Historical Collections: 1625 (Charles I)

Historical Collections of Private Passages of State: Volume 1, 1618-29. Originally published by D Browne, London, 1721.

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John Rushworth, 'Historical Collections: 1625 (Charles I)', in Historical Collections of Private Passages of State: Volume 1, 1618-29, (London, 1721) pp. 165-219. British History Online https://www.british-history.ac.uk/rushworth-papers/vol1/pp165-219 [accessed 21 May 2024].

John Rushworth. "Historical Collections: 1625 (Charles I)", in Historical Collections of Private Passages of State: Volume 1, 1618-29, (London, 1721) 165-219. British History Online, accessed May 21, 2024, https://www.british-history.ac.uk/rushworth-papers/vol1/pp165-219.

Rushworth, John. "Historical Collections: 1625 (Charles I)", Historical Collections of Private Passages of State: Volume 1, 1618-29, (London, 1721). 165-219. British History Online. Web. 21 May 2024, https://www.british-history.ac.uk/rushworth-papers/vol1/pp165-219.

In this section

Historical Collections Primo Caroli.

The Privy-Counsellors present them selves to King Charles; King Charles proclaimed at Ibeobalds.

On the same day when King James departed this life at Theobalds, the Lord President of the Council, and the Lord Marshal of England, were immediately sent by the Body of the Council to Prince Charles, who was then retired to his Chamber, to give him notice of his Father's decease, and that they were all there ready to present themselves unto him, if his pleasure were to admit them. But he being in sadness, wished them to forbear their coming till the next Morning. In the mean time, the Privy-Counsellors assembled themselves, drew up the form of a Proclamation to proclaim King Charles, which was forthwith published at the Court-Gate at Theobalds: Which being done, the King signified his pleasure, that the Lord Keeper, the Lord Treasurer, the Lord President, the Lord Chamberlain, the Treasucer of the House, and the Comptroller, should attend him : They all came, and rendred up their Offices and Places to him, which his Majesty presently restored to them again. The Privy-Counsellors gave notice to the Lord Mayor of London, that he and all the Aldermen should that day appear in their Robes at Ludgate, whither the Lords and others would repair, to proclaim King Charles: Accordingly, the Lords went from Theobalds to the Palace of Whitehall, where the Nobility then about London were gathered together.

At Whitehall; In London.

At Whitehall-Gate the King was proclaimed by sound of Trumpet, all the Nobility, Privy-Counsellors, and Gentry being on Horse-back, went thence, and proclaimed the King at Charing-cross, Denmark-house, Temple-bar, at the great Conduit in Fleet-street, and thence they rode up to Lud-gate, where the Lord Mayor and Aldermen were on Horse-back, expecting within the Gates, and then Lord's and others entred, and proclaimed him there; and then they rode all to Cheapside-Cross, where they proclaimed the King again: And the Lord's returning thence, left order with the Lord Mayor to go on with the Proclamation in other parts of the City.

The same day King Charles removed from Theobalds, and came to S. James's in the evening, and the Corps of the deceased King remained at Theobalds, attended by all the Servants in Ordinary.

The old Privy-Council new sworn.

The day following, the Privy-Counsellors to the late King, with all the Lords Spiritual and Temporal then about London, were in the Council Chamber at Whitehall by eight of the Clock in the Morning, ready to go together, and present themselves to his Majesty : But there came in the mean time a Commandment from the King, by the Lord Conway and Sir Albertus Morton, principal Secretaries of State to the deceased King; that the Lord Keeper of the Great Seal should be sworn of his Majesty's Privy-Council, and that he should give the Oath to the Lord President, by whom all the rest of the late King's Council should be sworn Counsellors to his present Majesty: The Lord Keeper of the Great Seal, the Lord President, the Lord Archbishop of Canterbury, the Lord Treasurer of England, the Lord Privy Seal, the Duke of Buckingham Lord Admiral of England, the Earl of Pembroke Lord Chamberlain, the Earl of Montgomery, the Earl of Kellie, the Earl of Arundel, Earl Marshal of England, the Lord Viscount Grandison, the Lord Conwey, the Lord Brook, Mr. Treasurer, Mr. Comptroller, the Master of the Wards, Mr. Secretary Morton, Mr. Chancellor of the Exchequer, and the Master, of the Rolls, were this day sworn accordingly; the Lord Keeper did take an Oath apart, as Lord Keeper of the Great Seal; the Lord Treasurer, as Lord Treasurer of England; the Lord President, as Lord President of the King's Privy-Council, and the Lord Conwey, and Sir Albertus Morton, as principal Secretaries of State: The Lords which were not of his Majesty's Privy-Council, repaired by themselves to St. James's, and presented themselves to the King, and kissed his hand.

The Council advice to the King.

The Council sat immediately, and advised of the most important and pressing matters to be offered to the King for his present service, and resolved upon these particulars.

That a Commission be granted to authorize the Great Seal, Privy-Seal, and Signet, till new ones be prepared; also Commissions for authorizing of Judges, Justices of Peace, Sheriffs, and other such Officers for Government; that there be a general Proclamation for continuation of Proceedings, preservation of Peace, and adminstration of Justice; that Letters be prepared for the Ambassadors with Foreign Princes, to authorize that service to the King; that special Messengers be sent unto Foreign Princes; that the like Proclamations to those of England, be sent into Scotland; that Commissions be renewed into Ireland, to the Deputy and Officers there; that the Mint for Coining of Money go on, and all things be managed by the Officers as then they stood, till the King's pleasure be further known; that a Parliament be summoned when the King shall appoint; that the King's pleasure be known concerning the time of his Father's Funeral, and where the Corps shall rest in the mean time, as also the time of his Majesty's Coronation.

Proclamation concerning Persons in Office, &c.

This being done, the whole Council attended the King at St. James's where the Lord Keeper, in the name of all the rest, presented their humble thanks, that it had pleased his Majesty to have affiance in those that had been Counsellors to his Father, to receive them all to be of his Privy-Council; the Lord President represented to the King the matters before mentioned, which the King allowed, and gave order, that those of them which required speed, should be put in execution, and most of the powers be signed presently: And first, be cause by the death of the late King, the Authorities and Powers of the greatest number of Offices and Places of Government did cease and fail, by the failing of the Sovereign Person, from whom the same were derived, a Proclamation issued forth, signifying his Majesty's pleasure, That all persons whatsoever, who at the decease of the late King were invested in any Office or Place of Government, Civil or Martial,

Proclamation of Government.

within the Realms of England and Ireland, and namely, Presidents, Lieutenants, Vice-presidents, Judges, Justices, Sheriffs, Deputy-Lieutenants, Commissaries of Musters, Justices of Peace, shall continue in their several Offices, till his Majesty's pleasure were further known. In another Proclamation of the same date, the King took notice of his Father's Death, and that he being his only Son, and undoubted Heir, is invested and established in the Crown Imperial of this Realm, and all other his Majesty's Realms, Dominions and Countries, with all the Royalties, Preeminences, Stiles, Names, Titles and Dignities to the same belonging; and he declared, That as he, for his part, shall, by God's grace, shew himself a most benign and gracious Sovereign Lord to all his good Subjects, in all their lawful Suits and Causes; so he mistrusted not, but that they, on their parts, will shew themselves unto him their Natural Liege Lord, most loving, faithful, and obedient Subjects.

Resolution taken by the King concerning King James's Funeral, and his own Marriage.; A Parliament summoned.

The Council resolved to move the King, that his Father's Funeral might be solemnized within five weeks, and within a few days after the Ceremonial Nuptials in France; and before the Parliament began in England. These Resolves the Lord President represented unto the King, who accepted of the advices, and said, he would follow them. Moreover he summoned a Parliament to begin the seventeenth of May; but, by the advice of his Privy-Council, Prorogued it to the one and thirtieth of May, afterwards to the thirteenth of June, and then to the eighteenth of the same Month: Which prorogations were occasioned by the King's going to Dover to receive the Queen.

King James's Funeral.

April 23, the Body and Herse of King James was brought from Theobalds to London, being conducted by the Officers of the Guard of the Body, all in Mourning, every one having a Torch, and attended by all the Lords of the Court; and great numbers of other Persons of Quality, and was placed in Denmark-house, in the Hall of the deceased Queen Anne.

The seventh of May was the day of Burial, the Body and Herse were taken from the said Hall of State, and brought in great Pomp and Solemnity to Westminster, where the Kings of England used to be interred; The new King, to shew his piety towards his deceased Father, was content to dispense with Majesty; he followed in the Rear, having at his right hand the Earl of Arundel, at his left, the Earl of Pembroke, both Knights of the Garter; his Train was born up by Twelve Peers of the Realm. So King James, who lived in Peace, and assumed the Title of Peace-maker, was peaceably laid in his Grave, in the Abby of Westminster.

Duke of Buckingham continues Favourite to King Charles.

King Charles, in his Father's life time, was linked to the Duke of Buckingham, and now continued to receive him into an admired intimacy and dearness, making him partaker of all his Counsels and Cares, and chief Conductor of his Affairs; an Example rare in this Nation, to be the Favourite of two succeeding Princes.

Religion considered.

The publick state of Religion, and the steering of Church-matters, had an early inspection and consultation in the Cabinet Council. Bishop Laud, who, in King James's life-time had delivered to the Duke a little Book about Doctrinal Puritanism, now also delivered to the Duke a Schedule, wherein the names of Ecclesiastical Persons were written under the letter O and P, O standing for Orthodox, and P for Puritans; for the Duke commanded, that he should thus digest the names of eminent persons to be presented unto the King under that partition.

A general Muster.

King Charles, in the entrance of his Reign, proceeds with Preparations for a War, begun in his Father's time; the Militia of the Kingdom, through the long continued Peace, was much decayed, and the Musters of the Trained-Bands were slighted, and seldom taken, and few of the Commons were expert in the use of Arms; wherefore the Lord Lieutenants were commanded, by Order of the Council, to make a general Muster of the Trained Horse and Foot in the several Counties, and to see to the sufficiency of the Men, Horse, and Arms, and that all be compleat according to the best modern form, and be in readiness for all occasions, and especially now the affairs of Christendom stand upon such uncertain terms; and more particularly, that the Maritime Towns be well manned, and their Men duly exercised: and the King declared his will and pleasure, that the Lords Lieutenants of the several Shires, should have the nomination of their Deputy Lieutenants.

Soldiers levied for the Palatinate.

In the beginning of May, Warrants were issued forth for a Levy of Soldiers, to be employed in the Service of his Majesty's Brother and Sister, the Prince and the Princess Palatine, whereof eight thousand were appointed to rendezvous atPlimouth, by the five and twentieth of this Month; and the charge of Coat and Conduct was ordered to be disbursed by the Countrey, and the Countrey to be repayed out of the King's Exchequer, after the President of former times. In like manner, two thousand Men were appointed to rendezvous at the Port of Hull, to be transported into the Netherlands, for the service of the United Provinces, and two thousand were to be returned thence into England for his Majesty's present service. The mingling of a good proportion of old Soldiers and Officers, with the new raised Companies, was the ground of this exchange.

Proclamation against disorders committed by Soldiers.

The remembrance of the late violence committed by Count Mansfield's Army in their passage to Dover, occasioned a Proclamation to repress and prevent the like attempts of Soldiers, as they now passed through the Counties to the places of the Rendezvous, threatning the Offenders with the strictest proceedings against them, for an Example of terror; and straitly commanding the Officers, who have the charge of the Conduct, for the removing of all occasions and pretences of disorders, to see their Companies duly paid, and provided of all necessaries, and to be always present with them, and carefully to conduct them from place to place. In like manner to prevent their outrages, when they should come to Plimouth, or the parts adjoyning, a Commission was sent, impowering persons of trust, upon any robbery, selony, mutiny, or other misdemeanours (punishable with death by Martial Law) committed by the Soldiers, or other dissolute persons joyned with them, to proceed to the trial and condemnation of all such Delinquents, in such summary course and order, as is used in Armies in time of War, according to the Law Martial; and to cause Execution to be done in open view, that others may take warning, and be kept in due obedience.

Articles or the Marriage with France signed by the King.

The consummation of King Charles his Marriage with Henrietta Maria, Daughter of France, was near at hand. The Treaty had proceeded far in his Father's life time, but was not, in all points, concluded; the Articles were signed the year before by King James, on the eleventh of May, and by the French King on the fourteenth of August. On the thirteenth of March this present year, (the Earls of Carlisle and Holland being then Ambassadors and Commissioners in France for this Marriage) signed the Articles.

Private Articles in favour of the Catholicks.

Besides the general, there were other private Articles agreed upon in favour of the Papists in this Kingdom. "That the Catholicks, as well, Ecclesiasticks as Temporal, imprisoned since the last Proclamation, which followed the breach with Spain, should all be set at liberty.

"That the English Catholicks should be no more searched after, nor molested for their Religion.

"That the Goods of the Catholicks, as well Ecclesiastical as Temporal, that were seized on since the forementioned Proclamation, should be restored to them.

And on the Tenth of May, as the first-fruits of this promised Indulgence and favour, the King granted unto Twenty Roman Priests a special Pardon of all Offences committed against the Laws then in force against Papists.

The Marriage solemnized in France.

The Dispensation being come from Rome about the beginning of May, the Espousals were made in Paris by Cardinal Richelieu: The Ambassadors having first presented to the King the Contract of Marriage, which was read openly by the Chancellor, and his Majesty of France agreed thereunto; the Duke of Chevereux likewise shewed his Procuration of power which the King of England had given him concerning the said Marriage.

The Archbishop of Paris pretended, that it belonged to him to perform this Solemnity; but the Cardinal carried it, as well for the eminency of his Dignity, as for that he was chief Almoner and prime Curate of the Court.

Sunday following, the day appointed for these Nuptials, the Bride went from the Louvre about nine in the morning, to be dressed in the Archbishop's House; and afterwards the King, Queen, and Princesses, and all the Court in rich attire, parted likewise from the Louvre, and came to the said House of the Archbishop, and thence conducted the Bride to a Theatre erected on purpose before the Frontispiece of Nostre-Dame: the Duke of Chevereux had black habit, lined with Cloth of Gold, and beset with Diamonds; and the Earls of Carlisle and Holland Ambassadors, were both clad in beaten Silver, and went on each side of the Duke of Chevereux: A Canopy being plac'd upon the Scaffold, the King of France and Mounsieur his Brother consigned the Queen of Great Britain, their Sister, into the hands of the Duke of Chevereux, and the Marriage was solemnized according to the ordinary Ceremonies of that Church.

Which being performed, they went in the same order and solemnity to Nostre-Dame, the Duke of Chevereux going before the King. When they came to the door of the Quire, they made great reverence to the King and Queen; and then the Ambassador's retired into the Bishop's house, while Mass was said in the Church.

The Mass being ended, the Duke of Chevereux and the Ambassadors came again to the door of the Quire to take their places, and the same Order was observed in returning as in going; and so they came from the Church into the Hall of the Archbishop's House, where the Feast Royal was made in as great magnificence as can be expressed. The King sate under a Canopy at the middle of the Table, and the Queen of Great Britain at his left hand, and the Queen-Mother at his right; the Duke of Chevereux sate next the Queen of England, and the Earls of Carlisle and Holland next the Duke.

To the intent that all sorts of persons might partake of the publick joy, Prisoners for Debts were set at liberty, and pardon was granted to several Criminals, as an earnest to the King's respect and love to his Sister, after this new Alliance.

The Duke sent into France for the Queen.

The Duke of Buckingham was sent into France to his Christian Majesty, to send away the Wife to the King of Great Britain, and to be her Convoy. He arrived at Paris the 24 of May, with the Earl of Montgomery, and other English Lords, and was lodged in the Palace of the Duke of Chevereux, who, with his Lady, was to conduct the Queen into England, there to render her to the King her Husband. During the seven days stay which the Duke made at Paris, the feastings and rejoycings were renewed and multiplied, Bonfires shining, and Canons playing; but none did equalize the Feast that was made by the Cardinal of Richelieu.

The second of June was the time appointed for our Queen's departure: The King of France sent to the Towns in her way, to render her Majesty all due honours, as if it were to himself.

A Royal Navy sent to Boloign to transport the Queen.

The King of England having notice, that the Queen was gone from Amicus, sent a Royal Navy to Boloign, to transport her; the Fleet saluted the Town with an hundred Pieces of Canon. Among other great Ladies, the Duchess of Buckingham was sent to kiss the Queen's hands, as from the King her Husband, desiring her to take her own time of coming over, with most conveniency to her own person.

The 22 of June (New style) the Queen embarqued at Boloign, and within Twenty four hours arrived at Dover: And as the King was preparing to receive her, she sent to his Majesty to desire him not to come till the morrow, because she had been somewhat indisposed at Sea. She passed that night at Dover, and the next day about Ten of the Clock, the King was there, with the Flower of the Nobility; and after some Complements past, caused every body to retire, and they were half an hour together in the Closet.

The Marriage consummated at Canterbury.

Thence his Majesty conducted the Queen to Canterbury, and the same Evening the Marriage was there consummated.

Then the Queen, in testimony of her respect and love to the King her Husband, made it her first suit, (as afterwards the King made known) That he would not be angry with her for her faults of Ignorance, before he had first instructed her to eschew them; For that she being young, and coming into a strange Countrey, both by her years, and ignorance of the Customs of the Nations, might commit many Errors: And she desired him in such cases to use no Third Person, but by himself to inform her when he found she did ought amiss. The King granted her request, and thanked her for it, desiring her to use him, even as she had desired him to use her: Which she willingly promised.

