Houses: Newgate-Peter Lane

Pages 170-180

An Inventory of the Historical Monuments in City of York, Volume 5, Central. Originally published by Her Majesty's Stationery Office, London, 1981.

This free content was digitised by double rekeying and sponsored by English Heritage. All rights reserved.


Newgate-Peter Lane

Newgate (Monuments 289–291)

Newgate continues the line of Jubbergate from Silver Street to the junction of King's Square and Shambles. Its name is first recorded in 1337, but presumably it was a widening or paving of an already existing lane. Most of its N.W. side is occupied by a row of cottages built in St. Sampson's churchyard in 1337. At about the same period a large house with a stone ground floor and timber-framed upper storey was erected in the angle of Patrick Pool and Newgate. Part of the S.E. side of the street was destroyed in 1952–5, when the new market place was laid out between Shambles and Parliament Street.

(289) House, No. 6, now a shop and cafe, has two upper storeys of modern brick above a stone-built ground floor, incorporating some mediaeval masonry. The original building was of 14th-century date, and a drawing of 1846 (Proceedings of the Archaeological Institute (1846)) shows it with a timber-framed and jettied upper storey. The building appears to have extended as far as Pump Court, and is shown as two separate properties on the 1852 OS map. Part was used in the 18th century as a meeting room for the Methodists, John Wesley preaching here in 1753, 1755 and 1759. It was used as a school between 1813 and 1816, after which its status declined. The upper storey was destroyed by fire c. 1880 and replaced by two brick storeys. Extensive rebuilding took place in 1963.

Fragments of mediaeval masonry and a worn stone bracket survive in the passageway to Pump Court, and a two-light window survives in the Newgate elevation. This has shoulderheaded openings in a square frame and ovolo-moulded reveals with hooks for shutters, beneath a worn hood mould (Fig. 106).

Fig. 106. (289) No. 6 Newgate. Window.

Pre-Conquest Stone: in Yorkshire Museum, found on the site during building works in 1963. Fragment of cross-shaft (Plate 23), of magnesian limestone, 24 in. by 12 in. by 10 in.; flat at top, damaged base and two main sides; each face has a framing arch to a major carved panel, three carved with animals and the fourth with a human head, each arch grasped by two small figures, carved at the angles of the stone on adjacent faces, with volute-ended wings touching above the arch heads; probably 11th-century (Arch., civ (1973), 211, Plate XLIII).

(290) House, No. 11, on the corner of Newgate and Patrick Pool, is of early 19th-century date but incorporates fragments of earlier timber framing. It is three storeys high, of brick above a modern shop, and has a pantiled roof. Both main elevations have one hung-sash window at first floor and one Yorkshire sash at second floor.

(291) Houses, Nos. 12–15, represent the surviving elements of a row of timber-framed houses built in the churchyard of St. Sampson in 1337 (CPR, 1334–38, 399), facing S.E. along Newgate. Nos. 12 and 15 each represents one original tenement, whilst three more are incorporated into Nos. 13 and 14. There were originally probably ten or twelve tenements. Each tenement was self-contained with one room up and one down, the upper one open to the roof. The upper storey was jettied on both front and rear elevations, but the front of Nos. 13 and 14 was cut back and heightened in the late 19th century. No. 12 also was heightened in the early 19th century to provide attic accommodation. Judging from No. 12, which has recently been restored, each tenement was entered by a doorway at the N.E. end of the front wall, and a steep straight staircase along the internal N.E. wall gave access to the upper room. All the windows are 19th-century or modern.

No. 12 forms a small shop, newly restored. On the S.E. front the S.W. corner-post remains, carrying the ground-floor wall-plate. This beam now has its soffit exposed showing only one mortice, which must represent a stud acting as the S.W. jamb of a doorway at the N.E. end. The first floor, which has a jetty of 1 ft. 4 in., is stuccoed. The line of the original eaves level was marked until recently by a band of lead flashing. The rear elevation has the ground floor masked by outbuildings. The first floor is jettied and retains its timber framing, above which is 19th-century brick heightening. Internally on the ground floor the rear ground-floor wall-plate has mortices indicating framing as on the floor above. At the N.W. end of the S.W. wall a large 17th-century chimney-breast with curved wooden lintel to the fireplaceopening has recently been removed. On the first floor the framing on the N.W. wall is exposed, and that on the S.E. wall has been uncovered and restored to match. The two roof trusses have been exposed on the second floor and in the roof, the N.E. truss being numbered 'III' and the S.W. truss 'IIII'. They show a type of crown-post construction (Fig. 6d) with side and collar-purlins, the crown-post being 7 ft. 6 in. high and the bay width 10 ft. 1 in.

