BHO

Addenda

Pages 184-206

An Inventory of the Historical Monuments in the County of Northamptonshire, Volume 4, Archaeological Sites in South-West Northamptonshire. Originally published by Her Majesty's Stationery Office, London, 1982.

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In this section

ADDENDA

These addenda contain brief summaries of new archaeological sites and finds which have been recorded from those parts of the county covered by the previous Commission Inventories since their completion. Discoveries made after 1979 are not included. New information on sites already published in the Inventories is also noted. The material is listed under the parishes in the earlier Inventories. Additional information to a monument already published is given the original number of the monument. New sites are given new numbers and to facilitate the identification of the latter they are prefixed by an asterisk (*).

VOLUME I

1 ADDINGTON, GREAT

Prehistoric and Roman

A Neolithic stone axe of tuff has been found (SP 95997496; Kettering Museum).

a(3) Roman Settlement (SP 947756). Recent fieldwork has produced more evidence of a stone building, and the associated pottery is said to range from the 1st to the 4th centuries. The building may have been a villa (CBA Group 9, Newsletter, 2 (1972), 23).

Medieval

*d(9) Medieval Pottery (SP 959749), at the N. end of the village. Late 15th-century pottery has been found in a rubbish pit exposed by building work (Northants. Archaeol., 9 (1974), 105).

2 ADDINGTON, LITTLE

Roman

A Roman bronze handle was found somewhere in the parish before 1899 (BM).

Medieval

*b(8) Medieval Ditches (SP 95657350), within the old enclosures on the W. side of the medieval village, on limestone at 65 m. above OD. Building work in 1973 revealed several shallow ditches and one pit associated with medieval pottery. A single Saxon sherd was also found (NM; Northants. Archaeol., 9 (1974), 106).

3 ALDWINCLE

Prehistoric and Roman

An Iron Age sword with decorated scabbard mounts (Piggott's Group V or 'Battersea' type) was found in 1968 in the dried-up river bed close to the R. Nene (SP 998800; Northants. Archaeol., 11 (1976), 165–70). A coin of Augustus was discovered before 1712 (J. Morton, Nat. Hist. of Northants. (1712), 532).

b(1–11) Henslow Meadow Complex (centred SP 997803). Full reports of excavations on monuments (1–5), (8), (9) and (11) have been published (Northants. Archaeol., 11 (1976), 12–70; 12 (1977), 9–47, 52; Britannia, 7 (1976), 39–72). A single radio-carbon date of 4560± 170 B.P., has been obtained for the Neolithic mortuary enclosure (1), which corresponds to an uncalibrated date range of 2690– 2540 b.c. (Northants. Archaeol., 12 (1977), 183). An important small find from the excavation has now been identified as a link from a mid 1st-century military horse harness (Northants. Archaeol., 13 (1978), 169).

*c(24) Enclosures and Ditches (TL 003815), S.W. of the village, on river gravel at about 40 m. above OD. Air photographs (in NMR) show indistinct cropmarks of at least one rectangular enclosure and a number of short ditches.

Medieval

b(18) Saxon Settlement and Burial (centred SP 997803). A full report of the excavations at this site has been published (Northants. Archaeol., 12 (1977), 47–54).

4 APETHORPE

Prehistoric and Roman

A stone axe is said to have been found in the parish in 1954 (OS Record Cards; lost).

b(3) Roman Villa (TL 02639493). Contemporary accounts of the excavation were published in The Stamford Mercury, 15 April, 27 May and 2 September, 1859.

Medieval and Later

b(4) Deserted Village of Hale (centred TL 015943). The earliest description of the site occurs in 1551: 'Within this manor the land has a frcehaye which was sometime a hamlet called The Hale and was inhabited as there remayneth a mention of old walls at this day: The inhabitants whereof were decayed by report of divers ancient persons long before the remembrance of any man living ...' (NRO, Westmorland Collection, W4 xiv 5).

(6) Cultivation Remains. Although the date of enclosure of the greater part of the common fields is still unknown there are records that the demesne land was already enclosed by the early 16th century (NRO, Westmorland Collection, 11/46).

5 ASHTON

Prehistoric and Roman

A stone mace (near Group I) is said to have come from this parish or from Polebrook (Peterborough Museum).

b(1) Prehistoric Settlement (TL 048890). Among the worked flints found here are a core and a blade of Mesolithic type (CBA Research Report, 20, (1977), 216; Peterborough Museum).

bc(2–4) Roman Settlement (TL 046892). Among the finds made in 1844 when the railway was constructed was a Roman coin hoard, apparently in more than one vessel, associated with human bones, pottery and pins. The hoard contained a few early coins and over 1200 antoniniani (Num. Chron., 5 (1945), 193–5; BAR, 40 (1977), 5). It has been suggested that part of the site was a cemetery (Archaeologia, 32 (1847), 1–3). Excavations between 1974 and 1978 in the S.E. of the area (TL 050892) revealed a Roman road running N.W.–S.E. across the area, with a minor road adjoining it at right angles from the W. Three rectangular stone buildings, one of which appeared to have been a smithy, were investigated near the road junction. The smithy contained at least five identifiable furnaces and a stone trough which may have been a quenching tank. Among the finds were a smith's hammer, an anvil, nails and other iron objects. A stone-lined well behind the smithy contained a large lead tank decorated with a Chi-Rho monogram. A circular hut, probably constructed AD 60– 80, and two small kilns have also been found, all lying within a ditched enclosure. (Northants. Archaeol., 10 (1975), 153; 12 (1977), 210–11; 13 (1978), 181; 14 (1979), 105; Durobrivae, 3 (1975), 12–15; 5 (1977), 6–11; Britannia, 6 (1975), 253; 8 (1977), 433–4; 9 (1978), 442.

Small-scale excavations further S. in 1976 led to the discovery of a late Iron Age ditch, containing pottery which included imported fine wares such as terra rubra, terra nigra, Lyon cups and beakers. A bronze coin of Tasciovanus, minted at Verulamium, of a type previously unrecorded was also discovered. (Durobrivae, 5 (1977), 9).

As well as the many Roman finds from field-walking over the whole area a Bronze Age transverse arrowhead (Northants. Archaeol., 10 (1975), 149) and a sherd of Ipswich-type ware (Northants. Archaeol., 12 (1977), 223) have been discovered.

Air photographs (NCAU) shows cropmarks extending to the N.W. of the area previously illustrated. These include a ring ditch and enclosures (TL 043897).

*b(7) Iron Age Settlement (?) (TL 046899), in the extreme N.W. of the parish, on river gravel at 18 m. above OD. Fragments of Iron Age pottery and three flint scrapers have been found. Air photographs (not seen by RCHM) are said to show a sub-rectangular enclosure (Northants. Archaeol., 13 (1978), 180). Other photographs (NCAU) show a pit alignment and linear ditches to the S.E.

*c(8) Roman Settlement (TL 078884), in the E. of the parish, on Boulder Clay at 66 m. above OD. An extensive scatter of 3rd to 4th-century pottery has been found (Northants. Archaeol., 13 (1978), 181).

*c(9) Enclosures and Linear Ditches (TL 057891), N.E. of the village, on Cornbrash at 32 m. above O.D. Air photographs (Northants. SMR) show indistinct cropmarks of enclosures and ditches.

Medieval and Later

c(5) Deserted Village of Elmington (TL 053896). Deep ploughing has revealed an extensive scatter of late medieval pottery and building material (Northants. Archaeol., 12 (1977), 226).

6 BARNWELL

Prehistoric and Roman

d(3) Roman Settlement (TL 074836). Details of the excavation of a Roman building on this site have now been published (Northants. Archaeol., 9 (1974), 86; Durobrivae., 2 (1974), 27–8; Britannia, 5 (1974), 434).

*b(12) Enclosure (TL 051857), N. of Barnwell Castle, on Cornbrash at 35 m. above OD. Air photographs (NCAU) show, very indistinctly, a possible rectangular enclosure.

*a(13) Ring Ditch (TL 04708545), N.W. of Barnwell Castle, on limestone at 30 m. above OD. Air photographs (NCAU) show a ring ditch 12 m. in diam.

7 BENEFIELD

Prehistoric and Roman

A barbed-and-tanged arrowhead is recorded (SP 983903; Northants. Archaeol., 13 (1978), 178).

b(2) Roman Settlement (SP 969868). Recent finds from this site include more pottery, roof-tiles and a saddle quern (Northants. Archaeol., 11 (1976), 185).

*b(15) Flint-Working Site (SP 96808735), on a S.-facing slope, on Boulder Clay at 88 m. above OD. Worked flints and a leaf-shaped arrowhead have been found (Northants. Archaeol., 10 (1975), 149).

Medieval and Later

*b(16) Settlement (SP 996886), 300 m. S.E. of Lower Benefield village, on Boulder Clay at 83 m. above OD. Medieval pottery including St. Neots and Lyveden wares has been found as well as two iron arrowheads (Northants. Archaeol., 11 (1976), 196).

*b(17) Pillow Mounds (SP 987889), in the bottom of a valley, close to the stream, on clay at 60 m. above OD. There are eight scattered mounds, three of which lie on top of ridge-and-furrow. One is circular, only 2 m. in diam. and 0.25 m. high. The others are all rectangular, 1.25 m.-1.5 m. wide, 3 m.-7 m. long and 0.25 m.-0.5 m. high (Northants. Archaeol., 10 (1975), 174).

9 BRIGSTOCK

Prehistoric and Roman

A polished stone axe is said to have been found in 1969 on the Iron Age and Roman settlement (4) (OS Record Cards).

c(1, 2) Enclosure and Barrow (SP 925842). Recent ploughing of these earthworks has revealed late Iron Age pottery and other occupation debris. Field-walking immediately to the W. has led to the discovery of further late Iron Age material covering about 3 hectares (Northants. Archaeol., 13 (1978), 178).

b(4) Roman Temple (SP 961858). Details of two bases, a shaft and another fragment of masonry have been published (Northants. Archaeol., 13 (1978), 79–81).

*a(14) Bronze Age Burials (?) (SP 933857), found in 1928 in a sand-pit N.W. of Brigstock village, on glacial sand at 65 m. above OD. The records are inconsistent. According to the Kettering Leader, 24 March 1928, a single crouched inhumation was discovered but local information states that there were five or six skeletons as well as pottery and bone needles.

*a(15) Roman Settlement (?) (SP 940865), N.N.W. of the village, within Old Dry Hills Wood, on Boulder Clay at 86 m. above OD. According to local information, 'pots and coins' and stone were found here some years ago. More recently. Roman pottery has been discovered in some quantity in the wood.

*c(16) Roman Settlement (SP 913835), in the extreme S.W. of the parish, on Boulder Clay at 100 m. above OD. Recent field-walking has led to the discovery of a small quantity of 1st-century pottery and a scatter of burnt stone (Northants. Archaeol., 11 (1976), 186).

Medieval and Later

acd(11) Deer Parks (centred SP 9283). Further details of the history of these parks have now been published (Northants. Archaeol., 9 (1974), 103–4; CBA Group 9, Newsletter, 4 (1974), 24; Northants. P. and P., 5 (1975), 217, 220).

*a(17) Saxon Settlement (?) (SP 932857), N.W. of the village, on Great Oolite Limestone at 69 m. above OD. A small quantity of early Saxon pottery has been found (Northants. Archaeol., 14 (1979), 107).

*b(18) Deer Park (centred SP 975857), in the extreme E. of the parish, immediately W. of the deserted village of Lyveden (Pilton (6)), on Boulder Clay between 62 m. and 92 m. above OD. A licence was given to Robert de Wyvill in 1328 to enclose, empark and hold in fee simple his wood of Lytelhawe by Lyveden. Nothing is known of its later history, but this area is called the Old Park on the 18th-century maps of Brigstock (NRO). The N. boundary of the park is the present Harley Way between Oundle and Brigstock, but no trace of a bank is visible. The W. side is bounded by a large bank up to 1.5 m. high which follows the E. edge of Cherry Lap Wood and the E. side of Sling's Nook Wood. The boundary then apparently followed the present Brigstock-Aldwincle boundary to a point just W. of the gardens of Lyveden New Bield (Aldwincle (22)). It then ran N. along the Brigstock-Benefield boundary, back to Harley Way. There is no trace of a boundary bank on this alignment. In 1540 Sir Thomas Tresham was given licence to enclose 320 acres of land to the S. in Aldwincle parish (Northants. P. and P., 5 (1975), 227–8).

