An Inventory of the Historical Monuments in City of York, Volume 5, Central. Originally published by Her Majesty's Stationery Office, London, 1981.
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(182) The Phoenix Inn, No. 75, is a two-storeyed brick building of the first half of the 19th century; the front elevation is stuccoed.
Goodramgate (Monuments 183–224)
Goodramgate runs N. from King's Square towards the position of the N.E. gate of the Roman fortress but, at the junction with College Street and Bedern, bends N.E. to Monk Bar. The name, derived from the Danish personal name Gutherun or Guthrum, is first recorded in 1177–81. Most of the street lay in the parish of Holy Trinity, the church being set back on the W. side and concealed by Lady Row (222), a range of cottages built on its churchyard in 1316. In 1771 the S. end of the street was widened on the W. side between Petergate and Holy Trinity churchyard. Some fine 15th-century houses remain on the E. side but lesser timber-framed buildings were destroyed when Deangate was made in 1903. More recently, two large supermarkets have been built in the street and the most prominent building is a lofty furniture store. Some lanes still run E. from Goodramgate to St. Andrewgate; one, the former Bakers' Lane, has been shown by excavation to have had a mediaeval origin.
E. side (Plate 6):
(183) Houses and Shops, Nos. 9, 11, of three storeys, built c. 1840, stand at the corner of Aldwark. They have walls of stock brick in Flemish bond and slate-covered roofs. The ground floor has modern shop fronts and on the upper floors are sashed windows with recessed frames.
(184) House, No. 13, of the 15th or early 16th century, is timber-framed, in two bays, with the first floor jettied on the front elevation. Originally of two storeys, it was heightened in the 19th century to provide a semi-attic, and the general appearance is now of the latter date and uniform with the adjacent building, No. 15. The front elevation is rendered and there are Victorian gablets with shaped barge-boards over the first-floor and dormer windows. The back elevation is mostly obscured by an early 19th-century addition; the only original part visible is at the S.E. end where the corner-post confirms the absence of a jetty on this side. This post has a curved brace to the wall-plate. Inside, very little framing can be seen. Part of the original central crown-post roof truss survives embedded in a partition in the attic; the bracing of the crown-post and the collar-purlin have probably been removed, and the rest of the roof has been rebuilt.
(185) House, No. 15, built probably in the 16th or 17th century, is timber-framed and was originally of two storeys but heightened in the 19th century to provide a semi-attic, in a similar manner to No. 13 adjoining. The framing is of two bays, with the first floor jettied to the front. The S.W. end wall was not closed, indicating that it was either built up against an existing building or that the range formerly extended further. On the first floor of the S.W. bay are posts in the front wall with heads jowled in the wall-plane, suggesting a gabled roof facing the street. Very little framing is otherwise visible, and the existing roof is a later rebuild.
The front elevation is rendered and has Victorian gablets over windows and dormers to match No. 13. At the back is a large chimney, possibly 17th-century, together with later additions (see also No. 17 (186)). On the first floor is an early 19th-century reeded chimney-piece.
(186) House, No. 17, consists of one-and-a-half bays surviving from an originally longer timber-framed range of two storeys and attic, jettied towards the street, and probably built in the 16th century. At the rear was a late 18th-century brick extension; this connected to a two-storey house of similar date, standing behind No. 15, which faced S.W. and had a central staircase with rooms to each side. The framed range had been much altered and the roof rebuilt; after deteriorating badly, it was reconstructed in 1972 and at the same time the 18th-century buildings behind were demolished and replaced by new structures.
(187) House, No. 21, of two storeys and attics, was built in the mid 18th century on the usual plan of central transverse staircase between single rooms to front and rear. In the early 19th century the staircase was rebuilt and some fittings were renewed; the ground-floor shop was wholly modernised in the 20th century and a new staircase to the first floor made in the back room.
The two-bay front elevation is of brick in Flemish bond, with pantiled roof. Inside, original door architraves survive on the first floor, but the fireplaces have been removed, and the front room has early 19th-century window architraves and a plaster cornice. The staircase to the attic has close strings and square balusters. In the attic are fragments of an earlier roof of coupled rafters on the N.E. party wall.
(188) House, No. 23, low and of two storeys roofed parallel to the street, is a late 18th or early 19th-century rebuilding in brick of a timber-framed structure of the late 16th or early 17th century. The front range has a common-rafter roof of oak with side-purlins carried by collars above roughly cambered tie-beams of thin scantling; a rear wing, added at right-angles, has a similar roof. The only evidence for timber framing is a post in the S.E. corner of the first floor of the front range. No original fittings survive.
(189) House, No. 25, of two storeys and attics, has an L-shaped plan consisting of a late 17th and 18th-century brick-built range along the street front and a timber-framed wing at the rear; the latter was built in the late 16th or early 17th century but the ground floor was rebuilt in brick in the 18th century. It was usually referred to as 'the tenement at the Beddern Gates' which was the entry to the Bedern, for it stands partly over a 16th-century archway with stone jambs and a chamfered timber lintel cut to the shape of a very flattened Tudor arch. A forty-year lease was granted without a fine to James Kiplin in 1690 on condition that he rebuilt the house within two years (YML, Subchanters Book 1628–97, f. 282); part of it probably dates from this time. The front wall has a modern shop front and three windows on the first floor with modern sashes; the brickwork is painted and shows evidence of a later heightening. The framed rear wing is covered with stucco, and the first floor is jettied on the S.E. and S.W. sides; only a little framing can be seen inside, at the S. corner, comprising a curved brace between corner-post and bressummer. On the first floor is a late 17th-century bolection-moulded fireplace and a little contemporary panelling.
(190) House, No. 29, small, of two storeys with an attic, and of brick with a pantiled roof, is apparently of the 19th century. The front elevation is rendered above a large shop front and has a modern casement window at first floor. Coupled brackets, protruding through the fascia, support the gutter. The attic has a single dormer window. The brickwork at the rear is exposed. The plan consists of a room at the front, another at the back flanking the staircase, and a rear extension. The party wall with No. 31 is reported to be timber-framed.