Nos. 13 and 14 have a stuccoed 19th-century front, though the line of the original eaves plate has been perpetuated by a stuccoed band. At the rear the ground floor is masked. The jettied first floor retains the main uprights of each bay and the original wall-plate, as well as some of the framing in the N.E. bay. The rest of the framing is replaced by 18th and 19th-century brickwork containing three 19th-century sash windows, blocked internally. The interior has been greatly altered and divided, but on the first floor there is a large 17th-century chimney-breast. In the present top floor, parts of the various roof trusses are visible, each bay being about 10 ft. wide.

No. 15 has a 19th-century and modern front, although retaining the jettied first floor. The rear elevation, masked on the ground floor, has a jettied first floor which retains its two main posts and wall-plate. Peg-holes indicate framing as in Nos. 12–14. The wall was heightened in the 19th century and given a N.W.-S.E. gabled roof with a window to light an inserted attic. The S.W. end (Plate 135), originally only a party wall, is now exposed. It retains all its original framing (Fig. 107) except perhaps on the ground floor, and both jetties are clearly visible. Some of the timbers are numbered 'VIII'. The continuation S.W. of the collar-purlin supported by a longitudinal brace has recently been removed. Internally only parts of the two roof trusses are now visible.

Fig. 107. (291) Nos. 12–15 Newgate. S.W. end.

Ogleforth (Monuments 292–299)

Ogleforth runs parallel to the N.E. wall of the city and of the Roman fortress from Chapter House Street to Goodramgate. The name, 'Ugel's ford' or 'owl's ford', first occurs in 1109–14. The ford may possibly refer to a crossing of one of the several king's ditches or open drains – certainly one ran between the street and the rampart. The church of St. John del Pyke, sold by the Corporation to Archbishop Holgate in 1553, lay on the N.E. side of Ogleforth near its N.W. end; the parish retained its identity until 1900. One of the gates of the close crossed the street until c. 1700 when it was demolished and the boundary marked by a stone. Its position was between Nos. 12 and 14. In the 15th century, a lane led from Ogleforth to a rear entrance of St. William's College.

N.E. side:

(292) Houses, No. 1, and No. 14 Goodramgate, a pair, small and of two storeys with cellars and dormered attics, were built on an irregular site belonging to the prebend of South Newbald in the second quarter of the 18th century. They incorporate a large chimney-breast with a wide fireplace opening and some roof timbers from an earlier house.

The houses have a brick plinth, a plat-band with oversailing top course to first and attic-floor levels and a plain parapet. Much of the plinth and the first-floor plat-band are covered by the late 19th-century shop front of No. 14 Goodramgate. There were two doors to Ogleforth, one of 19th-century date and one earlier, but the earlier door has been replaced by a window in recent alterations. The latter door had a flat arch of gauged brickwork similar to that of the one ground-floor sash window; three hung-sash windows to Ogleforth and two to Goodramgate, all with arches similar to those on the ground floor, light the first floor. There are two rainwater heads, both with the date 1774 and initials IH for Jonathan Hopwood, who acquired the lease in that year (YML, wj).

Inside, both houses have two main rooms on each floor, although a single-storey wing extends the ground-floor accommodation of No. 14. The staircases have square newels with attached half-balusters, turned balusters with vase-shaped features below the round knop and short columns above, and square moulded and ramped handrails. They rise to the attic with close strings around a rectangular well, except in the two flights between ground and first floors of No. 14 Goodramgate. Here the long first flight rises three-quarters of the way between the floors and it and the remaining short flight to the first floor have an open string.

(293) Houses, Nos. 3, 5, 7, of two storeys and attics, were built c. 1830 as a pair, with a through-carriageway between them. Later in the 19th century the E. house was divided into two. An earlier wall, of 17th or 18th-century date, is incorporated into the back. The windows have segmental heads (Fig. 8g, h).

(294) House, No. 9, of two storeys, is an early 19th-century reconstruction of an earlier brick-built house. The front is stuccoed and the central entrance has a pedimented door-case; a second doorway to E. leads to an open passage to the rear. Each floor has principal front and back rooms to W. and minor rooms and staircase to E. Many of the early 19th-century fittings survive.

(295) House, No. 11, of two storeys with cellars and attics, built of brick and now roofed with Welsh slate, is of early 18th-century date, extended to the rear in the 19th century and refitted in the late 18th and early 19th centuries. The S. front elevation, of four bays in randombonded brickwork, has hung-sash windows with shallow segmentally-arched heads of single bricks. The entrance, in the second bay from E., is of late 18th-century date; the eaves cornice, slate roof and dormers are of the 19th century.

The house has an entrance passage with rooms to either side at the front and rear: the N. rear rooms have been extended. The original staircase, situated at the back, has heavy turned balusters and square newels with attached demi-balusters, and rises in short flights from the ground floor to the attics; it is similar to that in No. 14 High Ousegate (234), built c. 1705.