10 BULWICK

Roman

*c(6) Iron-Working Site (SP 929939), S. of Mavis Wood on Estuarine Clay at 90 m. above OD. Two shaft furnaces and two groups of channel hearths have been excavated after their discovery during ironstone-quarrying (Northants. Archaeol., 14 (1979), 32–5).

*c(7) Iron-Working Site (SP 926937), S.W. of (6) in a similar position. A single shaft furnace, a group of channel hearths and some ditches have been excavated during ironstone-quarrying (Northants. Archaeol., 14 (1979), 34– 6).

*c(8) Building (SP 934935), S.E. of (7), was destroyed by quarrying in 1957. No details known. Large quantities of slag around the site suggests that iron-working was carried out there (Northants. Archaeol., 14 (1979), 37).

Medieval and Later

a(4) Settlement Remains (SP 958942), formerly part of the hamlet of Hinwick. No precise date has been suggested for the abandonment, but several tenements were still recorded there in the late 15th century (NRO, Tryon Ms. TB 24/2–4). Medieval pottery has been noted in a pit exposed by a service trench at the N. end of the hamlet (SP 959945; NM; Northants. Archaeol., 9 (1974), 104).

11 CHELVERSTON-CUM-CALDECOTE

Prehistoric and Roman

*c(13) Iron Age Settlement (TL 000686), in the E. of the parish on Boulder Clay at 85 m. above OD. Probable ditches containing early Iron Age pottery and part of a quern have been revealed during reclamation of wartime runways on the airfield (Northants. Archaeol., 13 (1978), 178).

*b(14) Roman Settlement (?) (SP 989696), on the W. side of Chelverston, on Cornbrash at 61 m. above OD. A small quantity of colour-coated pottery has been found on a building site (Northants. Archaeol., 12 (1977), 211).

13 COLLYWESTON

Medieval and Later

a(8) Fishponds (centred SK 991029). Documents in St. John's College, Cambridge (St. John's Coll. Ms. 62–9, 91– 7, 13, 14, 102–9) throw considerable light on the management and maintenance of the fishponds in the early 16th century when the manor was held by Margaret, Countess of Richmond, and suggest that some of the ponds may have been constructed at that time. Of the works listed the following are of particular interest: 1 Feb. 1500, 'Paid towards breaking of the old sluice in the pondyard and making a new sluice there. Making a new gutter from the fish house, through the pondyard and the covering of the gutter'. 14 March 1500, 'Expenses making a new frame and paling about the new ponds in the nether part of the park'. 21 March 1500, 'Payment towards the parrging of the little pond in the pondyard with clay'. 2 July 1500, 'Robert Freeman of Ketton three days to make a hovell for the Herons ...'. 1502, 'New stew in pondyard with frame of timber and new house made over the same 16 ft. long x 10 ft. New door made from house to fishouse'. 11 May 1504, 'Making a new frame of timber for the end of one of the new ponds'. 17 May 1504, 'Making three new ponds next to the garden in the park'. 24 August 1504, 'Making a new house at the ponds in the park 28 ft. long x 12 ft.'. 1506, 'Ponds in the park. Repairs of the ponds in the park and the new house there: for squaring and levelling of the floors in the same house and for emending and scouring of the dykes that convey water to the ponds'.

14 COTTERSTOCK

Prehistoric and Roman

A Neolithic leaf-shaped arrowhead has been found (TL 040915; Northants. Archaeol., 13 (1978), 178).

a(2) Roman Villa (TL 03269107). Air photographs taken in the drought of 1976 show the greater part of the villa in considerable detail as parchmarks. It appears to have been unusually large, over 200 m. long and some 60 m. wide, and consisted of buildings arranged round two courtyards with other possible buildings to the N. (Northants. Archaeol., 12 (1977), 211–2; Durobrivae, 5 (1977), 24–5).

*a(4) Roman Settlement (?) (TL 04359065), at the E. end of Cotterstock village, on Great Oolite Limestone at 20 m. above OD. A few sherds of Roman pottery have been found in an abandoned garden and there are local reports of more pottery having been noted in the area (inf. Mrs. J. Johnston).

18 DUDDINGTON

Roman

*a(5) Iron-Smelting Furnace (SK 99050038), S. of the village, on limestone at 60 m. above OD. A furnace, almost certainly of Roman date, has been found in a pipeline trench. A charcoal-filled pit lay to the S.E. (SK 99470025). (Northants. Archaeol., 13 (1978), 181)

Undated

A bell, spearheads, swords and a 'celt' are said to have been discovered near the W. of 'Duddington Lock' at an unknown date (perhaps SK 987008; Broadsides, Central Library, Northampton).

19 EASTON-ON-THE-HILL

Prehistoric

*c(7) Flint-Working Site (TF 02470120), in the S. of the parish, on Lincolnshire Limestone at 75 m. above OD. A scatter of worked flints has been discovered, but no details are known. An implement described as a Mesolithic axe is recorded from a point a little to the S. (TF 02450115). (Northants. SMR)

20 FINESHADE

Roman

*(6) Roman Settlement (?) (SP 974971), in the extreme S. of the parish, on clay at 83 m. above OD. A small quantity of Roman pottery including samian has been noted (Northants. Archaeol., 14 (1979), 105).

21 FOTHERINGHAY

Prehistoric and Roman

*c(41) Ring Ditch and Linear Ditches (TL 051942), N.W. of the Walcot Lodge Complex, on gravel at 23 m. above OD. Air photographs (NCAU) show a small ring ditch and some indeterminate linear features.

*c(42) Roman Settlement (?) (TL 059931), near Fotheringhay Church, on river gravel at 15 m. above OD. Roman pottery has been found in this area (Peterborough Museum).

Medieval and Later

c(35) Fotheringhay College (TL 05919311). The 1926 excavations were published in Oundle School Commemoration Book (1927), 38–40. Trenches revealed the foundations of the severely robbed walls of the cloister and showed its internal dimensions to be about 20 m. square. Many glazed floor tiles were recorded. Walls of buildings attached to the W. and E. sides of the cloister were also noted. (Northants. Archaeol., 11 (1976), 177)

ac(36) Deer Park (centred TL 062944). Additional information on the history of this park has been published (Northants. Archaeol., 9 (1974), 105; Northants. P. and P., 5 (1975), 225).

22 GLAPTHORN

Prehistoric and Roman

Worked flints, including scrapers, have been found N.W. of the village (TL 01979067; Northants. Archaeol., 14 (1979), 102).

*b(4) Ring Ditch (TL 04009035), in the E. of the parish, on limestone at 29 m. above OD. Air photographs (Northants. SMR) show a small ring ditch.

*b(5) Roman Settlement (TL 02059005), S.W. of the village, on Cornbrash at 37 m. above OD. Roman pottery, mainly of Nene Valley type, and several blocks of limestone have been found (inf. Mrs. J. Johnston).

*b(6) Roman Settlement (TL 02909017), E. of the village, on Cornbrash at 37 m. above OD. A large quantity of Roman pottery, including Nene Valley and samian wares, and several fragments of hypocaust tiles have been found. Worked flints including scrapers have also been noted in the area. (Northants. Archaeol., 14 (1979), 105; inf. Mrs. J. Johnston)

*b(7) Roman Settlement (TL 01439110), on the S. side of Short Wood, on Boulder Clay at 62 m. above OD. An area of Roman pottery, including Nene Valley types and samian, and fragments of roof-tiles have been noted (inf. Mrs. J. Johnston).

Medieval and Later

*b(8) Settlement Remains (TL 024900), formerly part of the southern nucleus of Glapthorn village, lie to the S. of the church, on Great Oolite Limestone at 37 m. above OD. The earthworks consist of a well-marked hollowway running E.-W. immediately S. of and parallel to the present gardens with, on its S. side, traces of at least three closes bounded by shallow ditches or low scarps. Some indeterminate earthworks lie to the W. (Northants. Archaeol., 14 (1979), 108).

23 HARGRAVE

Medieval and Later

a(3) Settlement Remains (TL 034707). A quantity of 13th-century pottery, including Lyveden wares, has been found in a pit exposed during building work (Northants. Archaeol., 9 (1974), 106).

24 HARRINGWORTH

Prehistoric and Roman

A quartzite macehead has been found (SP 93419489; NM Records). A 1st-century Roman brooch (NM) came from ironstone-workings before 1960 (SP 91279533) and a 4th-century Roman coin came from the E. end of the village in 1978 (Northants. Archaeol., 14 (1979), 105).

b(1) Enclosure (SP 94139475). A section was dug across the bank of the enclosure before destruction but no dating evidence was found (Northants. Archaeol., 14 (1979), 111– 12).

a(4) Roman Settlement (SP 935980). Further excavations led to the discovery of a Roman building 30 m. by 14 m., probably a barn. Remains of other buildings lay beneath it and in the vicinity. Pottery dating from the whole of the Roman period and evidence of iron-working were found (Northants. Archaeol., 9 (1974), 89–90; 13 (1978), 181; CBA Group 9, Newsletter, 4 (1974), 10; Britannia, 5 (1974), 434).

a(5) Roman Iron-Working Site (SP 924959). Ironstone-mining in 1973 revealed further ditches and a number of iron-smelting furnaces (Northants. Archaeol., 9 (1974), 90).

*a(13) Neolithic and Beaker Pits (SP 934977), on the S. side of the Welland valley, on limestone at 90 m. above OD. Ironstone-working has revealed a small pit containing 180 sherds of Beaker pottery which came from not less than ten different vessels and a second pit containing early Neolithic pottery and worked flints (Northants. Archaeol., 11 (1976), 183; 13 (1978), 3–7).

*a(14) Iron Age Settlement (SP 933967), in the E. of the parish, on limestone at 110 m. above OD. Ironstone-mining has recently revealed several Iron Age features over an area of 1 hectare. The features appeared to be of two periods and included two parallel ditches of the 3rd or 4th century BC and pits and ditches of a later date (Northants. Archaeol., 14 (1979), 102).

*a(15) Iron-Smelting Furnace (SP 934979), in the N.E. of the parish, on limestone at 91 m. above OD. Recent ironstone-working has exposed a smelting furnace, probably pre-Roman in date, which was cut by a ditch containing early Roman pottery (Northants. Archaeol., 14 (1979), 102).

*a(16) Iron-Working Site (SP 941969), in the E. of the parish. W. of Town Wood on Estuarine Clay at 100 m. above OD. Furnace lining and slag have been found over a wide area. No dating evidence but probably Roman (Northants. Archaeol., 14 (1979), 37).

*a(17) Iron-Working Site (SP 925951), in the S. of the parish. N. of Hollow Wood, on limestone at 95 m. above OD. Furnace lining and slag have been found. No dating evidence but probably Roman (Northants. Archaeol., 14 (1979), 37).

*a(18) Iron-Working Site (SP 934951), E. of (17), on Estuarine Clay at 95 m. above OD. Furnace lining and slag have been found. No dating evidence but probably Roman (Northants. Archaeol., 14 (1979), 37).

*a(19) Iron-Working Site (?) (SP 908953), in the N.W. of the parish, on limestone at 100 m. above OD. Descriptions by quarrymen suggest that an iron-working site existed here (Northants. Archaeol., 14 (1979), 37).

Medieval and Later

a(6) Settlement Remains (SP 918971), formerly part of Harringworth village. A recently discovered map of the village, dated 1630, (copy in NRO) shows that there were at that time at least six houses or farmsteads occupying the area of the earthworks. However, three closes were already empty and the earthworks probably represent gradual abandonment over a long period.

a(7) Settlement Remains (SP 926972), formerly part of the hamlet of Shotley. On a map of 1630 (copy in NRO) the two branches of the hollow-way are shown as existing roads with at least three buildings alongside them.

a(8) Fishpond (SP 918975). A map of 1630 (copy in NRO) shows the original shape of the pond with a second basin, of which no evidence survives on the ground, to the N.W. parallel with the river. The depiction on the map of a formal garden further S. suggests that the area around the manor house may have been landscaped in the early 17th century.

ab(9) Deer Park (centred SP 922953). Further details of the history of the park have been published (Northants. P. and P., 5 (1975), 226).

25 HEMINGTON

Prehistoric

A Palaeolithic handaxe has come from the parish (Cambridge Museum; CBA Research Report, 8 (1968), 243).

