BHO

Castle Hill

Pages 167-174

Ancient and Historical Monuments in the City of Salisbury. Originally published by Her Majesty's Stationery Office, London, 1977.

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Castle Hill

(561) Cottages, pair, with cob walls on brick and flint plinths and with slated roofs, are of the first half of the 19th century. Formerly the roofs were thatched.

(562) Old Castle Inn, of two storeys with walls of flint, rubble and brick and with a tiled roof, has as its nucleus a flint-walled cottage with a class-S plan, probably of the second half of the 16th century. The original S.E. front is defined by a chamfered stone plinth and ashlar quoins, probably taken from the nearby castle of Old Sarum; permission to use the castle as a quarry for building materials was given in 1514 (p. 4, note 34). A single-storeyed extension to S.W. has a plinth continuous with that of the cottage. During the 18th century the S.W. extension was heightened and a brick end-wall and a tile-hung chimney-stack were built. An extension to N.E., with rendered walls, is also of the 18th century. Inside, the original ground-floor room has a stout chamfered beam and an open fireplace with ashlar jambs and an oak bressummer. The three-bay roof has tie-beam trusses to which collars have been added.

For a mediaeval cemetery and evidence of mediaeval occupation in the area 100 yds. N. of the inn, see p. 12.

Old Sarum, see (1) and (2).

MILFORD WARD

Monuments (563-4) and (567) appear on the map on p. 94. For the location of other monuments in Milford Ward, see folding map in end-pocket.

(563) Winchester Gate Inn, of two storeys, with original walls of timber framework set on brick plinths and nogged with brickwork, and with a tiled roof, is of the early 17th century. The E. wing with brick walls and a tiled roof was added in the 18th century. An extension to S. is of the first half of the 19th century. Timber framework is exposed in the W. front. Inside, there are several stout chamfered beams. The 17th-century roof has trusses with cambered tie-beams and lower angle struts.

(564) Cottages, two adjoining, Nos. 89–91 Milford Hill, are two-storeyed with brick walls and slate-covered roofs and date from about the middle of the 19th century.

(565) Cottages, pair, Nos. 103–5 Milford Hill, of two storeys with brick walls and tiled roofs, were built c. 1800.

(566) Milford Hill House, of two storeys and a cellar, has rendered walls and low-pitched slate-covered roofs; it was built between 1833 (Reform Act map) and 1840 (Waterworks survey). The S. and W. elevations have plain sashed windows. The main doorway has wooden pilasters supporting a moulded pediment. The openings of the lower storey are sheltered by a veranda with a concave metal roof supported by trellised iron stanchions.

(567) Eva Cottages (O.S., 1880), two adjacent, Nos. 94–6 Milford Hill, formerly a single house, are two-storeyed with attics and have brick walls and slate-covered roofs. Although greatly altered in the 19th century when it was divided into two dwellings, the range is of 17th-century origin and is clearly defined on Naish's map of 1716 (Plate 16). Inside, a ground-floor room in the E. cottage is spanned by a beam cased in 17th-century plaster with roll-mouldings and fleur-de-lis decoration. The W. cottage has 18th-century joinery. A five-bay roof covers the whole range. Adjacent on the S., Nos. 59–67 Rampart Road (Thomas's Row in 1880) were built soon after 1850 in place of an earlier building, probably a barn. Part of the earlier roof remains in situ.

(568) Cottage, adjacent to Dairyhouse Bridge (21), of two storeys with brick walls and a slate-covered roof, was built c. 1840. The W. front is of two bays with a central doorway.

(569) Milford Manor House was rebuilt c. 1900, but the N. wall of the garden, extending E. from the present house for some 50 yds. beside the ancient road which formerly led to Clarendon (see (19)), is built of roughly squared blocks of Chilmark stone and other ashlar, alternating with panels of flint. The coping is tiled. The wall probably is of the 17th or early 18th century.