The Trained Bands of Kent commanded to attend the Queen.

The Knights and Gentlemen of Kent, together with the Trained Bands, were by Order of the Council, commanded to attend and receive the Queen at the most convenient places as she passed, in such solemn manner and equipage, as beseemed the Dignity of his Majesty, and the quality of her Person; likewise the Magistrates of the Cities and Towns were commanded to attend at her passage, in such Formalities as are used in principal and extraordinary Solemnities.

The King and Queen come to London.

On the sixteenth of June, the King and Queen came both to London: Great preparations were made and intended for her Majesty's reception; but the Plague then increasing, those Ceremonies were laid aside.

A Chapel built at Somerset-House for the Queen.

A Chapel at Somerset-house was built for the Queen and her Family, with conveniences thereunto adjoyning for Capuchin-Friars, who were therein placed, and had permission to walk abroad in their Religious habits. Thence forward greater multitudes of Seminary Priests and Jesuits repaired into England out of Foreign parts.

A great Plague in London.

This Summer, the Pestilence raged in London. At the entrance of the late King there was a great Plague in the City, but this was far greater, and the greatest that ever was known in the Nation: For which cause a great part of Trinity-Term was adjourned from the First Return, to the Fourth, by the advice of the Privy-Council, and the Justices of the Courts at Westminster; and some few days in the beginning and ending thereof were holden, for the better expediting and continuing of Causes and Suits, and the returning and suing out of Processes, and such like business as might be done in the absence of the Parties by their Attornies.

The Parliament opened.

On the Eighteenth day of June, the Parliament began at Westminster. The King being placed on his Royal Throne, the Lords sitting in their Robes, the Commons also being present, his Majesty spake thus.

The King's Speech in Parliament.

"I Thank God, that the business to be treated on at this time is of such a nature, that it needs no eloquence to set it forth; for I am neither able to do it, neither doth it stand with my Nature to spend much time in words. It is no new business, being already happily begun by my Father of blessed memory, who is with God; therefore it needeth no Narrative: I hope in God you will go on to maintain it, as freely as you advised my Father to do it. It is true, he may seem to some to have been slack to begin so just and so glorious a work; but it was his wisdom that made him loth to begin a work, until he might find a means to maintain it: But after that he saw how much he was abused in the confidence he had with other States, and was confirmed by your advice to run the course we are in, with your engagement to maintain it, I need not press to prove how willingly he took your advice; for, the Preparations that are made, are better able to declare it, then I to speak it. The assistance of those in Germany, the Fleet that is ready for Action, with the rest of the Preparations, which I have only followed my Father in, do sufficiently prove, that he entred into this Action.

"My Lords and Gentlemen, I hope that you do remember, that you were pleased to employ me to advise my Father, to break off those two Treaties that were on foot; so that I cannot say, that I came hither a free unengaged Man. It's true, I came into this business willingly and freely, like a Young Man, and consequently rashly; but it was by your interest, your engagement; so that though it were done like a Young Man, yet I cannot repent me of it, and I think none can blame me for it, knowing the love and fidelity you have born to your King, having my self likewise some little experience of your affections. I pray you remember, that this being my first Action, and begun by your advice and entreaty, what a great dishonour it were to you and me, if this Action, so begun, should fail for that assistance you are able to give me. Yet knowing the constancy of your love both to me and this business, I needed not to have said this, but only to shew what care and sense I have of your Honours and mine own. I must intreat you likewise to consider of the times we are in, how that I must adventure your lives (which I should be loth to do) should I continue you here long; and you must venture the business, if you be slow in your resolutions. Wherefore I hope you will take such grave counsel, as you will expedite what you have in hand to do: Which will do me and your selves an infinite deal of honour; you, in shewing your love to me; and me, that I may perfect that work which my Father hath so happily begun.

"Last of all, because some malicious Men may, and, as I hear, have given out, that I am not so true a Keeper and Maintainer of the true Religion that I profess; I assure you, that I may with S. Paul say, that I have been trained up at Gamaliel's feet: And although I shall be never so arrogant as to assume unto my self the rest, I shall so far shew the end of it, that all the world may see, that none hath been, nor ever shall be more desirous to maintain the Religion I profess, then I shall be.

"Now because I am unfit for much speaking, I mean to bring up the fashion of my Predecessors, to have my Lord Keeper speak for me in most things: Therefore I have commanded him to speak something unto you at this time, which is more for formality, then any great matter he hath to say unto you.

The Lord Keepers Speech in Parliament.

Then the Lord Keeper Coventry declared, "That the King's main reason of calling the Parliament, besides the beholding of his Subjects faces, was to mind them of the great Engagements for the Recovery of the Palatinate, imposed on his Majesty by the late King his Father, and by themselves, who brake off the two Treaties with Spain. Also to let them understand, That the succeeding Treaties and Alliances, the Armies sent into the Low-Countreys, the repairing of the Forts, and the Fortifying of Ireland, do all meet in one Centre, the Palatinate; and that the Subsidies granted in the last Parliament, are herein already spent, whereof the Accompt is ready, together with as much more of the King's own Revenue. His Lord-ship further commended three Circumstances.

"First, the Time; all Europe being at this day as the Pool of Bethesda, the first stirring of the Waters must be laid hold on: Wherefore his Majesty desires them to bestow this Meeting on him, or rather on their Actions; and the next shall be theirs, as soon, and as long as they please, for Domestick business.

"Secondly, Supply: If Subsidies be thought too long and backward, his Majesty desires to hear, and not to propound the way.

"Thirdly, the Issue of Action; which being the first, doth highly concern his Majesty's Honour and Reputation, for which he relies upon their Loves, with the greatest confidence that ever King had in his Subjects; witness his Royal Posie, Amor Civium Regis Munimentum: And he doubts not, but as soon as he shall be known in Europe to be their King, so soon shall they be known to be a loving and loyal Nation to him.

Sir. Tho. Crew Speaker.

June 21. The Commons presented Sir Thomas Crew, Knight, and Serjeant at Law, for their Speaker, (who was also Speaker in the last Parliament of King James) and his Majesty approved the Choice.

Debates in the house of Commons.

After the House of Commons had settled their General Committees there were various Debates amongst them: Some insisting upon the Grievances mentioned, but not redressed by King James in the last Parliament; others pressed for an account of the last Subsidies granted for recovery of the palatinate; others for putting of Laws in execution against Priests and Jesuits, and such as resorted to Ambassador's Houses, and the questioning of Mr. Richard Montague, for his Book entituled An Appeal to Cœsar; which (as they said) was contrived and published to put a jealousie between the King and his well affected Subjects, and contained many things contrary to the Articles of Religion established by Parliament; and that the whole frame thereof was an encouragement to Popery.

Others again declared, how the King no sooner came to the Crown, but he desired to meet his people in Parliament, it being the surest way to preserve a right understanding between him and them; that since he began to reign, the Grievances are few or none; and when he was Prince, he was observed to be very instrumental in procuring things for the Subjects benefit. Wherefore it will be the wisdom of this House to take a course to sweeten all things between King and People, and to express their duty to the King by giving Supply, and therewith to offer nothing but a Petition for Religion, that Religion and Subsidies may go hand in hand. And whatsoever they did it was needful to do it quickly considering how greatly the Plague increased, and the Bell was tolling every minute while they were speaking.

A Fast.

The Commons moved the Lords to joyn in a Petition to the King for a Publick Fast, whereunto their Lordships readily concurred; and the King consenting, a Proclamation was issued forth for a Fast throughout the Kingdom.

Committees chosen.

Several particular Committees were appointed. One to enquire or the Subsidies given the last Parliament, another to consider of Tonnage and Poundage. The imposition upon Wines was voted upon the Merchant's Petition, to be presented as a Grievance.

Message to the King touching Religion and his Answer.

Sir Edward Cook went to the House of Peers with a Message from the Commons, desiring a Concurrence in a Petition concerning Religion, and against Recusants; which being agreed unto, and presented to the King, his Majesty answered, That he was glad that the Parliament was so forward in Religion, and assured them they should find him as forward, that the Petition being long, could not be presently answered.

Mr. Montague brought to the Bar.

Mr. Richard Montague was brought to the Bar of the Commons House for his fore-named Book. This cause began in the one and twentieth of King James, when he had published a former Book which he named, A new Gag for an old Goose, in answer to a Popish Book entituled, A Gag for the New Gospel. The business was then questioned in Parliament, and committed to the Archbishop of Canterbury, and ended in an Admonition given to Montague.

The Arminian party assert his cause.

Afterwards the Bishops of the Arminian Party, consulted the Propagation of the five Articles condemned in the Synod of Dort, concluded that Mr. Montague being already engaged in the quarrel, should publish this latter Book at first attested by their Joynt Authorities, which afterwards they withdrew by subtilty, having procur'd the Subscription of Doctor Francis White, whom they left to appear alone in the Testimony as himself oft-times complained publickly. The Archbishop disallowed the Book, and sought to suppress it; nevertheless it was Printed and Dedicated unto King Charles, whereby that party did endeavour to engage him in the beginning of his Reign. The House appointed a committee to examine the Errors therein, and gave the Archbishop thanks for the admonition given to the Author, whose Books they voted to be contrary to the Articles established by the Parliament, to tend to the King's dishonour, and disturbance of Church and State, and took Bond for his appearance.

The King takes Montague's business into his own hand.

Hereupon the King intimated to the House, that the things determined concerning Montague without his Privity did not please him; for that he was his Servant and Chaplain in Ordinary, and he had taken the business into his own hands, whereat the Commons seemed to be much displeased.

Two Subsidies presented to the King.

Howbeit to take away all occasion of disgust from the King at the entrance of his Reign, both houses did humbly present two Subsidies granted to his Majesty as the first-fruits of their love, whereof they craved acceptance.

The King accepts them, and desires more.

The Lord Conway, Secretary of State, signified to the house of Lords (the Commons being present) the King's gracious acceptance of the Bill of Two Subsidies; yet that the necessities of the present Affairs were not therein satisfied, but required their further Counsels, He reminded them that the late King was provoked beyond his nature to undertake a War for the recovery of his Children's Antient Patrimony: The charges of this War appeared by Computation to amount unto seven hundred thousand pounds a year to support the Netherlands, and to prevent the Emperor's design of concluding with the Princes of Germany (utterly to exclude the Palsgrave) he levied an Army under Count Mansfield. The Kings of Denmark and Sweden, and the Princes of Germany levied another, France, Savoy, and Venice joyned together for a War of Diversion.; and to uphold the Netherlands, the charges of Mansfield and Denmarks Army must yet continue.

A short Answer to the petition touching Religion.

After this the Lord Keeper delivered a short message from the king to both Houses, that to the Petition of the Lords and Commons touching Religion, his Majesty was pleased at the first to answer graciously; but now he hath sent them a fuller Answer,. even assurance of his real performance in every particular.

The Parliament adjourned to Oxford.

The Houses were preparing several Acts, as against giving and taking of Bribes for places of Judicature; about pressing of Soldiers, and Tonnage and Poundage, &c. But by reason of the great increase of the Plague, as appeared that week by the Bill of Mortality, the King being moved by the Houses to grant a short Recess, adjourned the Parliament to Oxford, to re-assemble the first of August following.

The Exchequer removed to Richmond.

And for the same reason, the receipt of the King's Exchequer was removed from Westminster to Richmond, and all Fairs within Fifty Miles of London were prohibited to prevent a more general contagion.

The Vantguard and seven other ships employed against Rochel.

In the time of this Recess, the Vantguard, a principal Ship of the Royal Navy, with seven Merchant Ships of great burden and strength, were lent to the French King, and employed against Rochel, which was thus brought about: King James in his life time, being in Treaty for a Marriage between his Son, and the now Queen, and entring into a War against the King of Spain, and his. Allies in Italy and the Valtolin; had passed some Promise for the procuring or lending of Ships to the French King, upon reasonable. Conditions; but in no wise intended they should serve against Rochel, or any of our Religion in France: For the French Ministers pretended, that the Ships should be employed only against Genoua; but afterwards the Protestants in France intimating their suspicion, that the design for Italy was a mere pretence to make up an Army to fall upon the Rochellers and others of the Religion, King James willing to perform his promise, and yet to secure the Protestants, directed, that the greater number of those that served in the Ships should be English, whereby he might keep the power in his own hands.

For the performance of this Engagement, the forenamed Ships were at this time commanded to the Coasts of France: nevertheless there wanted a sufficient care to prevent the abusing and enslaving them to the designs of the French King. Captain John Pennington, the Admiral of this Fleet, was much unsatisfied, and presented to the Duke of Buckingham, Lord High Admiral, his Exceptions to the Contract between his Majesty and that King, and chiefly, for that the Companies were bounds to fight at the French King's command, against any Nation, except their own; and that the French might put aboard them as many of their own people as they pleased. The Vantguard arrived at Deep, but the rest lingred behind; for, the Companies understanding, that the French design was to surprise the Ships, and to block up the Harbour of Rochel, resolved to sink, rather than to go against those of their own Religion. Captain Pennington received Letters from the Duke, and a Warrant from Secretary Conway, in the King's name, to command him to deliver up the Ships to the hands of such Frenchmen, as his Christian Majesty should appoint; but withal directing him not to desert his Charge; by which latter passage, he was willing to understand, that it was not the Duke's intention, that he should dispossess himself and his Companies of them; for he supposed his Grace had no such unjust thought, as to continue him there alone.

Thes Orders were delivered unto him by the hands of the French Ambassador, together with a Letter from the French King, which willed him to receive his Soldiers, and his Admiral the Duke of Montmorance, and joyn with his Fleet against his rebellious Subjects. Whereupon the Ambassador urged the surrender of the Ship, and nothing would satisfie him but a present possession, and a discharge of the English Soldiers, save a very few, in case they were willing to be entertained in the service. Pennington, after much dispute, although he were promised an ample reward in Money, to be given him at the Surrender, and of a Royal Pension during his life, came to this resolute Answer, That without an express and clear Warrant, he would not surrender nor discharge a Man of his Company. Whereupon the French Ambassador's Secretary came two several times to the Ship to protest against the Captain, as a Rebel to his King and Country; but at the making of the last protest, which was accompanied with threatning Speeches, the Soldiers and Mariners grew into such a fury and tumult, that they got up their Anchors, and set sail for England, saying, They would rather be hanged at home, then surrender the Ship, or be Slaves to the French, and fight against their own Religion.

All which Captain Pennington did not gainsay nor oppose; but when they came to Anchor in the Downs, he advertised the Duke of all that had hapned, and craved further direction, but complained of the bondage of this Engagement; assuring him, That the Mariners would rather be hanged, than return again into France: So in all the rest of the Ships, the Captains and Companies utterly refused the Service, and protested against it, though they were tempted with Chains of Gold, and other Rewards.

All this while the Body of the Council were ignorant of any other design than that of Genoa; then divers persons came over from the Duke of Rohan, and the Protestants of France, to sollicit the King and Council against lending of the Ships, and received fair Answers from them both. But the King sent an express and strict Order to Pennington, requiring him without delay, to put his former Command in execution, for the consigning of the Ship called the Vantguard, with all her Furniture, into the hands of the Marquis D' Effiat: assuring the Officers of the Ships, that he would provide for their indempnity; and further commanding him to require the seven Merchants Ships, in his name, to put themselves into the service of the French King; and in case of backwardness or refusal, to use all means to compel them thereunto, even to their sinking.

Upon this, Pennington went back to Deep, and put the Vantguard into the absolute power and command of the French King, to be employed in his Service at pleasure, and commanded the rest of the Fleet to the like surrender. At the first, the Captains, Masters, and Owners, refused to yield, weighed Anchor, and were making away; but when Pennington shot, they came in again, but Sir Ferdinando Gorge came away with the Ship called the Neptune. The Companies unanimously declined the Service, and quitted the Ships, all but one man, who was a Gunner; and Pennington hasted to Oxford, where the Parliament was reassembled; but, as was voiced, was there concealed till the Parliament was dissolved.

The Parliament meets at Oxford.

On the first of August the Parliament reassembled at Oxford, whither the news of the Ships lent to the French, against the besieged Rochellers, did quickly fly, and exaspirated the spirits of that great Assembly against the Duke of Buckingham.

Grievances; Mr. Montague summoned to appear.

The Grievances insisted upon, were the mis-spending of the Publick Treasure, the neglect of guarding the Seas, insomuch that the Turks had leisure to land in the Western Parts, and carry away the Subjects Captive. The Commons appointed a Committee to consider of secret Affairs, and examine the Disbursements of the Three Subsidies, and the Three Fifteens, given to King James, for the recovery of the Palatinate; and they prepared to assault the Duke. Also Mr. Richard Montague was summoned to appear, according to the condition of his Bond; and a Committee was appointed to proceed into the further examination of that business.

His Cause recommended by the Bishops to the Duke.