(191) House and Shop, Nos. 31, 33, of three storeys, is of 18th-century brick with a pantiled roof; it encases a timber-framed range, three bays long, of uncertain date, and has been much altered and modernised but contains exposed ceiling beams and joists inside the ground floor.
(192) House, No. 39, of three storeys and with a long range at the rear, was built in the mid 18th century and modified in the 19th and 20th centuries. The three-bay front elevation, of mottled brick with darker brick dressings, has a 19th-century pilastered shop front to the ground floor. The windows on both upper floors originally had continuous stone sill-bands and plain flat stone hoods, but the middle window on the second floor has been heightened. Inside, in a cupboard in the S. corner of the second-floor front room, is visible the outside face of the N.E. wall of the formerly timber-framed No. 41 (q.v.).
(193) Houses, Nos. 41, 43, 45 (Plates 6, 122; Fig. 83), consist of a three-storey timber-framed range (marked A on plan) parallel to the street, built in the late 15th or early 16th century, and two framed ranges (B and C) behind, B of about the same date as A but single-storeyed and open to the roof like a hall; C, of two storeys and attic, was built in the early 17th century. B and C are separated from A by a gap of about 6 to 10 ft., which was infilled probably at an early date; a passageway also led through both A and C. A sketch of c. 1800 (YCL, Evelyn Coll., 380) shows its street front rendered with plaster, and with Georgian shop win dows and several windows with leaded glazing on the upper floors. The two N. bays of A, which form separate tenements, were refronted in brick at two separate dates in the 19th century. When photographed c. 1900 the surviving framed part was still plastered and had sash windows. There was a very thorough restoration in 1929 (Brierley and Rutherford, architects) when the framing of the front wall was exposed, the windows were altered, many later partitions inside were removed and the ground-floor passageway was closed. The greater part of the building is now occupied as a cafe but there are two separate shops.
The front range A (Plate 122) is five bays in length and of these the three S. bays retain the framed front wall with two jettied upper floors; the bay size is irregular on the ground and first floors because of the central passageway. The jettied walls have lodged sill-plates and framing characterised by double downward braces (Fig. 3g). On the ground floor is a large modern shop window and the doorway to the former passage; the latter has flanking posts with greatly enlarged heads and curved brackets fixed to them to support an oriel above. The windows in the framed walls are all modern restorations, apparently in original positions, and one window has 1 in. square sockets for mullions in the soffit of the beam over. The roof is covered with pantiles and plain tiles and has three modern dormer windows, giving a false impression of an attic though the second floor is actually open to the roof. The two N. bays had the overhanging jetties removed when they were refronted in brick. No. 41 has a four-storeyed elevation with a large bay window on the first floor; No. 43 is three-storeyed within the same overall height, the floor levels having been altered internally, and has sash windows with flat arches of common brick. The original rear wall of the range has posts rising the full height of three storeys but much of the studwork and infilling has been removed; some upward bracing survives from posts to rails and wall-plate. On the upper floors the second and third bays from the S. end were combined to form single rooms but otherwise there were partitions and closed trusses separating the bays; the partition walls are formed of 4½ in. studs with upward braces from the rear posts and downward braces from the front posts. The first floor is supported by joists spanning between the front and rear walls but the second floor has also spine-beams; in No. 43, which is the second bay from the N., the original floors have been removed and new ones inserted at different levels. The roof structure (Plate 131) consists of side-purlins supported by braced raking struts and the closed trusses have braced false crown-posts. All fittings not part of the original building were removed in 1929 but on the N. wall of the large first-floor room of No. 45 is a scratching 'Marmaduke Buckle' and the dates 1698, 1715.
The hall-like range B (Plate 128), behind Nos. 41, 43, was aligned beside the through passageway; it is three bays long and of irregular plan shape, being much wider at the W. end than the E. As the W. truss is not closed, the range may originally have been four bays long, extending as far as the rear wall of the front range A; alternatively, the link block between the two ranges may precede B. The framing of the N. wall stands on a 3 ft. high solid wall and each bay is divided horizontally by a middle rail. In the S. wall only the upper part is original, the framing in the bays consisting of widely-spaced studs and upward bracing; the lower parts of the posts are modern and the walling between them has been removed. The E. end wall has been much restored and has modern windows; the W. wall is plastered and has no visible framing. The open roof is similar in construction to that of range A, with side-purlins supported by braced raking struts standing on cambered tie-beams and with common rafters with collars.
The early 17th-century rear range C is two bays long and has a span of 18 ft.; it was built with a single room on each of the two floors and the attic is original. The framing has long straight bracing; on the E. wall, which is the only external wall and much restored, the braces are disposed downwards from the posts to the middle rail, but on the W. and S. walls are upward to the wall-plate and tie-beam respectively. The framing of the E. wall stands on a solid wall about 2 ft. high; the windows are modern restorations, but towards the S. end the middle rail has a chamfered lower edge, 4 ft. long, probably indicating the position of an original door. There is no N. wall as the range is built against the side of range B; in both the W. and S. walls nearly all the studs have been removed or covered up but their positions are indicated by pegs or mortices. The cross-beam and tie-beam of the central truss are unbraced and the studs of the partition wall in this position on the first floor are not pegged to the tie, suggesting a later insertion; the roof truss has slightly curved kerb-principals supporting side-purlins. The irregularly-shaped space between ranges A and C may be contemporary with the latter as the W. wall of this has mortices for floor joists and infilling placed centrally below the wall-plate; there is also a large brick chimney between the ranges, probably of the 17th century though a bolection-moulded fireplace on the ground floor is modern.
