An Inventory of the Historical Monuments in Westmorland. Originally published by His Majesty's Stationery Office, London, 1936.
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15 BURTON (D.h.)
(O.S. 6 in. XLVII, S.W.)
Burton is a parish and small town 6 m. W.S.W. of Kirkby Lonsdale. The church is the principal monument. In the square of the town is an 18th-century market-cross still retaining the leg-irons which did duty as stocks.
(1). Parish Church of St. James (Plate 11) stands in the middle of the parish. The walls are of local limestone rubble with sandstone dressings and the roofs are slate-covered. The earliest part of the existing building is the 12th-century West Tower; at this period the nave appears to have been rather wider than, but of the same length as, the present nave; the N.W. angle is still preserved in the W. wall of the N. aisle. A N. aisle was perhaps added in the 13th century, and late in the same century the N. Chapel was added. The S. arcade was built and the South Aisle added in the 14th century. Late in the 15th or early in the 16th century the N. arcade was built and the North Aisle added or re-built; at the same time the chancel-arch was removed and the South Chapel added. The South Porch is probably of mediæval date, but retains no old features. The church was restored in 1844, when the Chancel and North Chapel were re-built and the clearstorey added; the church was again restored in 1872, when the S. arcade of the chancel was re-built.
Architectural Description—The Chancel (40½ ft. by 17½–19 ft.) has a modern E. wall and window. In the N. wall is a modern arch opening into the N. chapel and the E. bay of the N. arcade of the nave is included in the chancel. The S. arcade is modern. There is no chancel-arch.
The North Chapel (15 ft. by 14 ft.) is modern but has a late 13th-century E. window of three pointed lights with plain intersecting tracery in a two-centred head.
The South Chapel (28 ft. by 14¾ ft.) has a re-set E. window of c. 1300 and of three trefoiled lights with plain intersecting tracery in a two-centred head; above the window is a carved man's head. In the S. wall are two windows probably of late 16th-century date and of two square-headed lights with a moulded label; between them is a re-set doorway of c. 1300, with chamfered jambs and segmental-pointed head.
The Nave (40 ft. by 21½ ft.) has a late 15th or early 16th-century N. arcade of four bays, with two-centred arches of two chamfered orders; the octagonal piers have splayed capitals and splayed and chamfered bases; the responds are chamfered and have chamfered imposts. The 14th-century S. arcade is of three bays with two-centred arches of two chamfered orders; the octagonal piers and semi-octagonal responds have moulded capitals and bases; the E. respond is modern and the E. half of the first arch has been re-built. The clearstorey of the chancel and nave is modern.
The North Aisle (7½ ft. wide) has, in the N. wall, four windows, the easternmost of the 16th century and of two square-headed lights with a moulded label; the second and third windows are of early 16th-century date and of two and three lights respectively; the lights have rounded heads and the windows have moulded labels; the westernmost window is of the 14th century, re-set; it is of two ogee lights in a square head with head-stops; farther W. are traces of a destroyed doorway. In the W. wall is a 16th-century window of two square-headed lights with remains of a moulded label and head-stops.
The South Aisle (12½ ft. wide) has, in the S. wall, two windows of c. 1330 and each of two trefoiled ogee lights in a square head; the 14th-century S. doorway has hollow-chamfered jambs and two-centred head. In the W. wall is a partly restored early 16th-century window of three elliptical-headed lights in a square head with a moulded label.
The West Tower (15¾ ft. by 15 ft.) is of 12th-century origin and of three storeys with a later embattled parapet. The 12th-century tower-arch is semi-circular and of one plain order with chamfered imposts. The late 14th-century W. window is of two trefoiled ogee lights with tracery in a semi-circular head. The second storey has a square-headed light in the S. wall. The bell-chamber has, in each wall, an early 16th-century window of two elliptical-headed lights.
The Roof of the chancel and nave is of nine bays with eight king-post trusses; the four westernmost trusses are of heavier timbers than the rest and are probably of early 16th-century date; the others are of late 16th or early 17th-century date. The pent-roof of the N. aisle is probably of the 16th century. The gabled roof of the S. aisle is of eight bays with tiebeams and struts to the principal rafters; it is of the 16th century or earlier.