Mr. Montague's cause was recommended to the Duke by the Bishops of Rochester, Oxford, and St. David's, as the Cause of the Church of England. They shew, that some of the Opinions, which offended many, were no other than the resolved Doctrine of this Church, and some of them are curious Points disputed in the Schools, and to be left to the liberty of Learned Men, to abound in their own sense, it being the great fault of the Council of Trent, to require a Subscription to School-opinions, and the approved Moderation of the Church of England, to refuse the apparent Dangers and Errors of the Church of Rome; but not to be over-busie with Scholastical Niceties. Moreover, in the present case, they alledge, that in the time of Henry the Eighth, when the Clergy submitted to the King's Supremacy, the Submission was so resolved, That in case of any difference in the Church, the King and the Bishops were to determine the matter in a National Synod; and if any other Judge in matters of Doctrine be now allowed, we depart from the Ordinance of Christ, and the continual practice of the Church. Herewithal they intimated, that if the Church be once brought down below her self, even Majesty it self will soon be impeached. They say further, That King James, in his rare wisdom and judgment, approved all the opinions in this Book; and that most of the contrary opinions were debated at Lambeth, and ready to be published, but were suppressed by Queen Elizabeth, and so continued, till of late they received countenance at the Synod of Dort, which was a Synod of another Nation, and to us no way binding, till received by publick Authority. And they affirm boldly, That they cannot conceive what use there can be of Civil Government in the Common-wealth, or of External Ministery in the Church, if such fatal opinions as some are, which are opposite to those delivered by Mr. Montague, be publickly taught and maintained.

Such was the opinion of these forenamed Bishops; but others of eminent Learning were of a different Judgment.

The Appeal to Cœsar disputed.

At Oxford, in a late Divinity-Disputation held upon this Question, Whether a Regenerate Man may totally and finally fall from Grace? The Opponent urging the Appeal to Cœsar, the Doctor of the Chair handled the Appellator very roughly, saying he was a meer Grammarian, a Man that studied Phrases more than Matter; That he understood neither Articles nor Homilies; or at least perverted both; That he attributed he knew not what virtue to the Sign of the Cross, Dignus cruce qui asserit; and concluded with an Admonition to the Juniors, that they should be wary of reading that and the like Books.

On the fourth of August, the Lords and Commons were commanded to attend his Majesty in Christ-Church-Hall in Oxford, where he spake unto them in manner following.

The King's Speech in Christchurch.

"My Lords, and you of the Commons, We all remember, that from your Desires and Advice, my Father, now with God, brake off those two Treaties with Spain that were then in hand: Well you then foresaw, that as well for regaining my dispossessed Brother's Inheritance, as home defence, a War was likely to succed; and that as your Councils had led my Father into it, so your assistance in a Parliamentary-way to pursue it, should not be wanting. That aid you gave him by advice, was for succour of his Allies, the guarding of Ireland, and the home part, supply of Munition, preparing and setting forth of his Navy. A Council you thought of, and appointed for the War, and Treasurers for issuing of the Moneys; And to begin this, Work of your Advice, you gave Three Subsidies, and as many Fifteens, which with speed were levied, and by direction of that Council of War, (in which, the preparation of this Navy was not the least) disbursed.

"It pleased God, at the entrance of this Preparation, (by your Advice begun) to call my Father to his Mercy, whereby I entred as well to the care of your Design, as his Crown; I did not then, as Princes do, of Custom and Formality re-assemble you, but that by your further Advice and Aid, I might be able to proceed in that which, by your Counsels, my Father was engaged in. Your love to me, and forwardness to further those Affairs, you expressed by a Grant of Two Subsidies, yet ungathered; although I must assure you, by my self and others, upon credit taken up, and aforehand disbursed, and as far short, as yet, to set forth that Navy now preparing; as I have lately the estimate of those of care, and who are still employed about it, whose particular of all Expences about this preparation shall be given you, when you please to take an account of it.

His Majesty having ended his Speech, commanded the Lord Conway and Sir John Cook more particularly to declare the present state of Affairs; which was done to this effect.

Lord Conway and Secretary Cook, by the Kings's command, declare the present state of affairs.

"That our Sovereign Lord King James, of famous memory, at the suit of both Houses of Parliament, and by the powerful operation of his Majesty that now is, gave consent to break off the two Treaties with Spain, touching the Match and the Palatinate, and to vindicate the many wrongs and scorns done unto his Majesty and his Royal Children: Besides, if the King of Spain were suffered to proceed in his Conquests, under the pretence of the Catholick Cause, he would become the Catholick Monarch, which he so much affects, and aspires unto. Also amidst these necessities, our late King considered, that he might run a hazard with his people, who being so long inured to Peace, were unapt to War; that the uniting with other Provinces in this undertaking, was a matter of exceeding difficulty. This drew him to new Treaties for the regaining his Children's right, which were expulsed by the Friends and Agents of Spain; and wherein his Majesty proceeded as far as the wisest Prince could go, and suffered himself to be won unto that, which otherwise was impossible for his Royal Nature to indure. He considered also the many difficulties abroad, the Duke of Bavaria by Force and Contract had the Palatinate in his own possession, most of the Electors and Princes of Germany were joyned with him. The Estates of the other Princes most likely to joyn in a War of Recovery, were seised and secured, and all by a Conquering Army: Besides, the Emperor had called a Diet, in which he would take away all possibility of recovering the honour and Inheritance of the Palatinate; thus it stood in Germany. And in France, the King there chose to sheath his Sword in the bowels of his own Subjects, rather than to declare against the Catholick Cause. In the Low-Countries, the Sect of the Arminians prevailed much, who inclined to the Papists rather than to their own safety, notwithstanding that the Enemy had a great and powerful Army near them; so that his Majesty was enforced to protect and countenance them with an Army of Six thousand from hence, with a caution of the like Supply from thence, if required. Moreover he sought Alliance with France, by a Match for his Royal Majesty that now is, thereby to have interest in that King, and to make him a Party. The last consideration was his Majesty's own honour, who had laboured with the two Kings of Denmark and Sweden, and the German Princes, from whom he received but cold Answers, they refusing to joyn, unless they first saw his Majesty in the Field. But of this he was very tender, unless the League were broken, or he first warred upon. The Forces of an Army were considered, and the way of proceeding, whether by Invasion or Diversion: The Charges thereof appeared in Parliament to be Seven hundred thousand pounds a year; besides Ireland was to be fortified, the Forts here repaired, and a Navy prepared; he thought it feasible to enter into a League with the French King, and the Duke of Savoy and Venice.

"Hereupon an Army was committed to Count Mansfield, the charge whereof came to Seventy thousand pounds a Month for his Majesty's part; also he commanded the preparing of this great Fleet: All which so heartned the Princes of Germany, that they sent Ambassadors to the Kings of Denmark and Sweden; and those two Kings offered a greater Army both of Horse and Foot, to which his Majesty was to pay a proportion. Count Mansfield's Army (though disastrous) produced these happy effects; First, It prevented the Dyet intended by the Emperor. Secondly, The German Princes gained new courage to defend themselves, and oppose their Enemies. Thirdly, the King of Denmark hath raised an Army, with which he is marched in person as far as Minden. Moreover, the Consederates of France and Italy have prosecuted a War in Milan, and Peace is now made by the French King with his own Subjects; so that by this means breath is given to our affairs.

"This Parliament is not called in mere Formality upon his Majesty's first coming to the Crown, but upon these real occasions, to consult with the Lords and Commons; Two Subsidies are already given, and graciously accepted; but the Moneys thereof, and much more, are already disbursed. A Fleet is now at Sea, and hastning to the Rendezvous, the Army is ready at Plimouth, expecting their Commanders. His Majesty's Honour, Religion, and the Kingdom's safety, is here engaged; besides, he is certainly advised of Designs, to infest his Dominions in Ireland, and upon our own Coasts, and of the Enemy's increase of Shipping in all parts. These things have called the Parliament hither, and the present charge of all amounts to above Four hundred thousand pounds; the further prosecution whereof, the King being unable to bear, hath left it to their Consultations. His Majesty is verily perswaded, That there is no King that loves his Subjects, Religion, and the Laws of the Land, better than himself; and likewise that there is no People that better love their King, which he will cherish to the uttermost. It was thought, that this place had been safe for this Assembly, yet since the Sickness hath brought some fear thereof, his Majesty willeth the Lords and Commons to put into the Ballance, with the fear of the Sickness, his and their great and weighty occasions.

Lord Treasurer proceeds in that Subject.

Then the Lord Treasurer added, "That the late King, when he died, was indebted to the City of London 120000 l. besides Interest, and indebted for Denmark, and the Palatinate 150000 l. and indebted for his Wardrobe 40000 l. That these Debts lie upon his Majesty that now is, who is indebted unto London 70000 l. That he hath laid out for his Navy 20000 l. and 20000 l. for Count Mansfield, And for Mourning and Funeral Expences for his Father, 42000 l. For expences concerning the Queen, 40000 l. The Navy will require to set it forth in that Equipage, as is requisite, for the great Design his Majesty hath in hand, and to pay them for the time intended for this Expedition, 300000 l.

Debates in the House of Commons, touching the present state of Affairs.

After this Conference, the Commons fell into high Debates, alledging, that the Treasury was mis-employed; that evil Counsels guided the King's Designs; that our Necessities arose through Improvidence; that they had need to Petition the King for a strait hand and better Counsel to manage his affairs: And though a former Parliament did engage the King in a War, yet (if things were managed by contrary Designs, and the Treasure mis-employed) this Parliament is not bound by another Parliament, to be carried blind-fold in Designs not guided by found Counsel; and that it was not usual to grant Subsidies upon Subsidies in one Parliament, and no grievances redressed. There were many reflections upon the Duke's miscarriages; likewise they re-assumed the Debate concerning Montague, and they resolved, that Religion should have the first place in their Debates; and next unto it the Kingdom's Safety, and then Supplies. Other particulars were likewise insisted on, That the King be desired to Answer in full Parliament to the Petition concerning Religion, and that his Answer be inrolled with the force of an Act of Parliament: Also that the House consider of the new prepared Fleet and Army, and whether intended, no Enemy being yet declared; That great Sums of Money were given for places to the value of an Hundred and forty thousand pounds at least; that the King should contribute to help the Palatinate's Cause with his own Estate; that the time of the year was too far spent for the Fleet to go forth in service; that enquiry be made, whether the Duke brake not the Match with Spain, out of Spleen and Malice to Conde Olivares; whether he made nor the Match with France upon harder terms; and whether the Ships lent against Rochel were not maintained with the Subsidies given for the relief of the Palatinate; that an advised Counsel for the Government of the present Affairs, and to look into the King's Estate is necessary; that his Majesty be desired to give his answer concerning the Imposition on Wines; and Select Committees draw out these Heads at large to be presented to the King; the doing whereof, they said was no Capitulation with his Majesty, but an ordinary Parliamentary course, without which the Commonwealth could never supply the King nor indeed subsist.

Complaints against Papists favoured, not-withstanding the King's Answer to the Petition against them.

Soon after the Commons had a Conference with the Lords, desiring their Concurrence in presenting to the King, these matters following.

That notwithstanding the Lords and Commons at their last Meeting this Session, did Petition his Majesty for the advancing of God's true Religion, and the suppressing of Popery: unto which his Majesty vouchsafed as well from his own Mouth, as by the Lord Keeper, to return such Answer as assured them of his Royal performance; yet at this Meeting they find, That on the 12 of July last, his Majesty granted a Pardon unto Alexander Baker a Jesuite, and unto Ten other Papists, which (as the Commons have been informed) was gotten by the Importunity of some Foreign Ambassador, and passed by immediate Warrant, and was recommended by the Principal Secretary of State, without the payment of the ordinary Fees. And further, That divers Copies of Letters and other Papers being found in the house of one Mary Estmonds in Dorsetshire, by two Justices of Peace, who thereupon tendred her the Oath of Allegiance, and upon her refusal committed her to the Constable, from whom the made an escape, and complained to the King. The principal Secretary did write to those two Justices in favour of her.

Upon these Passages the Commons made observations; First upon the date of the Pardon, which was the next day after his Majesty's Answer by the Lord Keeper to their Petition concerning Religion; Secondly, that the Pardon dispensed with several Laws, as of the 21 and 27 of Queen Elizabeth, and of the third of King James, provided to keep the Subjects in due obedience; Thirdly, That the Pardon was signed by the Principal Secretary of State; and therefore the Commons declared that these actings tended to the prejudice of true Religion, his Majesty's dishonor, the discountenancing of the Ministers of Justice, the grief of the good people, the animating of the Popish party, who by such examples grew proud and insolent, and to the discouragement of the High Court of Parliament: All which they humbly desire his Majesty to take into due consideration, and to give effectual and speedy redress therein.

The Lord Conway, Principal Secretary of State, being called to give an account of this business, answered, That he never hated the Popish Religion; That the Pardon was granted before the King answered their Petition, though it bore not date till afterwards; That the King commanded the doing thereof, and that no Fees should be taken; That he was commanded by the King to write a Letter in favour of the Woman in Dorsetshire, and what he did therein was to take off all scandal from the King, though it lighted upon himself.

This Conference no sooner ended, but both Houses were ordered to meet at Christ-Church, to receive an Answer to their Petition concerning Religion; To every Clause whereof his Majesty answered in a Parliamentary way. The Petition, Remedies, and the King's Answer, we give you intermix'd, for the better understanding the Answer to every respective Clause distinctly.

To the Kings most Excellent Majesty.

The Petition concerning Religion, together with his Majesty's Answer.

Most Gracious Sovereign,
It being infallibly true, That nothing can more establish the Throne, and assure the peace and prosperity of the People, than the unity and sincerity of Religion; We your most humble and loyal Subjects, the Lord's spiritual and Temporal, and Commons of this present parliament assembled, hold our selves bound in conscience and duty to represent the same to your Sacred Majesty, together with the Dangerous consequences of the increase of Popery in this Land, and what we conceive to be the principal Causes thereof, and what may be the Remedies.

    The Dangers appear in these particulars.

  • I. In their desperate ends, being both the subversion of the Church and State; and the restlesness of their spirits to attain these ends, the Doctrine of their Teachers and Leaders, perswading them, that there in they do God good service.
  • II. Their evident and strict dependency upon such Foreign Princes, as no way affect the good of your majesty and this State.
  • III. The opening a may of popularity to the ambition of any, who shall adventure to make himself head of so great a party.

    The principal Cause of the increase of Papists.

  • I. The want of the due erecution of the Laws against Jesuits, Seminary Priests, and Popish Recusants; occasioned partly by the connivency of the State, partly by defects in the Laws themselves, and partly by the manifold abuse of Officers.
  • II. The interposing of Foreign Princes by their Ambassadors and agents in fabour of them.
  • III. Their great concourse to the City, and frequent Conferences and Conventicles there.

  • IV. The open and usual resort to the houses and Chapels of Foreign ambassadors.
  • V. The education of their Children in Seminaries and Houses of their religion in Foreign parts, which of late have been greatly multiplied and enlarged for the entertaining of the English.
  • VI. That in some places of your Realm, your People be not sufficiently instructed in the knowledge of true Religion.
  • VII. The licentious printing and dispersing of Popish and seditious Books.
  • VIII. The imployment of Men ill affected in religion in places of Government, who do, shall, or may countenance the Popish party.

The Remedies against this outragious and dangerous disease, me conceive to be these ensuing.

I. That the south of this Realm be carefully educated by able and Religious Schoolmasters, and then to be enjoyned to. Catechize and instruct their Scholars in their grounds and principles of true Religion And where as by many complaints from divers parts of the kingdom it doth plainly appear, That sunday Popish Scholars, dissembling their Religion, have craftily crept in, and obtained the places of Teaching in divers Counties, and thereby infected and perverted their Scholars, and so fitted them to be transported to the Popish Seminaries beyond the Seas; that there fore there be great care in choice and admitting School masters, and that the Dwinaries make diligent enquiries of their demeanours, and proceed to the removing of such as shall be faulty, or justly suspected.

His Majesty's Answer.

"This is well allowed of, and for the better performance of what is desired, Letters shall be written to the two Archbishops, and from them, Letters to go to all the Ordinaries of their several Provinces to see this done; the several Ordinaries to give account of their doings herein to the Archbishops respectively, and they to give account to his Majesty of their proceedings herein.

II. That the ancient Discipline of the universities be restored, being the famous Nurseries of literature and Uirtue.

Answ.This is approved by his Majesty, and the Chancellor of each University shall be required to cause due execution of it.

III. That special care be taken to emarge the Word of god throughout all the parts of your majesty's Dominions, as being the most powerful means for planting of true Religion, and rooting out of the contrary: To which; end, among other things, let it pleace your majesty to advise your Bishops, by Fatherly intreaty, and tender usage, to reduce to the peaceable and moerly service of the Church, such able ministers as have been former by silenced, that there may be a profitable use of their ministry. in these needful and Dangerous times; and that Nonresidency Pluralities, and Commendams may be moderated. Where me cannot for bear most humbly to thank your Majesty for diminishing the number of your own Chaplains; not doubting of the like princely care for the well-bestowing of the rest of your 'Benefices, both to the comfort of the people and the incouragement of the Universities, being full of grave and able Ministers unfurnished of Livings.

Answ. "This his Majesty likes well, so as it be applied to such Ministers as are peaceable, orderly, and conformably to the Church-Government. For Pluralities and Nonresidencies, they are now so moderated, that the Archbishops affirm, there be now no Dispensations for pluralities granted; nor no Man now is allowed above two Benefices, and those not above thirty miles distant: And for avoiding Non-residence, the Canon in that case provided shall be duly put in execution. For Commendams, they shall be sparingly granted, only in such case where the exility and smallness of the Bishoprick requireth. Also his Majesty will cause that the Benefices belonging to him shall be well bestowed. And for the better propagating of Religion, his Majesty recommendeth to the House of Parliament, that care may be taken, and provision made, That every Parish shall allow a competent maintenance for an able Minister; and that the owners of Parsonages Impropriate would allow to the Vicars, Curates and Ministers in Villages and places belonging to their Parsonage, sufficient Stipend and Allowance for Preaching Ministers.