(194) Anglers' Arms, p.h., No. 47, and Houses, Nos. 49, 51 (Plates 6, 123; Fig. 84), form a small complex, U-shaped on plan, essentially of timber-framed construction with pantiled roofs. The earliest parts, of late 15th or early 16th-century date, are a three-storey range of four bays along the street frontage and a hall house of 'Wealden' type behind, facing N.E. on a narrow lane, with one gable-end abutting the first range though not structurally connected to it. The roof trusses are similar throughout and though the front range was built first, there is probably little difference in date between the two parts. Also of late mediaeval date is a timber-framed range on the N. side of the lane, originally detached and placed about 35 ft. behind No. 47 to which it was linked in the early 17th century by another framed range, thus completing the basic plan as it now exists. Many alterations were made, probably from the 16th century onwards, including insertion of partitions, attic floors and chimneys, and the hall was divided horizontally by an intruded first floor. Several smaller additions were built with brick walls and some of the framed walls were replaced by similar material. No. 47 (called The Board p.h. on the 1852 OS map) retains plaster rendering which was later applied to the whole of the front elevation, but Nos. 49, 51 were extensively restored in 1930–1 (Brierley and Rutherford, architects) when the framing was again exposed, renewed where necessary, and the inserted floors, partitions and chimney-stack were removed from the open hall.
The Front Range (Plate 123) is divided between No. 47, which occupies the two N. bays, and No. 49 in the S. half. There is a slight change of alignment at the mid-point but the single date of erection of the whole range is verified by the visible framing of the rear wall and the numbering of the roof trusses. The front elevation has the upper floors jettied out; No. 47 is rendered and has 19th-century doors and windows; the framing is visible on No. 49 but on the ground floor there are, apart from the posts, only modern doors and windows. Above, the posts have curved downward bracing (Fig. 3f) and on the first floor is an additional post in the middle of the S. bay, also braced and with a plastered head inscribed in relief IAT 1700, probably the date that rendering was applied or renewed; the bressummer on the same floor, moulded and with mutilated battlementing, is morticed into the floor joists but on the second floor the plain bressummer is lodged on the joists (Fig. 4a, b). The windows are modern and a projecting oriel on the first floor did not exist before the 1930 restoration, though there may have been one similar originally. The back wall of the range, unjettied and now almost wholly internal due to the later additions, has studs at 2¼ ft. centres and upward bracing from the posts to the wall-plate (Fig. 3i). Originally each bay formed a single room on each floor; inside No. 47 extensive alterations include the removal of the first floor itself and the intermediate partition; in No. 49 the partition between the two original rooms has been removed on the ground floor and was renewed on the upper floors in 1930; the two end walls of the range and the party wall between the two parts retain much original framing (Fig. 3b). The roof trusses have kerbprincipals rising to collars and supporting side-purlins (Fig. 7m). A passage leading through the range to the lane at the rear is original and the opening for it in the front wall is rebated for a door.
Hall Range. No. 51 (Plate 123) has a two-bay open hall flanked by two-storey bays at each end with the upper floors jettied on the N. elevation only. On this elevation the hall has two tall windows of three and six lights respectively with diamond mullions, all of them restorations; the wall is connected by a cove to an oversailing wall-plate. In the bay at the E. end, the doorway to the screens passage has an incorrectly restored head; the ground floor is otherwise mostly of modern brick; the framing of the jettied first floor has downward bracing and is extensively restored. The W. bay is also much restored and partly covered by a modern staircase wing; on the ground floor is a window with renewed diamond mullions. In the S. wall of the house there is no evidence of windows; the framing has a rail at first-floor level and a middle rail higher up, with studs forming tall panels, and with bracing to the wall-plate only in the end bays. The central open truss of the hall (Plate 128) has restored arch-braces below the cambered tie-beam and kerb-principals supporting sidepurlins. The E. partition wall of the hall is modern below the cross-beam; above, it has downward bracing and vertical studs of which the central one is much thicker. On the W. side of the hall, the ground floor is open and the framed wall above the cross-beam is mostly restored. The truss at the E. end of the range is mostly lost, but joints in the posts and cross-beam make it clear that the original building continued onwards; the existing half-bay extension with brick walls is a rebuild of 1930 of similar work probably of the 18th century. At the W. end the framing is not closed, indicating that the front range is of earlier date. The roofs of the E. and W. bays are modern.
The Rear Range of No. 47, of two storeys, has two bays of framing surviving at first-floor level, including straight upward bracing; it is otherwise of later brick and has sash windows. The late mediaeval range at the E. end, placed at right angles, is three bays long but most of the original walls were rebuilt in brick in the 17th to 19th centuries; framing survives most complete in the W. wall of the N. end bay where it has curved braces below wall-plate and middle rail. It was originally divided by partitions below the trusses but there is no firm evidence of original floors. The roof has braced side-purlins on raking queen-struts. There are large inserted chimneys. Though the original purpose is not clear, the building cannot have been domestic.
(195) House, No. 53 (Plate 6), of two storeys and attics, has walls of brick and pantiled roofs. It was built in the late 17th century to a plan with a central staircase beside a large chimney-stack. The three-bay front elevation has a modern shop front and is rendered on the first floor; above an elaborately-moulded cornice is an ogee-shaped gable, rebuilt in brick c. 1900 but probably copying an original one. The gable on the rear elevation may also have been shaped but has been altered; it has two bands of moulded brick and part of the segmental pediment to an attic window. Inside, the ground-floor shop has been mainly gutted except for the staircase lobby with two arched openings on the S. side which must have formed an entry from a passage; above the openings is a moulded timber entablature with pulvinated frieze. The staircase has a close string with heavy turned balusters and square newel-posts. On the first-floor landing the balusters are more slender and may be of later date; panelling on the walls is of doubtful authenticity. The larger front room has a reset chimney-piece of c. 1800, enriched with composition ornament.
(196) Houses, Nos. 55 (Plate 6), 57 (part), of three storeys, have walls of brick and pantiled roofs. They were built in the second quarter of the 18th century as a pair on a U-plan, formed by a front range with wings of unequal length projecting to the rear, separated by an open passage. Each house has a single room in the front range and, in the wing behind, a transverse staircase and one or two rooms, but in both houses the ground floors have been wholly altered.
