New College

An Inventory of the Historical Monuments in the City of Oxford. Originally published by His Majesty's Stationery Office, London, 1939.

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'New College', An Inventory of the Historical Monuments in the City of Oxford, (London, 1939), pp. 84-91. British History Online [accessed 19 June 2024].

. "New College", in An Inventory of the Historical Monuments in the City of Oxford, (London, 1939) 84-91. British History Online, accessed June 19, 2024,

. "New College", An Inventory of the Historical Monuments in the City of Oxford, (London, 1939). 84-91. British History Online. Web. 19 June 2024,

New College

New College Arms

(17) New College stands between New College Lane and Queen's Lane and the Town Wall. The walls are of local rubble and ashlar and the roofs are covered with lead and slates. The college was founded in 1379 by William of Wykeham, Bishop of Winchester. The site was acquired in the same year and the foundation-stone is said to have been laid in 1380; formal possession was taken of the main buildings, including the Hall, Chapel and rooms in the Great Quadrangle in 1386. At about the same time the Kitchen and Long Room were built. The Cloister was consecrated as a cemetery in 1400 and the Bell-Tower was built at the same time; the Barn was being erected in 1402. In 1449 a small wing was added E. of the main E. range; it was given an upper floor c. 1480 which became the Senior Common Room c. 1675. The hall was panelled and ceiled in 1533–5 and in the second half of the century attics began to be added to the rooms round the great quadrangle; these additions were regularly faced in 1633, but did not give place to the present third storey till 1674; the parapet concealing the gables was added still later. The Warden's Lodging was altered and enlarged at different times in the 16th and following centuries. In 1682–3 a new wing corresponding to the Senior Common Room and two ranges N. and S. of the Garden Quadrangle were built, the contracting mason being William Byrd of Oxford. A further block to the S.E. of the S. range was built in 1700 and the corresponding block on the N. side was built in 1707; the iron screen closing in the Quadrangle was set up in 1711. About 1718 the windows of the Great Quadrangle were modernised and fitted with sashes and in 1715 and 1720 the old staircases were replaced; in 1722 the undercroft of the hall was substituted for former chambers there. The chapel had been repaved in 1637 and in 1735–40 the S. windows were reglazed by William Price, Jun.; in 1773–4 the N. windows were reglazed by William Peckett of York who had previously supplied glass for the W. window; this glass was replaced by Sir Joshua Reynolds' design in 1779. The chapel and reredos were restored by James Wyatt in 1789–94, when the roof was renewed; under Sir Gilbert Scott in 1877–81 the roof was again renewed and the reredos completed. The roof of the hall had been renewed in 1786 and this was again replaced by a design of Scott in 1865. In 1778 the upper library was refitted. An addition was made to the S. of the Junior Common Room in 1912 and additions were made N. of the Senior Common Room; the Warden's Lodging was altered and enlarged in 1903–4.

