houses, Nos. 21, 23 and 25, on the N. side of Princelet Street, 15 yards W. of Brick Lane, are of four storeys with cellars. They were built c. 1700 and have brick bands between the storeys; Nos. 21 and 23 have the original modillioned eaves-cornice of wood. The doorway of No. 21 is flanked by panelled pilasters with carved and scrolled brackets supporting a cornice above the door. The doorway of No. 25 has flanking pilasters and carved scrolled brackets supporting a flat hood. Inside No. 21, the staircase is original above the first floor and has straight moulded strings, turned balusters and square newels.

(42) House and shop, No. 66, on the S. side of Brushfield Street, 80 yards W. of Commercial Street, is of three storeys with attics. The N. front has brick bands between the storeys, the upper band being interrupted in the middle by a cornice and pediment of brick.

(43) Houses, Nos. 35, 37, 39, 41, on N.E. side of Artillery Street, and No. 54 Gun Street, adjoining the first-named block, at the corner of Artillery Lane and Gun Street, are of three storeys with attics and cellars. All have been re-fronted with the exception of No. 39, which has on the ground floor some exposed timber-framing and an 18th-century doorway with a moulded architrave surmounted by a continuous moulded wood cornice; between the upper storeys are projecting brick bands. Inside the building are some original staircases with moulded strings and handrails, turned balusters and square newels with ballfinials.

(44) Houses and shops, No. 52 on S. end of Artillery Street and No. 9a Artillery Passage adjoining the former on the W., are of three storeys with attics and cellars. No. 52 has been re-fronted and both buildings have had modern shop fronts inserted on the ground floor. No. 9a Artillery Passage has a projecting brick band at the level of the second floor and a moulded wood cornice at the eaves.

(45) House and shop, No. 3 Artillery Passage, 30 yards W. of (44), is of three storeys with attics and cellars. It was built early in the 18th century. The N. front has brick bands between the storeys.

(46) Houses, Nos. 2 and 3, on the S. side of Fort Street, and No. 21 immediately W. of Steward Street, are of three storeys with attics and cellars. They were considerably altered c. 1730 and Nos. 2 and 3 re-faced. No. 21 has brick bands between the storeys and square window-heads with rubbed brick arches.

(47) House, No. 29, on the N. side of Fort Street, opposite No. 3, above, is of three storeys with attics and cellars. It was built c. 1700. The S. front has a brick band between the upper storeys and square-headed window-openings except to the basement. The doorway is flanked by panelled pilasters with carved and scrolled brackets, but the original hood has been removed. Inside the building, the staircase is original and has straight moulded string, twisted balusters and square newels.

(48) Range of Houses, Nos. 4 to 9, on the N. side of Spital Square, is of three storeys with attics and cellars and was built early in the 18th century. The S. front, where original, has brick bands between the storeys and square-headed windows. Nos. 5 and 6 have been re-faced. The back, where unaltered, retains a wooden eaves-cornice. Inside the building, some rooms are lined with moulded panelling, with cornice and dado-rail, and have fireplaces with moulded or beaded surrounds. The staircases have straight moulded strings, turned balusters and square newels.

(49) Houses, Nos. 13, 15 and 17, on the N. side of White Lion Street, E. of Blossom Street, are of three storeys with attics and cellars and were built c. 1700. The S. front has brick bands between the storeys. Inside the buildings, Nos. 13 and 15 have the original staircases, with straight strings and turned balusters, partly remaining.


(50) House, No. 30, on the S. side of White Lion Street, opposite the E. corner of Elder Street, is of three storeys with attics and cellars. It was built early in the 18th century and has a moulded cornice of wood at the first-floor level and a moulded brick string at the second-floor level. The middle window on the first floor has a cut and shaped head.