The front elevation is five bays wide of which three, forming part of No. 57, are rendered and have a modern shop front continuous with the adjoining buildings. No. 55 is in Flemish bond and has dressings of red brick to the windows and the band at second-floor level. Only the two first-floor windows retain glazing bars and on the ground floor is a modern window, inserted in 1964. The rear wings are in stretcher bond and have hipped roofs. On the second floor of No. 57 are two windows with Yorkshire sashes and leaded lights. Inside, the original staircases survive in both houses only at the upper floors; they have close strings and turned balusters with square knops.
(197) Houses, No. 57, of three storeys, were built as a pair in the late 18th century but are now incorporated into a department store which also includes the house forming the pair to No. 55 (see above) and a tall late 19th-century block to the S. The front elevation, above a modern shop front, is rendered and the windows have been altered. Internally, the houses had staircases between single rooms at the front and back but these and other fittings and parts of the back walls have been removed, though the roof-lights over the original stair-wells remain.
(198) Houses and Shops, Nos. 59, 61, of two storeys and attics, were built in the second quarter of the 18th century as a pair, each with a single room to front and rear and central transverse staircase. The front elevation, of brick in Flemish bond, is three bays wide with a central blind window on the first floor; it has a modernised late 19th-century shop front, modillioned cornice with dated rainwater head ES 1763, and a pantiled roof with two gabled dormers, one of which is original. The rear elevation has a double gable and the window and door openings had arched heads, though they have all been altered to some extent. Inside, virtually no original fittings survive except part of the staircase of No. 61 which has close strings and turned balusters with square knops.
(199) House, No. 77, now a shop, of brick with pantiled roofs, is of three storeys and attics. It was built in the mid 18th century, on a plan with a central staircase between front and back rooms. The front elevation is three bays wide; the central windows are blind, and those to the left belong to a narrow later addition with a lean-to roof; the shop front is of c. 1930. Inside, the original staircase survives from the ground floor upwards, and on the first floor is a carved stone chimneypiece decorated with guilloche and stylised foliage in low relief.
(200) House, No. 81, now a shop, of brick with pantiled roofs, has a three-storeyed front elevation of two periods; the N. half was built in the early 18th century, originally one bay wide but later altered on the first floor; the S. half, two bays wide, is of the early 19th century; across the whole frontage is a modern shop front. The rear part, of two storeys and attics, was built in the early 18th century but incorporates slight remains of an earlier timber-framed building; it has a shaped gable (Plate 136) and M-section roof. The interior has been greatly altered and there are modern additions further to the rear.
(201) House, No. 83, of three storeys, was built in the early to mid 19th century. The front elevation, of two bays with a modern shop front on the ground floor, is of common brick and has a slated roof.
(202) House, Nos. 85, 87, 89, and 1 King's Square, of four storeys with a basement, was built c. 1800 and extended to the S.E. in the mid 19th century. It has been much altered and converted to commercial showrooms.
(203) Houses, Nos. 2, 4, of brick, are an unequal pair built in 1845, when the side passage through the city wall N.W. of Monk Bar was made to a design by G. T. Andrews (York II, 129). No. 2, adjacent to the city wall, is of two storeys, altered internally. No. 4, of three storeys, has an irregularly-shaped front elevation with a curved wall to N. and a carriageway through to Monk Bar Court to S.
Monk Bar Court (Monuments 204–206) is approached through the carriageway which formerly gave access to the back of the Red Lion Inn (207) and to the backs of some of the houses in Ogleforth. In the 19th century the Albion Iron and Brass Works operated there (1852 OS map).
(204) Houses, Nos. 1, 2, of three storeys and single-fronted, were built in the second quarter of the 19th century but incorporate some earlier brickwork up to first-floor level.
(205) House, No. 3, said to have been The Albion p.h. at one time and probably one of those offered for sale together with the nearby Albion Iron and Brass Foundry in YG, 17 Dec. 1859, is an 18th-century structure which was largely rebuilt and refitted in the second quarter of the 19th century. It is now asymmetrical and double-fronted; the front doorway, approached by stone steps, has fluted demi-columns carrying a plain cornice above a fanlight with geometrical patterned glazing bars (Plate 161). Two brick barrel-vaulted cellars with openings at the front confirm the suggestion that the building was once a public house.
(206) Range of four simple houses, Nos. 4–7, two-storeyed and single-fronted, date from about the fourth decade of the 19th century and probably provided accommodation for employees of the Albion Iron and Brass Works shown on the 1852 OS map.
(207) Houses, No. 6, 8, 10, now a range of three shops with flats above, occupy the site of the Red Lion Inn which appears on John Cossins' map of c. 1722 and on the OS map of 1852. The present range to the street, however, is of late 18th-century date with 19th-century modifications and the only surviving part which antedates 1722 is a 17th-century range to the rear of No. 6. The inn was a coaching house serving Helmsley and Malton and had stables on the opposite side of the street (T. P. Cooper, The Old Inns and Inn Signs of York (1897), 67); when offered for sale in 1866, stabling for eleven horses was advertised (YG, 22 Dec. 1866). It appears with a courtyard, and apparently a corresponding courtyard on the opposite side of Goodramgate, on Thomas Jefferys' map of 1772. Between 1790 and 1818, it was kept by members of the Pearson family and in 1828 and 1830 Richard Chapman is listed as the occupier (YCA, E95, ff. 89b, 189b; Directories). It had closed by 1897 (Cooper, op. cit.).
The front range, of brick with a slate roof, is of three storeys. The front elevation is stuccoed and the cornice is formed by bricks set diagonally; shop fronts have been inserted in the ground floor and the fenestration has been altered. The rear elevation has also been considerably modified. The N.E. side elevation has narrow brickwork and retains a damaged three-light mullioned window of 17th-century date with hollow-chamfered surround and one brick mullion. Internally, although late 18th and early 19th-century staircases remain, alterations in the 20th century have resulted in the loss of the internal arrangements of even the 19th-century inn. In the 17th-century wing, however, the exposed cross-beams and joists of the ground-floor ceiling and a large chimney-breast, now broken through, survive.