Architectural Description—The Great Quadrangle (177½ ft. by 125½ ft.) is entered by the late 14th-century Gatehouse (Plate 160) on the W. side and at the E. end of New College Lane. It is of three storeys with a plain parapet. The outer archway has jambs of two hollow-chamfered orders and a four-centred head and is fitted with original oak doors of two leaves with a wicket; the leaves have two tiers of five panels, nail-studded and fixed to square and diagonal framing. The first floor on the W. has two restored square-headed windows and there are two 17th or 18th-century windows on the floor above; at this level also there are three canopied niches, the middle one with diagonal side-pilasters and a cinque-foiled arch under a crocketted gable; the side ones are shorter and plainer and have cinque-foiled heads; they contain weathered figures of the Virgin, with St. Gabriel on the N. and the founder on the S. both kneeling; the central figure has lost its arms. The E. face of the gatehouse is generally similar to the W. but the arch is of one chamfered order and is not fitted with doors; the figures in the niches are similar to those on the W. front, but that of the Virgin has an 18th-century head. The gatehouse itself is of three bays covered with a stone vault; this has ridge, diagonal and wall-ribs springing from vaulting-shafts with moulded capitals and bases; the bosses at the intersections are carved with foliage, and a rose, a dog and a human-mask. The room above, now part of the Warden's Lodging, is lined with late 16th or early 17th-century panelling with Corinthian pilasters and an entablature; on the W. side is a shield of the arms of the founder, in a garter; above the fireplace are six terminal figures. At the W. end of both side walls are original windows each of two trefoiled lights; these indicate that the projecting part of the gatehouse formerly stood free of adjoining buildings. The Ranges on the E., S. and on the rest of the W. sides of the great quadrangle, were originally of two storeys; the existing third storey front was built in 1674 and the embattled parapet added later. The windows generally are square-headed with moulded reveals, but many of them have been altered and all of them were fitted with sashes c. 1718. On the W. side, against the chapel, is an original doorway with moulded jambs and two-centred arch in a square head with quatre-foiled spandrels; the other doorways, where original, have two-centred heads; between the gatehouse and the chapel there was formerly a bay-window above the first floor level; it has been removed but the outline of the coved support is still visible. This formerly lighted the Warden's study; the N. part was formerly a separate room said to have been an oratory; it has a loop-light opening into the ante-chapel and an original window in the W. wall. To the S. of this window is a doorway with an elliptical head; the 16th-century fireplace, in the same wall, has stop-moulded jambs and four-centred arch in a square head; the overmantel (Plate 19) is of two bays, divided and flanked by Ionic pilasters supporting an enriched entablature; the bays have arched and enriched panels enclosing the arms of the founder and those of Thomas Bilson, Bishop of Winchester (1597– 1616), both in garters. The warden's staircase (Plate 162), S. of the gatehouse, was built in 1675; it is of welltype with turned balusters, moulded strings and rails and square newels with ball-terminals; the staircase has been reinforced by posts in 1903–4. The Warden's Dining Room, further S., has a 16th-century fireplace with a four-centred arch in a square head. On the first floor of the staircase are two beams which may have formed part of the original roof of the range; in the W. wall of the range, further S., are remains of a stone bay-window of three lights with one light on the returns; it was built late in the 16th century to light one of the attic rooms added to the range at that time; the window is now blocked and only visible externally. At the S. end of the range the original gable remains with the later heightening of the S. range built against it; this heightening is now faced with modern stonework but below it runs the original parapet string-course with a series of carved and weathered bosses with masks, beasts, a rose, etc. As originally arranged the chambers round the quadrangle were of two storeys, the upper approached by five staircases; each set consisted of a large bed-room for four or three beds with as many small studies opening off it. The sets were remodelled c. 1720 but many of the old partitions were retained; they now consist normally of a study and bedroom each. The staircase No. 1 in the W. range is of late 17th or early 18th-century date and the upper flights have symmetrically turned balusters and square newels with moulded pendants; the other staircases are of c. 1720 and have twisted balusters. The rooms have a certain amount of late 16th and 18th-century panelling. A room in the S. range off Stair No. 2, has early 16th-century moulded ceiling-beams and an overmantel (Plate 19) similar to that in the Warden's study but of three bays and without coats-of-arms; behind it are parts of a painted design of roses and foliage, overpainted with a black and yellow pattern. In a room, off Stair No. 3, is a mediæval niche with a rounded arch in a square head. In the middle of the E. range is a passage-way entered at both ends by archways with chamfered jambs and four-centred heads; the outer one is rebated for doors; the passage has an original quadripartite ribbed vault of two bays with bosses at the intersections carved with foliage and two masks. The Old Bursary, N. of the passage, has a late 15th or early 16th-century panelled ceiling with moulded ribs and bosses, either of wood carved with double roses or of lead with lion-masks. In the bursary are preserved a late 16th-century achievement of the founder's arms, and seven 17th-century painted panels of biblical kings and prophets from the former organscreen; in the S.E. window is a 15th-century glass roundel with a peewit and motto—"Redde quod debes". The W. end of the staircase to the N. has a ceiling similar to that in the bursary, with lead bosses. On the first floor are the Main Library and the Auctarium, both refitted in 1780; the original windows in the E. wall of the Library have been blocked by the addition of the Senior Common Room; on the second floor are the Upper Library, refitted in 1778, and the Classical Library. Between the storeys on the E. face are three achievements-of-arms of (a) George Morley, Bishop of Winchester (1662–84), (b) Edwin Sandys (Sandys quartering Barker) and (c) Thomas Ken, Bishop of Bath and Wells (1685–91).

The Muniment Tower at the N. end of the range is of late 14th-century date and of four storeys finished with a plain parapet and pinnacles at the angles. The ground floor now forms the Treasure-chamber on the S. and the staircase to the hall on the N. The Treasurechamber has a ribbed quadripartite vault in two bays springing from moulded corbels carved with male figures and a head; the pavement has some late 14th-century slip-tiles with arms of the college and paterae. The room above has similar vaulting, some of the corbels being carved with half angels; it has slip-tiles similar to those in the room below. The staircase to the hall is entered by an archway with hollow-chamfered jambs and moulded two-centred inner order to the arch with a label; above it is a partly restored window of three trefoiled lights with vertical tracery in a two-centred head; the stairs are in one flight with moulded hand-rails of oak; the ribbed stone vault (Plate 4) is of lierne or star form and of three bays, with moulded ribs springing from foliated corbels. The window contains late 14th-century glass shields of the College, St. George, See of Ely (but with the crowns in pale) and France ancient quartering England; there are also later shields, mostly 16th-century, of (a) Archbishop Warham, (b) Tudor royal arms, (c) Stephen Gardiner, Bishop of Winchester, 1531–56, (d) Tudor royal arms, with a label and E.P. (e) See of Winchester, (f) William Knight, Bishop of Bath and Wells, 1541–7 and (h) Robert Sherborn, Bishop of Chichester, 1508–36. The two top storeys of the tower have both a single room, with a ribbed quadripartite vault of two bays; the ribs spring from moulded corbels; the pavements include slip-tiles similar to those in the lower floors; these rooms are reached by a turret-staircase in the N.E. angle, fitted with old iron-bound doors. The windows are square-headed and fitted with iron grates; those in the third storey on the W. are flanked and divided by niches similar to those on the main gatehouse; they are similarly occupied by figures of the Virgin, St. Gabriel and the founder; the head of St. Gabriel has been re-cut.