Fittings—Chairs: In chancel—two, one (Plate 39) with turned front legs, shaped arms, carved and panelled back with scrolled cresting and the date 1712; second chair with square legs, shaped arms, panelled back and shaped cresting, late 17th-century. Cross-shafts: In N. aisle—three fragments (Plate 7) probably from the same cross, (a) greater part of a wheel-head (14¼ in. across); (b) top of shaft (9 in. across face and 13 in. high) with panel with defaced figure on face, conventional ornaments on side; (c) lower part of shaft (9¼ to 11 in. across face and 3 ft. 2 in. high) with panel of figure subjects on face including two figures above and under an arch, a larger figure holding a cross and perhaps small figures below, possibly the Harrowing of Hell; at back conventional scrolled ornaments much defaced; sides also with conventional design and interlacement much weathered; cross probably late 10th-century. Part of a second shaft (6½ in. wide and 16 in. high) with roll-moulded angles, with zig-zag and crude scroll pattern, 10th or 11th-century. Font: In churchyard— octagonal bowl, shaft and chamfered base, probably 16th-century. Panelling: In N. aisle—on N. wall, panelling with carved enrichments and the inscription "P.L. Fundator 1628"; on E. wall two similar panels with the inscription "Soli (Deo) Gloria." Piscinæ: In S. chapel—in S. wall, recess with chamfered jambs and three-sided head, fragmentary drain, probably early 16th-century. In S. aisle—in S. wall, recess with trefoiled head and round drain, cut back, 14th-century. Plate: includes cup (Plate 54) of 1634 (York) and cover-paten with the date 1633 on the foot. Pulpit: of five sides and of oak (Plate 53), each side in two tiers of panels, lower with enriched pilasters and lozenge-enrichment, upper panels with enriched arches enclosing carved designs, frieze and sill enriched, early 17th-century, cornice, posts and base modern. Recess: In S. aisle—in S. wall, with moulded segmental head and enclosing slab with diaper, representing the arms of Harrington (?) with a label, 14th-century tomb-recess. Miscellanea: In churchyard—apex-stone of gable, mediæval.
The following monuments, unless otherwise described, are of the 17th century and of two storeys. The walls are of rubble and the roofs are slate-covered. Some of the buildings have exposed ceiling-beams.
Condition—Good or fairly good.
(2). Clawthorpe Hall, 750 yards N. of the church, is of T-shaped plan with the cross-wing at the N.E. end. In the S.W. front is a panel with the initials and date S. and M.O. 1673, and there are some original stone windows, mainly on the N.E. side. Inside the building, the kitchen has an original fireplace with moulded jambs and elliptical head. Another fireplace has an enriched and shaped sinking on the lintel. The staircase has turned balusters and square newels and ball-terminals.
(3). Cottage, on the N.W. side of the road 200 yards E.N.E. of (2).
(4). Rose Cottage, 400 yards N.E. of (3), was built late in the 17th or early in the 18th century.
(5). Oakwood Farm, house, two tenements, 50 yards E. of (4).
(6). Cottage, on the E. side of the road, opposite the church, said to have been the old school. The doorway in the S. wall has a lintel with the date 1689 and an added inscription of 1785.
(7). Cottage, two tenements, adjoining (6) on the N.
(8). Ivy Cottage, on the W. side of the road 70 yards S. of the church, retains some original windows with modern mullions. Inside the building is a two-stage cupboard (Plate 35) of the local type, with carved upper panels, pendants and fascia with the initials and date S.B. 1708. Another room has a large wall-cupboard with panelled doors. In the kitchen is an early 18th-century fireplace with a corbelled head.
(9). Old Hall, on the N. side of the road 200 yards S.S.W. of the church, retains an original stone window and a doorway with embattled cutting on the face of the lintel.
(10). Burton Hall, nearly opposite (9), retains two original stone windows with moulded labels. Inside the building, the staircase has turned balusters and an earlier enriched newel on the landing. The S.E. room has an early 18th-century fireplace with a corbelled head.
(11). House, standing back, on the W. side of the main street and 460 yards S. of the church.
(12). House, immediately S.E. of (11), retains an original stone window at the back.
(13). Range of two cottages at the N.W. corner of the square has an upper storey projecting over the pavement on three stone piers.
(14). Cottage, now bakehouse, behind the S.W. corner of the square, has remains of a staircase with turned balusters and moulded handrail.
(15). Range of three tenements, on the W. side of the street 20 yards S. of the square, is partly of plastered timber-framing. The upper storey has a deep projection on the street-front. Inside the building is an early 18th-century fireplace with a corbelled head.
(16). Cottage, 160 yards S. of (15).
(17). Hordley House, 30 yards S. of (16), was built late in the 17th or early in the 18th century. The upper windows in front have solid wooden frames with mullion and transom. Inside the building is a fireplace with a corbelled head and the staircase retains two newels with attached half-balusters. The barn, S.W. of the house, is probably of the same age.
(18). Manor House, on the E. side of the main street 680 yards S. of the church, is of three storeys and appears to have been re-built late in the 18th century. It has, however, a panel with the initials and date T. and I.S. 1701.
(19). House, 110 yards N. of (18), has two chimney stacks with round or oval shafts. Inside the building is a cupboard with the initials R.H. on the door.
(20). House, 70 yards N. of (19), has a chimney-stack with a diagonal shaft. Inside the building are some original panelled doors.
(21). House, 50 yards N. of (20), retains two original windows lighting the cellars.
(22). Range of cottages, 30 yards E. of (21), is modern but incorporates a stone lintel with embattled sinking and the initials and date R.G. 1665.