(208) House and Shop, No. 12, is mostly of the late 19th century, but a tumbled brick gable at the back is probably of the late 17th century and a rainwater head on the front is marked RG 1772, probably for Richard Garland, documented in Goodramgate in 1784 (Directory).
House, No. 14, see No. 1 Ogleforth (292).
(209) House, No. 16, of three storeys, converted to a shop and flats, was built in the late 18th century in Flemish-bonded stock brick with bands of three courses between storeys, and narrower bands connecting the ground and first-floor window-sills. The Goodramgate front is of three bays, with the centre windows blocked above the modern shop front. The Ogleforth frontage is of four bays, with a centrally-placed entrance, now blocked. At the N.W. end, a house of the same build has been demolished, but a small part of its front elevation has been retained and the N.W. end wall rebuilt. All sash windows to the main elevations have flush frames and flat arches of gauged rubbed bricks. There is a moulded and dentilled cornice, with fluted lead rainwater heads to both street elevations. The staircase was rebuilt in the early 19th century, with one rounded end wall containing arched niches.
(210) Royal Oak, p.h., No. 18 (Fig. 85), of three storeys and originally timber-framed, has been extended and refaced in brick, mostly rendered externally, and has a pantiled roof. It contains in the N.E. part a three-storey range, two bays deep, originally gabled to the street, and built probably in the 15th century. The framing of one wall is visible internally, with downward bracing on the first floor, upward bracing on the second floor, and an intermediate post with enlarged shoulder to support a floor-beam. Apart from slight indications of posts and wall-plate, the framing of the other walls has been covered over or removed, and the roof has been rebuilt at a higher level. Behind this range is an 18th-century addition in brick, with a contemporary closet wing. The S.W. half of the building was a two-storey framed range of two bays along the street frontage. It was probably contemporary with the N.E. range but has been much altered and the only surviving part visible is the remains of a partition wall with crossed-braces on the first floor; two of the braces have been removed and the roof truss above was destroyed when a second floor was added in the 19th century. Also on the first floor is a reset moulded beam of late mediaeval date carrying the second floor of the adjacent Golden Slipper p.h., which overlaps by several feet. The front elevation and the interior on the ground floor are modernised but elsewhere there are several fittings of the second quarter of the 18th century, including the top-lit staircase. An addition was built at the rear in the early 19th century.
(211) Golden Slipper, p.h., No. 20, of three storeys, attics and cellars, is of timber framing and brick, with slated roofs. The N.E. half of the building includes a framed range of late 15th or early 16th-century date, gabled to the street and two bays deep. It has jettied floors on the front and the second floor also overhangs on the N.E. side, where there must originally have been an alley, though now it overlaps the adjacent Royal Oak p.h. This floor, with an irregular projection, has evidently been rebuilt, but the existence of an original jettied floor on two sides is proved by a shaped corner-post, with brattishing. The wall is now rendered and has 19th-century detailing. At the rear is an 18th-century addition in brick, of three storeys and heightened to include an attic in the 19th century. The interior has been much altered and the S.W. half of the building is wholly of the later 19th century.
(212) House, No. 22, built in the late 17th century, one room deep and of three storeys and attics, with a transverse staircase and chimney at the rear, was refronted in the second half of the 19th century and re-roofed with slate. The two-bay street elevation is stuccoed. A late 17th-century staircase with bulbous balusters survives above first-floor level. A series of brick buildings of 19th-century date extends behind the house, formerly part of Thackray's Brewery.
(213) House, No. 24, of two storeys and containing fragments of timber framing, is of the 17th century but was almost entirely remodelled in the 18th and 19th centuries. It was the Beech Tree p.h. in 1851. The front elevation is of stuccoed brickwork above a modern shop front. A plat-band serves as a continuous sill to two late 19th-century sash windows beneath a steep pediment with a moulded cornice. At the first floor a post is incorporated from a vanished adjacent timber-framed house. A lower and narrower block at the rear contains 17th-century brickwork.
(214) Shop, No. 28, of three storeys with brick walls under a pantiled roof, was called The Wellington p.h. in 1851 (OS map) and appears as such in the 1818 Directory; it was probably built not later than the second half of the 18th century.
The front elevation has been modernised and the rear elevation is largely obscured by a 19th-century extension, but has a brick dentilled cornice of headers on edge and, at the S.W. end, a round-arched opening which formerly gave access to a passageway to the street. Inside, the ground floor has been modernised and the staircase sealed off.
(215) Houses, Nos. 30, 32 (Plate 119), and Nos. 11, 12 College Street, of two storeys and originally all timber-framed, represent some of those mentioned in the compotus roll of Nicholas de Newark of between 1383 and 1399, which deals with repairs to houses near the door of the close opposite the Bedern (F. Harrison, Life in a Medieval College (1952), 157). Though such framing as remains visible has been much modified, parts dating from the 14th century survive. Part was known as the Angel Inn in 1752 (YML, Subchanters Book 1752–85, 4).
The buildings comprise, at the N.E. end, two ranges at right angles to Goodramgate, the gables of which have been hipped back, a three-bay range parallel to Goodramgate, a jettied range facing College Street, built in the first half of the 14th century, and a small single-bay structure, of late 16th or early 17th-century date, spanning the passageway to the Minster Close. The first two ranges mentioned (No. 30) were added to and refitted in the early 19th century. The N.E. part of the range roofed parallel to Goodramgate had a first-floor projection added to the front in the 18th century and was refitted internally in the early 19th century with a staircase with cast-iron geometrically patterned balustrade and with paterae on the cheek-pieces. To S.W. of this part, a fireplace of 16th or 17th-century date was added. Only a small part of the jetty of the 14th-century range survives beneath the later 'gatehouse'. The ends of the projecting first-floor joists have roll mouldings and small pellet decoration; the wall above has a post with a short downward brace. The range has been partly rebuilt in brick and in the 19th century a building, probably used for some industrial purpose, was added at right angles to it. The gatehouse structure stands on a large corner-post and incorporates much reused timber. Its roof truss has a straight tie-beam, a collar supporting claspedpurlins, and a secondary collar very high up. The roofs of the rest of the complex were not accessible, but it is possible that the S.W. of the two ranges at the N.E. end has a roof of early form.