The Great Hall (Plate 153) (114½ ft. by 40 ft.) is of late 14th-century date and occupies the E. half of the N. range with the chapel to the W. It stands on a basement and is of four bays divided by buttresses and finished with a restored parapet and pinnacles; the low-pitched E. gable has a restored central pinnacle with a niche and a modern figure of St. Michael (the old figure is now at Trinity College). Each free bay of the hall has a window of two cinque-foiled and transomed lights with a quatrefoil in a two-centred head with a label and stops carved with male busts including a king and bishop; the rear-arches are moulded and the recesses have window-seats. In the E. bay on the S. is a doorway with moulded jambs and four-centred arch in a square head with quatre-foiled spandrels. In the E. wall of the 'screens' are three doorways and a staircase, the middle doorway with moulded jambs and four-centred head and the side ones of similar form with chamfered jambs. The roof is modern but rests on moulded stone corbels carved with heads of kings, queens and bishops. The 18th-century pavement is of square stones with small black marble squares set in the angles. The side walls are lined, to a height of 12 ft., with early 16th-century linen-fold panelling with cornices, restored inscription, cresting and pinnacles; the cresting is carved with shields supported by cherubs and roundels with carved heads; the panelling at the W. or dais end is carried up higher and is finished with similar cornice and cresting brought forward on a vaulted cove; the bosses of the vaulting are carved with masks and foliage and two bear the initials I.L. (for John London, Warden 1526–42); the upper panels (Plate 50) are carved, mostly with scrolled foliage, monsters and strapwork and shields painted with later arms; eight panels have carved shields of the founder, Warham Archbishop of Canterbury, Longland Bishop of Lincoln, Sherborn Bishop of Chichester, Tudor royal arms and a panel with the Passion emblems; the later painted shields bear the arms of Francis Edmonds, 1708, John Rawlinson, 1694, Thistlethwaite, Porter, Sandys, William Rolfe 1658, Roger Stanley 1662, V. Chernocke, 1795, Guy Wentworth, Cholmondeley Deering, Francis Page, Robert Sharrock, Henry Penton, William Thomas 1696, Adolph Meetkirke 1684, John Bagshall 1712, Walter Holford, 1715 or 1713, Henry Coker 1731, Rayener Harris, William Bouchier, Barker, Edward Hooper, Warnford, etc. On the cresting of this and the panelling of the side walls are painted shields including the University, see of Winchester, the founder, the College, the City, etc. The screen (Plate 153) at the E. end of the hall is treated like the panelling of the side walls; it has two doorways with four-centred arches in square heads and spandrels carved with a rose or lily and foliage; the back of the screen has linen-fold panelling and the N. end has been altered to provide light for the passage. The E. wall of the passage is lined with linen-fold panelling; the spandrels over the middle doorway (Plate 8) have elaborate rose and foliage designs and a shield of the arms of the college; those over the N. doorway have carved male figures carrying flagons, etc.; over the middle doorway is a carving of the royal Stuart arms. The Undercroft of the hall was originally used as chambers for the chaplains, there being one set to each bay; in 1722 these chambers were cleared away and barrel-vaults inserted, springing from a central wall. Each bay on the S. has a central pointed doorway flanked by square-headed windows; on the N. side each bay has a central window of two trefoiled lights, flanked by square-headed windows; the central windows have been altered to doorways in the end bays and the W. bay now forms a modern passage.

The Chapel (Plates 151, 160, 161) (102 ft. by 33 ft.) with Ante-Chapel (80 ft. by 37 ft.) is of late 14th-century date and is finished with buttresses, a restored parapet and pinnacles similar to those of the hall. The chapel is of five bays, each bay of the side walls having a partly restored window of four cinque-foiled and transomed lights with moulded reveals and vertical tracery in a two-centred head with a label; below the second N. window is a doorway with moulded jambs and two-centred head. The Ante-chapel (Plates 150, 151) is crossed by arcades of two bays continuing the side walls of the chapel; the arches are two-centred and moulded and spring from moulded and shafted piers and responds with moulded capitals and bases. The E. wall of each arm of the ante-chapel has a partly restored window of six cinque-foiled and transomed lights with vertical tracery in a four-centred head with moulded reveals and label; the end and W. walls of the ante-chapel have windows similar to those in the chapel; the western window in the S. wall is represented only by panelling, unpierced except by the double loop from the warden's lodging; in the same bay is a partly restored doorway with moulded jambs and two-centred head. The central bay of the W. front has a stair-turret on the N. with a crocketted capping; the low-pitched gable has a restored pinnacle and niche with a modern figure of the Virgin; the great W. window is of seven cinque-foiled and transomed lights with vertical tracery in a two-centred head with moulded reveals and label; the internal reveals are carried down to the floor and up above the window-head to form a segmental-pointed head; this would appear to indicate an alteration in design in the course of the work and possibly a first intention to extend the chapel to the W. with an open arch; the partly restored W. doorway has moulded jambs and two-centred arch in a square head with foliated spandrels; it is flanked by diagonal pilasters with crocketted pinnacles. The roofs are modern but rest on moulded corbels carved with the heads of kings and bishops. The Sacristy and Music Room, N. of the chapel, were formerly vestries and are probably of the 15th century. The existing features have been restored.