(296) Cromwell House, No. 13 (Plate 144), of two storeys with attics, was built in brick c. 1700. Roughly square on plan, it consists of a front part with an architecturally ambitious facade rising to one pedimental gable spanning the full width of the house, and a rather lower back part, originally under two parallel roofs with two gables to the rear; the S.E. gable and the roof behind it were removed in the course of alteration and extension in the 19th century. Between the two halves of the back part is an earlier timber-framed partition, reused or incorporated from an earlier building, and the roof also includes much reused timber, suggesting an earlier house on this site. The interior was remodelled with a new staircase c. 1760 (Plate 193); further alterations and subdivision have destroyed the character of the interior. The front was restored and the gable rebuilt c. 1974.

The front elevation, of brick with stone dressings, is of five bays between end pilasters, one destroyed. Above the second floor there must have been an entablature across the full width of the front, but this had been destroyed before the recent restoration. The central doorway (Plate 159) has a bolection-moulded stone surround. The windows, one converted to a doorway, are set in shallow brick projections with stone sills and brick aprons; over the ground-floor openings are stone cornices. Three small rectangular windows in the pediment are flanked by an oval window at each end. The surviving gable at the back has the storeys defined by moulded stringcourses and is finished with tumbled brickwork.

S.W. side:

(297) The Dutch House, No. 2, of two storeys with attics, built of brick with brick pediments over the windows, is of mid 17th-century date. Two Dutch gables with dormer windows were added to the front later in the 17th century. The original purpose of the building is uncertain but access to the first floor appears to have been by an external staircase, suggesting that it may not have been domestic. Many alterations took place in the 18th century and kitchen ranges in both the upper floors show that by the beginning of the 19th century it must have been divided into three tenements. By the mid 20th century its condition was very dilapidated and it was restored in 1958. Most of the front wall was taken down and rebuilt.

The original windows were set in hollow-chamfered brick dressings, not bonded to the walling, and had chamfered brick mullions and transoms. The front comprised four unequal bays (Plate 185): to the S.E., a narrow bay of plain walling fronted the recesses at the side of the end chimney, with a small single-light window on the first floor; in each of the other three bays was a small projection accommodating the main openings, a round-headed doorway under an oriel window in the middle, and windows of two or three-transomed lights in the bays to each side. The two windows on the ground floor were surmounted by curved brick pediments but the original windows had completely disappeared in the course of later modifications. The upper windows were surmounted by triangular pediments and the oriel in the middle was supported by brick corbelling, forming an inverted pyramid. The added Dutch gables above do not correspond with the bays below. The end walls are finished with tumbled gables and the N.W. end had a doorway with hollow-chamfered brick dressings to the first floor, which had been blocked, and an original window to the attic. The back wall is plain.

The ground floor formed two rooms with a fireplace at the S.E. end; the fireplace had a segmental head of rendered brickwork. The first floor was one single room with a moulded longitudinal ceiling beam carrying moulded joists. The walls rise well above the attic floor and the central tie-beam was in two parts, tenoned to the posts of a central doorway which rose to a collar carrying clasped-purlins. Other trusses have collars but no ties and one of the principals has been cut away for an inserted dormer.

(298) No. 8, a three-storey brick building of c. 1820, with a pantiled roof, may have been offices for Thackray's Brewery. The 1852 OS map shows it bisected by a ward boundary, and half of the ground floor is only accessible from St. William's College, whilst the entrance doorway at first floor is the only access to that level.

A modern external staircase and balcony partly mask the lower part of the N. elevation. The two upper floors form a three-bay composition, with recessed brick panels flanking and framing the entrance doorway. The elevation shows the scars of a late 19th-century roof. The side elevations have two sash windows to both floors on the E. above a ground-floor tripartite window, and three sash windows to each floor on the W.

(299) Nos. 16–20 (even) (Plate 120), a two-storeyed timber-framed building, now of five bays but originally extending further S.E., was built in the 16th century; the lack of any evidence for partitions suggests that its original purpose was not domestic. In the 18th century the external walls were rebuilt in brick, except for the jettied upper storey on the N.E. side. The N.W. end was made into two cottages, one surviving as No. 5 Chapter House Street. The rest has been modernised by the National Trust to form garages with a flat above.

The framing of the jettied front, visible inside, consists of widely-spaced studs between posts braced from the sill-plate. Surviving posts at the back show that there was no jetty on that side. The roof trusses (Fig. 6l) have slightly cambered tie-beams and side-purlins supported by braced struts with curved braces rising from the struts to the purlins.

Parliament Street (Monuments 300–305)

Parliament Street was built between 1835 and 1840 as a new market place, and was the most ambitious improvement in central York in the first half of the 19th century.