(216) Houses and Shops, Nos. 38, 40, incorporate parts of a mediaeval timber-framed structure, probably of the 15th century, which may have comprised two two-storeyed parallel ranges, gabled to the street and two rooms deep. The building was largely reconstructed in brick in the 17th century and the back wall, with a two-storey bay window, is of this period. No. 40 was refronted probably in 1782 but retains the 17th-century rear gable; the back of No. 38 was heightened in the 19th century.
The mediaeval remains comprise fragments of timber framing in the walls at right angles to the street and in a cross-wall between front and back rooms. Both the mediaeval and the 17th-century internal arrangements have been destroyed by later modifications. Before 1974, No. 40 had an enclosed staircase rising transversely between front and back rooms. The 17th-century bay window has hollow-chamfered brick surrounds to the lights (Plate 184), some of which are blocked.
(217) House, No. 44, of two storeys in brick, is of the early 19th century. It has a small shop with a room behind and two rooms above.
(218) House, No. 46, an early 19th-century three-storey brick building with tiled roof, was 'The Gardeners' Arms' p.h. in 1851. The front elevation has a modern shop front and fascia below white-painted brickwork in Flemish bond. A late 19th-century first-floor bay window interrupts a string-course at first-floor level. At either end of the elevation, fluted pilasters with leaf caps and entablature blocks rise from the string-course to the eaves. The enriched cornice has been partly destroyed. The second-floor window has three lights under a flat brick arch.
There are no original features at ground level. The transverse staircase, between single rooms at front and rear on both first and second floors, has an open string and square balusters; above it is a cornice and oval light-well.
(219) House, No. 48, built c. 1700, is of three storeys in brick. The ground floor has been converted to a shop and the upper part much altered, but the original staircase remains, with close strings, square newels and bulbous balusters.
(220) House, No. 54, of three bays and three storeys in brick, was built by William Woodell, cordwainer, about the mid 18th century (YCA, E97, f. 185). It has a wide original carriageway at the N. end. The ground floor is used as a shop and the upper floors are not accessible.
(221) Houses, No. 56, 58, of three storeys in brick, were built by John Lund, the former between 1784 and 1794, for his own occupation (YCA, E95, ff. 13v–14, 152). A passageway to the rear, running between them and called Kidd's Yard, has a number of doorways opening off it, suggesting that there were originally separate tenements or shops within the property. The building was altered at the rear for some industrial purpose during the first half of the 19th century and a large loft formed, in which simple lifting machinery remains, beneath a wide gable. In 1830 part of the building was occupied by a whitesmith (Directory).
(222) Lady Row, Nos. 60–72 (even) (Plate 117; Fig. 86), a range of tenements standing between Holy Trinity churchyard and the street, is basically of plastered timber framing but partly faced or rebuilt in brick, and has pantiled roofs. A deed to build a range, 128 ft. long and 18 ft. wide, on the churchyard was granted in 1316, the rents to be used to endow a chantry of the Blessed Virgin in the church (CPR, 1313–17, 476–7). As built, the range was of two storeys, eleven bays long; generally each bay formed a single tenement with one room on each floor, but at least one tenement, and probably two, occupied two bays. A separate house, 24 ft. by 16 ft., was to be built in the churchyard for the chantry priest. In a late 16th-century rental, the range consisted of three cottages and one tenement let at 2s. each, three tenements at 2s. 4d. each, one at 4s., and one at 6s. (YCA, E76, 9). The house at the S. end was demolished, certainly no later than the mid 18th century when a new arched gateway to the churchyard was built in its place. The next two houses to the N. formed The Hawk's Crest p.h. between 1796 and 1819. The second and third bays from the N. end were rebuilt shortly before 1784 by John Lund as a pair of three-storey brick houses (YCA, E95, ff. 13b–14) and in the second quarter of the 19th century the house at the N. end of the range was heightened to three storeys and a narrow extension to it built over the old entrance to the churchyard adjacent. This last house was The Noah's Ark p.h. in 1878. In 1827 there was a proposal to open the churchyard out to the street by pulling down the whole range (YG, 24 Nov. 1827); though this was not carried out, the former chantry priest's house, described as 'dilapidated cottage tenements called Trinity Court', was demolished. The range is of considerable importance as the earliest timber-framed building surviving in the city. Though the external appearance has been greatly altered, the basic structure of seven bays remains largely intact.
On the front elevation the original infilling between the posts on the ground floor has been replaced by shop fronts and brickwork; several of the posts have greatly enlarged heads to support the jetty above. The first-floor wall is plastered and the windows are mostly Yorkshire sashes, none earlier than the 18th century. The back elevation, which was never jettied, is plastered, with brick facing lower down. No. 60, at the N. end, retains some main framing, though not directly visible; the first floor has a dragon-beam, indicating that the end wall was originally jettied towards the former churchyard entrance. Framing inside Nos. 64–72 is characterised by braces which are straight or only slightly curved. The posts have jowled heads of very angular shape; in the front wall, they have braces both up to the wall-plate and down to the sill (Plate 130; Fig. 3e), but in the back wall they are braced upwards only. Within each bay the wall framing is of three widely-spaced studs only, and the cross-walls have similar widely-spaced studding (Fig. 3a). Inside No. 70, where there was a two-bay tenement, the third truss from the S. end of the range, numbered IIII because of the lost S. bay, has no partition wall below it and the posts, with small chamfers, have jowls of curved outline. The roof trusses, with cambered tie-beams, have tall unjowled crown-posts which have braces with a slight inward curvature and there are raking struts between tie-beams and rafters (Plate 127; Fig 6c). Repair work has shown that the infilling in the roof trusses is of limestone rubble, possibly from the Minster Stone Yard, fixing being assisted by pegs driven into the side faces of the framing. Attic floors were inserted throughout the range probably in the 17th century. The fittings are nearly all modern.