New College

Fittings—Altar: See Brass (15). Brasses and Indents. Brasses: In N. arm of ante-chapel—(1) of John Rede, S.T.B., warden, 1521, figure of priest in cope, etc.; (2) of John Yong, Bishop of Callipolis and warden, 15[25], figure of bishop in mass-vestments with head and crozier in composition; (3) of [Thomas Cranley, Archbishop of Dublin and warden, 1417] figure of archbishop in mass-vestments, with pall, mitre and broken cross-staff, canopy of three bays with tracery, crockets and pinnacles, foot and remains of marginal inscriptions, two shields-of-arms of Cranley; (4) of Walter Hyll, M.A., warden, 1494, figure of priest in cope, etc., with initials W.H. on the cope; (5) of Antony Aylworth, 1619, figure of man in cap, hood and gown, shield-of-arms, foot and marginal inscriptions, part missing; (6) of [Richard Malford, warden, 1403], figure of priest in cope, etc., with initials R.M. on cope, inscription and scroll missing; (7) to Nicholas Osylbury, S.T.B., warden, 1453, inscription with indent of figure; (8) of Geoffrey Hargreve, 1447, figure of priest in cassock, gown, tippet and hood, with scroll; (9) of John Lowthe, Professor of civil law, 1427, figure of man in academic dress of a Doctor of civil law, with cap and scroll; (10) of John Frye, 1507, half-figure of priest in mass-vestments with chalice and wafer; (11) of John Palmer, B.A., 1479, figure of priest in cassock, gown, tippet and hood, with scroll; (12) figure of notary in long gown with pen-case and ink-bottle, head missing, indents of inscription-plate and shield, c. 1510; (13) of John London, M.A., 1508, figure of priest in cassock, gown, hood and tippet; (14) of William Hautryve, Dec. D., 1441, figure of priest in rochet with slit in front, hood and cap, with scroll; (15) of Walter Bailey, 1592–3, figure of man in civil costume, with shield-of-arms, foot and parts of marginal inscriptions, set in slab with indent of earlier brass and also four crosses, probably first used as an altar; (16) of Walter Wake, 1451–2, half-figure of priest in gown and tippet; (17) of Thomas Hylle, S.T.P., 1468, figure of priest in gown with slit in front, hood and cap, holding T-cross, and with scroll; (18) to [Hugh Holes, 1430], scroll only, with indents of figure, inscription-plate, two shields and a second scroll; (19) to [Thomas Gascoigne, S.T.D., 1457], shield-of-arms of Gascoyne differenced, indents of half-figure of priest, inscription-plate and device; (20) of John Desford, J.Can.B., Canon of Hereford, 1419, half-figure of priest in cope; (21) of [Richard Wyard, B.C.L., 1478] figure of priest in cassock, gown, tippet and hood, holding a T-cross, lower part of figure loose, and inscription and scroll missing; (22) of Thomas Flemyng, LL.B., 1472, small figure in shroud; (23) to William Fryth, S.T.B., 1420, inscription only visible. In S. arm of ante-chapel— on W. wall, (24) of Hugh Lloyd, J.C.D., 1601, kneeling figure of man in gown and hood at prayer-desk with shield-of-arms. In cloister—on S. wall, (25) to Richard Dyke, M.A., 1604 or 5, inscription only. See also Monument (2). Indents: In ante-chapel, N. arm, (1) of man in doctor's cap, inscription and four shields. In cloister—in N.W. angle, (2) of figure, scroll and inscription-plate; (3) of inscription-plate; (4) of half-figure and inscription-plate; (5) of inscription-plate. Glass: In N. windows of chapel—series of apostles and prophets by William Peckett of York, 1765–74; tracery lights filled with late 14th-century glass; in the first window figures of the wise virgins under canopies; in second to fifth windows similar canopies with figures of angels, archangels, virtues and powers. In S. windows of chapel—series of figures of saints, patriarchs, and bishops, eight in each window and set under Gothic canopies, glass largely the work of William Price, Jun., 1735–40, but incorporating a considerable number of earlier pieces including crosier-heads, parts of canopies, etc., all probably a restoration of the late 14th-century windows and bearing the request for prayers for the founder; tracery-lights with original glass as on N. side and the five windows having figures of the remaining orders of angels, cherubim, dominions, seraphim, thrones and principalities; figures in third window and some others restored in the 18th century. In all windows of ante-chapel except great W. window is original late 14th-century glass, by Thomas, glazier, largely in situ but re-set c. 1899; all windows have large figures under canopies and across the base of each window is the inscription, more or less complete "Orate p. Willmo Wykham epo. Wyton. fundatore istius Collegii". In E. window in N. arm, lower part of six lights had two Crucifixions with the Virgin and St. John, no doubt over the two altars below; the figure of Christ has been replaced in each case as has the figure of St. Mary in the N. light; here the substituted figure has a background powdered with crowned Cs; the base of the cross and the mound with crowned Xs, in the next light, remain, but above is part of a figure with crowned Es and crowned Cs on the field; below the cross is a small figure on a pedestal; the second St. Mary in the fourth light is largely complete and the field has crowned Ms; the crucifixion in the fifth light retains only the base with the small figure on a pedestal below; the figure above