(570) Summer-house, in Milford Manor House garden, of one storey and a cellar, has brick walls with ashlar quoins and is roofed with tiles. Dating from the first half of the 18th century and restored in 1902 the building is said to have been used as a workroom by the writer Henry Fielding. It comprises a small square room with a glazed door to the N. and a sashed window in each of the other sides; a fireplace occupies the S.W. corner. Interior plasterwork includes an acanthus cornice and a domical ceiling enriched with garlands. A plaster cartouche contains a shield-of-arms of Swayne (cf. St. Martin's Church (4), wall-monument 3).

(571) Little Manor, of two storeys with attics, with brick walls with stone quoins and with tiled roofs, dates from late in the 17th century. The symmetrical threebay E. front has large sashed windows, a central doorway with a flat hood on shaped wooden brackets, a platband and a coved eaves cornice. Inside, the house retains no original features. The stairs are of the 19th century.

(572) Manor Farm, house, demolished in 1973, was two-storeyed with brick walls and tiled roofs. A small part of the building was of 18th-century origin, but the main E. range was added c. 1800; further additions were of c. 1870. A barn adjacent on the E. had weather-boarded timber-framed walls and a slate-covered roof and appeared to be of the 18th century.

(573) House, No. 15 Tollgate Road, is two-storeyed with rendered brick walls and slate-covered roofs and was built between 1833 (Reform Act map) and 1854 (Kingdon & Shearm). The S.E. front is symmetrical and of three bays.

(574) House, No. 17 Tollgate Road, is two-storeyed with rendered brick walls and tiled roofs and was built c. 1850. It does not appear on the Reform Act map of 1833.

ST. THOMAS WARD (HARNHAM)

For the location of monuments (575)–(595), see folding map in end-pocket.

(575) Cottages, range of seven, Nos. 2–14 Harnham Road, are two-storeyed and have walls of brickwork (except in Nos. 2 and 4 where they are of brick banded with flint) and tiled roofs. The range was built during the first half of the 19th century. Nos. 6 and 8 appear to be of c. 1800, Nos. 2 and 4 are somewhat later and Nos. 10–14 are of c. 1850. No. 8 may incorporate part of an older structure, an internal timber-framed wall being possibly of the 17th century. Nos. 2, 4, 8 and 14 have class-T plans and approximately symmetrical S.E. elevations, each being of two bays with a central doorway. The other dwellings are smaller.

(576) Rose and Crown Hotel, of two storeys with attics, has timber-framed walls partly masked by brickwork, and tiled roofs; in the oldest part a thick external wall is probably of rubble and stone, but its composition is concealed by rendering. The N. range dates from the 14th century and has an original crown-post roof; the W. wing appears to be contemporary and retains some timbers of a former collar-rafter roof, but it was extensively altered in 1963. The S. range is of the 16th century.

In the E. elevation of the N. range the thick-walled lower storey has an original square-headed window of four narrow unglazed lights with plain oak mullions set diagonally. The projecting window is modern. Original timber framework is exposed in the jettied upper storey. The timber framework of the gabled N. elevation (masked in the lower storey by a lean-to annex) includes a blocked attic window of four plain lights; as the first-floor room was originally open to the roof the attic window is probably secondary. The barge-boards of the N. gable are moulded.

The W. wing seems originally to have been mainly of timber framework, but the walls are now of brick. A large inserted chimney-stack was removed in 1963.

The S. range is linked to the N. range by a carriage through-way (now a vestibule) with a jettied upper storey. The upper storey of the S. range, with exposed timber framework on the E. side, was originally jettied, but it has been under-built in modern brickwork. Details of the timber framework of the W. side of the range, seen internally, suggest that the 16th-century W. elevation originally included an inn-yard gallery.

Inside, a first-floor room in the N. range retains two bays of the 14th-century crown-post rafter roof with a cambered beam, chamfered and braced. Originally the roof was probably of three bays, with two crown-posts, but an attic floor has been inserted and the N. bay has been partitioned. The W. wing has been remodelled inside and no old features remain. The S. wing has 16th-century beams.

(577) Cottages, range of four, Nos. 53–9 Harnham Road, are two-storeyed with cob walls and thatched roofs. They appear to have been built early in the 19th century. Each dwelling has an approximately symmetrical N.W. elevation of two bays, with a central doorway sheltered by a thatched porch. Inside the plans are of class T.