By the early 19th century the existing markets in Thursday Market (now St. Sampson's Square) and Pavement had become inadequate, and in 1833 an Act of Parliament was obtained to make a new market (VCH, York, 488–89). The site was created by opening up all the land between the two existing markets, which up to then had been entirely built over, except where Jubbergate cut across. Messrs. Pickersgill and Oates won £30 for the best plan for the New Market Place (as it was to be called) and J. P. Pritchett £20 for the second best (Drake, Hudson MSS., p. 160). Demolition of the old properties began in February 1834, and a plan by Pickersgill and Oates, Surveyors, was issued in August of that year, specifying how the elevations were to be controlled; they were to be either three-storeyed (32 ft. 3 in. high) or four-storeyed (40 ft. 9 in. high) and the individual window heights were laid down. Cornices were also to conform to a uniform profile provided.

The new market came into use in July 1836, by which time building of the new frontages was in progress. The York City and County Bank (later the Midland Bank) was started in 1835, but the majority of the smaller properties seem to have been built in 1836–9, and many archaeological finds were recorded in the local press.

The properties were mostly four-storeyed, and the exact dimensions specified for the elevations do not always seem to have been strictly adhered to. All have brick walls and slated roofs, unless otherwise described. There were shops on the ground floor, and usually living accommodation over, frequently with the narrow terrace house plan of large room at the front and smaller room and staircase at the rear. The shops have, without exception, been modernised and the upper floors generally turned over to offices, with many consequent alterations; some original staircases remain, and in many upper rooms moulded plaster cornices survive. Some blocks of property have been wholly rebuilt.

S.W. side:

(300) Nos. 4–12 and 14–21 are nine four-storey buildings, and comprised eighteen houses and shops. No. 4 was rebuilt in 1970; Nos. 5–7 form a three-bay composition with central tripartite windows. Nos. 11, 12 were demolished 1971.

(301) Midland Bank, No. 13 (Plate 155), a three-storey building of brick with a stone front, was built in 1835 as premises of the York City and County Bank to designs by P. F. Robinson and G. T. Andrews (YG, 30 May 1835). Early in the 20th century a large addition was made and the interior was remodelled. The bottom storey was rusticated, with a central entrance recessed between Doric columns (Plate 161). The two upper storeys were divided into five bays by Roman Doric pilasters surmounted by an entablature. An original staircase remained; it had decorative cast-iron balusters. Demolished 1971.

N.E. side:

(302) Nos. 23, 24, 28–30 are of three storeys.

(303) Nos. 31–9 are of four storeys.

(304) Nos. 44, 45 were built as offices for the Yorkshireman to designs by J. B. and W. Atkinson. The front was five bays wide with round-headed windows on the first floor, but only two bays remain; three bays were demolished between 1950 and 1960.

(305) No. 46 is of four storeys, two bays wide.

Patrick Pool (Monuments 306, 307)

Patrick Pool is now only a short street leading N.W. between Newgate and Church Street, but the name formerly also applied to its continuation, called Swinegate since c. 1600. Whether the 'Patrick' is derived from a personal name or from an earlier dedication of St. Sampson's church, the 'pool' was perhaps due to subsidence in the Roman bath-house which extended under the street or to blockage in the sewer which ran approximately on the line of Swinegate. 'Patricpol' is first recorded c. 1200, described as impassable in 1249, as needing draining in 1576 and as a place where herbs could be gathered in c. 1525.

N.E. side:

(306) House, No. 2, of mediaeval date, was built as a timber-framed structure of two storeys. It was refronted in brick in the late 17th century and remodelled internally by Joseph Hewan c. 1767 (YCA, E94, f.88). On plan it comprises an entrance hall and front room with a chimney behind, and a narrow room behind the chimney. Little of the original framing is now recognisable. The late 18th-century staircase is of simple Chinese fret design.

S.W. side:

(307) Building, adjacent to St. Sampson's church (Plate 122; Fig. 108), is of three storeys and attics, timber-framed with the upper storeys jettied on both the long elevations, and of three bays with no evidence for any internal partitions or heating. It was probably built in the late 16th century and its modern use as shops and warehouse may reflect its original purpose though its proximity to St. Sampson's church suggests that it may have had some social or ecclesiastical function. In the 18th century it was used as stables, later converted to a warehouse with corn chambers above (YCA, E93, f. 115; E97, ff. 252–252v).

At the S. end, the ground floor projects to fit below the jetty of the end tenement of the Newgate range (Monument 290). The walls have been partly rebuilt in brick; the original framing had ogee down-braces in each bay (Fig. 3j) and irregularly-disposed windows, two to the W. on ground and second floors and two to the E. on the first floor. The attic, an original feature, has a floor of lime-ash plaster. The claspedpurlin roof has the two internal trusses designed to provide through access: on each side the purlin is carried by a short horizontal member tenoned into a queen-strut between tie-beam and rafter. The building was restored c. 1960, after a period of considerable decay.