is made up and has crowned Rs on the field; the St. John remains in the sixth light; the upper lights of this window have figures of apostles, St. Peter, St. Andrew, St. James (the Great), St. John, St. Thomas and St. James (the Less) with their names; in the tracery are figures of angels and a kneeling figure of a bishop. The N.E. window (Plate 164) contains, in the four lights, figures from the old dispensation with their names, Jacob patriarcha, Judas Maccabeus, Moses dux populi Dei, Aaron summus sacerdos and above the prophets Zephaniah, Daniel, Jeremiah, and Obadiah with scrolls bearing extracts from their books; in the tracery are figures of angels of the order of Dominions. The N.W. window (Plate 164) has figures of patriarchs and prophets with their names, Mathusale filius Enoch, Noe qui archam fabricavit, Abraham patriarcha, Isaac patriarcha, and the prophets Hosea, Habakkuk, Isaiah and Baruch with scrolls bearing extracts from their books; in the tracery are angels of the order of Principalities. In the W. window of the N. arm are again figures of patriarchs and prophets with their names, Ada.....pater, Eva mater oi~m vive~ciu~. Seth filius Ade, Enoch translatus and the prophets Jonah, Joel, Amos and Micah with scrolls as before; in the tracery are angels of the order of Thrones. The E. window of the S. arm had two Crucifixions with attendant figures as in the corresponding window on the N., both figures of the crucifixion have had the upper parts replaced by figures from elsewhere; both figures of the Virgin and St. John remain; in the six upper lights are figures of apostles, Philip, Bartholomew, Matthew, Simon, Matthias and Jude; in the tracery are angels and a coronation of the Virgin. The S.E. window has figures of saints, in the lower row St. Athanasius, St. [Bern]ard, St. Nicholas (?) and St. Anselm, with their names and their crowned initials on the field; in the upper row are a bishop with the initial D, St. Pelagius, St. Alphege and possibly St. Germanus, with names (some damaged) and initials as before; all are vested as bishops except Pelagius as a pope, Bernard as a monk and St. Anselm; in the tracery are figures of Cherubim. The W. window of the S. arm has figures of a bishop and female saints, in the lower row, St. B .... a bishop, St. Brigit, St. E ...., St. Elizabeth (of Hungary ?); in the upper row, St. Mary of Egypt, St. Martha, St. Mary the mother of James, upper part of figure replaced by that of prophet, and a queen with the initial W. but with the name of St. Cuthbert below; all the figures have names and initials; in the tracery are figures of Seraphim. The glass in the great W. window was executed in 1778–85 by Thomas Jarvis from the designs of Sir Joshua Reynolds. Monuments and Floor-slabs. Monuments: In ante-chapel—on E. wall of S. arm, (1) to Michael Woodward, S.T.P. warden, 1675, alabaster, black and white marble wall-monument (Plate 31), with bust of man in Doctor's cap, etc., flanking figures of cherubs, pediment, achievement-of-arms and enriched apron; (2) to Thomas Hopper, 1623–4, alabaster tablet with enriched pilasters, shelf and entablature, enclosing brass plate, with architectural composition, figures of Aesculapius and Ceres and a pentagram, designed by Richard Haydock; on the W. wall, (3) of Richard Traffles, LL.D., Warden, 1703, white marble tablet with bust and cartouche-of-arms; (4) of Robert Pinke, S.T.D., Warden, 1647, black and white marble tablet with bust of man in round-headed recess, with scrolls, pediment and cartouche-of-arms, erected 1677; (5) of Hugh Barker, LL.D., 1632, black and white marble tablet, by Nicholas Stone, with bust in recess on scrolled bracket, with tablet pediment and achievement-of-arms above; (6) to John Harmar, S.T.D., Regius Professor of Greek, 1613, alabaster and black marble tablet with side-pilasters, entablature and achievement-of-arms. In cloister—on E. wall, (7) to James Wither, M.A., 1627, framed tablet; (8) to Giles Field, S.T.D., 1629, framed tablet; on N. wall, (9) to Thomas Lydiat, rector of Alkerton, 1646, framed tablet, cenotaph erected 1669; (10) to John Cowderoy, 1714, draped cartouche with cherubs and shield-of-arms; (11) to Richard Edmonds, 1660, tablet with scrolls, entablature, pediment and cartouche-of-arms; on S. wall, (12) to Henry Brome, 1667, tablet with consoles, entablature, pediment and achievement-of-arms; (13) to Laurence Saintloe, A.M., 1675, oval convex tablet of alabaster and black marble with cherubs and cartouche-of-arms; on W. wall, (14) to Edwin Sandys, LL.B., 1684–5, scrolled marble tablet with cherub-heads and cartouche-of-arms; (15) to Robert Baynham, M.A., 1669, scrolled tablet with cartouche-of-arms; (16) to Hugh Barker, 1690, framed tablet with shield-of-arms; (17) to Josias Calmady, 1701, scrolled marble tablet with cherub-heads and shield-of-arms. Floor-slabs: In cloister—E. walk, (1) to Robert Dallam, organ-builder, 1665, re-cut; N. walk, (2) with date 1675; (3) to John Taylor, 1686; (4) to James [Bewmont], M.B., 1712; (5) to .... Baynham (?), 1669; (6) to George Tayler (?), A.B., 1697 (or 67); (7) to William Finch, 1695; (8) to Bartholomew ...., 1668 (?); (9) to John Philips, 1691; (10) to Matthew Finch, LL.B., 1665; (11) to Charles Yate, LL.B., 1688, with shield-of-arms; (12) to Francis Noyes, 1679–80, with achievement-of-arms; (13) to Edwyn