26 HIGHAM FERRERS

Prehistoric and Roman

A barbed-and-tanged arrowhead was found in 1975 (SP 950687; NM; Northants. Archaeol., 11 (1976), 184).

c(2) Roman Settlement (SP 955690). Details of part of a capital have been published (Northants. Archaeol., 13 (1978), 79).

*c(14) Roman Trackway (SP 950688–951688), on the N. bank of the R. Nene on alluvium at about 45 m. above OD. During gravel-working in 1973–4 a trackway 2 m.– 2.5 m. wide and over 50 m. long was discovered, running E.–W. It was constructed of thin layers of limestone fragments and brushwood and in some places was reinforced with substantial vertical timbers placed at intervals along the edges. A Roman sherd, some human bones and a fragment of roof-tile were found on the track. Other finds came from a layer of black clay which passed both beneath and over the track, and included Roman pottery, an unidentified antler tool, many animal bones, and part of a leather shoe possibly of late Roman or early Saxon date (Northants. Archaeol., 10 (1975), 154–5).

Subsequent gravel-working has revealed the continuation of the track W. into Irthlingborough parish for a further 400 m. after which it turned S.W. and was visible for a further 250 m. At its E. end a second metalled track was observed running N.N.W. for 600 m. (Northants. Archaeol., 11 (1976), 192).

Medieval

A late Saxon or medieval eel-trap weight was found in 1974 near the R. Nene (SP 951688; Northants. Archaeol., 10 (1975), 167).

*c(15) Medieval Pottery Kiln (SP 959692), at the N. end of the town on Great Oolite Limestone at 60 m. above OD. The remains of a kiln have been discovered, lying on top of earlier occupation debris. Little of the kiln structure survives but a large quantity of pottery was found in the flue. The kiln has been tentatively dated on documentary grounds to the mid 15th century (J. Northants. Mus. and Art Gall., 10 (1974), 38, 55–7).

27 IRTHLINGBOROUGH

Prehistoric and Roman

b(7) Iron Age and Roman Settlement (SP 958715). Field-walking on this site has led to the discovery of further Iron Age and Roman pottery, as well as worked flints (Northants. Archaeol., 11 (1976), 184, 192).

28 ISLIP

Prehistoric and Roman

A pebble macehead with hour-glass perforation, said to be Mesolithic, has been found (SP 979785; NM; CBA Research Report, 20 (1977), 216).

b(4) Trackway and Roman Remains (SP 992799). A few pieces of Roman pottery and one Iron Age sherd have been found on this site (OS Record Cards).

*b(11) Iron Age Settlement (SP 985793), at the N. end of the village, on limestone at 61 m. above OD. Ditches discovered during housing development contained late Iron Age pottery (Northants. Archaeol., 13 (1978), 179).

29 KING'S CLIFFE

Prehistoric and Roman

A large polished stone axe of Group VI, Great Langdale type, was found in the parish before 1952 (NM; OS Record Cards) and a gold coin of Maximus was found before 1862 (Stamford Mercury, 19 September 1862).

*b(8) Flint-Working Site (TL 018965), S.E. of the village, on limestone at 40 m. above OD. A quantity of worked flints of Bronze Age type has been found (CBA Group 9, Newsletter, 7 (1977), 27).

*b(9) Roman Settlement (TL 017992), N.E. of the village, on limestone at 70 m. above OD. Roman pottery is recorded (CBA Group 9, Newsletter, 7 (1977), 27).

*b(10) Roman Settlement (TL 010990), 700 m. S.W. of (9), on limestone at 75 m. above OD. Roman sherds have been found (CBA Group 9, Newsletter, 7 (1977), 27).

*b(11) Roman Settlement (TL 021968), S.E. of the village, on limestone at 60 m. above OD. A scatter of Roman pottery has been discovered (CBA Group 9, Newsletter, 7 (1977), 27).

*b(12) Roman Settlement (TL 014980), N.E. of the village, on limestone at 63 m. above OD. A large quantity of Roman material, some of which is said to have been kiln debris, was found some fifty years ago when this area was ploughed (inf. E. Standen).

Medieval and Later

b(6) Deer Park (centred TL 025980). Further details of the history and boundaries of this park have now been published (Northants. P. and P., 5 (1975), 227).

(7) Cultivation Remains. Ridge-and-furrow in the N. of the parish (TL 014993) is now known to date from after the mid 19th century. It is exactly straight, 15 m. wide and was formed by steam ploughing after the clearance of woodland (D. N. Hall, Wollaston (1977), 138).

31 LILFORD-CUM-WIGSTHORPE

Prehistoric

*a(7) Ring Ditches (TL 04558508), immediately N.W. of Barnwell Station, on Cornbrash at 34 m. above OD. Air photographs (NCAU) show two adjacent ring ditches about 10 m. in diam.

32 LOWICK

Prehistoric and Roman

*b(9) Enclosures (SP 965808), N. of Drayton Park, on Boulder Clay at 70 m. above OD. Air photographs (in NMR) show a small rectangular enclosure only 15 m. by 25 m., orientated N.W.-S.E., with a circular feature 25 m. in diam. lying against its S.E. side.

*b(10) Enclosures (SP 963803), immediately N. of Drayton House, on limestone at 70 m. above OD. Air photographs (in NMR) show a rectangular enclosure 20 m. by 50 m., orientated N.W.–S.E., with subsidiary enclosures in the W. and E. corners. A second enclosure only 12 m. square is visible 70 m. to the N.E.

*b(11) Roman Settlement (?) (SP 975805), S. of the village, on Northampton Sand at 45 m. above OD. A small quantity of Roman pottery was found during the construction of pylons (Northants. Archaeol., 11 (1976), 192).

Medieval and Later

ab(6) Deer Park (centred SP 955815). Further details of the history of the park have now been published (Northants. Archaeol., 9 (1974), 110; Northants. P. and P., 5 (1975), 221).

*d(12) Settlement Remains (SP 801790), formerly part of Slipton, lie at the S. end of the village, on limestone at 63 m. above OD. Low banks and scarps, presumably the sites of former houses and gardens, still survive.

35 NASSINGTON

Prehistoric and Roman

*c(30) Linear Ditches (TL 055949), S.W. of the village, on Great Oolite Limestone at 42 m. above OD. Air photographs (NCAU) show, very indistinctly, a group of intersecting linear ditches.

*c(31) Roman Iron-Working (TL 058968), N.W. of the village, on Northampton Sand at 30 m. above OD. A small area of iron slag 5 m. in diam. has been noted. Within it a small iron anvil of Roman type was discovered (Durobrivae, 7 (1979), 21–2).

Medieval and Later

b(27) Saxon Cemetery (TL 071956). Further details of the spearheads from this cemetery have now been published (M. J. Swanton. The Spearheads of the Anglo-Saxon Settlements (1973), 199; BAR, 7 (1974), 69–70).

*b(32) Fishpond (TL 063960), immediately S. of the village, on clay at 28 m. above OD. A small rectangular pond, 30 m. by 15 m., orientated E.–W., is cut into the hillside and is fed by springs. The field in which it lies was called Fish Pond Close in 1778 (NRO, Enclosure Map).

36 NEWTON BROMSHOLD

Medieval and Later

A silver coin of Offa was found in the parish before 1878 (Arch. J., 35 (1878), 270).

b(9) Deer Park (centred SP 990640). Further details of the history and boundaries of the park have now been published (CBA Group 9, Newsletter, 4 (1974), 26; Northants. P. and P., 5 (1975), 226–7).

37 OUNDLE

Prehistoric and Roman

Two polished stone axes, both of Group VI. have come from the parish (NM; Bristol City Museum). A leaf-shaped arrowhead and a scraper are in the Ashmolean Museum (J. Evans. Ancient Stone Implements (1897), 301. 373) and a barbed-and-tanged arrowhead is also recorded (TL 021871; Northants. Archaeol., 13 (1978), 180). Three late Bronze Age socketed axes were found before 1948 somewhere near Oundle. They are said to have been discovered 'with about eighty other axeheads in an earthenware jar', but this seems unlikely (Birmingham City Museum; Northants. Archaeol., 12 (1977), 209). Three other socketed axes found before 1866 are in BM. A bronze bust of Minerva is recorded from Oundle (BAR, 24 (1976), 206).

*a(15) Iron Age Settlement (TL 035893), N.W. of the town, on sand and clay at 42 m. above OD. Iron Age pottery of the 2nd and 1st centuries BC has been found on a cropmark of a small enclosure observed from the air. The site has now been built over (Northants. Archaeol., 14 (1979), 103; Durobrivae, 7 (1979), 26).

*a(16) Roman Settlement (?) (TL 042886), N. of the town on limestone at 30 m. above OD. A small quantity of Roman pottery and a few medieval sherds have been found on a building site (Northants. Archaeol., 11 (1976), 193, 199).

38 PILTON

Prehistoric and Roman

A coin of Hadrian is recorded from the parish (VCH Northants., I (1902), 219).

a(4) Iron Age and Roman Settlement (SP 99858602). Iron Age material has now been noted as well as the Roman finds previously recorded (Northants. Archaeol., 11 (1976), 184).

*a(13) Iron Age Settlement (?) (SP 992867), in the N. of the parish, on Oxford Clay at 63 m. above OD. Iron Age pottery has been noted here (Northants. Archaeol., 11 (1976), 184) and further pottery is recorded to the S. (SP 992864; Northants. SMR).

*b(14) Iron Age Settlement (?) (TL 003859), in the N. of the parish, on Boulder Clay at 75 m. above OD. Iron Age sherds have been found (Northants. Archaeol., 11 (1976), 184).

*c(15) Iron Age Settlement (?) (TL 022841), immediately S. of the village, on limestone at 32 m. above OD. Iron Age material has been discovered (Northants. Archaeol., 11 (1976), 184).

*b(16) Roman Settlement (?) (TL 001851), W. of Pilton Lodge, on Oxford Clay at 60 m. above OD. Roman pottery is recorded (Northants. Archaeol., 11 (1976), 193).

Medieval and Later

a(6) Deserted Village of Lyveden (SP 984860). Further details of the excavations have now been published (CBA Group 9, Newsletter, 2 (1972), 17; 3 (1973), 21; 4 (1974), 12; Med. Arch., 17 (1973), 183; 18 (1974), 220; DOE Arch. Excavations 1973 (1974), 92; J. Northants. Mus. and Art Gall., 12 (1975); V. L. Evison et al. (ed.), Medieval Pottery from Excavations (1974)).

39 POLEBROOK

Prehistoric and Roman

A 'tanged lancehead' is said to have been found in about 1958 (TL 076876; OS Record Cards).

*a(7) Roman Settlement (TL 084855), in the S.E. of the parish, on Boulder Clay at 67 m. above OD. Roman pottery is recorded in the area (Northants. SMR).

Medieval and Later

a(5) Settlement Remains (TL 061859), formerly part of the village of Armston. Excavations were carried out in 1927 by pupils of Oundle School inside the ditched enclosure on the E. side of the site. All the finds were of the 17th century and included stone walls of buildings, floors, drainage channels and a 'road' (Northants. Archaeol., 11 (1976), 177).

40 RAUNDS

Prehistoric and Roman

Two barbed-and-tanged arrowheads were found during the excavations at (27). A coin of Gallienus was discovered in 1918 (TL 003728; OS Record Cards).

*a(23) Ring Ditch (SP 983726), W. of the village, on Northampton Sand at 40 m. above OD. Air photographs (NCAU) show a ring ditch 17 m. in diam.

*a(24) Ring Ditch (SP 980709), S. of Stanwick village, on Great Oolite Limestone at 67 m. above OD. Air photographs (Northants SMR) show a ring ditch 16 m. in diam. with traces of a central pit.

*a(25) Enclosure (SP 985709), S.E. of Stanwick, on Cornbrash at 67 m. above OD. Air photographs (Northants. SMR) show very indistinctly what appears to be a roughly circular cropmark 15 m. in diam. with several internal features.

*a(26) Linear Ditches (SP 990717), S.W. of Raunds village, on Cornbrash at 63 m. above OD. Air photographs (Northants. SMR) show very indistinct cropmarks of intersecting linear ditches covering about 5 hectares.

Medieval and Later

*(27–29) Settlement Remains, formerly part of Raunds village, have been noted in three places. These indicate a complex history of development and it seems likely that the village evolved from a number of centres.