IV. That there may be strict provision against transporting of English Children to the Seminaries beyond the seas, and for the recalling of them who are already there placed, and for the punisnment of such your subjects as are maintained of those Seminaries, or of the Scholars considering that besides the seducing of your People, great sums of mony are yearly expended upon them, to the impoverishing of this Kingdom.

Answ. "The Law in this case shall be put in execution: And further there shall be Letters written to the Lord Teasurer, and also to the Lord Admiral, That all the Ports of this Realm, and the Creeks and Members thereof, be strictly kept, and strait Searches made to this end: A Proclamation shall be to recall both the Children of Noblemen and the Children of any other Men, and they to return by a day: Also maintainers of Seminaries of Scholars there shall be punished according to Law.

V. That no Popish Recusant be permitted to come within the Court, unless your Majesty be pleased to call him upon special occasion, agreeable to the Statute of 3. Jac. And where as your Majesty for the presenting of apparent mischiefs both to your Majesty and the State, hath in your Princely wisdom taken ower, that none of your natural born Subjects not professing the true Religion, and by Law established, be admitted into the Service of your Royal Consort the Dueen. We give your Majesty most humble thanks, and desire that your Diver herein may be observed.

Answ "If his Majesty shall find, or be informed or any Concourse of Recusants to the Court, the Law shall be strictly followed: And his Majesty is pleased, that by Proclamation the British and Irish Subjects shall be put in the same case. And as his Majesty hath provided in his Treaty with France, so his purpose is to keep it, That none of his Subjects shall be admitted into his service, or into the service of his Royal Consort the Queen, that are Popish Recusants.

VI. That all the Laws now standing in force against Jesuits, Seminary Priests, and others having taken Divers by Authority Derived from the See of Rome, be put in sue erecution. And to the intent they may not pretend to be surprized, That a speedy and certain Day be prefired by your Majesty's Proclamation for their departure out of this realm and all other your Dominions, and not to return upon the severest Penalties of the Laws now in force against them; And that all your Majesty's Subjects may be there by admonished not to receive comfort, entertain, or conceal any of them, upon the Penalties which may be lawfully inflicted: And that all such papists, Jesuits, and Recusants, who are and shall be imprisoned for Recusancy, or any other cause, may be so strictly restrained, as that none shall have conference with them there by to avoid the Contagion of their corrupt Religion: And that no man that shall be suspected of Popery,, be suffered to be a Keeper of any of Majesty's prisons.

Answ. The Law in this case shall be put in execution, and a Proclamation shall be to the effect desired; And such restraint shall be made as is desired, and no Man that is justly suspected of Popery, shall be suffered to be a Keeper of any of his Majesty's Prisons.

VII. That your Majesty be pleased to take such Order as to your Princely Wisdom shall be expedient, That no natural born subject or strange Bithops, not any other by authority from the See of Rome, confer any Ecclesiastical Divers to exercise any Ecclesiastical Function whatsoever, toward of upon your Majesty's natural subjects with in your, Dominions.

Answ. "This is fit. to be, ordered according as is provided, and it shall be so published by Proclamation

VIII. That your Majesty's Learned Council, may receive order and Commandment to consider of all former Grants of Recusants Lands, that such of them may be avoided as are made to the Recusants use or interest out of which the Recusant receiveth any benefit; which are either void, or voidable by the law.

Answ. "The King will give order to his Learned Council to consider of the Grants, and will do according, as is desired.

IX. That your Majesty mill be likewise pleased strictly to Command all your Judger and ministers of Justice Ecclesiastical and Temporal, to see the Laws of this Realm against Popish Recusants, to be duly executed; and namely, that the Censure of Excommunication be declared and certified against them; and that they be not absolved upon publick satisfaction by yielding to Conformity.

Answ. "His Majesty leaves the Laws to their Course, and will order in the point of Excommunication as is desired.

X. That your Majesty will be pleased to remove from places of Authority and Government all such Persons as are either Popish Recusants, or according to direction of former Acts of State, to be justly suspected.

Answ. "This his Majesty thinks fit, and will give order for it.

XI. That present Order be taken for disarming all Popish Recusants, legally convicted, or justly suspected, according to the Laws in that behalf, and the orders taken by his late Majesty's Privy Council upon reason of State.

Answ. "The Laws and Acts in this Case shall be followed, and put in due execution.

XII. That your Majesty be also pleased in respect of the great resort of Recusants, to and about London, to Command forthmith upon pain of your indignation, and severe execution of the Laws, that they retire themselves to their several Countries, there to remain confined with in five miles of their places.

Answ. "For this the Laws in force shall be forthwith executed.

XIII. And where as your Majesty hath strictly Commanded and taken order, that none of the natural born Subjects repair to the bearing of Masses, of other Superstitious Service at the Chapels of houses of foreign Ambassadors, or in any other places whatsoever; we give your Majesty most humble thanks, and desire, that your order and Commandment there in may be continued and observed, and that the of Offenders herein may be punished according to the Laws.

Answ. "The King gives Assent there to, and will see that observed which' herein hath been commanded by him.

XIV. That all such Jnsolencies, as any that are Popishly affected have lately committed, or small hereafter commit to the withonour of our Religion, or to the wrong of the true Professors there of, be exemplarily punished.

Answ. "This shall be done as is desired.

XV. That the Statute of I Eliz. for the Payment of Twelve-pence every Sunday, by such as shall be absent from Divine Service in the Church, without a lawful excuse, may be put in due execution, the rather, for that the Penalty by Laws is given to the Poor and there fore not to be dispensed withal.

Answ. "It is fit that this Statute be executed, and the Penalties shall not be dispensed withal.

XVI. Lastly that your Majesty would be pleased to extend your Princely care also other the Kingdom of Ireland, that the like courses may be there taken for the restoring and establishing of true Religion.

Answ. "His Majesty's cares are, and shall be extended over the Kingdom of Ireland; and he will do all that a Religious King should do for the restoring and establishing of true Religion there.

And thus (most Gracious Sovereign) according to our duty and zeal to god and Religion, to your Majesty and your safety, to the Church and Commonwealth, and their peace and Prosperity, we have made a faithful Declaration of the present Estate, the causes and remedies of this encreasing Disease of Popery; humbly offering the same to your Princely Care and Wisdom. The answer of your Majesty's Father, our late Sovereign of famous memory, upon the like Petition, old give us great comfort of Reformation; but your Majesty most Gracious promises made in that king, do give us confidence and assurance of the continual performance there of, in which comfort and confidence reposing our selves, me most humbly pray for your Majesty's long continuance in all Princely felicity.

The Petition and Answer being read, it was further intimated to the Commons, That as his Majesty took well their minding him of the care of Religion, so he would have done and granted the same things, though they had never petitioned him; neither doth he place his answer to this petition, as a wheel to draw on other affairs and designs, but he leaves them to move in their own Sphere; and what he hath done in this particular comes from these two Fountains, Conscience and Duty to his Father, who in his last Speech recommended unto him the Person, but not the Religion of his Queen.

The Duke tenders an account to both houses of the Fleet.

At the same time the Duke signified to both Houses, that by the Kings Command, he was to give an account of the Fleet, and the preparations there of, and said, that the first and last time he had the happiness to speak in that Auditory, it was of the Spanish Treaty, and then he was so happy, as to be honoured and applauded by both Houses of Parliament; and he made no question, but speaking now with the same heart, he should be no less acceptable to them.

And he made this request to the House of Commons, to believe that if any had spoken, or shall speak in discharge of his Conscience, his zeal of Reformation, any thing which may seem to reflect upon some particular persons, he shall be the last Man that will apply this to himself, because he is confidently 'assured of two things: first that they are just not to fall upon him without cause; and secondly, that himself shall do nothing that unbecomes a faithful Englishman.

He speaks by Way of Objection and Answer.

And for the method of his ensuing discourse, he chose rather to speak by way of Objection and Answer, then in one continued Speech, as a speedier means to give the Commons satisfaction.

Object. By what Counsel those Designs and Actions of War were carried and enterprised.

Answ. By the Counsel of the Parliament appointed according to the Act of both Houses, the 23 of March, 1623. by those Counsels his Majesty was guided, and applied himself accordingly for the defence of the Realm, the securing of Ireland, the assisting of our Neighbours and others our Friends and Allies, and for the setting forth of the Navy-Royal. His Majesty looking into his Purse, saw enough to do all the former actions, but not the latter: for when he came to consider of the Navy, there was neither Money nor Preparations; yet looking upon the affairs of Christendom, he found that of most necessity: Hereupon his Majesty of famous memory, did him (viz. the Duke) the honour, as to write from Newmarket to him at London, a Letter to this effect; That looking into the affairs of Christendom, he found it necessary, that a Royal Fleet should be prepared and set in readiness but that he had no Money; wherefore himself (meaning the Duke) and his Friends must begin to lay it our, and, no doubt, but others would follow; and by this means, the King might lie the longer concealed, and undiscovered in the Enterprise, as bearing the name of the Subject only, and other Princes in hope to draw him on, would sooner come to the business.

Upon this Letter, the Duke said, he leaped into the action with all alacrity; and having received all he had from his Majesty, was most desirous, and held it a happiness, to pour it out upon his service and occasions, and had laid out of his own purse four and forty thousand pounds; and the Treasurer of the Navy, at his request, had laid out fifty thousand pounds; that he entred not into this business upon his own head, but fortified with the advice and counsel of those worthy persons, the Lord Conway, the Lord Chichester, Lord Grandison, Lord Carew, Sir Robert Mansel, and Sir John Cook.

Their last confutation was of the War, next of the Means; but both one and the other was justified by more than himself; he never did any thing but by them; he either repairing unto them, or else they did him the honour to resort to his Chamber: afterward the business, with the King's leave, was imparted to all the Lords of the Council, and the account was made unto them, and allowed by them, who said there openly, his Majesty being present, That if this were put in execution, it would do well, and gave him some Attribute unto it.

And Sir John Cook justified the shewing and the approving of these Accounts at the Council-Table; the Accounts consisted of long particulars of Soldiers to be levied. Mariners to be pressed, forwarding of Ships and Provisions, and that nothing wanted but Money.

He proceeded yet further, and shewed, That he was so Religious to guide these great Affairs by Council, as that at his journey into France. which fell out about this time, he desired his Majesty to recommend the business to a Select Council, which his Majesty did, who, in his absence. took care of the same.

Object. 2. Why did not his Majesty declare the Enemy presently, upon granting those three Subsidies?

Answ. His Majesty considered the state of Christendom at that season, and found it full of danger to declare the Enemy for three Reasons: First, because the great Enemy would be more prepared; Secondly: Spain being the Enemy, our Merchants Goods would be Imbargo'd, which are now' drawing home; Thirdly, our friend's finding us so long unprepared prepared after our Declaration, would never believe any reality in our intentions.

Object. 3 Whether a considerable Sum of Money be not yet required.?

Answ. Forty thousand pounds is yet necessary, but our Master is exhausted, his Treasure anticipated, his Lands pawned, his Plate offered to be pawned, but not accepted, and yet his Majesty must be maintained.

Object. 4. Why was not this want of Money foreseen but now only thought upon unexpectedly, and dangerously considering the sickness?

Answ. It was foreseen before, but interrupted by unfortunate accidents; the death of the late King; the Funeral, which, for decency could follow no sooner; the Journey into frame, and the Marriage which procured more delay then was expected, but necessary.

At the opening of this Parliament, his Majesty did declare this Necessity, and told the House plainly, that this Sitting must not be for Counsel, but Resolution; and when he understood the grant of two Subsidies, he conceived that Money to be a matter of Custom to welcome him to the Crown.

Object. 5. Who gave counsel to his Majesty so suddenly, when the Sickness was so dangerously spread, to convene this Parliament?

Answ. His Majesty commanded him (the Duke) to say, That it was the business it self that gave this Counsel, and the necessity of it, else his Majesty would not have hazarded the two Houses, nor the rest of the Kingdom, if he had been able any way, without the Parliaments Supply, to set out the Navy.

Object. 6. Is not the time of the year too far spent for the Navy to go forth?

Answ. The King answered this formerly, better half the Navy perish, than the going there of should be stayed; it would argue such want of Counsel, Courage, and Experience in the Design, such beggarliness in being not able to go through with it, that it may not be diverted, the season of the year suiting with the Design, as could be demonstrated if the Design might not be published thereby.

Object. 7. Whether these eight Ships lent to the French King, which were employed against the Rochellers, were not paid with the Subsidy-money?

Answ. Those eight Ships were employed at the charge of the French King: Secondly, it is not always fit for King's to give account of their Counsels; judge the thing by the event.

Object. 8. Whether the Duke, having been our Servant, to break the Match with Spain, made not a worse Match with France, and upon harsher terms?

Answ. I hope the contrary will appear, by the Answer to your Petition.

Object. 9. Did not the Duke serve us, in breaking the two Treaties with Spain, out of speen and malice to Conde Olivares?

Answ. There was no cause to hate Olivares, who was the means to make him happy; for out of his hands came those Papers, by which the Duke gained the love of this Nation, which before thought not so well of him; he Was not vindicative in his nature; he can forgive those which had no such natural respect to their Countrey, as Olivares had; neither doth the Duke love that any Man should be an instrument by ill means, to do a good action, as Olivares. intended to serve his Master and Kingdom by indirect means; and he could make a proof, that he was not vindicative, he can forgive one of our own Nation that concurred with olivares but he was minded to leave that business asleep, which, if it should awake, would prove a Lion to devour him, who (as he said) he ment one of our (fn. 1) Nation, who co-operated with Olivares.

Object. 10. It will be obected, That hitherto the Duke speaketh of immense charges, which the Kingdom is not able to bear; as, to assist the King of Denmark with Thirty thousand pounds per moneth, Count Mansfeld with Twenty thousand pounds per moneth, the Low-Countreys with Eight thousand pounds per moneth, and Two thousand fix hundred pounds per moneth for Ireland.

Answ. Make the King Chief of the War by a diversion, and he wilt give a greater advantage to all his Allies, than by allowing of them Fifty thousand pounds; nay, a hundred thousand pounds per moneth. What is it for his Allies to scratch with the King ofSpain, to take a Town to day, and lose it to morrow? for it is almost impossible to hope for Conquest in this kind, the King ofSpain being so able by Land; but let the King our Sovereign be Master of the Wars elsewhere, and make a Diversion, and let the Enemy be compelled to spend his Money and Men in other places, and our Allies in those parts will be suddenly and perceivedly strengthned and enabled; and by this kind of War you send no Coin out of the Land, you issue nothing but Beef, Mutton, and Powder, and the Kingdom is not impoverished, but may make good Returns,

Object, II. But .where is the Enemy?

Answ. Make the Fleet ready to go out, and the King bids you name the Enemy your selves; put the Sword into his Majesty's hands, and he will improve it to your honour, and the good of Religion; as you issue nothing that is loss, so you will bring home something that is gain, and henceforward maintain the War by the perquisites thereof; make but once an entrance, it may afterwards be maintained with profit; when the Enemy is declared, you may have Letters of Mart, none shall be denied: I have not been so idle, but I shall make Propositions of advantage, whither your selves may go, and shall have the honey of the business.

August 9. 1625.

The Duke's Relation occasioned Variety of opinions in Parliament.

After the Commons returned from the House of Lords, they made Report of this business unto the House, which occasioned variety of Opinions: Some were for giving the King present Supply, who had made lo gracious an Answer to the Petition for Religion, and given direction, that the same should be Inrolled; pressing further, That this Supply was not for the King's own particular Wants, but for the Honour and Defence of the Kingdom; and that it may prove dangerous not to comply with the King in a modest and just desire.

Others were of a contrary mind, and said, It was requisite to present to his Majesty, the means how he may live glorious at home, and how he may be feared abroad, by having his designs better managed, and an Enemy declared: Then may spurs be added to the Sea-horse, and the King of Spain infested at a lesser charge, and we better secured from papists at home, whose hearts are knit with the Spaniards, and whose Estates may liberally contribute to the War; and the great Sums given for Honours and Offices, would go far in setting forth a Fleet at Sea, and the Subject not be always importuned for Supply. But the further debate of this business was put off till the next day. being Wednesday the Tenth of August

The King's message to the Commons

The next day, the King sends a Message to the Commons, where in he takes notice, that the House intended to enter into Consideration of divers Heads concerning the King and the Common-wealth, that he was pleased with their good intentions; but desired them to consider his affairs, which require a speedy dispatch; the season of the year was far spent, yet the time not unseasonable for the Design; that if the Plague should happen in the Navy, the Action would be lost; that if any of the House should be touched with the Sickness, much inconvenience would ensue by an abrupt breaking up: therefore desires a present Answer about Supply; if not, he will take more care of the Commons than they will of themselves, and will make as good a shift for himself as he can, to go through with this present occasion, and offered, that the Parliament shall meet again in Winter, at what time they please, upon his Royal word, and hold together till they have perfected all things, for the good of the Common-wealth, and the King, which are now in conception: and desires them to consider, it was the first request that ever he made unto them.