(223) Houses, Nos. 76, 78, and Old White Swan, p.h., No. 80 (Fig. 87), form a complex of buildings, partly timber-framed but mostly of brick, grouped on three sides of a yard open to the street on the S.E. A two-storey 16th-century timber-framed range A (see plan), parallel to the street and set back about 45 ft. from the frontage, encloses the yard on the N.W. side. Behind it, further to the N.W., is an addition B, built in brick in the later 17th century though possibly incorporating some earlier framing. In the 18th century two blocks, C and D, were built in front of the timber-framed range A, extending to the street frontage and enclosing the yard on the N.E. and S.W. sides respectively. Block C, forming Nos. 76, 78, of two storeys and attics, is of mid 18th-century date though it incorporates some remains of a 15th-century timber-framed building. It was refronted in 1771 when the street was widened, and block D, of three storeys, was probably built in the same year; the owner at that time was Robert Lonsdale. Small additions were subsequently made within the yard, and part of the 17th-century building B was demolished in 1956.
The 16th-century timber-framed range A is rendered externally and has hung-sash windows. There were two major phases of building. The N.E. part is four bays in length and between the first and second bays from the N.E. end are two adjacent open trusses, suggestive of the replacement in stages of an earlier building. The trusses have arch-braced tie-beams and principal rafters supporting side-purlins. The S.W. part of the range is slightly wider and taller; it has been very much altered and the pattern of framing is not clear.
The demolished part of the late 17th-century block B was built of brick in irregular English garden wall bond with moulded plat-bands at first and second floors and a dentilled brick cornice. In the upper storeys the windows were of two lights with wooden frames and high transoms. The roof construction was of common rafters only. The surviving part has been much altered and the plat-bands and cornice have been trimmed off.
Block C is of exposed brick and has a hipped roof. The part which forms No. 76 has been much modernised in recent years. Inside, at the rear are the surviving first-floor joists of an earlier timber-framed building which must have been partly demolished when block A was built. There is a mid 18th-century staircase with close strings, square newels and turned balusters with round knops. Block D is rendered externally, and has plat-bands between the storeys and a gable facing the street. On each floor there are four windows facing the yard and two in the gable-end, but many have been blocked. Inside, between the first and second floors is a staircase with a Chinese fret balustrade.
(224) House, No. 82, of three storeys and two bays, in brick, incorporates, at the rear, part of the two-storeyed rear wing of No. 76 Low Petergate (350), of which some framing remains on the first floor. The property was bought for the use of the City in 1770 (YCA, B44) and subsequently sold to Robert Lonsdale, carpenter, who rebuilt it as part of a road widening scheme undertaken in 1771. The entrance at the S.W. end was remodelled in the early 19th century and a modern shop has been formed to N.E. The staircase has Chinese fret balustrading (Fig. 88) and is similar to another staircase built by Lonsdale which remains in the S.W. range of the Old White Swan p.h. (223).
Grape Lane (Monuments 225–230)
Grape Lane, leading from Petergate to Swinegate, is the 'venella Sancti Benedicti' of 1276, known by 1329 as Grapcunt Lane, a name containing the element 'groping' and also given in Newcastle to a narrow lane, later Colvin's Chare. It led to St. Benedict's church, given to Pontefract Priory in 1154 and demolished before 1300. The site of the church remained waste until 1346 and buildings on it were later granted to the Vicars Choral of the Minster; the area for long retained the name of Benet's Rents. The N. end of Grape Lane has recently been widened by the demolition of No. 59 Low Petergate (358).
(225) Workshop, No. 7, was built in the late 16th or early 17th century as a two-storey timber-framed building, two bays deep. It was later heightened to three storeys, has a modern brick elevation to the street and now forms part of the printing works, No. 53 Low Petergate (355). The side wall facing S.W. has the first floor jettied out over a narrow lane, which is now partly built over. The framing has straight, downward bracing. Inside, there is an 18th-century staircase.
(226) House and Shop, No. 13, three-storeyed and of the second quarter of the 19th century, is five bays wide, with a shop in the first two bays, a carriageway in the next two, and a door at the N. end, all modern. The first and second floors have hung-sash windows with flat arches of cut stock bricks, stone sills, and brick reveals. A simple eaves gutter is supported on shaped brackets.
(227) House and Shop, No. 15, built c. 1800, is of four storeys with a modern shop on the ground floor and two sash windows to each floor above. The staircase rises beside the back room.
(228) House and Shop, No. 17, of three storeys and two bays wide, was built in the first half of the 19th century.
(229) No. 19, originally a low two-storeyed timber-framed building of unknown purpose roofed parallel to Grape Lane, dates from the 15th century. An original passageway led to what is now Coffee Yard, at the S.W. end, and the upper floor was jettied towards Grape Lane. A timber-framed wing, added at the back at a later date, has been demolished but the stub ends of the wall-plates remain. The surviving structure is only two bays wide and one room deep. In the 17th or 18th century the front wall was rebuilt in brick between the main timber members, and the building was heightened in the 19th century to give three storeys. It was then known as The Bloomsbury p.h. (1852 OS map).
On the front elevation, the ground floor retains three posts and the jetty-plate with mortices for shaped head-pieces to the opening of the passage; the entrance to the building is adjacent to the passageway. The S.W. wall of the passage is now of 19th-century brickwork, but that on the N.E. is of studs with plastered brick infilling. In the N.E. bay of the building, the bressummer of the jetty has pegged mortices for braces up to posts and for a central stud. The first-floor wall-plate, also only partly visible, has a peg for a central stud in the N.E. bay.
Inside, the building has been much altered and the only timber-framed wall to survive in any completeness is at the N.E. end. The studs on the ground floor are not all pegged in, but those on the first floor are in the original arrangement, the wide middle stud, together with the truss above, suggesting an early date. The truss (Fig. 6j) has a steeply cambered tie-beam, braces from the tie-beam to the crown-post intersected by struts from tie-beam to rafter and a central collarpurlin, originally braced from the crown-post but now sawn off. The heads of the struts are enlarged, but there are no side-purlins.