*c(27) Settlement Remains (TL 002720), known as Thorpe End, lie on either side of the road running S. from the village, on clays and sands at 60 m. above OD. A plan has been made of a group of closes bounded by low banks and scarps and containing building platforms, with a hollow-way running E. into ridge-and-furrow. Building work in 1976 on part of these earthworks exposed a few early to mid Saxon sherds and much Saxo-Norman and later medieval pottery. Excavations which began in the same year have revealed the remains of a manor house and associated dovecote which were finally demolished in the late 13th or early 14th century. Beneath the E. end of the house lay the foundations of a small Saxon church only 8 m. long, with a graveyard to the S. (MVRG Report, 23 (1975), 13–14; 24 (1976), 26; Northants. Archaeol., 12 (1977), 225; 13 (1978), 188–9; 14 (1979), 97–100; Med. Arch., 22 (1978), 149, 181; 23 (1979), 242; Northants. SMR).

*c(28) Settlement Remains (TL 004733), lie immediately N. of the village, on clay at 52 m. above OD. An area of some 3 hectares is occupied by several rectangular closes marked by low scarps and banks, some of which contain the sites of former buildings.

*a(29) Settlement Remains (SP 999733), lie at the N. end of the village, on limestone and sand at 55 m. above OD. Several closes covering about 1 hectare have been noted. Excavations in 1975 exposed 13th-century occupation debris associated with the closes. Below this lay a late Saxon graveyard from which came three decorated tombstones and below this again there was evidence of extensive early to mid Saxon occupation (MVRG Report, 24 (1976), 26).

Undated

*a(30) Burials (SP 977705), S. of Stanwick village, on Great Oolite Limestone at 61 m. above OD. Shortly before 1938 'a large number of cup-shaped pits', some containing human bones, were discovered during quarrying (Northants. Natur. Hist. Soc. and FC, 29 (1938), 60).

41 RINGSTEAD

Prehistoric and Roman

b(4) Iron Age Settlement and Roman Villa (SP 976748). Continued gravel-working on this site in 1975 revealed part of a stone drum decorated with scales, from a large Roman column. It had been buried in a shallow pit and appeared to be on the E. side of the main villa site. (NM; Britannia, 3 (1972), 322; Northants. Archaeol., 11 (1976), 193; 13 (1978), 82–3).

*b(10) Bronze Age Burial (SP 981749), discovered W. of the village during gravel-working in 1975. A small Bronze Age vessel was found in a pit, with cremated bones. Several other pits and shallow ditches in the same area could not be dated but were probably of Neolithic or early Iron Age date (Northants. Archaeol., 11 (1976), 184; inf. D. A. Jackson).

*a(11) Flint-Working Site (SP 982751), N.E. of (10) and discovered during gravel-working in 1975. Worked flints including an axehead were found (Northants. Archaeol., 11 (1976), 184).

*ab(12) Pit Alignment (SP 979750), immediately N.E. of (4) on gravel at 37 m. above OD. Gravel-extraction has exposed a pit alignment made up of square or rectangular pits. This was overlaid by a shallow ditch on the same alignment. One of the pits contained a complete vessel of late Bronze Age or early Iron Age date (Northants. Archaeol., 13 (1978), 168–80).

Medieval and Later

b(8) Deserted Settlement of Mill Cotton (SP 969744). Excavations just outside the northern enclosure in 1973, before destruction by gravel-working, revealed a 14th-century bakehouse and 11th and 12th-century ditches. Excavations in 1974 within the enclosure showed no trace of any building; the surrounding moat was found to be revetted at one point (Med. Arch., 18 (1974), 218; Northants. Archaeol., 10 (1975), 170; DOE Arch. Excavations 1974 (1975), 103).

Undated

*a(13) Mound (SP 977751), lay W. of the village, on gravel at 39 m. above OD. A low mound 36 m. in diam. was destroyed by gravel-working in 1976. Beneath it was a ring ditch 20 m. in diam. and 1.4 m. deep. No evidence of its date or function was recovered (Northants. Archaeol., 12 (1977), 209).

42 RUSHDEN

Prehistoric

A fragment of a stone macehead has been found in the parish (NM).

43 SOUTHWICK

Prehistoric and Roman

Part of a polished stone axe of Group VI, Great Langdale type, was found in 1974 (SP 980933) and part of another polished axe of greenstone, probably of Cornish origin, was found in the parish in about 1969 (Northants. Archaeol., 14 (1979), 104). A hoard of about 150 Roman silver coins, of Galba, Vespasian, Domitian and Trajan, was found in a pot somewhere in the parish before 1879 (NM Records; lost).

b(10) Roman Settlement (centred SP 982932). Details of the 1st-century kiln have now been published (J. Northants. Mus. and Art Gall., 10 (1974), 6–12) as well as a full description of the Saxon strap-end previously noted (Durobrivae, 3 (1975), 28).

b(11) Roman Settlement (SP 997914). A few sherds of Iron Age pottery have recently been found at this site (OS Record Cards).

*d(17) Roman Settlement (TL 022922), immediately N.E. of Southwick Hall, on clay at 30 m. above OD. Roman pottery, mainly of Nene Valley type including part of a Castor box and some rouletted sherds but also with some samian, has been found. The pottery lies around a wide earthen bank which contains iron slag (inf. Mrs. J. Johnston).

Medieval and Later

A silver coin of Harold, unique in this country, has been found immediately E. of the village (TL 024923; Northants. Archaeol., 10 (1975), 166).

*d(18) Dam (TL 025920), E. of the village, on the N. side of Wych Spinney. A low dam 45 m. long and 1.7 m. high spans the valley of a small E.-flowing stream. The modern road runs on top of it. In 1834 the dam ponded back a small lake which extended N.W. and formed part of the landscaped park of Southwick Hall (map in NRO).

44 STOKE DOYLE

Prehistoric and Roman

b(6) Roman Settlement (TL 033865). The existence of this Roman settlement has now been confirmed by the discovery of considerable amounts of building stone and pottery. A subrectangular ditched enclosure has also been noted in the area (TL 035865) (Northants. Archaeol., 10 (1975), 162).

*b(14) Linear Ditch (TL 001869), in the N.W. of the parish, on Oxford Clay at 60 m. above OD. Air photographs (in NMR) show slight traces of a linear ditch some 200 m. long, running N.W.-S.E.

*b(15) Enclosures (TL 001862), 700 m. of S. of (14), on Boulder Clay at 70 m. above OD. Air photographs (in NMR) show very indistinctly what appears to be either a large subrectangular enclosure covering about 2 hectares with interior subdivisions or a series of small conjoined rectangular enclosures.

Medieval

A hoard of medieval silver coins, some of Edward IV, was found in a pot in 1873, apparently within the village (Northampton Mercury, 1 Feb. 1873).

46 TANSOR

Roman

Roman pottery and coins were found in the parish in the 18th century (W. Stukeley, Carausins, I (1757), 170).

*b(9) Roman Settlement (?) (TL 075903), E. of Tansor Grange, on sandstone at 25 m. above OD. A scatter of 3rd-century Roman pottery has been found (Northants. Archaeol., 13 (1978), 182).

47 THORPE ACHURCH

Medieval

*(9) Thorpe Waterville Castle (TL 022814), immediately S. of Thorpe Waterville, on gravel at 25 m. above OD. Records have now come to light of an excavation carried out in 1929–30 on the site of the medieval manor house. A large rectangular building with walls 3 m. thick, possibly a hall, was discovered as well as fragments of other walls (Northants. Archaeol., 11 (1976), 178). The feapossibly a hall, was discovered as well as fragments of other walls (Northants. Archaeol., 11 (1976), 178). The feature described as a moat on the W. edge of the site is in fact an old gravel-pit.

48 THRAPSTON

Prehistoric and Roman

A Neolithic stone axe of Group VI has been found in the parish (SP 99717847; NM Records).

*b(8) Roman Settlement (TL 024779), in the extreme E. of the parish, on Cornbrash at 54 m. above OD. Roman pottery, a stone scatter and a 4th-century coin were discovered in 1978 (Northants. Archaeol., 14 (1979), 106).

Medieval and Later

a(6) Occupation Site (SP 996787). Further details of the mound and its structure have now been published (Northants. Archaeol., 10 (1975), 175; 12 (1977), 190–1).

49 THURNING

Prehistoric

*(4) Flint-Working Site (?) (perhaps TL 096831), from a gravel-pit probably in the extreme E. of the parish. A group of unspecified Neolithic flint tools is said to have been found before 1928 (Peterborough Museum Records). A polished flint axe in the same museum, also found before 1928 in the parish, may be from the same site.

50 TITCHMARSH

Prehistoric and Roman

A coin of Domitia Longina (81–96) was found in about 1962 at the S.E. end of the village (TL 02917945; NM).

b(11) Enclosures and Ditches (TL 01657985). Roman pottery has been found on the cropmarks previously recorded (Northants. Archaeol., 13 (1978), 185). For Saxon and medieval finds, see (32).

b(19) Roman Settlement (TL 024795). More Roman pottery has been found within the village, E. of the church (TL 023798; Northants. Archaeol., 13 (1978), 185). For Saxon and medieval finds, see (33).

b(22) Roman Settlement (centred TL 005794). Two skeletons in stone-lined graves, associated with 4th-century pottery, have been discovered in the area of the known cemetery W. of the settlement (TL 004795; Northants. Archaeol., 10 (1975), 163). Details of a capital have been published (Northants. Archaeol., 13 (1978), 77).

*b(29) Ditched Trackway and Enclosures (TL 037777), S.E. of the village and immediately E. of Wood Lodge, on Boulder Clay at 70 m. above OD. Air photographs (in NMR) show very indistinctly a slightly curved ditched trackway, running. E.-W. and traceable for 150 m. Parts of possible enclosures lie on either side of it.

*b(30) Iron Age and Roman Settlement (TL 037775), in the S.E. of the parish, on Boulder Clay at 63 m. above OD. An extensive spread of Iron Age and Roman pottery and burnt pebbles is recorded (Northants. Archaeol., 13 (1978), 180).

*b(31) Roman Settlement (TL 035798), E. of the village, on Oxford Clay at 35 m. above OD. Unspecified Roman material, said to represent a possible villa, is recorded. A 3rd-century coin has also been found (Northants. Archaeol., 13 (1978), 182).

Medieval

*b(32) Saxon Settlement (?) (TL 018798), on the same site as (11). Pottery of Saxon and early medieval types has been found (Northants. Archaeol., 13 (1978), 185; 14 (1979), 107).

*b(33) Saxon Settlement (?) (TL 023798), on the same site as (19). Pottery of Saxon and early medieval types has been noted (Northants. Archaeol., 13 (1978), 185).

51 TWYWELL

Prehistoric and Roman

Several flint arrowheads have been found in the parish (NM). Roman pottery of Nene Valley type in BM may have come from (5).

b(4) Iron Age Settlement (SP 952788). The full report of excavations at this site has now been published (Northants. Archaeol., 10 (1975), 31–93).

52 WADENHOE

Roman

*c(8) Roman Settlement (TL 009837), immediately N.W. of the village, on Cornbrash at 53 m. above OD. Roman pottery associated with an area of dark soil has been recorded (Northants. Archaeol., 10 (1975), 163).

53 WAKERLEY

Prehistoric and Roman

a(1) Bronze Age Settlement (?) (SP 939982). Details of the pottery from this site, including Beaker and Collared Urn sherds, have been published (Northants. Archaeol., 13 (1978), 8).

a(2) Iron Age and Roman Settlement (SP 940983). Further details of this extensive site have now been published (Britannia, 4 (1973), 294; 5 (1974), 434; 6 (1975), 255; 9 (1978), 115–242; Northants. Archaeol., 9 (1974), 85; 10 (1975), 163; 11 (1976), 194; CBA Group 9, Newsletter, 3 (1973), 14, 17; 4 (1974), 8; 5 (1975), 16; BAR, 24 (1976), 181). Part of a stone axe of Group VI has come from this site (NM Records).

Medieval and Later

a(3) Saxon Cemetery (SP 941983). Further details of this cemetery have now been published (Northants. Archaeol., 10 (1975), 163).

b(4) Remains of House and Gardens (SP 956995). Immediately to the W. of this site and E. of the road to Barrowden there is a large rectangular fishpond with inlet and outlet channels still visible. This is unlikely to be directly associated with the 17th-century house and may relate to an earlier use of the site.