Debates upon the King's Message.

Hereupon some earnestly pressed the giving of two subsidies, and two Fifteens, his Majesty's Honour, and the necessity of his Affairs requiring it, as it appeared out of Considerations already frequently represented.

Others replied, That Necessity is a dangerous Counsellor, and is a continual Argument of Supplies in all Parliaments; that those Counsellors who have put the King and Kingdom into such a necessity and hazard, ought to answer for it, whosoever they be; that if the state of things will not admit a redress of Grievances, surely there is not so much necessity for Money; to give Subsidy upon Subsidy in one Parliament is not usual; in the Eighteenth year ofHenry the Third, there was one punished for pressing of more Subsidies, when Subsidies had been granted before in that Parliament. In the end it was proposed, that a Report be made to the King, that they have regard to his Honour, Necessity and Safety, and the safety of the Kingdom, and that they will assist his Majesty in any honourable Action, grounded upon sound Councils; and that something be drawn up in writing to that purpose: Accordingly the House agreed upon a short Declaration, which was assented unto without a Negative.

The Commons Declaration.

We the Knights, Citizens, and Burgesses of the Commons house of parliament, being the representative Body of the; whose Commons of this realm, abundantly comforted in his majesty's late gracious, answer touching Religion, and his message for the care of our health do solemnly protest and now before god and the world, with one heart and voice, that we are all resolved, and do here by declare, that me will ever continue most loyal and obedient subjects to, our most gracious souereign Lord king Charles; and that me will be ready, in Convenient time, and in a parliamentary may, freely and dutifully) to do our Utmost off endeavours, to discover and reform the abased and grievances of the Realm and state, and in like sort to afford all necessary supply to his most Excellent majesty, upon his present, and all other his just Dccasions and Designs; most humbly beseeching our said dear and Dread sovereign, in his princely wisdom and goodness to rest assured of the true and hearty affections of his poor Commons, and to esteem the same to be (as we conceive it is in. deed) the greatest wordly reputation and security that a just king can have; and to accompt all such as wanderers of the peoples affections, and enemies to the Common wealth that shall Date to say the contrary.

This Declaration was sent to the King by such of the Privy Council, as were Members of the House.

The Parliament dissolv'd.

Notwithstanding, the King perceiving the House resolved against Supply, without redress of Grievances, and in their Debates to reflect' upon some great Persons near unto him; the 12th of August sent to the House of Peers a Commission, directed to several Lords, for the dissolution of the Parliament: whereupon the Gentleman-Usher was commanded to signifie to the Speaker of the House of Commons, that the Lords had received his Majesty's Commission, which was read unto both Houses; whereupon the Commons, with their Speaker, went up presently to the Lords, heard the Commission read, and the Parliament declared to be dissolved.

At this Parliament, begun and holden by prorogation at Westminster, the 18 day of June, Anno Regis Caroli Primo, 1625. these Acts were passed.

  • 1. An Act for the punishing of divers abuses committed on the Lords day, commonly called Sunday.
  • 2. An Act to enable the King to make Leases of Lands, parcel of the Duchy of Cornwall.
  • 3. An Act for the ease of obtaining Licenses of Alienation, and in the pleading of Alienations with Licence, or of Pardons of Alienations without Licence in the Court of Exchequer, or else-where.
  • 4. An Act to restrain Tippling in Inns and Ale-houses;
  • 5. An Act for the Subsidy of the Clergy.
  • 6. An Act for the two Subsidies of the Temporalty.
  • 7. An Act, that this Session of Parliament shall not determine by his Majesty's assent to this and some other Acts.
  • 8. An Act to confirm an Agreement between the King and the Copy-holders of Macclesfield in Com. Cestr. &c.
  • 9. An Act for the settlement of an Agreement of the Tenants of Chelvenham and ashby, alias Charlton, between the King and Sir Giles Grival Knight.

The King follows his design of War.

The Parliament being dissolved, the King followed his design of War, and resolved that the Fleet should speedily put out to Sea; he also entred into a League with the United Provinces, against: the Emperor arid the King of Spain, for restoring the Liberties ofGermany. The States, by their Ambassadors, sought this Union, and the Duke of Buckingham, with the Earl of Holland, were sent to the Hague, to conclude the same, as also to comfort the King's distressed Sister with hopes of a Restitution.

The King's Proclamation, to recall home Children of Recusants.

Soon after, his Majesty issued forth a Proclamation, whereby he commanded the return, within limited time, of all such Children of Noblemen, and other his natural Subjects, who were now breeding up in Schools and Seminaries, and other Houses of the Popish Religion, beyond the Seas: That their Parents, Tutors, and Governours take present order to recall them home, and to provide that they return by the day presixt, at the utmost severity of his Majesty's Justice; and he commanded further, That no Bishop, Priest, or any other Person, having taken Orders under any Authority derived from the See of Rome, do presume to conser Ecclesiastical Orders, or exercise Ecclesiastical Function or Jurisdiction towards any of his natural Subjects in any of his: Dominions; and that all Statutes in force be put in due execution against Jesuits, Seminaries, and others in Popish Orders, prefixing a day for their departure out of his Dominions, not to return again upon the severest penalties of the Law.

In the time of the late King, very many of the natural Subjects of these Dominions had, by publick permission, betaken them selves to the service of the Emperor, the King of Spain, and Arch-duches of the Low-Countreys; and by this means they fought against others of their Countrey-men that were employed by the States of the United Provides. and on the behalf of the exiled Palatine: But now the King foreseeing how improper and unnatural it were, that his own natural Subjects should, upon any occasion or accident, draw their Swords one against the other, or any of them against their own Sovereign, did, by advice of his Privy-Council, straitly command all those his Subjects, who were under the Pay of the Emperor, the King of Spain, or Archiuchess, speedily to return to their Native Countreys, where they should be received and employed, as occasion served, according to their several qualities.

The dissolution of the Parliament preventing the Act of Subsidies, the king drew Supplies from the People, by borrowing of Persons able to lend, such competent sums of Money, as might discharge the present occasions; accordingly he directed Letters of the following tenor to the lord's Lieutenants of the Counties.

Right Trusty and Well-beloved, &c.

The King's Letter to the Lieutenants for the Loan of Money upon Privy-Seals.

It hath been so usual a thing for Kings and Princes of this Realm, to, make use of their Subjects good affections, by borrowing some such competent Sums of Many of Persons able to lend, as might supply those present occasions for publick Service, which cannot attend that length of time wherein it can be raised by Contribution by the generality of our Subjects: And we have not only present occasion to make the like Trial, by borrowing from some private Gentlemen and others, but also of your sincerity and endeavours in furtherance of the service; that is to say, in taking some course, either out of your own knowledge and experience, or by any other means or instruments which you like best, to make collection of as many Persons names within the County wherein you are Lieutenant, as may be of ability to furnish us with several Sums at this time; and therefore to return in a Book, both the Names of the persons, their Dwellings, and what Sums you think they may spare; that we may thereupon direct our Privy Seals unto them, according to the form of this enclosed.

And for your further instruction in this case, on whose trust we do so much repose, we wish you to advise herein with your Deputy Lieutenants, as those from whom we have special cause to promise our selves all good Offices of Duty and Affection: To which we must add thus much further, That we do not intend at this time to deal with any Noblemen; neither are you to deal with any of the Clergy; because we have reserved that direction to the Metropolitans of the several Provinces, to proceed only with some special persons persons that are known to be men of wealth and ability, and not merely subsisting upon those Livings, which, in most places, are far inferiour to that Maintenance we could with them. By which course and consideration of ours, though you may perceive how much we desire to procure this Loan without inconvenience to any, which is only intended for the service of the Publick, yet must we assure you, that we had no greater cause at any time than now, to make use of your integrity and industry, in respect of your election of the Lenders, and of your constant demonstration, both of diligence and affection to the service, Having now declared unto you as much as for the present can be expected from us, we will refer you for any further direction unto our Privy-Council, as hereafter occasion shall require: To whom our pleasure is, you do return your Certificates in manner and form as is aforesaid, at the most within Twenty days after the receipt of these our Letters. Given at, &c.

The Comptroller of the King's Houshold, by the Council's Order, issued forth Letters in the King's name, under the Privy-Seal, to the several Persons returned for the Loan of Money, in form as followeth.

Trusty and Well beloved, &c.

Privy-Seals issued forth to certain persons.

Having observed in the Presidents and Customs of former times, that all the Kings and Queens of this Realm, upon extraordinary occasions, have used either to resort to those Contributions which arise from the generality of Subjects, or to the private helps of some well-affected in particular by way of Loan: In the former of which courses, as we have no doubt of the love and affection of our People, when they shall again assemble in Parliament; so for the present we are enforced to proceed in the latter course, for supply of some portions of Treasure for divers Publick services, which without manifold inconveniences to us and our Kingdom, cannot be deferred And therefore this being the first time that we have required anything in this kind, we doubt not but we shall receive such a testimony of your good affection from you (amongst other of our Subjects) and that with such alacrity and readiness, as may make the same so much the more acceptable, especially seeing we require but that Sum, which few Men would deny a Friend, and having a mind resolved to expose all our earthly fortune for preservation of the general. The Sum which we require of you by these Presents is——

Which we do promise in the name of Us, our Heirs and Successors, to repay to you or your Assigns within Eighteen Months after the payment thereof unto the Collector, The person whom we have appointed to Collect it, is

To whose hands we do require you to send it within Twelve days after you have received this Privy-Seal; which together with the Collector's Acquittance, shall be sufficient Warrant unto the Officers of our Receipt, for the repayment thereof at the time limited. Given at, &c.

Pursuant to this Privy-Seal, the Moneys required were generally acccording to this proportion following, viz.

For the West-Riding of Yorksbire,

Sir Thomas Wentworth 20 l. Sir Fr. Fuljam 20 l. Sir John Jackson 20 l. Sir Edw. Osburne 30 l. Godfrey Copley Esq; 15 l. Sir Ralph Hansby 15 l. Robert Portington Esq; 10 l. Steven Bright Esq; 10 l. George Westby Esq; 10 l. Sir, John Ramsden 15 l. John Armitage Esq; 15 l. John West Esq; 10 l. John Key Esq; 13 l. 10 s. Sir Henry Savil 30 l Sir John Savil 15 l. Philip Hunbate Esq; 15 l. Wid. Armitage 10 l. Ursula, Wentworth 10 l. &c.

The Collectors of this Loan were appointed to pay into the Exchequer the Sums received, and to return the names of such as discovered a disposition to delay or excuse the payment of the Sums imposed.

Amidst the Preparations for War with Spain, the Privy-Council issued out Warrants for the disarming of Popish Recusants, grounding their Order upon the Petition of the late Parliament.

Warrants for; disarming Recusants.

His Majesty, and we of his Council, having received informat on from so many several parts, of the impudent speeches used by many Romish Catholicks of this Realm, declaring how much they are attended with the gracious satisfaction given by his Majesty to the Lords and Commons in Parliament, in the concerning the conservation of true Religion, as it is at this day Authority preached in the Church of England; and having just cause to doubt, that many violent Papists, through the instigation of Jesuited Priests, may be inclined to take part with such, as we well understand at this time practice with the King's Subjects to raise Stirs and Tumults, which they do not only soment by perswasions and instigations, with promise of assistance and seconding them with Arms, their pretext being Religion, but their ends Conquest, pushed thereunto by an unlimited Ambition to General Monarchy, of which we have too large and clear proof: And although we do not misjudge and condemn all his Majesty's Subjects Romish Cotholicks, buts believe, that many of them will employ their Arms and Lives in his service: yet because we are at able to distinguish between the well and worse affected, we have seconded with one Advice his Majesty's Princely inclination, following the example of his wife Predecessors of happy Memory and no Government, to take out of the possession of all Romish Recusants, condicted or justly suspected, according to the Acts os State heretofore expressed, all such martial Ammuitions, Arms, and Weapons, as as shall he found in their houses, or discovered to in the houses of any other persons, belonging by right to any of the said Romish Recustants; but so that the said Arms be only taken to be kept, and the Property to be resrbved to the Owners, according to the former Presidents in like cases.

Letters directed to Lords Recusnts.

This design proceeded, and the Council directed their Letters to these Lords Recusants, viz. The Marquiss of Winchester, and the Lord St. John his Son, Lord Viscount Mount ague, Lord Viscount Colchester, Lord Petre, the Earl of Castlehaven, Lord Morley, Lord Vaux Lord Eures, Lord Arundel of Warder, Lord Tenham, Lord Herbert, Lord Windsor.; requiring them to render their Arms and Furniture thereunto belonging, together with all their Habiliments of War, to be removed into places convenient, and to remain there till the King shall determine otherwise.

Concourse of Papists prevented.

Moreover the Privy-Council having received information from the Lords Lieutenants in divers parts of the Kingdom, That there was great and unaccustomed resort to the Houses of Papists, and that other courses, justly to be suspeded, were held amongst them, authorised the Lords Lieutenants to examine the truth and reason of such Assemblies and Entertainment, and of the conveyance and entercourse of Letters; as also to enquire and search, if there were any preparation of Men or Arms, or practice of Arms, or endeavours of Alteration among persons discontented with the present Government.

In the mean time, the Fleet was ready, and Ten brave Regiments were designed for this Expedition. The Duke not going in person, Sir Edward Cecil was created Lord Viscount Wimbleton, and made Commander in Chief.

Viscount Wimbleton Commander in chief in the Voyage to Cadiz

In the choice of the Officers for this service, Sir Robert Mansel, an experienced Sea-Commander, was neglected, which much disgusted the Mariners..

The common Censure that passed both upon the Duke and this Enterprise, may be known by the Lord Cromwell's free Language to the Duke, in this Letter.

Lord Cromwel's Letter to the Duke touching the Fleet.

They offer to lay wagers, the fleet goes not this year; and that of necessity shortly a Parliament must be, which when it comes, sure it will much discontent you. It is wondred at, that since the King did give such great gifts to the Duchess of Chevereux, and those that then went, how now a small Sum in the Parliament should be called for, at such an unseasonable time. And let the Parliament sit when they will, begin they will where they ended: They say, the Lords of the Council knew nothing of Count Mansfield's Journey, or, this Fleet; which discontents even the best fort, if not all. They say, it is a very great burden your Grace takes upon you, since none knows anything but you: It is conceived, that not letting others bear part of the burden you now bear, it may ruin you, (which Heaven forbid.) Much discourse there is of your Lordship here and there, as I passed home and back; and nothing is more wondred at, than that one grave Man is not known to have your ear, except my good and noble Lord Conway. All Men say, if you go not with the Fleet, you will suffer in it, because if it prosper, it will be thought no act of yours; and if it succeed ill, they say it might have been better, had not you guided the King: They say, your undertakings in the Kingdom will much frejudice your Grace: And if God bless you not with goodness as to accept kindly what in duty and love I here offer, questionless my freedom in letting you know the discourse of the World may much prejudice me. But if I must lose your favour, I had rather lose it for striving to do you good, in letting you know the talk of the wicked World, than for any thing else; so much I heartily desire your prosperity, and to see you trample the ignorant multitude under foot. All I have said is the discourse of the World; and when I am able to judge of Actions, I will freely tell your Lordship my mind: Which when it shall not .always incline to serve. you, may all Noble thoughts forsake me.

The Earl of Warwick secures Linger-Point in Essex.

But whilst the English Fleet was preparing for this Voyage, great reports were given out, that the Spaniard would land Forces upon the Coast of Essex. Wherefore the Earl of Warwick was commanded with Three thousand of the Trained Bands of Effex to secure the Port of Harwich, and Langer-point; which service he performed with much readiness: But upon the blocking up of Dunkirk with Ships belonging to the English, and to the States of the United-Provinces, his Lordship was ordered to dismiss his Men.

English and Dutch Fleet before Dunkirk dispersed by a Storm.

Presently after, Advertisements came to the Council, that both the English and Dutch Ships designed to block up Dunkirk, whilst our Fleet was gone to Spain, were dispersed by a sudden Storm; and that Two and Twenty Ships of Dunkirk, Men of War, having Four thousand Land-

Soldiers, Were at liberty to rove up and down, and do mischief at Sea. Hereupon the Council, by their Letters to the Lords Lieutenants of the Counties upon the Sea-coasts, required, that the Trained Bands be in readiness with compleat Armour and other Furniture, to march upon all Alarms to what place soever the necessary defence thereof shall require. Also upon intelligence, that these two and twenty Dunkirkers intended to land their four thousand Men in Ireland, in case their design failed as to England; Letters were expedited to the Lord Deputy of Ireland to guard those Sea-Coasts; for that it were alike mischievous, if they should land in either Kingdom.

In the beginning of October, the Fleet, consisting of Eighty Ships, great and small, the Anne-Royal, a Ship of Twelve hundred Tun, being Admiral, put forth from Plimouth for the Coasts of Spain, with these Regiments aboard the Fleet, according as we find it mentioned in an old Lift; viz.