Pavement (Monuments 308–316)

Pavement, one of York's two ancient market places, extended between the churches of All Saints and St. Crux as a wide street, but its S.W. end has been transformed by the formation of Parliament Street in 1836 and by the extension of Piccadilly in 1912. The name, with the meaning of a metalled or paved area, is not recorded until 1329; before then, it appears in documents as the street of Marketshire, one of the seven shires or wards of York mentioned in 1086. By this date, All Saints' church already existed, as did that of St. Crux at the cross-roads with Colliergate and Fossgate. Both once had far larger churchyards than now remain, with rows of houses built upon them in the 14th century. The row S. of St. Crux church, known as Hosier Row or Lane, was demolished in 1769, followed by the church itself in 1887. Houses erected E. of All Saints in 1336 were pulled down in 1671 and replaced by a market cross, demolished in 1813. The chancel of All Saints' church was also removed in 1782 and strips of the churchyard to N. and S. were added to the streets in the 17th century. The parish was wealthy – thirty-nine mayors of York are said to have been buried in the church – but only on the S.E. side of Pavement is there one survivor of a once splendid row of timber-framed houses formerly extending across the end of Piccadilly.

Fig. 108. (307) Building in Patrick Pool.

N.W. side:

(308) House, No. 19, was built in the late 18th century on a wedge-shaped site, probably by William Wynn, bricklayer, freeman in 1758, who divided a larger property into two tenements; the adjacent tenement was No. 26 Shambles (431). The new house and shop were occupied by Robert Braithwaite, butcher, in 1773 (YCA, E94, f. 139). The house had a five-bay wide, stucco-rendered front elevation with later ground-floor shop, and a slated roof. The staircase had a close string and a Chinese fret balustrade. Demolished.

S.E. side:

(309) House, No. 6, narrow and of three storeys with cellars and attics, was built at the beginning of the 18th century with one front and one back room on each floor. In the cellar are earlier walls, one of stone probably of late mediaeval date and incorporating a carved stone of the 12th century, which may be a survival from the late 14th-century rebuilding of the nearby church of All Saints. Below the cellar floor, excavations by the York Archaeological Trust revealed a pre-Conquest timber-framed building used as a leatherworkers' shop (P. V. Addyman, 'Excavations in York', Ant. J., liv (1974), 218–24). The house has been much altered for modern commercial purposes and the ground floor completely gutted. Behind the house, and originally free-standing, is a small building of two storeys and attics, with a large kitchen fireplace in the ground-floor room.

The front of the house has rusticated stone quoins and eared architraves to the upper windows, restored in cement. There are aprons under the top windows and a bold timber cornice at the eaves. The upper rooms retain some original bolection-moulded panelling. In the rear building, the kitchen fireplace is spanned by a stone arch; the rooms above have been completely altered.

(310) House, No. 8, of three storeys with cellar and attic, was probably built in the second quarter of the 19th century. At the rear is a small 18th-century wing, which was extended c. 1800 to give access to a new two-storey structure behind. The front elevation, three bays wide, is of red brick with stone dressings and has a modern ground floor. The interior retains no old features, except some reused mid 18th-century balusters in the attic stair.

(311) The Herbert House, Nos. 12, 14 (Plate 121; Fig. 109), consists of an early 17th-century house, A, facing the Pavement and a mid 16th-century house behind, B, facing Lady Peckett's Yard, with a mid 17th-century link between the two. The building takes its name from the family of Christopher Herbert, merchant, Lord Mayor in 1573, who was the elder son of Richard Herbert of Tintern and related to the Earl of Pembroke (Skaife). He came to York some time before 1550 when he was admitted freeman of the City (SS, xcvi (1896), 271) and in 1557 he bought from the Company of the Merchant Adventurers a house facing the Pavement, of which he was already a tenant (YASRS, l for 1913 (1914), 216). This house stood on the site of house A, and occupied a plot which was enclosed at the back by land let to the neighbours on each side, so that it was necessary to grant an easement for drainage from the kitchen southwards across the land rented by John Eyre, the tenant next W. When Christopher Herbert died in 1590 his will showed that he had acquired a second tenement, probably that of George Hall which lay to the E. and S. and would thus have included the site of the present Golden Fleece and of house B. Christopher Herbert was succeeded by his son Thomas, Lord Mayor in 1604, who died in 1614, leaving two tenements, one occupied by his mother and one by John Jaques, merchant. According to Davies (p. 251), Roger Jaques held the property in 1633; he became Lord Mayor in 1638, was knighted the same year, and was Member of Parliament for York 1639–45. By 1647 he had disposed of the Pavement property and was living in Colliergate. House A was probably rebuilt by John Jaques after the death of Thomas Herbert in 1614. In 1648 the N. end of house B was pulled down and the two houses were joined by a new block containing a new main entrance and staircase; this entrance was reached by a passageway under the W. end of house A. In the late 19th century a single-storey extension was built in front of this mid 17th-century entrance but its previous appearance has been preserved in drawings by Cave of 1810 and by G. Nicholson of 1825 (YCAG).