54 WARMINGTON

Roman

Part of a Roman rotary quern has been found immediately S.W. of the village close to the line of the Roman Road 570 (TL 074907; Northants. Archaeol., 10 (1975), 163). Two pottery spindle whorls, each made from the base of a 3rd-century pot, came from the N. side of the village (TL 079914; Northants. Archaeol., 12 (1977), 223).

b(15) Roman Settlement (TL 071913). Two Roman spindle whorls have been found on this site (Northants. Archaeol., 12 (1977), 223).

Medieval and Later

b(19) Settlement Remains (TL 077907), formerly part of the hamlet of Southorpe. Additional information concerning the abandonment of the site has now come to light. A plan of the parish of 1622 (NRO) shows that Southorpe was then almost exactly the same as it was in 1775. This shows that no desertion occurred between these two dates although some had taken place before 1622. The major depopulation was in the early 19th century.

c(21) Deserted Village of Papley (TL 105888). Details of a small building, apparently of 12th and 13th-century date, which was excavated before 1972, have been published (Med. Arch., 17 (1973), 183).

(22) Cultivation Remains. A map of the parish of 1622 (NRO) provides additional detail concerning the common fields. All the traceable ridge-and-furrow agrees with the strip system that then existed.

*b(23) Mounds (centred TL 095907), E.S.E. of the village, in an area of ridge-and-furrow. Several rectangular mounds lie on headlands between furlongs. They are 12 m. long, 3 m. wide and 0.4 m. high, with flat tops. Their purpose is unknown.

55 WOODFORD

Prehistoric

Part of a Neolithic polished stone axe of Group VI, together with some fragments of tiles, possibly Roman, were found associated with a medieval pit (14).

*b(13) Barrow (?) (SP 974756), in the S.E. corner of the parish, on alluvium at 36 m. above OD. A circular mound 15 m. in diam. and 0.25 m. high has been described as a barrow (CBA Group 9, Newsletter, 2 (1972), 23).

Medieval

*b(14) Medieval Pit (SP 96907681), found at the S.E. end of the village in 1971. It was interpreted as a cess-pit and contained a large quantity of pottery dated to the mid 12th century, including over 50 sherds of Stamford ware (Northants. Archaeol., 12 (1977), 191–5).

56 WOODNEWTON

Prehistoric and Roman

A few isolated worked flints have been found within, to the S.W. and to the N. of the village (Northants. Archaeol., 14 (1979), 104).

*b(4) Flint-Working Site (centred TL 039933), covers about 20 hectares on either side of the parish boundary with Southwick and immediately N.W. of the Stone Pit Lodge Complex (Fotheringhay (21–25). Southwick (1–9)), on limestone and clay at 22 m. above OD. A thin scatter of worked flints, including Mesolithic and Neolithic types, has been noted (inf. Mrs. J. Johnston).

*b(5) Roman Settlement (TL 035936), S. of the village, on Great Oolite Limestone at 30 m. above OD. Roman pottery, mainly of Nene Valley type but including some samian, has been found over an area of almost 3 hectares. Near the centre some 30 sq. m. has fragments of Collyweston tesserae. One leaf-shaped and one tanged arrowhead have also come from the site and waste flakes have been noted to the N.E. (inf. Mrs. J. Johnston).

*a(6) Roman Settlement (TL 034953), N. of the village, on Cornbrash at 45 m. above OD. A scatter of Roman pottery, including Nene Valley and samian wares, has been found (inf. Mrs. J. Johnston).

57 YARWELL

Prehistoric and Roman

Two stone axes (both lost) are said to have been found in the N.E. of the parish in about 1925 (TL 06649868, 07109888; OS Record Cards).

b(3) Roman Building (TL 066979). Further details of the excavation of this site, and a description of a capital, have now been published (Northants. Archaeol., 11 (1976), 178; 13 (1978), 77).

*b(11) Roman Settlement (TL 056985), in the W. of the parish, W. of Old Sulchay Forest, on Lower Lincolnshire Limestone at 44 m. above OD. A scatter of pottery of the 3rd and 4th centuries, together with building stone and tile, has been noted (Northants. Archaeol., 10 (1975), 164).

*b(12) Roman Kiln (TL 060991), a little to the S.W. of the Roman building (5), on Lower Lincolnshire Limestone at 52 m. above OD. The remains of a pottery kiln were revealed and excavated during stone-quarrying. Large quantities of kiln furniture and dome plates were discovered and the associated colour-coated wares have been dated just before AD 150 (Northants. Archaeol., 10 (1975), 164; Britannia, 6 (1975), 255; Durobrivae, 3 (1975), 15–18).

*b(13) Roman Settlement (?) (TL 06609900), close to (8), on limestone at 32 m. above OD. Roman pottery was found here in 1930. Prehistoric worked flints are also known to have come from the area (OS Record Cards).

VOLUME II

1 ASHLEY

Roman

a(1) Villa (SP 788917). Details of a moulded limestone shaft have been published (Northants. Archaeol., 13 (1978), 79).

3 BOZEAT

Prehistoric and Roman

d(5) Iron Age and Roman Settlement and Kiln (SP 911579). In addition to the Iron Age material recorded from the site, subsequent fieldwork has revealed Roman occupation and kiln debris (OS Record Cards).

Medieval

'Several Saxon coins' are said to have been found in Bozeat (J. H. Marlow, History of Bozeat (1936), 36).

Undated

A small piece of limestone with a carving of a face on one side was found in 1976; no date can be assigned to it (SP 90455895; NM; Northants. Archaeol., 12 (1977), 231).

4 BRAFIELD-ON-THE-GREEN

Prehistoric and Roman

A Mesolithic core has been found (SP 816593; NM; CBA Research Report, 20 (1977), 216).

*b(34) Iron Age Settlement (?) (SP 826589), N.E. of the village, on Boulder Clay at 99 m. above OD. A few sherds of Iron Age pottery were found in 1976 (Northants. Archaeol., 12 (1977), 208).

7 BROUGHTON

Roman

*a(5) Roman Settlement (SP 847770), in the N.E. of the parish, on Northampton Sand at 95 m. above OD. Roman pottery, quern fragments and a scatter of stone are recorded (Kettering Museum Records).

8 BURTON LATIMER

Prehistoric

Four Mesolithic cores and two flakes have been found (SP 900740; NM; CBA Research Report, 20 (1977), 216).

Medieval

*a(13) Saxon Settlement (?) (SP 89347565), in the N.W. of the parish, on Northampton Sand at 60 m. above OD. A small quantity of early or mid Saxon pottery is recorded (Northants. Archaeol., 11 (1976), 195).

10 CASTLE ASHBY

Prehistoric

a(1) Flint-Working Site and Ditched Trackway (SP 856609). Part of a polished stone axe of Group VI and additional worked flints have been found (Northants. Archaeol., 13 (1978), 178).

*a(13) Flint-Working Site (SP 855604), N.W. of the village, on Northampton Sand at 75 m. above OD. A scatter of worked flints, including a plano-convex knife, and a single sherd of Saxon pottery were found in 1977 (Northants SMR).

*a(14) Iron Age Settlement (?) (SP 857604), S.E. of (13), on Northampton Sand at 84 m. above OD. Iron Age pottery and worked flints were discovered in 1977 (CBA Group 9, Newsletter, 8 (1978), 21). For Saxon finds from this site, see (15).

Medieval

*a(15) Saxon Settlement (?) (SP 857604), on the same site as (14). Early Saxon sherds have been noted (CBA Group 9, Newsletter, 8 (1978), 21).

11 COGENHOE

Prehistoric and Roman

Among the worked flints previously recorded, Mesolithic cores, flakes and scrapers have now been identified (SP 826606, 830604; CBA Research Report, 20 (1977), 216) A stone flake of Group VI was found on the Roman site (4) (SP 838599; NM). A 4th-century Roman coin has been discovered (SP 83026069; Northants. Archaeol., 13 (1978), 180).

a(4) Iron Age and Roman Settlement (SP 839600). Three additional 4th-century coins have been found on this site (Northants. Archaeol., 13 (1978), 180).

a(5) Iron Age and Roman Settlement (SP 826607). A decapitated burial with the head placed between the legs, associated with an iron knife, has been found on the eastern side of this site (SP 828607). It was identified as late Roman (Northants. Archaeol., 11 (1976), 191).

*b(16) Iron Age Settlement (?) (SP 853602), S.E. of Whiston Church, on Northampton Sand at 90 m. above OD. Iron Age pottery and worked flints were found here in 1977 (CBA Group 9, Newsletter, 8 (1978), 21). For Saxon finds from this site, see (18).

*b(17) Roman Settlement (SP 852606), immediately N. of Whiston Church, on Upper Lias Clay at 75 m. above OD. A small scatter of Roman sherds and tile fragments has been noted. Three pieces of early or mid Saxon pottery have also been found (Northants. Archaeol., 11 (1976), 191).

Medieval

a(9) Settlement Remains (SP 850605), formerly part of Whiston. Medieval pottery, traces of walling and a possible hearth have been found S.W. of the church (SP 849604) and other medieval sherds have been recorded from elsewhere in the vicinity of the village (Northants. Archaeol., 11 (1976), 191; 12 (1977), 233).

*b(18) Saxon Settlement (?) (SP 853602), on the same site as (16). Early Saxon pottery has been found (CBA Group 9, Newsletter, 8 (1978), 21).

*b(19) Saxon Settlement (?) (SP 854600), immediately S.S.E. of (18) on limestone at 85 m. above OD. Early or mid Saxon sherds have been noted (Northants. SMR).

12 CORBY

Prehistoric and Roman

A leaf-shaped arrowhead has been found (SP 881906; Northants. Archaeol., 12 (1977), 208).

b(2) Iron Age Settlement (SP 863869, ref. incorrect in RCHM II). Further pits, ditches and Iron Age pottery have been discovered (Northants. Archaeol., 13 (1978), 178).

a(12) Roman Settlement (SP 88149039). Pits and ditches containing a few Roman sherds have now been found (Northants. Archaeol., 12 (1977), 211).

*b(22) Iron Age Settlement (SP 880868), N.E. of Great Oakley village, on Boulder Clay at 115 m. above OD. Part of an early Iron Age round hut and several pits have been excavated in advance of ironstone-working. Further quarrying in 1978 exposed additional Iron Age features, including a bowl-shaped iron-smelting hearth (Northants. Archaeol., 12 (1977), 209; 13 (1978), 180; 14 (1979), 103).

*b(23) Roman Settlement (SP 865863), N.W. of Great Oakley village, on Boulder Clay at 106 m. above OD. Several pits have been discovered. One contained an iron mattock, a tanged spearhead and an iron ferrule, and others held 3rd and 4th-century pottery and animal bones (NM; Northants. Archaeol., 12 (1977), 212).

*b(24) Roman Burial (SP 885867), in the S.E. of the parish, on Boulder Clay at 110 m. above OD. An isolated cremation accompanied by parts of an amphora and about 200 nails was discovered during ironstone-mining (Northants. Archaeol., 14 (1979), 106).

Medieval and Later

A silver coin of Richard I is known to have come from Corby (NM Records).

b(18) Fishponds (SP 866859). A plan of the site has now been published (CBA Group 9, Newsletter, 9 (1979), 46– 7).

14 CRANFORD

Prehistoric

*c(9) Ring Ditch (SP 90907718), in the W. of the parish, on Northampton Sand at 69 m. above OD. A small ring ditch 12 m. in diam. with an entrance on the E. side is visible on air photographs (Northants. SMR).

17 DESBOROUGH

Prehistoric and Roman

A Food Vessel and a small Collared Urn have recently been given to NM. They were probably found in about 1908 in ironstone-quarries W. of the town (Northants. Archaeol., 13 (1978), 178).

*(13) Roman Structure (?) (perhaps SP 805832), described as 'a Roman latrine', was found during ironstonemining in 1874 (J. R. Moore, A History of Desborough (1910), 4).

18 DINGLEY

Medieval

A Saxon sceatta of series E type was found in the parish before 1712 (Brit. Num. J., 47 (1977), 39).

19 DODDINGTON, GREAT

Prehistoric and Roman

a(2) Iron Age and Roman Settlement (SP 882658). A limestone loom-weight and some Roman sherds have been found to the W. of the enclosure previously recorded (SP 880658). A large quantity of Iron Age and Roman pottery and a flint hammerstone have also been recorded in the vicinity (SP 883659) (Northants. Archaeol., 11 (1976), 183).