The Duke of Buckingham's, —were shipped in the Vice-Admiral's Squadron, carrying 1765 Seamen, and 3008 Land-soldiers. The Earl of Essex was Vice-Admiral, and commanded this Squadron.
The Lord Wimbleton's,
Sir William St. Leger's (Sergeant-Major General) and
Colonel Burrough's Regiments were shipped in the Admiral's Squadron, which carried 2093 Sea-men, and 4032 Land-soldiers. Sir Charles Rich his Regiment,
Sir Edward Conway's and
The Lord Valentia's Regiment, Colonel Regiments were shipped in the Rear-Admiral's Squadron, carrying 1833 Mariners, 2998 Soldiers.
The Earl of Effex's, and
Colonel Harwood's

The Fleet, after four days Sail, was encountred with a furious Storm, which so dissipated the Ships, that of Fourscore, no less than Fifty were missing for seven days. Afterwards they all came together upon the Coasts of Spain, where they found a Conquest ready, the Spanish shipping in the Bay of Cadiz, the taking whereof was granted feasible and easie, and would have satisfied the Voyage both in point of Honour and Profit: This was either neglected, or attempted preposterously. Then the Army landed, and Sir John Burroughs took a Fort from the Spaniard; but the Soldiers finding good store of Spanish Wines, abused themselves, and hazarded the ruin of all, (had the Enemy known in what condition they were) notwithstanding all commands to the contrary. So they were presently shipp'd again; and the General putting to Sea, intended to wait about Twenty days for the Plate-Fleet, which was daily expected from the West-Indies: But the evil condition of his Men, by reason of a general Contagion, enforced them to abandon the hopes of this great Prize. So the English having effected nothing, returned home with dishonour in November following.

The General examined before the Council.

It gave no small occasion of clamour, That a Fleet so well provided and manned, should land their Men in an Enemies Countrey, and return without some honourable Action. But where the fault lay, hath not been yet adjudged; neither was any yet punished for failing in that duty. The General, for some time, was not admitted into the King's Presenee, and some of the Colonels of his Army accused him, and some Seamen aggravated the accusadon: The General was examined before the Council, and laid the fault on others in the Fleet, who let the King of Spain's Ships pass without fighting them according to order: They on the other hand say, They had no Order from their General to fight. Thus was there sending and proving, which contributed little to salve the dishonour which the Nation sustained by this unprofitable and ill-managed Design.

The Soldiers commanded not to disband.

Upon the Fleets return to Plymouth, in December, and Consideration of the present use of the Soldiers therein employed, a Proclamation issued forth to command, that no Soldiers of the Fleet should depart from their Colours, or be discharged of their service, till the King shall signifie his pleasure, how and when he will use their further service. So the Forces that returned from Cadiz, were kept on foot, and dispersed into several parts of the Kingdom.

Trade prohibited with Spain; Train Bands exercised.

There was also a strict commandment, that no Subject of this Realm of England, shall have intercourse of Trade with any of the Dominions of the King of Spain, or the Arch-Duchess of Flanders, upon pain of Confiscation both of Ships and Goods that shall be found upon Voyage of Trade into any of the said Dominions. Moreover, in regard of the Subjects apparent danger, and the encouragement of the Eenemies of this State, by putting Ships to Sea, being weakly manned and ill-furnished, the King ordained that none should set forth any Ship or Pinnace of the burthen of Threescore Tuns or upwards, unless they furnish the same with serviceable Muskets and Bandaliers, sufficient for the arming of half the number of persons that fail therein, together with a quantity of Ammunition answerable to the length of their intended Voyage.

Furthermore, for the lnstructing and exercising or the Trained Bands as well Officers as Soldiers, by Men experienced in Military Exercises, The King gave Commandment, that divers Low-Countrey Soldiers should be assigned to the several Counties, and that the Trained Bands should be ready at the times appointed, for their Directions in their Postures and use of Arms.

Part of Miahaelmas Term adjourned; The Term at Reading. Hopes of a Parliament.

The Plague still continuing in London and Westminster, and the places near adjoyning, the King to prevent a general Infection, had adjourned a part of Michaelmas Term from the Utas thereof, to the fourth Return, and afterwards to the fifth, and then the residue of the Term from the City of Westminster; as also the Receipt of the Revenue from Richmond to the Town of Reading in Barkshire. In which Term a Commission issued forth under the Great Seal, for executing the Laws against Recusants according to the Petition of the late Parliament, which was read in all the Courts of Judicature at Reading: Which Commission, together with pricking of Sir Edward Cook and certain other Gentlemen, Sheriffs, who had appeared the last Parliament against the Duke, and being Sheriffs, could not be chosen Parliament-Men, gave occasion of discourse, and hopes of a new Parliament.

At Hampton-Court in December following, this ensuing Order was made.

Sir Edward Cook High Sheriff, his exceptions to the Sheriffs Oath.

Whereas four articles concerning the Dath used to be taken by the high Sheriffs of Counts, were this day presented unto the Board; unto which Articles Sir Edward Cook Knight, at this present night Sheriff of County of Bucks did up on tender of the Dath unto him, take Erceptions, and sent his Exceptions and the reasons there of writing, to Mr. Attorney-General, who, by direction of the Board, did attend all the judges of England, to receive their advice therepon; and the said judges having advised thereof, did with one unanimous consent, Resolve, and so Report to the Lord Keeper, That they found no cause to alter the said Dath, but only in one of the said Articles hereafter mentioned. It is thereupon this day ordered by; their Lordships, according to the unanimous Advice of all the Judges of England, and his Majesty's pleasure signified therein; That the first Article propounded, viz. You shall do all your pain and diligence to destroy and make to cease, all manner of Heresies and Errors, commonly called Lollaries within your Bayliwick from; time to time, to all your power; and a fist and be helping to all ordinaries and Commissioners of the Holy Church; and favour and maintain them as oftentimes as you shall be required, shall left out in the Dath to be given to Sir Edward Cook, and shall ever hereafter be left out in all Daths to be given to the High Sheriffs of Counties hereafter. And their Lordships do likewise Order, according to the unanimous advice of all the Judges of England, That the other three Articles doubted of, shall stand in the said Oath to be ministred to the said Sir Edward Cook, and to all other High Sheriffs, as heretofore hath accustomed; and that the Lord keeper do give Order to such Officers and Clerks in the Court of Chancery, to whom it appertained, to make out the Oath for the time to come according to present Order.

The Seal taken from Bishop Williams, sequestred formerly, and given to Sir Thomas Coventry.

The expectation of a Parliament, gave encouragement to the Bishop of Lincoln (who yet retained the name of Lord Keeper, notwithstanding his Sequestration several months before from the presence of the King, the Council Table, and the Custody of the Seal) to make an Address to his Majesty for a favourable interpretation of his Actions: But his carriage towards the Duke at the Parliament at Oxford was fresh in memory, where the Bishop told the Duke in Christchurch, upon the Duke's rebuking him for siding against him, That he was engaged with William Earl of Pembroke, to labour the Redress of the Peoples Grievances, and was resolved to stand upon his own Legs. If that be your resolution (said the Duke) Look you stand fast, and so they parted; and shortly after that he was sequestred, though the Seal was not disposed from him till the Thirtieth of October; at which time it was given to Sir Tho. Coventry at Hampton Court, who was that day sworn of the Privy Council, and sate there and sealed some Writs, and afterwards came to the Term at Reading, and sate there as Lord Keeper and heard Causes.

A Parliament summoned; Recusants to be Excommunicated.

The King being pressed with his own Necessities, and the Cry of t the Nation against the fruitless voyage of Cadis, summoned a Parliament to meet in February; and before the time of meeting, his Majesty enjoyed the Archbishops and Bishops in both Provinces, to proceed against Popish Recusants by Excommunication, and other Censures of the Church, and not to omit any lawful means of bringing them to Publick Justice; especially he recommended to their vigilant care, the unmasking and repressing of those who were not professed Papists, yet disaffected to the true Religion, and kept close their evil and dangerous affection, and by secret means and slights, did encourage and advance the growth of Popery.

This Command was seconded by a Proclamation, requiring, That all convicted Papists should, according to the Laws of this Realm, remain confined to their dwelling places, or within five miles thereof, unless upon special Licences first obtained in cases necessary.

The King resolved to leave Mr. Montague to the Parliament.

Immediately before the parliament, Bishop Laud procured the Duke of Buckingham to sound the King concerning the Cause, Books, and Tenets of Mr. Richard Mountague; and understanding by what the Duke collected, That the King had determined within himself to leave him to a Tryal in Parliament, he said, I seem to see a Cloud, arising and threatnine the Church of England, God, for his Mercy, dissipate it.

Preparations for the King's Coronation.

About the same time, the King declared his purpose to celebrate the Solemnity of his Coronation on Candlemas-day at the Palace of Westminster; and required all persons, who by reason of their Offices and Tenures, were bound to perform any Duties at the Solemnity, to give their attendance, and to be furnished in all respects answerable to an action of so high State, according to their places and dignities. Wherefore by a Commission under the Great Seal of England, Sir Thomas Coventry Lord Keeper of the Great Seal, James Lord Say High Treasurer of England, Edward Earl of Worcester Keeper of the Privy Seal, Thomas Earl of Arundel and Surry Earl Marshal of England, William Earl of Pernbroke Lord High Chamberlain, Edward Earl of Dorset, and Sir Randol Crew Chief Justice of the Common Pleas, were authorized to receive and determine the Claims exhibited by any person concerning Services to be performed at the approaching Coronation.

And the more to credit the Solemnity, the King resolving to make certain of his Servants and other Subjects, in regard of their Birth, good Service, and other Qualities, Knights of the Bath, authorized Thomas Earl of Arundel and Surry, and Earl Marshal of England, William Earl of Pembroke, Lord Chamberlain, to perform in his Majesty's name and behalf, all the Rites and Ceremonies belonging thereto.

A Proclamation for all that have Forty pound per annum, to come and receive the Order of Knighthood.

At the same time Writs were directed to all sheriffs in the Realm of England, and Dominions of Wales, commanding them to make Proclamation, That all such as had forty pounds a year or more, of Lands or Revenues in their own hands, or the hands of Feoffees, for their use for the space of three years, arid are not yet Knights, do at their perils prepare to present themselves in his Majesty's Presence by the One and thirtieth of January, to receive the order of Knighthood. Of which more in its proper place.

A thanksgiving for the Plagure ceasing.

Upon the asswaging of the great pestilence, through the Mercy and Goodness of God in withdrawing and almost removing the Scourge, the King, by his Royal Authority, ordained a Publick and General Thanksgiving to be celebrated upon the Nine and twentieth of January, being the Lord's day, in the Cities of London and Westminster, and the places adjacent; and on the Nineteenth of February in all other places of the Kingdom; the manner and form whereof, was prescribed by a Book composed by the Bishops according to his Majesty's special Direction.

The contagion ceasing, the restraint enjoyned to the Citizens of London from retorting to Fairs for a time, was taken off.

Number of those who died of the Plague.

The number of those that died this year within and without the Walls of the City of London, and in the Liberties and Nine out Parishes, from the Sixteenth of December, 24. to the Fifteenth of December, 25. was in total, Fifty four thousand two hundred sixty and five, whereof of the Plague Thirty five thousand four hundred and seventeen.

On Candlemas-day King Charles was Crowned; Bishop Laud had the chief hand in compiling the Form of the Coronation, and had the honour to perform this Solemnity, instead of the late Lord Keeper Williams, who (through the King's disfavour) was sequestred from this Service, which belonged to his place as he was Dean of Westminster. Mr. John Cosens (as Master of the Ecclesiastical Ceremonies) kneeled behind the Bishop when the Prayers were read, and directed the Quire when to answer. The Ceremony in going to, and all the Coronation was briefly thus.

The Ceremonies at the Kind's Curonation.

The King went that day from Westminster-Hall to the Abby-Church, attended by the Aldermen of London, Eighty Knights of the Bath, in their Robes, the King's Serjeants at Law, Solicitor and Attorney-Generals, the Judges, Barons, Bishops, Viscounts, and such of the Earls (who bore no particular Office that day) in their Parliament Robes, going two by two before the King all uncovered; and after them followed his Officers of State (being Eight Earls and one Marquiss) those persons according to their respective Places and Offices carried the Swords, the Globe, the Scepter, the Crown; and the Lord Mayor of London carried the short Scepter, two Bishops carried, the one the Golden Cup, and the other the Plate for the Communion. Next before his Majesty went the Earl of Arundel as Earl-Marshal of England, and the Duke of Buckingham as Lord High Constable of England for that day. The King being cloathed in white Sattin, went under a rich Canopy, supported by the Barons of the Cinque Ports, the King having on each hand a Bishop, and his Train of Purple Velvet was carried up by the Master of the Robes, and the Master of the Wardrobe. At the entring into the Church, Bishop Laud delivered into the King's hands, the staff of King Edward the Confessor, with which the King walked up to the Throne; then the Arch Bishop of Canterbury presented his Majesty to the Lords and Commons there present, East, West, North, and South, who gave their consent to his Coronation, as their lawful Soveraign. After Sermon was done the King went to the Altar (where the Old Crucifix, amongst other Regalia, stood; as also the Ointment Consecrated by a Bishop) to take the Coronation Oath, which (as is said) was performed in this manner, viz.

Archbishop P. P.

Sir (lays the Archhishop) will you grant and keep, and by your Oath confirm to the People of England, the Laws and Customs to them granted by the Kings of England, Your Lawful and Religious Predecessors, and namely by the Laws, Customs, and Franchies, granted to the Clergy, by the Glorious King St. Edward Your Predecessor, according to the Laws of God, the true Profession of the Dospel established in this Kingdom, agreeable to the Prerogatine of the Kings thereof, and the antient Cstoms of the Realm?

The King's answer.

I grant and promise to keep them.

Sir, will you keep Peace and Godly Agreement (according to Your Power) both to God, the Holy Church, the Clergy and the People?

I will keep it.

Sir, will you (to your Power) cause Law, Justice, and Discretion to Mercy and Truth, to be executed to your Judgement.

I will.

Sir, will you grant to hold and keep the Laws Rightful Customs which the Commonalty of this your Kingdom have; and will you defend and uphold them to the honour of God, so much as as in you lyeth?

I grant and promise so to do.

Then one of the Bishops read this Passage to the King.

Our Lord, and King, we beseech you to Pardon and to Grant, and to Preserve unto usi and to the Churches committed to your Charge, all Canonical Privileges, and do Law and Justice; and that You would Protect and Defend us, as every good King to His Kingdoms ought to he Protector and Defender of the Bishops, and the Churches under their Government.

The King answereth.

With a willing and devout Heart I promise, and grant my pardon; and that I will presers and maintain to you, and the Churches committed to your Charge, all Canonical Privileges, and due Law and Justice; and that I will be your Protecor and Defender to my Power, by the assistance of God, as every good King in his Kingdom in right ought to protect and defend the Bishops and Churches under their Government.

Then the King arose and was led to the Communion Table, where he takes a Solemn Oath in sight of all the People, to observe all the Premisses, and laying his hand upon the Bible, said,

The things which I have here promised, I shall perform and keep; So help me God, and the Contents of this Book.

After the Oath, the King was placed in the Chair of Coronation, and was Anointed by the Archbishop with a costly Ointment, and the Ancient Robes of King Edward the Confessor were put upon him, and the Crown of King Edward was put upon his Head, and his Sword girt about him; and he offered the same, and two Swords more, together with Gold and Silver at the Communion Table. He was afterwards conducted by the Nobility to the Throne, where this Passage was read to his Majesty.

[Stand and hold fast from henceforth the Place, to which you have been Heir by the Succession of Tour Forefathers, being now delivered to You by the Authority of Almighty God, and by the hands of us, and all the Bishops and Servants of God: And as You see the Clergy to come nearer to the Altar than others, so remember that (in all places convenient) You give them greater honour, that the Mediator of God and Man may establish You in the Kingly Throne to be a Mediator betwixt the Clergy and the Laity; and that you may Reign for ever with Jesus Christ, the King of Kjngs, arid Lord of Lords.]

Afterwards the Nobility were sworn to be Homagers to the King, and some other Ceremonies were performed; which being done, the Lord Keeper by the King's Command read a writing unto them, which declared the King's free Pardon to all his Subjects who would take the same under the Great Seal.

The Ceremonies of the Coronation being ended, the Regalia were offered at the Altar by Bishop Laud in the King's Name, and then reposited.

The Bishop of Lincoln fallen into disgrace by the displeasure of the Duke of Buckingham, had not received his Writ of Summons which he represented to the King with Submission to his Majesty's pleasure (denied as he said, to no Prisoners or condemned Peers in his Father's Reign) to enable him to make his Proxy, if his Personal attendance be not permitted. Likewise he besought his Majesty, That he would be pleased to mitigate the Duke's causeless anger towards him, who was so little satisfied with any thing he could do or suffer, that had no means left to appease him, but his Prayers to God and his Sacred Majesty: Also, that in his absence in this Parliament, no use might be made of his Majesty's Sacred Name to wound the reputation of a poor Bishop, who besides his Religion and Duty to that Divine Character which his Majesty beareth, hath affectionately honoured his very person above all Objects in this World; as he desired the Salvation of the World to come; And he craveth no Protection against any other Accuser or Accusation whatsoever.

The Second Parliament meets.

On Monday the sixth ot February, began the becond Parliament of the King's Reign.

The King being placed in his Royal Throne, the Lords in their Robes, and the Commons below the Bar, it pleased his Majesty to refer them to the Lord Keeper for what he had to say.

The Lord Keeper's Speech.

The Lord Keeper's Speech.