(576) Rose and Crown Hotel

Ground floor (1963).

(578) Harnham House, demolished c. 1970, was two-storeyed and had brick walls and slate-covered roofs; it was built c. 1830. The N. front was symmetrical and of three bays, the lateral bays having two-storeyed sashed bay windows. Inside, the plan was of class U.

(579) Harnham Lodge, with cob walls and thatched roofs, is of the early 19th century. The single-storeyed W. part, comprising three rooms in an L-shaped plan, with a chimney-stack in the re-entrant angle serving three fireplaces, is a small cottage orné of c. 1800. The two-storeyed E. range, with a class-J plan was added during the first quarter of the 19th century.

(580) Cliff House, demolished in 1972, was partly of two storeys with cellars and partly three-storeyed; it had rendered brick walls and slate-covered roofs. Erected in 1825 as a substantial suburban mansion, the original building was subsequently much enlarged and in the present century was in military use; on some maps it is named Government House. The date of erection, inscribed on a board in the roof, came to light during demolition.

(581) Old Parsonage Farm, house, of two storeys with attics, has walls of timber framework, partly exposed and partly tile-hung, and tiled roofs. Two bays at the W. end of the range are of the 16th century; the six eastern bays are of c. 1600; a small N. wing was added in the 18th century.

The W. elevation is of close-studded timber framework with middle rails in each storey. Several original windows were blocked up, c. 1600, when a brick chimneybreast was added. The S. elevation is masked by tile-hanging and all openings are modern. The E. elevation, of brickwork, appears to be of the mid 17th century. The original N. elevation is hidden by modern additions. Inside, unmoulded beams are exposed in several rooms. The stairs are modern. A large first-floor room, now divided into two parts by an 18th-century partition and chimney-stack, has an ornate plaster ceiling of c. 1600 (Plate 93). In the attic, the E. gable of the 16th-century house can be seen with the western truss of the roof of c. 1600 set close beside it; the original gable is of close-studded timber framework and had a central window. The two easternmost bays of the roof flank a collared tie-beam truss with queen-struts and probably are contemporary with the mid 17th-century E. elevation.

(582) Cottages, range of five, of two storeys with brick walls and tiled roofs, are of the first half of the 19th century. Each dwelling has a class-S plan.

(583) Manor Farm, house, of two storeys with brick walls and a tiled roof, dates from the second half of the 18th century. Chamfered beams are exposed inside.

(584) Cottages, two adjacent, originally one dwelling, are single-storeyed with attics and have walls of timber framework and brick, and thatched roofs. The range is of 15th-century origin and has a cruck roof, but it was partly rebuilt in the 17th century and the E. bay (comprising one cottage) is mainly of 18th-century brickwork.

The S. front and the W. end wall are of the 17th century and have exposed timber framework with a brick plinth and brick nogging. The N. wall was partly rebuilt in brickwork in the 18th century, but some original framework remains near the middle. The E. end walls is masked by an adjacent house which has modern walls simulating timber framework.

Inside, the original plan was a straight E.-W. range of three bays. The bays are defined by two well-preserved full-cruck trusses. Smoke-blackening of the crucks indicates an original open hearth. An open fireplace with a brick chimney was built on the W. side of the E. truss in the 17th century; the chimneybreast now forms part of the W. wall of the E. cottage. The E. cottage has an open fireplace on the E. with brick jambs and a cambered and chamfered oak bressummer;a similar fireplace heats the upper room.

(581) Old Parsonage Farm House

Ground floor.

(585) Three Crowns Inn, of two storeys with brick and flint walls and with a tiled roof, is of the late 18th or early 19th century. Plasterwork in some ground-floor rooms appears to be earlier 18th-century material, reset.

(586) Old Mill Cottage, of two storeys with brick walls and tile-covered roofs, dates from c. 1800.