*a(15) Enclosure (?) (SP 888654), N.E. of the village, on limestone at 75 m. above OD. Air photographs (Northants. SMR) show part of what may be a rectangular enclosure 40 m. wide.

*b(16) Flint-Working Site (SP 872640), in the S.W. of the parish, on limestone at 72 m. above OD. The numerous worked flints, previously recorded, have now been identified as probably Neolithic. They include 43 cores, 120 flakes or blades, a scraper and an arrowhead (Northants. Archaeol., 11 (1976), 183).

20 EARLS BARTON

Prehistoric and Roman

A large rolled Palacolithic flaked tool has been found in gravel close to the R. Nene (SP 8662; Northants. Archaeol., 11 (1976), 183). A leaf-shaped arrowhead and a scraper (SP 84436257; Northants. SMR) and a Roman bronze coin (SP 870634; Northants. Archaeol., 14 (1979), 105) are also recorded.

cd(6) Enclosure, Pit Alignment and Ditches (SP 850627). A coin of Constantine I has been found in this area (Northants. Archaeol., 14 (1979), 105).

c(7) Ring Ditches, Pit Alignments and Iron Age and Roman Settlement (SP 845625). Excavations in advance of road construction have revealed part of a circular Iron Age enclosure containing traces of occupation including at least two buildings. Iron Age pottery, a loom-weight, a spindle whorl, bronze fragments and slag, and animal bones have been found. Field-walking has produced early and late Iron Age pottery, worked flints, a limestone block with cupmarks and a few early Saxon sherds (NCAU; Northants. Archaeol., 14 (1979), 102).

*d(18) Iron Age Settlement (SP 85586388), N.E. of the village, on Northampton Sand at 83 m. above OD. Soilstripping has revealed ditches and pits associated with pottery, including several sherds with geometric and curvilinear decoration perhaps of the 1st or 2nd century BC. Quantities of daub and traces of a hearth were also noted within one of the pits (Northants. Archaeol., 13 (1978), 178).

Medieval

Some medieval pottery has been found within the village (SP 85286365; Northants. Archaeol., 11 (1976), 197).

d(15) Fishponds (SP 854638). The dam of the northernmost fishpond still survives (SP 85576403; Northants. Archaeol., 13 (1978), 186).

*c(19) Saxon Settlement (?) (SP 843625), in the S.E. of the parish, on river gravel at 52 m. above OD. Sherds of early to mid Saxon type were found in 1968 (Northants. Archaeol., 14 (1979), 107).

22 ECTON

Prehistoric and Roman

A partly perforated quartzite macehead has been found within the North Ecton Complex (SP 82136535; NM) and a few worked flints, including two scrapers, are also recorded (SP 830628; Northants. SMR).

*b(24) Enclosure (SP 838629), N.E. of General Spinney and of (17), on gravel at 58 m. above OD. Air photographs (Northampton Development Corporation Archaeological Unit) show a D-shaped enclosure of approximately 0.5 hectare, orientated E.-W. and with a well-marked entrance in its E. side.

*b(25) Enclosure and Ditches (SP 839625), 300 m. S. of (24), on gravel at 52 m. above OD. Air photographs (Northampton Development Corporation Archaeological Unit) show a small trapezoidal enclosure 0.25 hectare in extent with no visible interior features or entrances. Other features, including possible linear ditches, are indistinctly visible to the N. and N.E.

*b(26) Enclosures (SP 837641), N.E. of the village, on Upper Lias Clay at 78 m. above OD. Air photographs (Northants. SMR) show two oval conjoined enclosures, each 20 m. wide. Other indistinct features are visible in the area.

Medieval and Later

*b(27) Settlement Remains (SP 831633), formerly part of Ecton village, lie S. and S.E. of Ecton Hall within the park, on clay sloping S. between 84 m. and 75 m. above OD. The present village of Ecton consists of little more than a single N.-S. street with the church and hall to the W. of it. To the E. of the S. end of this street and roughly parallel to it are two hollow-ways (SP 830633, 832633). Both are 10 m. wide and up to 2 m. deep and are cut at their N. ends by the ha-ha bounding the gardens of the hall. The E. hollow-way is lined on its W. side by rectangular closes separated by low banks and scarps and with a slight bank defining their W. edge. Within the closes, near the hollow-way, are depressions and uneven ground which may be the sites of former houses. The E. side of the hollow-way is now under cultivation; large quantities of medieval and post-medieval pottery and areas of stone have been found here. The W. hollow-way has no obvious house-sites or closes alongside it, perhaps because the land has been ploughed and returned to grass. There are, however, some very slight depressions and scarps which may indicate that this hollow-way too was once lined with buildings.

If these depressions are indeed part of the village then Ecton once consisted of three roughly parallel streets, perhaps as a result of planning. The N. ends of these streets have presumably been destroyed by the gardens of Ecton Hall, though the old drive to the hall and a track to the W. (SP 829639 and 828638) may follow their original alignments. The date of the abandonment of the central street is unknown. In his History of Ecton (1825) J. Cole stated: 'It appears that Ecton has formerly been more extensive, as a farm-house, with several other dwellings, under the name "Little Ecton", situated to the east of Mr. Isted's House, were standing in the memory of some of the inhabitants now living'. This must refer to the group of eight houses set within small closes which, in the mid 18th century, lay on the E. side of the E. hollow-way (NRO, map of Ecton, 1759). These were removed later in the century when the park was laid out (NRO, late 18th-century maps of Ecton).

23 GEDDINGTON

Prehistoric and Roman

A flint core and several worked flints have been found (SP 89908565; Northants. Archaeol., 11 (1976), 183).

a(4) Iron Age and Roman Settlement (centred SP 875824). Excavation in advance of ironstone-working has revealed several early Iron Age pits and ditches, as well as a circular enclosure, 11 m. in diam., with an E.-facing entrance. This feature may have been a drainage gully encircling a hut (Northants. Archaeol., 12 (1977), 208; 13 (1978), 179; 14 (1979), 10–16).

Medieval and Later

Some medieval pottery is recorded from the S. end of the village (SP 89128263; Northants. Archaeol., 13 (1978), 187) and a silver coin of Charles the Bold, Duke of Burgundy, 1486–74, has been found further N.E. (Northants. Archaeol., 11 (1976), 197).

*a(9) Saxon Settlement (?) (SP 87688272), immediately N. of (4), on limestone at 90 m. above OD. A small scatter of Saxon sherds has been noted (Northants. Archaeol., 12 (1977), 224).

*b(10) Saxon Settlement (?) (SP 897856), in the extreme N. of the parish, on limestone at 72 m. above OD. A small scatter of Saxon pottery associated with areas of iron slag has been noted (Northants. Archaeol., 11 (1976), 195).

*c(11) Saxon Settlement (?) (SP 900837), N.E. of the village, on limestone at 90 m. above OD. An extensive area of burnt earth 35 m. in diam. contained ironstone, slag and Saxon pottery (Northants. Archaeol., 11 (1976), 195).

*a(12) Settlement Remains (SP 896829), formerly part of the village, lie in the S.E. of the village at the S. end of Chase Road, on Northampton Sand at 80 m. above OD. An area of about 1 hectare is occupied by low, indeterminate banks and scarps. On the E. a well-marked bank separates the area from the adjacent ridge-and-furrow. According to local tradition this is the site of a manor house but it is more likely to represent small houses and gardens.

25 GRENDON

Prehistoric and Roman

A Mesolithic core has been found (SP 880600; CBA Research Report, 20 (1977), 216).

a(7) Ring Ditches, Enclosures and Pit Alignments (centred SP 879622). The large cropmark site has now been almost completely destroyed by gravel extraction. The following observations have been made. The large ring ditch proved to be a Bronze Age barrow with a stone kerb. Iron Age pottery and two iron-smelting pits, probably of Iron Age date, were found in the vicinity. One of the pit alignments were exposed and excavation showed that the pits were of two periods. At one point the pit alignment was cut by the ditch of an Iron Age enclosure. Other finds included four early Bronze Age Urns, probably from bar-rows (Northants. Archaeol., 12 (1977), 209; 13 (1978), 179).

Medieval

a(14) Saxon Settlement (SP 877623). The Saxon material previously recorded lies on the prehistoric site (7). Recent gravel-working revealed extensive evidence of early Saxon occupation including three sunken huts, post-holes and pits (Northants. Archaeol., 12 (1977), 224; 13 (1978), 179).

26 GRETTON

Prehistoric and Roman

*d(12) Iron Age Trackway and (?) Settlement (SP 907943), E. of the village, on Great Oolite Limestone at 110 m. above OD. A large amount of Iron Age pottery has been recovered from two parallel ditches 6 m. apart, possibly bounding a trackway. No evidence of settlement was found in the adjacent area (Northants. Archaeol., 14 (1979), 102).

*d(13) Roman Iron-Working Site (SP 909945), E. of the village, on limestone at 107 m. above OD. A shaft furnace, hearth and a ditch were discovered during ironstone-quarrying. Further evidence of iron-working has been noted 380 m. to the W. (Northants. Archaeol., 14 (1979), 36).

27 HACKLETON

Roman

d(7) Roman Settlement (SP 800558). Recent air photographs (Northants. SMR) show a rectangular enclosure bounded by very broad ditches, with a smaller enclosure attached to one side, the whole covering 0.5 hectare.

b(11) Roman Villa (SP 79785414). Further discoveries include a wall 22 m. long, running E.-W. with projecting walls on each side, as well as part of a tessellated pavement (Northants. Archaeol., 14 (1979), 106).

28 HANNINGTON

Prehistoric and Roman

a(2) Iron Age and Roman Settlement (SP 811712). More Roman pottery and a few Iron Age sherds and worked flints have been recorded from the site (Northants. Archaeol., 11 (1976), 183).

a(3) Ring Ditches, Enclosures and Ditches (SP 807712). A scatter of worked flints, including scrapers and a core, has been recorded (Northants. Archaeol., 11 (1976), 183).

30 HARRINGTON

Roman

A few sherds of Roman pottery have been found near the site of the deserted village of Newbottle (4) (local inf.).

Medieval

a(4) Deserted Village of Newbottle (SP 777815). A quantity of early Saxon pottery has been noted on the site of the village (local. inf.).

33 HOLCOT

Prehistoric

*a(9) Ring Ditch (SP 792706), in the N. of the parish, on Northampton Sand at 115 m. above OD. Air photographs (Northants. SMR) show a ring ditch about 15 m. in diam.

35 HOUGHTON, LITTLE

Prehistoric and Roman

Two Mesolithic cores as well as blades and flakes have been identified (SP 800590; NM; CBA Research Report, 20 (1977), 217). A large flint tanged spearhead and a lozenge-shaped arrowhead were found in 1975 (SP 80696055; NM; Northants. Archaeol., 11 (1976), 184).

d(14) Roman Settlement and Kilns (SP 812596), within the East Houghton Complex. Five Roman coins of 1st to 4th-century date and a 1st-century bronze brooch have been found (Northants. Archaeol., 11 (1976), 192).

(15–20) South Houghton Complex (centred SP 802593). Construction of the by-pass around Little Houghton village in 1978 produced additional evidence of prehistoric and Roman occupation in this area, including a pit containing Beaker sherds and charcoal (SP 80665926), a ditch containing Iron Age sherds (SP 81005927), pits and a ditch with Roman pottery (SP 80225929), a pit containing Roman sherds and two pits with sherds of either Bronze Age or late Iron Age type (SP 80265930) and undated pits and ditches (SP 79825931, 80025929) (Northants. Archaeol., 14 (1979), 102–3).

36 IRCHESTER

Prehistoric and Roman

A small flint axe was found in about 1966 within the Roman town (SP 917666; Northants. SMR).

a(7) Roman Town (SP 917667). A detailed description of the architectural masonry from the town has been published (Northants. Archaeol., 13 (1978), 81, 82, 85). Further references to a Roman lead coffin found in 1876 are listed in BAR, 38 (1977), 38 no. 142.

*a(13) Flint-Working Site (SP 921673), immediately N. of the R. Nene, on alluvium at 40 m. above OD. Over 130 worked flints including at least 30 cores as well as scrapers and other tools are recorded (NM; Northants. SMR).

Medieval

A Saxon sceatta of series K type was found in the Roman town (7) before 1898 (Brit. Num. J., 47 (1977), 41).

a(8) Settlement Remains (SP 920669), formerly part of the hamlet of Chester-on-the-Water. A full history and description of the site has now been published (Northants. P. and P., 6 (1978), 15–19).