My Lords,

"And you the Knights, Citizens and Burgesses of the House of Commons, you are here assembled, by his Majesty's Writs and Royal Authority to hold a new Parliament, the General, Ancient and Powerful Council of this Renowned Kingdom; whereof if we consider aright, and think of that incomparable distance between the Supreme Height and Majesty of a Mighty Monarch, and the submissive awe and lowliness of a Loyal Subject, we cannot but receive exceeding comfort and contentment in the frame and constitution of this Highest Court; Wherein not only the Prelates, Nobles and Grandees, but the Commons of all degrees have their part, and wherein that high Majesty doth descend to admit, or rather to invite the humblest of his Subjects to Conference and Council with him, of the great, weighty, and difficult affairs of the King and Kingdom: a benefit and favour whereof we cannot be too sensible and thankful; for sure I am, that all good hearts would be both sensible and sorrowful, if we did want it; and therefore it behoveth all, with united hearts and minds free from diffraction and diversion, to fix their thoughts upon Counsels and Consutations worthy of such an Assembly, remembring, That in it is presented the Majesty and Greatnees, the Authority and Power, the Wisdom and Knowledge of this great and famous Nation; and it behoveth us to magnifier and bless God, that hath put the power of Assembling Parliaments in the hands of him, the virtue of whose person doth strive with the greatness of his Princely Lineage and Descent, whether he should be accounted Major or Melior, a greater King, or a better Man, and of whom you have had so much tryal and experience, That he doth as affectionately love, as he doth exactly know and understand the true use of Parliaments; witness his daily and unwearied Access to this House, before his Access to the Crown; his gracious readiness to all Conferences of Importance; his frequent and effectual Intercession to his Blessed Father of never dying Memory, for the good of that Kingdom, with so happy success, that both this and future generations shall feel it, and have cause to rejoyce at the success of his Majesty's Intercession. And when the Royal Diadem descended upon himself, presently in the midst of his Tears and Sighs for the depaiture of his most Dear and Royal Father, in the very first Consultation with his Privy Counsel, was resolved to meet his People in Parliament: And no sooner did the heavy hand of that destroying Angel forbear those deadly stroaks, which for some time did make this place inaccessible, but his Majesty presently resolved to recall it, and hath now brought you together, and in a happy time, I trust, to treat and consult with uniform Desires and united Affections, of those things that concern the general good.

"And now being thus assembled, his Majesty hath Commanded me to let you know, that his Love and Affection to the publick, moved him to call this Parliament; and looking into the danger and the spreading of that late Mortality, and weighing the multitude of his Majesty's pressing occasions and urging affairs of State, both at home and abroad, much importing the safety and state of this Kingdom; the same affection that moved him to call it doth forbid him to prolong the sitting of this Parliament: And therefore his Majesty resolving to confine this Meeting to a short time, hath confined me to a short Errand; and that is, That as a thing most agreeable to the Kingly Office, to the example of the best times, and to the frame of Modern Affairs, his Majesty hath called you together to consult and to advise of provident and good Laws, profitable for the publick, and sitting for the present times and actions; for upon such depends the assurance of Religion and of Justice, which are the surest Pillars and Butteresses of good Government in a Kingdom: For his Majesty doth consider, that the Royal Throne, on which God out of his Mercy to us hath set him, is the Fountain of all Justice, and that good Laws are the Streams and Quits by which the benefit and use of this Fountain is dispersed to his People; and it is his Majesty's care and study, that his People may see with comfort and joy of heart, that this Fountain is not dry, but they and their Postericy may rest allured and confident in his time, to receive as ample benefit from this Fountain, by his Majesty's Mercy and Justice as ever Subjects did in the time of the most eminent Princes amongst his Noble Progenitors; wherein, as his Majesty shews himself most sensible of the good of the Publick, so were it an injury to this great and honourable Assembly if it should be but doubted, that they shall not be as sensible of any thing that may add to his Majesty's Honour; which cannot but receive a high degree of Love and Affection, if his Majesty succeeding so many Religious, Wise, and renowned Princes, should begin his Reign with some Additions unto those good Laws which their happy and glorious times have afforded. And this his Majesty hath caused me to desire at this time, especially above others; for his Majesty having at his Royal Coronation lately solemnized the Sacred Rites of that blessed Marriage between his People and him, and therein by a most Holy Oath, vowed the Protection of the Laws, and maintenance of Peace, both to Church and People, no time can be so fit for his Majesty to advise and consult at large with his People, as at this present time, wherein so lately his Majesty hath vowed Protection to his People, and they have protested their Allegiance and Service to him.

"This is the sum of that Charge which I have received from his Majesty to deliver unto you; wherein you see his Majesty's intent to the Publick: And therefore his desire is, That according to that conveniency of time which his Affairs may afford, you may apply your selves to dispatch the business of this Parliament.

Sir Hennage Finch chosen Speaker.

The Wednesday following the Commons presented Sir Heneage Finch Knight, Serjeant at Law, and Recorder of London, for their Speaker; who having made the accustomed excues, and acknowledged his Majesty's Approbation, made this Speech.

His Speech.

"Since it hath pleased your Majesty not to admit my humble Excuse, but by your Royal Approbation to crown this Election; after my heart and hands first listed up to God, that hath thus inclined your Royal heart, I do render my humblest thanks to your Majesty, who are pleased to cast so gracious an eye upon so mean a Subject, and to descend so low as in a service of this importance, to take me into your Princely Thoughts. And since we all stand for Hundreds and Thousands, for Figures and Cyphers, as your Majesty, the Supreme and Sovereign Auditor, shall please to place and value us, and like Coin to pass, are made current by your Royal Stamp and Impression; only I shall neither disable nor undervalue my self, but with a faithful and chearful heart, apply my self with the best of my strength and abilities, to the performance of this weighty and publick Charge; wherein as I do and shall to the end, most humbly desire your gracious acceptance of my good intentions and endeavours; so I could not but gather some considence to my self, that your Majesty will look favourably upon the works of your own hands. And in truth besides this particular, these publick things which are obvious to every Understanding, are so many Arguments of Comfort and Encouragement where I contemplate and take a view of those inestimable blessings, which by the Goodness of God, we do enjoy under your Majesty's most pious and prudent Government.

"If we behold the frame and the face of the Government in general, we live under a Monarchy, the best of Governments, the nearest resemblance unto the Divine Majesty which the earth affords, the most agreeable to Nature, and that in which other States and Republicks do easily fall and reverse into the Ocean, and are naturally dissolved as into their Primam Materiam. The Laws by which we are governed, are above any value my words can set upon them; time hath refined and approved them; they are equal at last to any Laws Humane, and so curiously framed and fitted, that as we live under a temperate climate, so the Laws are temperate, yielding a due observance to the Prerogative Royal, and yet preserving the Right and Liberty of the Subject; That which Tacitus faith of two of the best Emperors, Res dim insociabiles miscuerunt, imperium & libertatem; and so far is this from the last diminution of Soveraigns, that in this your Majesty is truly stiled Pater Patria, and the greatest King in the World, that is King of such and so many Free-born Subjects, whose persons you have not only power over, but, which is above the greatest of Kings, to command their hearts. If time or corruption of manners breed any Mists or Grievance, or discover any defect in the Law, they are soon reformed by Parliament, the greatest Court of Justice, and the greatest Council of the Kingdom, to which all other Courts and Councils are subordinate. Here your royal person still inthroned in the State of Majesty, attended by a Reverend and Learned Prelacy, a great and full Nobility inthroned like Stars in the Firmament; some of a greater, some of a lesser magnitude, full of light and beauty, and acknowledging to whom they owe their lustre; and by a choice number of worthy Knights and Gentlemen, that represent the whole body of your Commons. But to leave generals; We live not under a Monarchy only the best of Governments, and under a Government the best of Monarchies; but under a King the best of Monarchs, Your Royal Person, and those eminent graces and virtues which are inherent in your person (in whom Greatness and Goodness contend for Superiority) it were presumption in me to touch, though with never so good a meaning; they will not be bounded within the narrow compass of my discourse: And such Pictures of such a King are not to be made in Limning, but for publick things and actions which the least eye may see and discern; and in them obliquely and by reflection cheerfully and with comfort behold your Person. What age shall not record and eternife your Princely magnanimities in that Heroick action or venturous Journey into Spain, or hazarding your person to preserve the Kingdom? Fathers will tell it to their Children in succession; After-ages will then think it a Fable. Your piety to the Memory of your dear Father, in following and bedewing his Hearse with your tears, is full in every man's memory. The Publick Humiliation when God's hand lay heavy upon us, and the late Publick Thansgiving to Almighty God for removing his hand, both commanded and performed in person by your Majesty, is a work in piety not to be forgotten, and I trust the Lord will remember them and reward them with mercy and blessing to your Majesty and the whole Kingdom. Your love to Justice, and your care in the administration of Justice, we all behold with comfort, and rejoyce to see it; the great Courts of Justice from the highest to the lowest furnished with Judges of that wisdom and gravity, learning and integrity: the Thrones of Kings are established by Justice; and may it establish, and I doubt not but it will establish the Throne of your Majesty in your person, and in your Royal Line to the end of time. But above all, and indeed it is above all as far as Heaven is distant from the Earth, your care and zeal for the advancement of God's true Religion and Worship, are clearly and fully exprestand do appear both in your person and by your publick Acts and Edicts. It is true that it is said of Princes Quod, factum Pracipiunt: of your Majesty both are true, and a Proposition made convertible. We have received a most gracious answer from your Majesty to all our late Petitions concerning Religion, seconded with a Publick Declaration under the Great Seal, and enrolled in all the Courts of Justice, for your Royal pleasure and direction to awaken and put life into these laws by a careful execution, with provision that the penalties be not converted to your private Coffers, and yet the Coffers of the Kings are not private coffers, but by your express direction set apart to publick uses, such as concern the immediate Defence of the Kingdom, wherein we all have our share and interest. Your Royal Proclamation hath commanded those Romish Priests and Jesuits to Banishment, those Incendiaries that infect the State of this Church and Commonwealth. Their very enterance into this Kingdom, is, by a Just and provident Law, made Treason; their aims being in truth (how specious soever their pretences be) nothing else but to plot and contrive Treason against the State, and to seduce your Natural born Subjects from then: true Obedience, nourishing in their posterities Factions and Seditions: witness those many Treasons and Conspiraties against the person of that glorious Lady, whose memory will never dye; and that horrible matchless Conspiracy, the Powder-Treasox, the Masterpiece of the Devil. But God that preserved her and your Royal Father against all their treacherous Conspiracies and hath given you a heart to honour him, will honour and preserve you: Religion will more truly keep your Kingdoms, than the Seas do compass them: It is the joy of heart to your Majesty's loyal and well-affected Subjects, and will ever be the honour of your Regal Diadem, and the Crown of your Crown. The Spanish invasion in Eighty Eight I hope will ever be remembred in England, with thankful acknowledgment to God for so great a deliverence: and I allure my self it is remembred in Spain, but with another mind, a mind of Revenge; they are too constant to their counels, to acquit their Resolutions and purposes that drew on that Attempt. It was long before discovered, and since Printed not without their liking, That they affect an Universal Monarchy, Videor mihi videre (faith Lipsius of their State) Solent orientem ab Occidente; a Monster in Nature. And one of their own, speaking of the two great Lights which God had placed in the Firmament, makes the Pope Luminare majus prasidens urbi & orbi, and the King of Spain, Luminare minus ut subdatur urbi & dominetur per totum orbem: A great slattery, and a bold and impudent elusion. But I trust, as God hath put it into the heart of your Blessed Father, by the matchless Book of his written to all Christian Monarchs and Princes (a work by which he raised a Monument to himself more lasting than Marble ) to denounce War to that Adversary of God and Kings, the Pope; so he hath set your sacred Majesty upon the Throne of your Father, to do as many things worthy to be written, as he had written things worthy to be read: amongst them to restrain that unlimited pride and boundless ambition of Spain, to reduce it to their proper current and Chanel, who under the Title of Catholick King, makes his presence to more Countries and Kingdoms than his own; and by colour of disguised Treaties he invades the Palatinate, and dispossesseth the Incomparable Lady your Royal Sister, and the Children of this Kingdom, of their tight and their ancient Patrimony and Inheritance, to the discomfort and dishonour of this great and glorious Nation. God in his Mercy soon repair this breach by your Royal head; and I assure my self, the hearts, the hands, and the purses of all good Subjects will say Amen.

"But I may weary your Majesty, and lose my self, and forget for whom I am speaker. Custom gives me the Priviledge as an humble Suitor on the behalf of the House, to present their few Petitions unto your Majesty,

  • 1. "The first, That for our better attending this Publick and important service, our selves and our necessary Attendance may with your Majesty's tender allowance be free both in our persons and goods from Arrests and troubles, according to our Antient Privileges.
  • 2. "The next, That since for the preparing and drawing to conclusion such Propositions as shall be handled in the House, Debate and Dispute will be necessary, and by variety of opinions, truth is oftentimes best discern'd; your Majesty will Likewise according to your antient usage and priviledge vouchsafe us liberty and freedom of speech, from which I assure my self duty and loyalty to your Majesty will never be severed.
  • 3. "That when occasions of moment shall require, your Majesty upon our humble suit, and at such times as may best sort with your occasions, will vouchsafe us Access to your Royal person.

  • 4. "That the Proceedings of the House may receive a favourable Interpretation at your gracious hands, and be free from misconstructions.

The Houses began their work with rendring thanks to the King, for his gracious answer to the late Petition for Religion.

An Act was tendred and read, To administer an Oath for the rendring a true Accompt of all General and Publick Taxes, Rates, and Collections. Another against Scandalous Ministers. It was moved, some Provision might be made against Scandalous Livings, as Well as against Scandalous Ministers.

Grievances taken into Consideration.

The Commons further fell into Examination of the Publick Grievances and the Carriage, or rather Miscarriage of the Fleet to Cadiz; The Evil Counsellors about the King; Misgovernment and Misimployment of the King's Revenue; An Account of the Subsidies and Three Fifteens granted 21 Jacobi; and resolved of a Committee for secret Affairs, and another for Grievances, to sit every Friday and Wednesday during the Parliament. And Mr. Whidby was commanded to the Chair for the Committee for Grievances, where were delivered these ensuing Consultations.

Grievances laid open.

I. [The state of the King in the constant Revenue of the Crown.]

  • 1. What it was, and how for the Introitus and Exitus they are ordered.
  • 2. What now it is, either in clear, or by Lands, by Customs and Impositions, or by Casualties.
  • 3. The means how it is abated, By gifts of Lands ex mero motu, and no valuable Consideration, and this may be revoked.

By grants of Pensions, now 120000 l. before but 80000 l. Good Times have resumed them, or contracted them upon Necessity.

By increase of Houshold from 45000 l. to 80000 l. the Purveyors more, and the Tables less furnished than formerly.

By fruitless Ambassadors, with larger allowance than formerly: To reduce them to the ordinary of the late Queen.

By treble increase of the Privy-Purse.

By double increase of the Treasury of the Chamber and Great Wardrobe.

In all by not using the best course of Alignments, whereby the Creditors are delayed in the payment, and the King surcharged in the price; the Exchequer-man making his profit from the King's wants.

II. [The Condition of the Subject in his Freedom.]

1. Formerly in Taxes by Parliaments, as by Subsidies and Fifteens spent only on Defence of the State, or Aid of our Allies; by Tonage and Poundage, imployed in Guard of the Seas; Loans rarely, and those imployed intirely for the Publick; Imposition by Prerogative of old Customs rated easily by the Book of Rates, if any either limited to time or measure.

2. New Impositions and Monopolies multiplied, and settled to continue by Grants, Customs inhaunced by the new Book of Rates.

Tonage and Poundage levied, though no Act of Parliament, nor Seas guarded; the Times, the Ways and the persons that induce these.

3. The Employment or Wast of the Treasure: What turns have been granted for the Defence of the State, the last Three years; How in particular spent and where; By what Advice, as by the direction of the Council of War appointed by Parliament, by full order of the Council, any other than those, and by whom.

First, Publick Treasury is to be examined.

Secondly, The King's Subjects, how many, and when transported and employed as to the Palatinate, Count Mansfields. Land and Soldiers in the last Fleet: the Designs where they were sent; the Council that directed it; the success of the Action, and the Return of the persons in number, and the Loss.

Thirdly, In ships and Munition our own, the number and quantity employed severally; the Number imbarqued in those ships; and what prejudice and discouragement of Trade; the Council that directed such Employments; the several success, as at Algier and Cadiz, Strangers and those Ships either of Allies or Enemies: Allies hired by contract to serve, and now used or taken as Prize; if so, how then delivered and dealt withal in Courts of Justice; what success hath followed upon Justice done them? as the Arrest of our Goods in France and Germany, whereby our Merchants are at a stand; the number and true value of the Goods, the accompt thereof made his Majesty or his Officers; the dismissing and discharging any of them, or the goods, viz. by whom the Directions, the Pretence, the value of the Goods, the place whither they went.

Honour of the King; which as in all other things consists in what formerly hath been done; how formerly we stood a Nation feared, renowned, victorious: We made the Netherlands a State, when they were none; Recovered Henry the Fourth of France his Kingdom, when he had nothing left but the Town of Diep; conquered the Invincible Navy of Spain, in Anno 1588. took Towns in Portugal the year following, and marched one hundred miles upon firm ground; Fired or brought away the Spanish Navy before Cadiz, and sack'd the Town, took the Spanish ships daily, and spoiled the Port-towns of the West-Indies, never losing but one ship during the Spanish War; reducing the condition of that King from a Fifth Monarchy to so low an ebb, that in one Year he paid Two thousand five hundred Millions of Duckets for interest; so as after he was enforced to beg Treaties of Peace and low Terms at the last Queen-Regent's hands.