Sandys, [1684– 5], with shield-of-arms; in W. walk, (14) to Peverell Moggs, 1678–9; (15) to John Newman, 1692, with achievement-of-arms; (16) to Giles Raymond, 1675; (17) to Josias Calmady, 1701; (18) to Paul Acton, A.M., 1686–7; in S. walk, (19) to Thomas Bowyer, probably late 17th-century; (20) to John Pyle, A.B., 1696–7, with shield-of-arms; (21) to William King, organist, 1680, with shield-of-arms; (22) to William Merideth, organist, 1637–8; (23) to M.M. 1640, with defaced shield-of-arms. Pavement: In chapel—altarpace of white marble; rest of chapel and ante-chapel paved with pattern of black and grey marble and white stone, late 17th or 18th-century. Reredos (Plate 161): Against E. wall, almost entirely modern, but based on remains found cut back against the wall; parts of backing of upper ranges of panels or niches may be old; behind altar, range of late 18th-century marble panels, by Westmacott, replacing and (except in one instance) reproducing the subjects of the original late 14th-century panels, remains of which are now preserved in the Music Room; these panels, all more or less damaged, represent (a) the Coronation of the Virgin, (b) the Annunciation, (c) the Ascension, rock in middle with print of feet, (d) the Nativity, (e) the Resurrection. Screen: At W. end of chapel—modern but incorporating, in lower panels, fourteen panels with trefoiled heads and foliated spandrels, and doors in two leaves; each leaf has trefoil-headed lower panels and open upper panels forming three trefoiled lights with tracery in a four-centred head and traceried spandrels in an outer main head; the main mouldings are enriched with paterae, late 14th-century, partly restored. Sedilia and Piscina: In chapel—all modern restoration but perhaps based on remains of earlier work. Stalls: In chapel, with returns at W. end—largely modern but incorporating late 14th-century misericordes, back stall-divisions and buttresses between the panels on wall at back; stalldivisions have old moulded cappings, elbow-rests and bases; the elbow-rests (Plate 43) are carved with a variety of small subjects mostly foliage with grotesque heads, monsters, angels, men's heads, dolphin, lionmasks, pelican in her piety, armed man fighting monster, double roses, woman with garland, and a bishop's head, probably the founder; the carvings of the misericordes (Plates 154–159) only are old and are as follows, N. side —(1) eagle with scroll, eagles at sides, (2) lion's mask, scallops at sides, (3) man's head with vine-leaves, similar leaves at sides, (4) king's head, harpies at sides, (5) ram's head, paterae at sides, (6) man's head with foliage, paterae at sides, (7) shield of Beauchamp of Warwick, two shields of Calveley and Curzon (?) at sides, (8) monster with six heads, small figures at sides including an exorcism, (9) foliage, foliage at sides, (10) corbel with double rose, roses at sides, (11) gateway with portcullis, heads in armour at sides, (12) monster, leaves with faces at sides, (13) mask and foliage, leaves at sides, (14) foliage, leaves at sides, (15) Jack and the Beanstalk, giant with animals and birds, mother and Jack at sides, (16) foliage, foliage at sides, (17) winged monsters, crowned heads at sides, (18) rose-tree, garlands at sides, (19) winged beast, foliage-masks at sides, (20) stag-hunt, leaves and masks at sides, (21) male mask, with wings, leaves at sides, (22) seated man in hood, oak leaves at sides, (23) foliage, leaves at sides, (24) two birds, leaves at sides, (25) bearded mask, foliage at sides, (26) foliage-mask, foliage at sides, (27) three-faced man, monsters at sides; S. side, (1) peacock, peacocks at sides, (2) faun or centaur with drum, centaurs at sides, (3) mask and foliage, modern sides, (4) foliage, leaves at sides, (5) harpy, roses at sides, (6) bearded mask, griffins at sides, (7) monster, hedgehogs at sides, (8) figure sub ject of a lecture, doctor at desk, man presenting book and other attendant figures, man carrying books and man with liripipe-hood reading at sides, (9) foliage, foliage at sides, (10) head-corbel, leaves and masks at sides, (11) foliage, foliage at sides, (12) bearded mask, masks at sides, (13) foliage, foliage at sides, (14) gateway, portcullis falling on Ewain's horse, gate with sentries at sides, (15) monkey with hood, lilies and monkeys at sides, (16) bearded man, foliage at sides, (17) swan, birds at sides, (18) winged monster, flowers at sides, (19) bearded mask, foliage at sides, (20) corbel, architectural features at sides, (21) monster, foliage at sides, (22) pair of tumblers, flowers at sides, (23) rosebush, roses at sides, (24) foliage, foliage at sides, (25) foliage, lions' masks at sides, (26) foliage, monsters at sides, (27) winged demon grasping two women, cripple and monk at sides; return-stalls, N. to S., (1) monster and crouching man with club or mace, foliage at sides, (2) old woman with distaff and cat, monsters and mouse at sides, (3) three men fighting, men with swords at sides, (4) crowned lion with two bodies, (5) walled city, presumably Oxford, with church, bishop on bridge and groups of figures at sides, (6) winged monster, leaves at sides, (7) holly-branch, fleurs-de-lis and foliage at sides, (8) woman's mask, leaves at sides. In ante-chapel—six ranges of 17th-century stalls with moulded and shaped cappings, divisions and seats.