The front of A to the Pavement (Plate 121) was renovated in the late 19th century and the whole property was drastically restored after its acquisition by an insurance society in 1925. The ground floor of house A has been opened out into a shop, which includes the bottom part of the mid 17th-century link and its 19th-century extension (YAJ, xxxix (1958), 343–55).

A. The house fronting the Pavement is of three storeys with cellars and attics and has a jettied timber-framed front rising to two gables, and a brick back. A drawing by Nicholson dated 1827 shows a front with three gables, the third gable evidently over the tenement occupied by George Hall in the 16th century and replaced by the present Golden Fleece p.h. (312) in the 19th century. The N. front was shown plastered in 1827 but the plaster was removed to expose the framing in 1926. The ground floor has a modern shop window, except at the W. end where there is the passage into Lady Peckett's Yard and at the E. end where a doorway was inserted in 1925. Mortices for studs, visible in the wall-plate under the jetty, show that the entrance to Lady Peckett's Yard is not in its original form. On the upper floors the framing is exposed; the ends of the joists forming the jetties are masked by fascia boards carved with vine-trail and arabesque patterns. The gables are finished with barge-boards and finials and the finials are repeated at the bottom of each slope of the roofs. The barge boards are much restored; the finials are modern reconstructions and enclose triangular panels against the roof slopes. These are modern but are evidently based on one finial and panel shown at the W. end by Nicholson. The windows are all modern but are said to reproduce the original ones.

Fig. 109. (311, 312) Herbert House, Nos. 12, 14 Pavement, and House in Lady Peckett's Yard.

The back is of original brickwork with modern windows; the bricks are narrow with four courses rising 8½ in. A number of straight joints indicate the positions of original window jambs. The ground floor, gutted for the shop, shows only stop-chamfered ceiling beams. The first floor has one large room, now divided, occupying the full width of the front. It is lined with reset 17th-century panelling, some brought down from the second floor. The fireplace, in the S. wall, is flanked by tapered wooden pilasters carved with a grape-vine motif, above which modern scrolled brackets carry Ionic capitals under an elaborate panelled and jewelled overmantel (Plate 175) divided into three bays by Corinthian columns under a frieze of decorated panels, interrupted by a modern shield-of-arms of Herbert. Ceiling beams and joists are moulded and there are similar beams and joists in the back part of the house. At the E. end of the front room is a chimney which must have served the demolished tenement next door. On the second floor much of the framing is exposed. In the front rooms two tie-beams have been cut away; in the remaining tie-beams are slots for ceiling joists showing that the ceiling has been raised. The two parallel roofs are each divided into four bays; the third bays from the front are narrow and accommodate the chimney. The trusses consist of short principals supporting a collar, and not continuing above the collar.

House B, on the E. side of Lady Peckett's Yard, was built in the mid 16th century. It is of three storeys, timber-framed, with both the upper floors jettied on the W. front (Fig. 4c), and was originally of four unequal bays. There were two larger bays to the N. and two smaller bays to the S. but the larger part of the N. bay was demolished, except for the E. wall, in the mid 17th century.

The W. front has the ground floor mostly rebuilt in modern brick but at the N. end is a four-centred door head cut in the wall-plate; the framing above is exposed and partly restored. The N. end is framed with reused 16th-century timbers. The upper floors are now undivided by any partitions and there is no evidence for any fireplaces or chimneys. Many of the structural timbers show carpenters' marks and on the first floor two ceiling beams are cased in plaster decorated with fleurs-de-lys and a running pattern of leaves, flowers and pomegranates. The roof is modern.

The N. bay of this house, mostly pulled down in the 17th century, was replaced by a link between this house and the N. house facing Pavement. This link was three storeys high and contained a staircase approached directly from the yard by an external flight of steps. The whole of the ground floor has been absorbed into the Pavement shop and the upper walling to the W. is carried on iron columns. It is partly of brick and partly timber-framed, with part of a 17th-century carved fascia board under the first-floor windows.

(312) House, at S. end of Lady Peckett's Yard (Plate 7; Fig. 109), was built in the mid 16th century. It is of three storeys with attics and was originally timber-framed with jetties on the S. and E. sides. The E. end of the house has been cut back and the present E. end is of modern brick. The S. side has been reconstructed in brick and the jetties under-built; on the ground floor the walling is modern, on the first floor late 17th or 18th-century and on the top floor early 19th-century. The N. elevation was refaced in brick in the late 17th century when a new wing to the N. was added, probably by John Peckett, Lord Mayor in 1702.