(230) House, No. 21, of two storeys, was built in the first half of the 19th century.
Haver Lane ran from Hungate to Peasholme Green but its site is now covered by part of The Stonebow. Its name, recorded in 1170–84 as Havergate, means 'the street where goats were kept'.
High Ousegate (Monuments 231–239)
The street leading from the E. end of Ouse Bridge to Pavement is divided by the crossing with Spurriergate-Nessgate into High Ousegate, to the N.E., and Low Ousegate. The name is first recorded in 1120–33. It has been suggested as the central axis of a former open space some 300 ft. wide and 700 ft. long, which by 1100 was already occupied by houses and by the two churches of All Saints and St. Michael. The phrase used in the 12th century—'magna placea que dicitur Ousegata' — may support this suggestion. Apart from All Saints' church (1), there are now no buildings in High Ousegate earlier than about 1700. Thirty houses, no doubt all timber-framed, were destroyed by fire in 1694 and replaced in the early 18th century by three pairs of large houses (Nos. 11–16 (233–235)). A herb market was held W. of the church from 1727 to 1782.
(231) Buildings, Nos. 1–4, of four storeys, were built c. 1820–30 and retained contemporary fittings. No. 2 had a spiral staircase and two Carron grates, No. 3 contained an elliptical spiral staircase, and No. 4, almost unaltered, had grates by Carron of Falkirk and Lowmoor. Demolished 1959.
(232) House, No. 5, now shop and offices, of four storeys, was built on a T-shaped plan in 1743; this date appears on the lead rainwater head with the initials FI (Plate 181). On the red brick front elevation, above a modern shop front, string-courses divide the storeys, each of which has five windows with gauged brick arches. The uppermost windows have Yorkshire sashes. There is a bold timber block cornice at the eaves. The back wing is partly two-storeyed and has a gable rebuilt in modern brick. At the front of the house there are two rooms of unequal size on each floor. The larger first-floor room, lined with fielded panelling above a dado rail and under an elaborate enriched cornice, has a fireplace with enriched surround and panelled overmantel, eared and scrolled at the top, with a cartouche and foliage ornament (Plate 178). The original staircase was behind the larger front room; in the 19th century a new staircase was made in the centre of the house, around an open well, involving extensive remodelling.
(233) Houses, Nos. 11, 12 (Plate 144; Fig. 89), of three storeys and attics, were built as a large pair, probably in 1705 and certainly between 1704 and 1712, by Samuel Buxton, grocer, Sheriff 1696/7 (Davies, 242–3). The site was one of those made vacant by the fire of 1694. The planning in the two houses is not identical, and the brickwork at the back shows that No. 12 was built first. Originally, there was probably a shop at the front of each house and Cossins' map of c. 1727 shows a small lean-to projection against No. 12. The ground floors have now been gutted and, though much decayed, this was once one of a group of very fine pairs of houses, including Nos. 13, 14, and 15.
Above modern shop fronts, the street elevation is in nine bays, stucco-rendered, with giant fluted Ionic pilasters at each end and flanking the central bay, which is also emphasised by a pediment over the first-floor window. At the eaves is a bracketed timber cornice. The date 1758, with the initials IEM, probably for John Mayer, appears on two rainwater heads (Plate 181). At the back, a re-entrant behind the entrance has been filled by later staircases. Small closet wings project on each side. Inside, both houses have been much altered and few original fittings remain, especially in No. 11. The original staircases, to different designs (Fig. 11n, k), survive only on the top storey. In No. 12 there is a boldly enriched plaster cornice on the first-floor landing and also several mid 18th-century fittings.
(234) Houses, Nos. 13, 14 (Plate 144; Fig. 90), of three storeys with cellars and attics, were also built as a pair in the early 18th century on the site of the fire of 1694; though of some architectural pretension, they are not so large as Nos. 11, 12. They are shown on Cossins' map of c. 1727 as the property of Mr. Scott; later, one was the banking house of Wilson, Tweedy and Co. (Davies, 244). The ground floor is now fully occupied as shops, with the upper floors used as stock rooms.
The street front, in five bays, has giant Corinthian pilasters with mutilated capitals, flanking the central bay, and rusticated quoins. The central entrance, leading to a through-passage, has a rusticated archway, and the window above is emphasised by a segmental pediment. Some of the other windows have been widened. The eaves cornice has been partly reconstructed, and there are two lead rainwater heads, one dated 1763 with the initials TDW. The back windows are set under low three-centred brick arches and one retains its original mullion and transom. Elsewhere hung sashes have been put in. Both houses have been considerably altered inside, but original staircases remain, incomplete in No. 13, with close strings, square newels and substantial turned balusters (Fig. 11i).
(235) House, No. 15, the surviving part of the third pair built at the beginning of the 18th century after the fire of 1694, is of three storeys. The front has been remodelled with a modern brick outer skin, and the only original work visible is the brickwork of the back wall. The interior has been completely modernised.
(236) House, No. 19, of the early 18th century, is of three storeys with a stuccoed front. The ground floor has been entirely modernised for a shop, and on the first floor two windows replace the original three. A window on the top floor retains its original moulded wooden mullion and transom. In the early 19th century a long back wing was added.
(237) House, No. 20, of three storeys, is probably of late 17th or early 18th-century origin, but was refronted in the early 19th century. It has been much altered but over the front part is a roof with clasped-purlins.
(238) House, No. 21, of the early 18th century, is three-storeyed with a stuccoed front. It is narrow at the front but widens out towards the back. The ground floor has been modernised for a shop. Part of the original staircase remains above.
(239) Houses, Nos. 22/23, 24, are a four-storeyed pair built shortly before 1850, with modern shops on the ground floor. Original fittings in No. 24 include a staircase placed transversely in the middle of the house, moulded fireplace surrounds with circular bosses at the angles and a ceiling cornice enriched with Greek key pattern and floral paterae.