The Cloister (Plates 150, 163) (161 ft. by 116 ft.) was built between c. 1396 and 1400 and is of twelve bays from E. to W. and eight bays from N. to S., divided by two-stage buttresses; the gabled roofs are slate-covered; each bay has a much restored window mostly of three cinque-foiled lights with tracery in a two-centred head, with moulded reveals and label; the sixth bay of the N. and S. sides and the fourth from the N. on the E. side are varied by having a wider pointed central light carried down to the ground to form a doorway. The inner E. wall has two doorways, one, opposite the W. doorway of the chapel, has moulded jambs and two-centred arch in a square head with quatre-foiled spandrels; the second doorway opens into the passage to the quadrangle and has chamfered jambs and pointed head. In the W. wall is a patch indicating the site of a breach made in 1899. The alleys of the cloister have roofs of pointed waggon-form with flat rafters and chamfered plates.

The Bell-tower (20 ft. by 18 ft.) is of the same date as the cloister and takes the place of one of the bastions of the city wall; the tower (Plate 150) is of four stages with an embattled parapet and a S.W. stair-turret rising above it. The ground-stage is entered by a doorway in the S. wall similar to the middle doorway in the E. walk of the cloister; the E., N. and W. walls have each a window of one trefoiled light; the E. window is blocked and has been converted into a doorway, also blocked. The second stage has a similar window in the E., S. and W. walls and the third stage in all four walls. The bell-chamber has, in each wall, two cinque-foiled and square-headed windows with moulded reveals. There are ten bells as follows—1st, 2nd and 7th by Abraham Rudhall, 1712, 3rd, 5th, 8th and 10th by Michael Darbie, 1655, 4th by Abraham Rudhall, 1703, 6th by Henry Knight, 1672 and 9th by Abraham Rudhall, 1723.

The Kitchen Block stands immediately to the E. of the great hall and was built late in the 14th century. The kitchen is approached by a staircase from the Hall, with old handrails; it forms the E. part of the range and is of one storey but the W. part forming the buttery and pantry is of two storeys with a modern addition above. The kitchen is lighted by two-light square-headed windows in the N. and S. walls, the former are modern restorations but the latter are restorations of some age; in the E. wall is an original window blocked by a chimney; the fireplaces seem to have been put in c. 1598 and are now disused. The roof is of three bays with four-centred arched braces below the collar-beams and curved wind-braces; it is probably original. The W. part of the building retains some original framed partitions and there are two pointed doorways in the S. wall; in the N.W. angle is a turret-staircase of stone and a doorway with a four-centred head opening into the Beer-cellar. This is of late 14th-century date and has a central octagonal pillar with moulded base and capital supporting the ribbed quadripartite vault; the ribs spring from moulded corbels against the side walls.

The Senior Common Room building was added, as the Chequer, to the E. of the Bursary in the E. range, in 1449; the upper storey was added as the Law Library c. 1480. The lower room became the senior dining-room in the 16th century and the upper room the senior common-room c. 1674. The exterior has a restored embattled parapet and windows with 15th-century reveals and fitted with 18th-century sashes; in the S. wall of the upper storey are two 15th-century windows blocked with ashlar; they are each of two cinque-foiled lights and have transoms visible internally. The Senior Common Room (Plate 165) has a late 15th-century flat-pitched roof, which extends one bay westwards, with moulded ties, purlins, ridge and plates. The fireplace is of veined marble, with pilasters and frieze carved with a female mask and swags; the walls were lined with bolection-moulded panelling in 1678, with drapery-swags on the frieze and bay-leaves above the windows and doorways; above the doorway on the W. is an achievement of the arms of the founder. In the internal walls are 15th-century recesses grooved for shelves.