38 KETTERING

Prehistoric and Roman

A Bronze Age axe (BM) is said to have come from Kettering.

b(7) Iron Age and Roman Settlement (centred SP 886780). Further details of the excavations have now been published (Northants. Archaeol., 11 (1976), 170–7, 192).

Undated

*b(18) Burial (perhaps SP 876795), in 'Rectorial Allotment Field, near Avondale Road' in 1905. A skeleton orientated E.-W., without grave-goods, was discovered in a stone-lined grave (Northants. N. and Q., 1 (1905–7), 209).

40 MEARS ASHBY

Prehistoric and Roman

Worked flints or scrapers have been found at three new locations (SP 849649, 841664, 853654; Northants. Archaeol., 11 (1976), 184). A polished flint axe (SP 83256665), part of another (SP 854665) and a leaf-shaped arrowhead (SP 849659) have also been discovered (Northants. Archaeol., 12 (1977), 209).

ab(6) Iron Age and Roman Settlement (centred SP 850663). Further discoveries on or near this site include a flint plano-convex knife (SP 848662; Northants. Archaeol., 13 (1978), 179), scrapers and worked flints (SP 852663, 85156565, 849663; Northants. Archaeol., 11 (1976), 184) and a Roman coin, AD 251–3 (SP 850662; Northants. Archaeol., 11 (1976), 192).

a(7) Roman Settlement (SP 850652). Two Roman coins have been found, one of Gallienus and one of Crispus (Northants. Archaeol., 12 (1977), 213; 13 (1978), 181).

42 MOULTON

Prehistoric or Roman

*(12) Enclosure (?) (SP 781693), in the extreme N.E. of the parish, on Northampton Sand at 94 m. above OD. Air photographs (Northants. SMR) show some very indeterminate cropmarks 0.5 hectare in extent which may represent a roughly circular area of settlement.

43 NEWTON

Roman

*a(14) Roman Settlement (SP 89308637), N. of Little Oakley village, on limestone at 90 m. above OD. A large quantity of Roman pottery, stone roof slates and quernstones has been found (Northants. Archaeol., 11 (1976), 193, listed under Oakley).

Medieval

b(7) Settlement Remains (SP 879835), formerly part of Great Newton. A small quantity of medieval pottery has been found at the E. end of the village (SP 883834; Northants. Archaeol., 11 (1976), 197).

47 OVERSTONE

Prehistoric and Roman

a(2) Roman Settlement (SP 797657). An antoninianus of Victorinus was found in 1974 (Northants. Archaeol., 11 (1976), 193).

*a(9) Iron Age Settlement (?) (SP 795674), in the N. of the parish, on limestone at 115 m. above OD. Iron Age pottery and a scatter of stone associated with a dark area of soil have been found (inf. D.N. Hall).

*a(10) Iron Age Settlement (?) (SP 793672), S.W. of (9), in a similar situation. Iron Age pottery, a scatter of stone and an area of dark soil are recorded (inf. D.N. Hall).

*c(11) Roman Settlement (?) (SP 803670), in the N. of the parish, on limestone at 107 m. above OD. Roman pottery has been noted, with an area of dark soil (inf. D. N. Hall).

49 ROCKINGHAM

Prehistoric or Roman

*(15) Enclosures (SP 860918), in the N.W. of the parish, close to the R. Welland, on gravel at 54 m. above OD. Air photographs (not seen by RCHM) are said to show a group of enclosures (Northants. Archaeol., 12 (1977), 230).

50 ROTHWELL

Prehistoric

A pebble macehead with hour-glass perforation, tenta tively identified as Mesolithic, has been found (SP 815812; CBA Research Report, 20 (1977), 217; Leicester Musuem). A flint core and some flakes are also recorded (SP 82638080).

51 RUSHTON

Prehistoric and Roman

A leaf-shaped arrowhead has been found (SP 84068105; Northants. Archaeol., 14 (1979), 104).

d(3) Iron Age Settlement (SP 850837). Excavations in 1970 revealed more ditches containing pottery and a small quantity of animal bones. The pottery appeared to be mainly of Iron Age date (Northants. Archaeol., 11 (1976), 83–7).

*c(14) Flint-Working Site (SP 845829), immediately E. of Rushton All Saints, on Northampton Sand at 90 m. above OD. Pipeline construction in 1976 exposed a large quantity of flint scrapers, blades and waste flakes (Northants. Archaeol., 13 (1978), 180).

*d(15) Flint-Working Site (SP 86328077), in the extreme S.E. of the parish, on Northampton Sand at 87 m. above OD. Several flint flakes, and a number of small cores have been noted (Northants. Archaeol., 11 (1976), 184).

*d(16) Roman Settlement (SP 85158140), in the S. of the parish, E. of Glendon Hall, on Northampton Sand at 107 m. above OD. A large quantity of Roman pottery has been discovered (Northants. Archaeol., 11 (1976), 193).

Medieval and Later

c(8) Settlement Remains (SP 845829), formerly part of Rushton All Saints. Pipe-laying at the E. end of the village revealed areas of burnt stonework, iron slag and fragments of a furnace, associated with 13th to 14th-century pottery. Other stonework and pottery of 11th to 18th-century date including Stamford ware was found a little to the S. (Northants. Archaeol., 13 (1978), 189; 14 (1979), 107).

52 STANION

Prehistoric and Roman

A polished flint axe has been found in the S.W. of the parish (SP 90958540; Northants. Archaeol., 14 (1979), 104). Further scatters of Iron-Age and Roman pottery have been noted in the S. of the parish in the vicinity of (2–7) (Northants. Archaeol., 11 (1976), 184, 194; 13 (1978), 182; 14 (1979), 104; 106, OS Record Cards; Northants. SMR).

*a(13) Iron Age Settlement (SP 913857), S. of the village, on limestone at 67 m. above OD. A scatter of occupation debris and late Iron Age pottery is recorded (Northants. Archaeol., 14 (1979), 104).

Medieval

a(11) Moat and Enclosures (centred SP 923863). A small quantity of early Saxon pottery has been found at the extreme E. end of this site (SP 926862; Northants. Archaeol., 14 (1979), 107).

*a(14) Saxon Settlement (?) (SP 913860), S. of the village, on Cornbrash at 83 m. above OD. A small scatter of Saxon pottery has been discovered in association with Roman material. A medieval iron hunting arrowhead was also found (Northants. Archaeol., 11 (1976), 194, 196).

*a(15) Saxon Settlement (SP 90458645), S.W. of the village, on limestone at 86 m. above OD. Excavation of a sand-pit revealed two hearths and a post-hole containing Saxon pottery. Similar pottery was found in the surrounding fields (Northants. Archaeol., 13 (1978), 185).

*a(16) Saxon Settlement (?) (SP 928863), in the S.W. of the parish, on limestone at 66 m. above OD. Early Saxon pottery and some worked flints have been found here (Northants. Archaeol., 14 (1979), 107).

*a(17) Iron-Working Site (?) (SP 90778675), S.W. of the village, on Northampton Sand at 78 m. above OD. An extensive area of iron slag is associated with pottery of the 13th and 14th centuries (Northants. Archaeol., 13 (1978), 189).

53 STOKE ALBANY

Prehistoric

*a(6) Enclosure (SP 795885), N.W. of the village, on Middle Lias Clay at 84 m. above OD. Air photographs (Northants. SMR) show very indistinctly an almost square enclosure some 50 m. wide.

56 SYWELL

Roman

*b(11) Roman Settlement (?) (SP 822673), S. of Sywell Hall, on Northampton Sand at 79 m. above OD. Roman pottery, some of it associated with an area of stones, and a few worked flints were discovered in a trial trench (Northants. Archaeol., 14 (1979), 108).

Medieval and Later

b(7) Settlement Remains (SP 821673). Trial excavation on the N. side of the village (SP 822673) revealed early medieval pottery including St. Neots and Stamford wares, as well as late medieval and post-medieval sherds (Northants. Archaeol., 14 (1979), 108). For Roman finds, see (11).

59 WARKTON

Prehistoric

b(1) Enclosure (SP 90728050). A scatter of stone, bone and late Iron Age pottery has been found on this cropmark (Northants. Archaeol., 11 (1976), 184).

60 WEEKLEY

Prehistoric and Roman

a(1) Iron Age and Roman Settlement (centred SP 875812). Full details of the recent excavations have been published (Northants. Archaeol., 11 (1976), 71–82).

a(2) Iron Age Settlement and Roman Building and Kilns (SP 884818). Further details of the recent excavations have been published (Northants. Archaeol., 11 (1967), 194; 12 (1977), 210; 13 (1978), 180). Petrological analysis of late Iron Age sherds with curvilinear decoration has shown that the raw materials used are from the Lizard, Cornwall (Northants. Archaeol., 12 (1977), 183–4). A Belgic coin, possibly Trinovantian, of Addedomaros, has been found (Northants. Archaeol., 14 (1979), 104). In the early 19th century a 'Roman pavement' was discovered in this area and later destroyed (letter of November 1809 in Broadsides, Central Library, Northampton).

*a(13) Roman Well (SP 870817), within Weekley Hall Wood, on Boulder Clay at 110 m. above OD. A well about 25 m. deep was discovered during ironstone-mining. Two complete jars found at the bottom suggest that the well was in use during the 2nd century (Northants. Archaeol., 12 (1977), 223).

61 WELDON

Prehistoric

*b(11) Iron Age Settlement (?) (SP 912889), discovered during ironstone-mining, on limestone at 90 m. above OD. A quantity of early Iron Age pottery was found in some shallow pits (Northants. Archaeol., 12 (1977), 210).

Medieval

b(9) Iron-Working Site (SP 928895). Additional finds from this site have now been published (Northants. Archaeol., 12 (1977), 227).

62 WELLINGBOROUGH

Prehistoric and Roman

A pebble macehead with hour-glass perforation, said to be Mesolithic, has been found in Finedon (SP 920720; NM; CBA Research Report, 20 (1977), 217), and a scatter of worked flints has been noted (SP 910683; Northants. Archaeol., 11 (1976), 184). A coin of Constantine I and some undated Roman sherds have been reported from the N.E. end of Finedon (SP 923726; Northants. Archaeol., 12 (1977), 223) and a silver Roman coin was found on the W. side of Wellingborough (SP 888679; J. Cole, Hist. of Wellingborough (1837), 176; lost). Objects described as 'a potter's wheel and stands of unbaked clay', and perhaps a Roman kiln, have been found somewhere in the parish (Arch. J., 35 (1878), 88).

(3) Bronze Age Burials (unlocated). A Collared Urn of the Primary Series (in Ashmolean Museum) may be one of the three Urns previously recorded (PPS, 27 (1961), 297, No. 129).

d(13) Iron Age and Roman Settlement (centred SP 875680). Full details of the excavations have now been published (Northants. Archaeol., 11 (1976), 89–99; 12 (1977), 55–96, 210).

d(18) Roman Settlement (SP 885695). Air photographs (Northants. SMR) show indistinct cropmarks covering 0.5 hectare, perhaps bounded on two sides by a ditch, close to the Roman material previously recorded.

*d(36) Flint-Working Site (SP 893668), S. of Wellingborough, on Upper Lias Clay at 45 m. above OD. Worked flints including scrapers and points are recorded (Northants. SMR).

*d(37) Roman Settlement (?) (SP 898692), N.E. of Wellingborough, on Northampton Sand at 25 m. above OD. Roman material including coins and pottery is said to have been found at Ladyswell (VCH Northants., I (1902), 221).

63 WESTON-BY-WELLAND

Roman

*(3) Roman Settlement (SP 786916), in the N.E. of the parish, on gravel at 66 m. above OD. Roman pottery, tesserae and tiles from this area are in Market Harborough Museum. The material probably represents the western extension of the large Iron Age and Roman site immediately to the E. (Ashley (1)).

65 WILBY

Prehistoric and Roman

Part of a moulded shaft was ploughed up in 1972, in an area where Roman material had not previously been recorded (Northants. Archaeol., 13 (1978), 79; NM).

*b(9) Flint-Working Site (SP 860658), W. of the village, on Northampton Sand at 83 m. above OD. A wide scatter of worked flints has been found, including cores, flakes, scrapers, an arrowhead and a point (Northants. Archaeol., 11 (1976), 185).