The N. and W. elevations, facing Lady Peckett's Yard, have a bold brick string-course at the second floor and a heavy timber cornice with scrolled and foliated consoles at the eaves. In the W. elevation to the later wing the upper floors have restored casement windows, each of two transomed lights, and every floor also has a blocked oval window with raised brick surround. The N. elevation of the older block is pierced by an open passageway formerly framed by timber pilasters and entablature, and each of the upper storeys has a window of three transomed lights, the upper part of each centre light being arched (Plate 185).

The interior of the main part of the house has been stripped of partitions and fittings. Drawings of 1917 show 17th-century panelling, fireplaces and elaborate overmantels, all now gone. Some of the original framing is exposed, including the dragon-beams necessitated by the jetties on two adjacent sides, to S. and E. The roof is divided into three bays by two trusses with short principals reaching only to the collar. In the N. wing is a broad staircase with moulded close strings, square newels, bulbous turned balusters and heavy moulded handrails (Plate 189). The ground-floor room is lined with early 18th-century panelling in three heights and in the E. wall is a semicircular display cupboard with scrolled brackets under the shelves. The fireplace surround has been removed, showing that a 17th-century fireplace, 5 ft. wide with chamfered brick jambs and arched head, was narrowed to 3½ ft. in the 18th century. On the second floor there is more early 18th-century panelling and a fireplace surround of the same period (Plate 178). The roof is divided into three bays by trusses having cranked short principals, rising vertically from the attic floor to the wall head and continuing parallel with the roof slope to collars carrying the purlins (Fig. 7w).

(313) The Golden Fleece Hotel, No. 16, of three storeys, built of Flemish-bonded brickwork above a completely modernised ground floor, has a roof of tiles above a modillioned cornice. The first and second floors are each lit by a single tripartite sash window beneath a stucco head marked with imitation stone joints. The building probably dates from the second quarter of the 19th century and must be later than a drawing by George Nicholson of 1827, which shows a timber-framed gabled house of three storeys plus attics on the site, part of a range facing Pavement of three gables width, of which two now survive to S.W., forming the present Herbert House (311). On the OS map of 1852 the building appears as the Golden Hart p.h. A covered alleyway along its S.W. side led to a rear yard, from which a wider covered exit led to Lady Peckett's Yard. Into this alleyway, now incorporated into the building as an enclosed passage serving bars at front and rear, projects the timber-framed jetty of a building at the rear of the Herbert House complex (311), house B.

(314) Offices and Shops, Nos. 18–22, of three storeys, includes a house built in the early 18th century. In 1893 the property was partly rebuilt and a new front applied to the old house, with decorated panels in wood framing; the interior was also remodelled. An 18th-century brick gable remains at the back and the roof retains original kerb-principal trusses.

(315) House and Shop, No. 24, of three storeys and attic, was built c. 1800. It occupies a narrow site and is shown in a painting by T. White of 1802 as having a shop front on the ground floor. Above are bay windows of shallow projection with canted sides. The eaves cornice is not original. The interior has been very much altered.

(316) House, Nos. 26, 28 (Plate 142), now two tenements of three storeys with attic, was built c. 1700, incorporating the remains of an earlier timber-framed structure. Early in the 19th century an L-shaped building was added at the back; this includes a massive chimney-stack which probably survives from an earlier building. The front part now has shops on the ground floor and has been extensively refitted above.

The front is in five bays, with the centre projecting slightly; it has a stuccoed band at second floor and a later timber cornice at the eaves. On plan, a through-passageway separates the two shops; the first floor has two front rooms and, contained in a back wing, a third room and a staircase with close string and bulbous balusters, which has been rearranged. A timber post and a stud are visible on the second floor in the front part. The later part of the building gives three good rooms on each floor.

House, No. 30, see Nos. 55, 56 Fossgate (178).

Peasholme Green

Peasholme Green extends from The Stonebow to Layerthorpe Bridge and is now part of a busy route showing little sign of its origins as 'a water meadow where peas were grown'. The name is first recorded in 1269, and in 1420 it was called 'the high street of Peasholm'. 'Peseholme grene' occurs in 1563. Until the creation of The Stonebow in 1955, it appears on the plans of York as an elongated triangle with its apex, sometimes called Union Street from Union Buildings E. of St. Cuthbert's church, at Layerthorpe Bridge, and its base to the S.W. Aldwark and St. Saviourgate led into its N.W. side and from its S. angle opened a square on the site of the church and churchyard of All Saints, first mentioned in 1200 and largely demolished in 1590. This square was used as a hay market during the 18th and 19th centuries but is now a car park. St. Cuthbert's church (5) and St. Anthony's Hall (39) on the N. and the Black Swan p.h. (317) on the S. side are the only remains of the mediaeval past of Peasholme Green. St. Anthony's Hall, built in 1446–53 for St. Anthony's Guild, was later used as a meeting place for various craft guilds, as a house of correction, and as a school. Its chapel replaced one dedicated to St. Martin in a place called Hickneld Hackneld, mentioned from 1272 to 1433. The cemetery found to the W., between Aldwark and St. Saviourgate, was probably associated with St. Martin's chapel.