(587) Old Mill Hotel, of four storeys with brick walls and a tiled roof, originated during the first quarter of the 19th century as a warehouse associated with the adjacent mill (588); it did not exist c. 1808, but it is seen in an engraving published in 1834. (fn. 1) A late 18th-century doorway in the S. front, with a pediment-shaped hood resting on scroll brackets with acanthus enrichment, has evidently been brought from elsewhere.

(588) Harnham Mill

Plans at ground and first-floor levels.

(588) Harnham Mill, of two storeys with attics, with walls mainly of chequered flint and ashlar and with a tile-covered roof, appears from the style of its architectural ornament to have been built c. 1500 (Plate 58). Although the Tithe Map of 1843 designates it a tucking mill, paper mills existed in the neighbourhood from the 16th to the 19th century, (fn. 2) and the four large fireplaces may suggest that the building was designed primarily for paper-making. (fn. 3) According to local records a deed of 1700 states that it was then a paper mill. (fn. 4) When Buckler was there in 1808 the building appears not to have been in use as a mill; he titled his drawing 'ancient building' (Plate 11) and shows no mill-race; one of the existing races, however, was constructed in the same year.

In the S. front, the lower storey has two original doorways and two original windows, all with hollow-chamfered two-centred heads and continuous jambs in square, casement-moulded surrounds under moulded labels with returned stops. Two small loops with chamfered ashlar surrounds between the doorways are of uncertain purpose, but evidently original. The wall has a chamfered plinth; above the windows a wave-moulded hollow-chamfered and roll-moulded string-course is continuous with the labels. The brick-faced upper storey of the S. front replaces a louvred timber elevation depicted by Buckler and also by Hall. (fn. 5) Presumably the brickwork is of the 19th century.

The gabled E. wall is largely original. The lower storey has a blocked doorway similar to those of the S. front and windows of one and two lights as shown on the drawing. In the attic storey a shallow recess with a cinquefoil two-centred head below an abraded stone canopy, carved underneath to represent vault tracery, is set between two cross-shaped stone ventilation-loops.

The single-storeyed N. elevation was rebuilt in the 18th century and is mainly of brick. Carved on the side of a sluice in the basement is J.F.J. 1808. Until masked by the adjacent building, the W. wall was evidently exposed; the lower storey flanking a passage-way has openings uniform with those of the E. elevation.

Inside, the lower storey contains three narrow brick and stone-walled water channels, but the exact position of the former water-wheel is uncertain. The main E. and W. walls of the building have large open fireplaces with chamfered jambs and shouldered and chamfered stone bressummers. Corresponding fireplaces in the upper storey are somewhat taller and have cambered bressummers. The original first-floor windows have oak inner lintels. The roof is of five bays, with six collared tie-beam trusses with lower angle braces. The cambered collars have been cut to receive the heads of secondary attic doorways and the tie-beams are morticed for inserted floor-joists, but the attic floor has gone. There are curved wind-braces to the lower purlins.

(589) Cottage, of two storeys with brick walls and a slate-covered roof, is perhaps of late 18th-century origin, but it has been extensively altered.

(590) Cottage, of two storeys with brick walls, partly tile-hung, and with a tiled roof, was built c. 1840. The S.W. front is symmetrical and of two bays with a central doorway.

(591) Manor Cottage, 50 yds. N. of the church, is of two storeys and has brick walls and tiled roofs. The S.W. range is of the late 18th century and has a large original chimneybreast at the S.E. end. Inside, there are chamfered beams with run-out stops.

(592) The Laurels, house of two storeys with an attic, has rendered brick walls and a tiled roof and is of c. 1800.

(593) Cottages, pair, of two storeys with attics, have cob walls and tiled roofs. They were formerly in a range of four dwellings, but the two northernmost were burned in 1962. They are of the early 19th century.

(594) House, adjoining the foregoing on the W., is of two storeys with rendered walls and an iron-covered roof, formerly thatched; it was built c. 1700. The N. front appears originally to have been symmetrical and of five bays; the central doorway has a plain ashlar surround. The ground-floor casement windows are each of two square-headed lights with beaded ashlar surrounds; one retains original iron bars. The upper storey has three similar windows symmetrically disposed over the five openings of the lower storey. Inside, the two ground-floor rooms have chamfered beams with shaped stops.