66 WOLLASTON

Prehistoric

*a(37) Flint-Working Site (SP 896646), in the N.E. of the parish, close to the R. Nene, on alluvium at 45 m. above OD. Worked flints said to be of Mesolithic type have been found (CBA Group 9, Newsletter, 8 (1978), 2).

Medieval

A Saxon sceatta was found in the parish in 1967 (Brit. Num. J., 47 (1977), 50). Many details of the archaeology and history of the parish are given in David Hall's Wollaston (1977). An interpretation of the village plan has also been published (Med. Arch., 21 (1977), 189–193).

b(34) Manor House Site (SP 905624). A plan of the site has now been published (CBA Group 9, Newsletter, 9 (1979), 49–50).

VOLUME III

4 BADBY

Prehistoric and Roman

A quartzite pebble-hammer with hour-glass perforation was found N. of the village in 1968 (SP 55925977; Northants. Archaeol., 14 (1979), 102).

*b(10) Roman Settlement (SP 559598), N. of the village, on Middle Lias Clay at 134 m. above OD. A very large quantity of Roman pottery, mostly grey ware but including samian, mortarium sherds and colour-coated wares, a bronze coin, fragments of quernstones and a dense scatter of stone were found in 1976–8 on a site where a pottery scatter had previously been recorded (Northants. Archaeol., 14 (1979), 105).

6 BOUGHTON

*b(12) Flint-Working Site (SP 756667), in the extreme N. of the parish, and extending into Pitsford parish, on Northampton sand at 91 m. above OD. A large area of worked flints is recorded (Northants. SMR).

8 BRAMPTON, CHURCH

Roman

Roman pottery has been discovered in a pipeline trench immediately N.W. of the village (SP 717660; Northants. SMR).

11 BRIXWORTH

Prehistoric

Part of a Mesolithic or Bronze Age perforated stone implement was found in 1977 (SP 74107139; NM; Northants. Archaeol., 13 (1978), 178).

13 BYFIELD

Roman

A Roman altar has been recorded from Byfield but it may have been brought to the parish from elsewhere in recent times (Northants. SMR).

18 CLIPSTON

Prehistoric

A few worked flints, including a core and a scraper, have been found in the parish, mainly in the W. and S.W. (inf. A. E. Brown).

Medieval

A detailed description of the ridge-and-furrow in Clipston, together with further details of the history of the parish have been published. (CBA Group 9, Newsletter, 9 (1979), 21–31)

19 COLD ASHBY

Prehistoric

More than 50 worked flints, including three cores, have been found at SP 665782. Other flints have been noted at SP 643768. (inf. A. E. Brown)

21 CREATON

Prehistoric

More than 50 worked flints have been found, mostly in the N. and S.W. of the parish. They include thirteen cores and six scrapers and are mainly of Neolithic or later type although there are a few Mesolithic forms. (inf. A. E. Brown)

26 ELKINGTON

Prehistoric

At least 110 worked flints have been discovered in the parish, almost all to the N. and N.E. of the village. They include several microliths as well as thirteen cores and three scrapers of Neolithic and later type. (inf. A. E. Brown)

28 FARNDON, EAST

Prehistoric

About 20 worked flints have been found in the S. and N.E. of the parish. They include a blade and a flake of Mesolithic type and a core and two scrapers of Neolithic or later date. (inf. A. E. Brown)

Medieval

A silver short-cross penny of King John was discovered in the village in 1977 (SP 716848; Northants. Archaeol., 13 (1978). 186).

31 FLORE

Roman

Two Roman coins, both probably of the 2nd century, were found S. of the village in 1978 (SP 64085953; Northants. Archaeol., 14 (1979), 105).

32 GUILSBOROUGH

Prehistoric

Some 30 worked flints have been found in the parish. Most are of Neolithic or later type but there are some Mesolithic forms. At least ten cores and five scrapers are recorded (inf. A. E. Brown).

34 HADDON, WEST

Roman

A coin of Gratian was found in about 1863 within the village (SP 630718; Northants. SMR).

36 HASELBECH

Prehistoric

More than 60 worked flints have been found, including thirteen scrapers and a large number of cores. They are mainly of Neolithic or Bronze Age types, with a few Mesolithic forms (inf. A. E. Brown).

39 HOLLOWELL

Prehistoric

About 60 worked flints, of Mesolithic and Neolithic or later forms have been found in the parish, mainly in the S. round Teeton. They included seven cores, seven scrapers and a leaf-shaped arrowhead (inf. A. E. Brown).

40 KELMARSH

Prehistoric and Roman

Some 30 worked flints have been found mainly in the S. of the parish. They include four cores and four scrapers, all of Neolithic or later type (inf. A. E. Brown).

c(7) Roman Settlement (SP 745793). The reported cropmarks are now known to cover about 20 hectares and, though very indistinct, include a ditched trackway running N.E.-S.W. (SP 748795) and a group of irregular enclosures (SP 744794) (NCAU).

41 KILSBY

Prehistoric

A few worked flints, some of Mesolithic type, were discovered during excavation of the Roman road in 1977 (SP 57397234; Northants. Archaeol., 13 (1978). 89–90).

44 LONG BUCKBY

Prehistoric and Roman

*a(10) Flint-Working Site (SP 650679), in the E. of the parish, on Northampton Sand at 152 m. above OD. A scatter of flints of Neolithic type and part of a polished stone axe are recorded (CBA Group 9, Newsletter, 8 (1978), 22).

*a(11–13) Flint-Working Sites. Scatters of worked flints, said to be mainly of Bronze Age type, have been found (CBA Group 9, Newsletter, 8 (1978), 22).

*(11) Flint-Working Site (SP 647684), 600 m. N.W. of (10), on Northampton Sand at 164 m. above OD.

*(12) Flint-Working Site (SP 646688), 400 m. N.N.W. of (11) on Northampton Sand at 167 m. above OD.

*(13) Flint-Working Site (SP 633695), in the N. of the parish, on glacial gravel at 128 m. above OD.

*a(14) Roman Settlement (SP 625685), N. of the village, on Boulder Clay at 125 m. above OD. An area of dark soil containing occupation debris has been noted (Northants. Archaeol., 13 (1978), 181).

45 MAIDWELL

Prehistoric and Roman

A few worked flints, including two cores and two scrapers, all of Neolithic type, have been found at SP 730772 (inf. A. E. Brown).

a(3) Iron Age and Roman Settlement (centred SP 747772). At some time before 1901 objects described as 'Roman bricks' and 'a path paved with cobble stones' were found at the E. end of the village (SP 750770; Broadsides, Central Library, Northampton).

46 MARSTON TRUSSELL

Prehistoric

About 30 worked flints have been found in the parish, all of Neolithic or later form, including one arrowhead, five scrapers and three cores (inf. A. E. Brown).

47 NASEBY

Prehistoric and Roman

A partly polished flint axe was found on Naseby Field in 1973 (SP 68117945; Northants. Archaeol., 14 (1979), 103), and about 40 worked flints, all Neolithic or later types including four scrapers and eight cores, are recorded from the parish (inf. A. E. Brown). A Bronze Age spearhead of unknown provenance and a hoard of 57 Roman coins of the early 4th century, discovered in 1924 'at Naseby Hall', are in Market Harborough Museum.

*a(6) Roman Settlement (SP 693789), N.E. of the village, on Upper Lias Clay at 185 m. above OD. A dense scatter of Roman pottery including samian, Nene Valley and Oxfordshire wares has been found (Northants. Archaeol., 13 (1978), 181).

*a(7) Roman Settlement (?) (SP 693778), S.E. of the village, on Boulder Clay at 190 m. above OD. A scatter of Roman pottery is recorded (Northants. Archaeol., 13 (1978), 181).

49 NORTON

Roman

A single coin of Constantine I has been found (SP 602637; Northants. Archaeol., 13 (1978), 181).

50 OXENDON, GREAT

Prehistoric and Roman

Some 20 worked flints have been found in the parish, mainly S.W. and N.E. of the village. They include five cores, and two scrapers of Neolithic or later types and some blades which may be Mesolithic (inf. A. E. Brown). A coin of Postumus has come from the parish (Market Harborough Museum).

51 PITSFORD

Roman

*a(10) Roman Settlement and Well (SP 742672), S. of Boughton Grange, on Northampton Sand at 105 m. above OD. A well, Roman pottery and 'leather' are said to have been discovered in this area in about 1936. The site has been quarried away. Two quernstones, upper and lower, of local stone and probably of Iron Age date, came from the same area (OS Record Cards, grid reference incorrect).

53 RAVENSTHORPE

Prehistoric

Nearly 80 worked flints have been found in the parish. Most are of late Neolithic or Bronze Age type though some may be Mesolithic. They include thirteen cores and ten scrapers (inf. A. E. Brown).

54 SCALDWELL

Prehistoric and Medieval

The following finds are said to have been made during ironstone-quarrying somewhere in the parish in the 1920s: a stone axe, up to 200 silver pennies of Henry I, burials and gold objects, and a 'series of trenches up to 40 ft. long filled with human bones' (Northampton Independent, 4 September 1926).

55 SIBBERTOFT

Prehistoric

More than 80 worked flints have been found, mainly in the N.W., N.E. and S.E. of the parish. They include part of an axe, twelve cores and several scrapers and are mainly of Neolithic or later types with a few Mesolithic forms (inf. A. E. Brown).

57 STANFORD-ON-AVON

Prehistoric

Some 20 worked flints of Neolithic or later type, including four cores and one scraper, have been found in the parish (inf. A. E. Brown).

60 SULBY

Prehistoric and Roman

A few worked flints of Neolithic or later type, including four scrapers, have been found in the parish (inf. A. E. Brown).

*c(6) Roman Settlement (?) (SP 663797), in the S. of the parish, on Upper Lias Clay at 142 m. above OD. A small scatter of Roman sherds has been noted (Northants. Archaeol., 13 (1978), 182).

61 THORNBY

Prehistoric

A few worked flints, including two scrapers, have been found at SP 675766 (inf. A. E. Brown).

64 WELFORD

Prehistoric

About 80 worked flints of Neolithic or later type, including 17 cores and 18 scrapers, have been found in the parish (inf. A. E. Brown).

62 WATFORD

Roman

*b(7) Roman Settlement (?) (SP 596703), in the N. of the parish, on Marlstone Rock at 135 m. above OD. Unspecified Roman material is recorded (Northants. SMR).

*b(8) Roman Settlement (?) (SP 599704), 300 m. E. of (7), on Middle Lias Clay at 135 m. above OD. Roman material is said to have been found (Northants. SMR).

65 WELTON

Roman

*(6) Roman Settlement (?) (unlocated, possibly in Watford parish). Roman material was discovered in the 19th century, possibly in the vicinity of the Saxon burials (1) (Dryden Collection, Central Library, Northampton).

68 WOODFORD-CUM-MEMBRIS

Medieval

*a(4) Dam (SP 513513), in the extreme W. of the parish, on Upper Lias Clay at 147 m. above OD. The shallow valley of a S.E.-flowing stream is spanned by a large earthen dam 100 m. long and 2 m. high. It is breached in the centre. (RAF VAP CPE/UK/1926, 3067–8).

ROMAN ROADS

1f, Watling Street

A section has been cut through the Roman road in Kilsby parish (SP 57397234), in the part where the alignment is no longer followed by a modern road. The excavation revealed at least two, and perhaps three separate parallel carriageways, of which the central one was twice the width of each of the flanking ones. (Northants. Archaeol., 13 (1978), 87–92; Britannia, 9 (1978), 442).

57a Middleton to Stanion

Excavations have been carried out on the Roman road in Hazel Wood, Corby (SP 879883; Northants. Archaeol., 13 (1978), 92–4), and in South Wood (SP 897873; J. Northants. Nat. Hist. Soc. and FC, 33 (1959), 259–60).

From Aldwincle to ?

Further details of this road, running N.E. from the road 57a have now been published (Northants. Archaeol., 12 (1977), 47).

From Ashton to ?

During excavations of the Roman settlement at Ashton (3) a Roman road was discovered running N.–S. across the site. Parchmarks to the S. and a short length of agger to the N. (TL 048895) indicate the continuation of this road over a total distance of 800 m. At the S. end (TL 047888) an area of stonework was found in the bed and bank of the R. Nene during drainage work. It is possible that the road crossed the river at this point. Within the settlement a second road was discovered, running W. for 25 m. from the main one (Durobrivae, 3 (1975), 12–15; 5 (1977), 6–7; Northants. Archaeol., 11 (1976), 185).