The rest of the buildings on the E. side of the main block of the original quadrangle and flanking the Garden Quadrangle (Plate 152) were added either in 1682–3 or in 1700–07; the low block of the junior common-room was designed to balance the senior common-room and the rest of the buildings form a symmetrical front towards the gardens. These buildings have been partly refaced and are of three storeys with cornices and embattled parapets; the windows of the ground and top floors have architraves only but the middle windows have straight or curved pediments in addition; the doorways have each a panel above with a cartouche-of-arms; near the E. angles of the inner ranges are cartouches and achievements-of-arms. There are cartouches-of-arms above the doorways of the outer ranges. The staircases have turned balusters in the inner ranges and twisted balusters in the rather later outer ranges. There is a certain amount of early 18th-century panelling. Across the open E. end of the Garden Quadrangle is a wrought-iron screen and gates (Plate 28), executed by Thomas Robinson of London in 1711; it is of five bays on either side of the gateway and is in three planes with scrolled standards and cresting; the central gate has square standards with scroll-work and crestings finished with rose-sprays; the elaborate scrolled overthrow has a cartouche of the arms of the founder; the gates are also scrolled and enriched with lion-masks.

The Long Room lies to the S. of the S. range of the Quadrangle just described. It was built late in the 14th century as a common latrine. It is of two storeys, the lower forming only a cess-pit and the upper approached by a corridor and staircase at the W. end. The lower storey was cleaned out in 1880 and adapted. The original doorway at the W. end of the upper storey has a restored four-centred head and the side walls have each five small square-headed loop-lights. The original roof has king-post trusses, with curved braces under the central purlin.

The buildings to the W. of the main block of the original quadrangle mostly form part of the Warden's Lodging. The block between the quadrangle and the cloister was built partly when the cloister was added but the upper storey was not built till 1540–1. To the S. of the Gatehouse is an irregular range forming the Warden's kitchen and offices. The kitchen is of much the same date as the original quadrangle; to the N. of it was the buttery which was connected with the main quadrangle building by a gallery in 1574–5; the bridge over Queen's Lane was added in 1676. The former small courtyard of the warden's lodging was built over in 1903–4. The windows are mostly of the 16th century and commonly much altered; in the N. wall is a bay-window of this period, on the upper floor; it is of eight four-centred lights with moulded cornice, sill and corbelling. The scullery at the S. end is perhaps of the 16th century and S. of it is a doorway of 1734. Inside the building, the kitchen has an original doorway with a pointed head and above the modern fireplace is the three-centred arch of an earlier fireplace; there is a moulded beam in the ceiling. The room over the scullery has a 16th-century doorway with moulded jambs. In the gallery at the N. end is a 16th-century panelled door and a re-set overmantel of three arched bays; the walls are lined with panelling of c. 1600 and the ceiling has moulded beams; in the bay-window are two glass roundels with the arms of the founder and Stephen Gardiner, Bishop of Winchester, also two 17th-century quarries. The bridge over Queen's Lane has been considerably restored; it is of elliptical form with four-chamfered ribs springing from plain corbels; the walls are finished with eaves-cornices and the roof terminates on the W. in a carved console; the windows have moulded architraves. The room over the bridge has a cartouche-of-arms of John Thomas, Bishop of Winchester, 1761–81, and above the entrance outside three cartouches of the arms of the college.

The Warden's Barn forms a long range on the S. side of New College Lane. It appears to have been built in 1402 and to have consisted of the existing skewed entrance at the W. end and a large barn next to it, stables in the middle and lodgings, formerly the brewhouse, at the E. end. The N. wall is of ashlar and unpierced except by one loop, now blocked, by an 18th-century window and two doorways, a small one at the E. end with a four-centred head and a large opening at the W. end with jambs and four-centred arch of two chamfered orders; it is fitted with two-fold doors with chamfered styles and muntins and a wicket. The S. wall appears to have been much patched and altered; at the W. end is the four-centred inner arch of the entrance; further E. is a wide doorway with chamfered jambs and four-centred arch, set with the splays outwards and with two wing-walls added, to swing the doors against; it seems unlikely that this doorway is in situ; the gable has foiled barge-boards. The remainder of the front has various 15th and 16th-century doorways and windows, one of the windows retaining its original trefoiledheaded lights; the eastern part of the building is of two storeys. The gabled E. wall has an original window of two trefoiled lights with enriched cusps in a square head. The original roof remains and has king-post trusses.

The site of the college towards Queen's Lane and St. Peter's churchyard is enclosed by stone walls mostly of the 14th or 15th century and on the outward side by the city-wall.