(595) Cottages, range, probably originally three, now united as a house, have walls partly of timber framework and partly of brick, and thatched roofs. They appear to be of mid 17th-century origin, but have been altered in recent years; much of the external timber framework is reset. Inside, an original open fireplace has a chamfered oak bressummer with shaped stops.

APPENDIX

Contract dated 7 October 1366 between Henry Stourmy and Thomas Erlestoke for repairs at Salisbury Castle (P.R.O., E 101/593/31(1)):

Hec indentura facta apud Castrum Sarum septimo die Octobris anno regni Regis Edwardi tercij post conquestum quadragesimo, inter Henricum Stourmy vicecomitem Wiltes' ex parte una et Thomam Erlestoke clericum supervisorem operacionum domini Regis in Castro Sarum ex altera, testatur quod idem Henricus vicecomes posuit in reparacione et emendacione diversorum domorum turellorum et murorum infra dictum Castrum ut patet perparcellas subscriptas, videlicet:

In primis, in duobus carpentariis locatis pro carpentria camere inter capellam et coquinam in Castro Sarum cum quodam novo solario et quodam staire ligneo et quodam interclauso in eadem camera cum duobus hostiis et tribus fenestris de novo construendis in dicta camera in grosso ad thascam per visum et testimonium predicti Thome Erlestoke lxvj.s.viij.d. Et in stodes emptis et expensis pro dicto interclauso in eadem camera faciendo xxij.d.ob. Et in tabulis emptis et expensis pro dicto solario bordando et duobus hostiis et tribus fenestris in eadem camera de novo faciendis xxx.s.viij.d. Et in C. spiknaill' et D. bordnaill' emptis et expensis pro dicto solario bordando et pro dictis hostiis et fenestris faciendis vij.s. In quinque paribus vertivellorum et gumphorum cum clavibus et latches et catches emptis et expensis pro dictis hostiis et fenestris pendendis xj.s.iiij.d. In diversis operariis conductis pro dictis solario et interclauso plastrandis et tarrandis ad thascam vij.s.iij.d. In duobus tynis emptis pro aqua portanda ij.s.j.d. In quatuor cribris emptis et expensis pro diversis operibus in Castro xij.d. In duobus pailles emptis et expensis pro eodem xij.d. In tribus cyveris emptis et expensis pro eodem ix.d. In littura fodeenda et carianda usque Castrum Sarum pro solario et interclauso predictis terrandis iiij.s.vj.d. In stipendiis duorum latomorum cum eorum servientibus pro tribus fenestris et uno camino in dicta camera de novo construendis cum petra empta xliij.s.iiij.d. In ferramentis emptis pro dictis fenestris xiij.s.iiij.d. In v. quarteris grossis calcis emptis et expensis in dicta camera x.s. cum cariagio. In duobus carectatis sabuli emptis et expensis ad idem xij.d. In quatuor carectis cum eorum equis locatis pro meremium querendo in Foresta de Savernak' et cariando usque dictum Castrum per viginti leucas pro dicta camera perficienda viij.s.

In stipendiis diversorum latomorum et laborariorum pro quodam novo hostio in aula faciendo et pro muris eiusdem aule scrutandis et emendendis et pro quodam muro in celario vini emendo et faciendo in grosso ad thascam per visum eiusdem Thome xxxvj.s.viij.d. In stipendiis eorundem pro duabus novis fenestris in alta camera iuxta Harlewynestour cum petra pro eisdam empta in grosso per visum eiusdem Thome xl.s. In decem quarteris grossis calcis emptis et expensis pro dictis muris et fenestris faciendis xx.s. cum cariagio. In sex carectatis sabuli ad idem emptis et expensis iij.s. In xxiij. tabulis oriental' emptis et expensis pro hostio aule et dictis fenestris inde faciendis vij.s.viij.d. In duobus carpentariis conductis pro dictis hostio et fenestris et aliis necessariis in dicta aula faciendis per visum eiusdem Thome x.s.vj.d. In novem paribus vertevellorum et gumphorum emptis et expensis pro dictis hostio et fenestris pendendis, cum uno anulo ad hostium aule, et latches et katches pro eisdem, xiij.s.iiij.d. Et in quodam astro faciendo in aula cum ferramentis pro dicto astro pendendo et affirmando in areo eiusdem aule xxij.s.