(317) The Black Swan, p.h. (Plate 126; Fig. 110), of two storeys and attics, is partly timber-framed, partly of brick, and has tiled roofs. The central block is a pair of framed ranges with gable-ends towards the street, built in the later 16th century though incorporating earlier framing in the S. wall; it may have been built by Sir Martin Bowes in 1560 (Country Life, 11 Mar. 1922, 341). In the early 17th century a framed range of two storeys and semi-attic with gables facing N. and S. was built behind, and a further addition beyond was built in brick in 1670 by Sir Henry Thompson, Lord Mayor in 1663 and 1672. On the S. side of the original block is a lower wing, basically 17th-century but much altered. A wing on the N. side was built c. 1940, and there are modern outbuildings at the rear. The building has been a public house under its present name since at least 1850.

The central part of the street front has a jettied first floor and twin gables. The timber framing, concealed by plaster in the 19th century, is now exposed though heavily restored; it consists of thin studs only, without diagonal bracing. Two of the ground-floor posts are reused earlier work. The mullioned and transomed windows are modern, though reproducing in general appearance original ones which survived until 1827, when they were sketched by G. Nicholson (YCAG), and had been replaced soon afterwards by large sashes with an unusual number of small panes. The front door has applied mouldings, forming borders around two squares each containing a lozenge. The gables have barge-boards, carved with vine trails, and pendants. The lower wing to the S. has modern imitation framing on the first floor and a large blocked dormer also with carved barge-boards and pendant. The gabled N. wall of the early 17th-century addition to the rear is plastered and has two jetties, though the floor level of the semi-attic has been raised leaving the projecting beams at each end of the jetty in the original position. On the ground floor is a window with 17th-century mullions. The S. wall of the same range was rebuilt in brick in the 19th century. The N. wall of the brickbuilt addition of 1670 has two windows with rusticated plaster reveals. The gabled E. wall has pedimented heads surviving from two windows, segmental on the first floor, triangular on the gable, though the openings have been reduced in size. There is a moulded brick string at attic-floor level. The S. wall has a row of small blind arches in brick on the lower storey. The back wall of the S. wing is gabled and also of c. 1670, with a triangular pedimented window on the upper storey.

Fig. 110. (317) The Black Swan p.h., Peasholme Green.

Inside, there are several good features of the late 17th century. The entrance passage (Plate 188) has three doorcases; two on the N. wall have plain pilasters supporting entablatures with pulvinated friezes, and contemporary doors; one on the S. wall has a bolection-moulded surround with heavy cornice above and a door of six fielded panels. The staircase (Plate 189), rising from the same passage, has three flights around an open well, with heavy rails and strings, bulbous balusters and large square newel-posts with ball-finials and pierced pendants. The Smoke Room (Plate 170), on the ground floor, has reset early 17th-century panelling and a late 17th-century bolection-moulded fireplace with painted overmantel flanked by pilasters; the ceiling has a moulded plaster cornice continued along the crossed beams, and in the E. wall is a fine early 18th-century niche. In the rear wing, the two rooms have large fireplaces with timber bressummers and the ceiling joists are exposed. On the first floor, the room above the Smoke Room has late 17th-century panelling in two heights, painted in trompe l'oeil depicting raised centres alternately rectangular and oval; the pulvinated frieze around the whole room is painted with laurel leaves and the fireplace overmantel has a painted scene with figures. The roof structure of the original block has clasped-purlins.

Peter Lane

A narrow alley between Market Street and High Ousegate with two branches at the S.E. end was called Peter Lane Little from 1327, after the church of St. Peter the Little. This is first mentioned c. 1125 and was sold as redundant in 1549, although its tower was still standing in 1567. It stood to the N.E. of the N. branch of the lane. The S. branch was known as Pope's Head Alley in Drake's time. At right angles to Peter Lane and still traceable from short discontinuous lengths was another lane continuing the line of that still running down towards the Ouse beside St. Michael's church, Spurriergate, and linking it with the alley N. of the site of St. Crux church and thus to St. Saviourgate. It was blocked in 1573–4, when known as Haymonger Lane, and may have been the St. Swithin's Lane mentioned in 1436, perhaps named from a vanished church with which the late Saxon cemetery found under Pavement in 1825 may have been connected.

(318) No. 1 consists of three houses of different dates now forming one property. The N.W. house is one surviving bay, about 15 ft. square, of a longer timber-framed range, probably of the 16th century; it is of two storeys, with a jetty towards the street. Much of the original framing remains, with curved braces up to the first-floor beams, and from first floor up to the front posts and from back posts to tie-beam. The roof is of collar-rafter construction with purlins low on each side supported by curved struts. The other two houses, built of brick in the early or mid 19th century, are three-storeyed.