Et in stipendiis diversorum latomorum et laborariorum pro camino in alto turri cum grosso muro ibidem et duabus fenestris in camera Militum in eodem turri et muris ib idem scrutandis emendis et faciendis in grosso ad thascam per visum et testimonium eiusdem Thome l.s. In xvj. quarteris grossis calcis emptis et expensis ad idem xxxij.s. cum cariagio. In octo carectatis sabuli emptis ad idem iiij.s.

Et in vj.Mill'.D. tegulis emptis et expensis pro coopertura domorum xxvj.s., precium Ml'. iiij.s. In uno coopertore locato pro domo pistrine et alia camera iuxta pistrinam et pro defectibus in coopertura stabuli et claustri emendis et cooperiendis ad thascam xx.s. In cavillis emptis ad idem xviij.d. In uno camino in dicta camera emendo et faciendo ad thascam iiij.s. In ix. quarteris grossis calcis emptis et expensis pro dicta coopertura et aliis in Castro faciendis et emendis xviij.s. cum cariagio. In quatuor carectatis sabuli emptis ad idem ij.s.

Et in meremio empto apud Clarindon' pro quodam interclauso in magna camera iuxta Harlewynestour et duabus longis scalis faciendis, cum cariagio eiusdem meremii, xij.s. Et in carpentariis conductis pro dictis interclauso et scalis faciendis ad thascam per visum eiusdem Thome x.s. In stodes emptis et expensis pro dicto interclauso faciendo vj.s.viij.d. In virgis emptis et expensis pro dicto interclauso breydando xviij.d. In laborariis conductis pro dicto interclauso plastrando pargettando et dealbando ad thascam vj.s. viij.d. In littura fodeenda et carianda usque dictum Castrum pro eodem iiij.s. In latomis conductis pro quadam fenestra in eadem camera de novo construenda ad thascam x.s. In ferramentis pro dicta fenestra cum uno pare vertevellorum et gumphorum cum i. latche et j. catche emptis pro dicta fenestra v.s. In stipendiis carpentariorum pro dicta fenestra facienda cum tabulis ad idem emptis xviij.d.

Et in uno buketto de novo faciendo cum stipendiis fabri pro eodem de ferro ligando vj.s.ij.d. In carpentariis locatis pro rota putei cum grossis spiknaill' et bordnaill' emptis emenda et facienda per diversas vices xx.s.ij.d.

In cementariis et laborariis conductis pro diversis defectibus in Scaccario emendis et pro quodam hostio in eodem Scaccario de novo faciendo xvj.s.

In uno plastratore locato pro diversis defectibus in muris et parietibus in diversis cameris infra dictum Castrum pargettandis et dealbandis vj.s.

In CC. Shyndellis emptis et expensis pro emendacione cooperature aule dicti Castri ij.s. viij.d., precium C. xvj.d. In CC. clavis ad idem emptis v.d. Et in uno coopertore conducto pro emendacione eiusdem cooperature vj.d.

In uno plumbatore locato ad emendum diversas defectus super turrim vocatum Harlewynestour v.s. per visum eiusdem Thome.

Unde summa coniuncta xxxj.li.xiiij.s.viij.d.ob.

In cuius rei testimonium tam presens vicecomes quam prefatus Thomas presenti indenture sigilla sua alternatim apposuere. Datum die loco et anno supradictis.

Footnotes

  • 1. Cf. J. Buckler's watercolour of 1808 (Plate 11) and Hall, Memorials, pl. viii.
  • 2. V.C.H., Wilts. iv, 245.
  • 3. For a closely comparable mill building, see R.C.H.M., Dorset V, 98.
  • 4. History of Harnham (Harnham Womens' Institute, Salisbury, 1954), 9.
  • 5. See (587), note.