III. [The cause of the good success then.]

A carriage and readiness to assist their Sovereign in Purse and Person; A wisdom and Gravity of Council, who ordered nothing but by publick Debate and then assisted with the Military Professors either by Land or Sea of the best repute, and such only employed.

IV. [In what condition we now stand.]

By the loss of Reputation, by the ill success of the Voyage for Algier, in the Palatinate, in the expedition with Mansfield, in the last to Cadiz.

The Reasons are,

The unchearfulness we have either to adventure our purses or persons, occasioned by a distrust we have of the success, the want of like courses and Councils that were formerly used.

It was wished, that for every of the Four Heads there were a particular Committee to examine and prepare a Report for the Houses; and the House upon every Report to put it self into a Committee of the whole Assembly, and after a full and deliberate Debate, to order a Model or Form for a Conference with the Lords, and so together humbly to present to his Majesty a Remonstrance of their Labour; offering withal a second Consutation and Debate amongst themselves for finding out the fittest means both for the Defence of the State and our Allies, Reformation of the Errors, and constant way to raise such supplies as may enable his Majesty to proceed chearfully, and as they hope assuredly in this his Glorious Action, not only for himself and State, but all that prosess the same Religion, and are like to be overwhelmed in the Ambition of the Spanish Monarch.

Also a Committee was named concerning Religion, and the growth of Popery; and Montague's [Appeal to Cæsar ] was again brought in question.

This Book the Commons referred to the Committee for Religion from whom Mr. Pym Reported to the House the several Erroneous Opinions therein contained: and the House passed their Votes thereupon, That Mr. Montague endeavoured to reconcile England to Rome, and to alienate the King's affections from his well-affected Subjects.

The Articles exhibited against him were these;

Articles exhibited by the Commons against Richard Montague Clerk.

Articles against Mr. Montague.

That he the said Richard Montague, in or about the 21 year of the Reign of our late Sovereign Lord King James of famous memory, hath caused to be Printed, and in his name to be Published, one Book, called, An Answer to the late Gag of Protestants; and in or about Anno 22. of the same King, he caused to be Printed and Published, one other Book, Entituled, A Treatise of the Invocation of Saints; and likewise in the First year of his Majesty's Reign that, now is, he procured to be Printed, and in his name to be published another Book Entituled, An Appeal to Cæsar: In every of which Books he. hath maintained and confirmed some Doctrine contrary or repugnant to the Articles agreed by the Arch Bishops and Bishops of both Provinces, and the whole Clergy, holden in the Convocation at London, Anno Dom. 1562. according to the computation of the Church of England, for avoiding Diversity of Opinions, and for establishing consent touching true Religion: All which appears in the places hereafter mention'd; and in divers other places and passages of the same Books; and by his so doing hath so broken the Laws and Statutes of this Realm in that case provided, and very much disturbed both the Peace of Church and Commonwealth.

  • I. Whereas in the Five and thirtieth Article of the Articles aforementioned, it is declared, That the second Book of Homilies doth contain a Godly and wholsome Doctrine; in the sixteenth Homily of which Book it is determined, that the Church of Rome, as it is at present, and hath been for the space of nine hundred years and odd, is so far wide from the nature of a True Church, that nothing can be more. He the said Richard Montague, in several places in the said Books called, The answer to the Gagg, and in his other Book, called The Appeal, doth advisedly maintain and affirm, That the Church of Rome is and ever was, a True Church, since it was a Church.

  • II. Whereas in the same Homily, it is Likewise declared, That the Church of Rome is not built upon the Foundation of the Prophets and Apostles; and in the Eight and twentieth Article of the said Articles, That Transubstantiation overthroweth the nature of a Sacrament; and in the Five and twentieth of the same Article; that Five other reputed Sacraments of the Church of Rome, are not to be accounted Sacraments: yet contrary and repugnant hereunto, he, the said Richard Montague, doth maintain and affirm in his Book aforesaid, called The Answer to the Gagg, That the Church of Rome hath ever remained firm upon the same Foundation of Sacraments and Doctrine, instituted by God.
  • III. In the nineteenth of the same Article, it is further determined, That the Church of Rome hath erred, not only in their living and matters of Ceremony, but also in matters of Faith. He the said Richard Montague, speaking of those points which belong to Faith and good Manners, Hope and Charity, doth in the said Book, called The Gagg, affirm and maintain, that none of these are controverted in their Points, meaning the Protestants and Papists; and not with standing, that in the One and thirtieth Article, it is resolved, that the Sacrifice of Masses, in which, as it is commonly said, The Priest did offer Christ for the Quick and the Dead, to have remission of pain and Guilt too, is a Blasphemous Fable, and dangerous Deceit; this being one of the Points controverted between the Church of England and the Church of Rome. The said Richard Montague in his Book called The Gagg, doth affirm and maintain, that the controverted Points are of a lesser and inferior nature, of which a man may be ignorant without any danger of his Soul at all; a Man may resolve to oppose this or that without peril of perishing for ever.
  • IV. Whereas in the second Homily, Entituled Against Peril of Idolatry contained in the aforesaid Book of Homilies, and approved by the seven and thirtieth Article aforementioned; it is declared, That Images teach no good Lesson, neither of God nor Godliness, but all Error and Wickedness: he the said Richard Montague, in the Book of Gagg aforesaid, doth affirm and maintain, That Images may be used for the Instruction of the Ignorant, and excitation of Devotion.
  • V. That in the same Homily, it is plainly expressed, That the attributing the defence of certain Countries to Saints, is a spoiling God of his honour, and that such Saints are but dii tutelares of the Gentile Idolators: The said Richard Montague hath notwithstanding in his said Book, Entituled, A Treatise concerning the invocation of Saints affirmed and maintained, That Saints have not only a Memory, but a more peculiar Charge of their Friends; and that it may be admitted, that some Saints have a peculiar Patronage, Custody, Protection, and Power, as Angels also have, over certain Persons and Countries by special deputation; and that it is no impiety so to believe: whereas in the seventeenth of the said Articles, it is resolved, That God hath certainly Decreed by his Counsel secret to us, to deliver from Curse and Damnation, those whom he hath chosen in Christ out of mankind, and to bring them by Christ to everlasting Salvation; wherefore they which be endued with so excellent benefit of God, be called according to God's purpose, working in due season, they through grace obey the Calling, they be justified freely, walk religiously in good works, and at length by God's Mercy attain to, everlasting felicity: He, the said Richard Montague, in the said Book called The Appeal, doth maintain and affirm, That men justified may fall away, and depart from the state which once they had; they may arise again and become new men possibly, but not certainly nor necessarily. And the better to countenance this his opinion, he hath in the same Book wilfully added, falsified and changed divers words in the sixteenth of the Articles before mentioned and divers other words both in the Book of Homilies, and in the Book of Common-Prayer, and so misrecited, and changed the said places he doth alledge in the said Book, called The Appeal, endeavouring thereby to lay a most wicked and malicious scandal upon the Church of England, as if he did herein differ from the Reformed Churches of England, and from the Reformed Churches beyond the Seas; and did consent to those pernicious Errors, which are commonly called Arminianism, and which the late famous Queen Elizabeth, and King James of happy memory, did so piously and diligently labour to suppress.

That the said Richard Montague, contrary to his Duty and Allegiance, hath endeavoured to raise great Factions and Divisions in this Commonwealth, by casting the odious and scandalous name of Puritans upon such his Majesty's loving Subjects as conform themselves to the Doctrine and Ceremony of the Church of England; under that name laying upon them divers false and malicious Imputations, so to bring them into jealousie and displeasure with his most Excellent Majesty, and into reproach and ignominy with the rest of the people, to the great danger of Sedition and Disturbance in the State, if it be not timely prevented.

That the Scope and end of the said Richard Montague in the Books before mentioned, is to give encouragement to Popery, and to withdraw his Majesty's Subjects from the true Religion established, to the Roman Superstition, and consequently to be reconciled to the See of Rome; All which he laboureth by subtle and cunning ways, whereby God's true Religion hath been much scandalized, those mischiess introduced which the wisdom of many Laws hath endeavoured to prevent, the Devices and Practices of his Majesty's Enemies have been furthered and advanced, to the great peril and hazard of our Sovereign Lord the King, and of all his Dominions and loving Subjects.

That the said Richard Montague hath inserted in the said Book, called The Appeal, divers passages dishonourable to the late King, his Majesty's Father of famous memory; full of bitterness, railing and injurious Speeches to other persons, disgraceful and contemptible to many worthy Divines both of this Kingdom, and other Reformed Churches beyond the Seas; impious and profane in scoffing at preaching, meditating and conferring Pulpits, Lectures, Bible, and all shew of Religion; all which do aggravate his former Offences, having proceeded from malicious and envenomed heat against the Peace of the Church, and the sincerity of the Reformed Religion publickly professed, and by Law established in this Kingdom. All which Offences, being to the dishonour of God, and of most mischievous effect and consequence against the good of this Church and Commonwealth of England, and of other his Majesty's Realms and Dominions. The Commons assembled in Parliament, do hereby pray, That the said Richard Montague may be punished according to his Demerits, in such exemplary manner, as it may deter others from attempting so presumptuously to disturb the Peace of Church and State, and that the Book aforesaid may be suppressed and burnt.

Whether an answer was made to their Articles by Mr. Montague, we cannot tell, upon some search we can find none.

People prohibited for going to Mass at Ambassador's Houses.

About the same time his Majesty being informed that there was great liberty taken by divers of his Subjects to resort to the hearing of Mass at Durham-house in the Lodgings of a Foreign Ambassador; the Privy Council taking notice thereof, and accounting it scandalous to this Church, and of ill example to be suffered at any time, but much more in this time of Parliament, required the Bishop of Durham to apprehend such of his Majesty's Subjects as should be present at the Mass. and to commit them to Prison.

There was also a Letter sent from the Attorny-General to the Judges of the Circuits, to direct their Proceedings against Recusants, to this effect.

The Attorney's Letter to the Judges concerning Recusants.

That their Lordships will not omit to publish the King's Gracious and Religious Determination, to go on really and constantly in this way, and that out of his bounty and Goodness he hath published his Resolution under the Great Seal of England, that whatsoever Revenue or Benefit shall arise hereby, from Purses of Popish Recusants, shall be set apart from his own Treasury, and wholly employed for the Service of the Common-wealth, and shall not be dispenced with to any of what degree soever, nor diverted by any of the Suits of his Servants or Subjects.

2. That their Lordships will be pleased at their first coming into every County within their Circuit, to command the Clerk of Assize, and Clerk- of the Peace, to be careful for the Indictment of Popish Recusants, without respect of persons, of what Degree of Honour or Office soever; and that they neither make nor suffer to be made any omission, or mistaking in their indictment, or other proceedings; and that the next Term, within Ten days of the beginning of the Term they give or send to him (viz. the Attorny) a note in writings who stand indicted of new, and that they fail not to certify the Recusants convicted into the Exchequer by that time.

That at their Lordship's first coming into the County they call the Justices of Peace then present, and the Grand Jury-men to give their Lordships true Information of the Recusants of any note or Name in that Countrey; and that thereupon their Lordships will be pleased to take care that the Grand Jury-men, either by evidence, or their own knowledge, indict them which are not already indicted, before the end of the Assizes, and that their Lordships admit no Traverse, unless the persons convicted have first yielded their bodies into the custody of the Sheriff, as the Lordships know well all the Judges, With one voice, resolved the Law to be.

3. That there be special care taken of Schoolmasters and Teachers of any kind who are Popish, that they be presented and proceeded against.

4. That their Lordships give knowledge to the Counties where they sit, that the married Women, who are Popish Recusants, convicted by the Law, ought to be committed to the Common Goal without Bail, unless their husbands redeem their liberty by their constant payment of 10 l. a months and that it must be executed.

Inner-Temple, Mar. 7. 1625.

Your Lordships ready to be commanded,

The Commons proceeded in the Examination or Grievances, and had a report made unto them, That the reason wherefore our Merchants Ships and Goods were seised in France, was, by reason of Sir James Bagg, Vice-Admiral for Cornwal, and other Men's dealings towards the French, in seising upon their Goods in several Ports in England, and particularly the seising the Ship called the Peter of Newhaven, and brought into Plimouth, by order from the Lord Duke, after the King and Council had ordered this Ship to be restored upon a just claim, and that the Court of Admiralty had also released her: That till this action, the French did not begin to seize any English Goods or Ships: That twenty and three bags of Silver, and eight bags of Gold, were, by Sir Francis Steward, delivered to the Lord Duke; the Duke having notice hereof, said, He would justifie the stay of the Ship by order from the King.

The Council of War far the Palatinate questioned in the House of Commons.

The Council or War, appointed to manage the business for the. relies of the Palatinate, were called into the House of Commons, and this Question was propounded unto them: Whether their Advice was followed which they gave for the four Ends mentioned in the Act of Parliament, 21 Jacobi, for which the Monies given by that Act were to issue? Lord Carey Earl of Totnes, and Lord Brook, desired to be excused from answering; the Lord Vere said, He had been much absent in the Low-Countries, and could say little. The Lord Grandison said, That since July last they had seldom met. Sir Robert Mansel and Sir John Ogle desired a Copy of the Question, and that they might all confer together before they gave answer to a Question of this concernment. Afterwards the same persons (except the Lord Vere) were called in again, who gave unsatisfactory Answers, when they were pressed to deal clearly and fully in. the business. It was answered by some of them, That the conceived by the Act of Parliament, they were bound to make no other answer than what they had done. Others desired before they answered, that they might have the King's consent first; That obtained, and a special Order of the House requiring an Answer, Sir Robert Mansel declared his readiness to give a clear and full account.

While matters were thus debated, Mr. Secretary Cook delivered a Message from the King to the Commons, declaring his Majesty's occasion for Supply.

The Earl of Pembroke, at a Conference, presseth Supply.

This Message was strengthned by a Conference which the Lords desired with the Commons; where William Earl of Pembroke represented the Affairs of Christendom, how they stood before the breach of the Treaties with Spain, and how at that present; shewing, That the condition of the Palatinate was nothing bettered; That Court Mansfield's Army was raised for the diversion of the League Catholick in Germany; That the King of Denmark had thereupon engaged himself to stand or fall in this Quarrel, in case of Supplies; That the Swedes were forward; and lastly, That his Majesty had made a strict Alliance with the Hollanders upon these Terms, That they shall bear a fourth part of the Expence of our Navy, and only have a fourth part of the Spoils, the Lands and Cities Conquer'd to be the King's: The fruits of all rich advantages will be lost, if a Speedy Assistance be not resolved on.

Reports from the Committee concerning Evils, and Remedies.

The Commons not thinking fit to take into Consideration the matter of Supply at present, call for a Report from the Committee appointed to consider of the Causes and Remedies of Evils; which being made by Mr. Wandesford, it was resolved, That the Diminution of the Kingdom in Strength and Honour, is a general Evil which we suffer under: A second, the increase and countenance of Papists: A third, the not guarding of the Narrow Seas: A fourth, Plurality of Offices in one hand: A fifth, sales of Honours and Places of Judicature: A sixth, delivery up of Ships to the French: A seventh, Mis. employment of three Subsidies and three Fifteens, &c. And they further ordered, That the Duke, whom these misdemeanors especially reflected on, have notice, that the Common's House intend suddenly to resume the debate of these things; and Mr. Clement Cook said openly, That it were better to die by an Enemy, than to suffer at home.

A Committee of the Lord's House, to consider of the safety of the Kingdom.

The Lords at that time, more readily complying with the King's desires, appointed a Committee to consider of the safety and defence of the Kingdom in general, and particularly of the safeguard of the Seas, the Store of Ammunition and Arms, and all things incident thereunto, and of strengthning the Forts. For this the King gave them thanks, and desired them to proceed with alacrity.

Communicated to the Commons.

The Committee of Lords made haste, and reported their advice to the House, That presently one Fleet be sent to Sea against the King of Spain, to annoy him, and to prevent the Invasion of this Kingdom: That another be set out to defend our own Coasts and the Merchants from Pirates; and that Consideration be had of maintaining the Armies under the King of Denmark and Count Mansfield: but the House would give no opinion thereupon, till they had conference with the House of Commons, which was desired upon this occasion.

Not well resented.

To which Message, the Commons only returned this Answer, That they desire to have a good correspondency with their Lordships, and will be ever careful of the safety and defence of the Kingdom, and maintain their own Priviledges, as is sitting, and immediately proceed with the, debate concerning the Duke, which was a little interrupted, as well By a Letter of the King's to the Speaker, as by a Message delivered by Sir Richard Weston touching Supply.

King Charles, to the Speaker.

Trusty and Well-beloved, &c.

The King's Letter to the Speaker.

Having assembled the Parliament early in the beginning of the year, for the more timely help and advance of Our People in Our great and important Affairs; and having of late, not only by Message, but also of Our Self put Our House of Commons in mind of Our pressing occasions, and of the present estate of Christendom, wherein they have equal interest with Us, as well in respect of their own former engagements, as of the common Cause; We shall not need to tell them with what care and patience We have in the midst of Our necessities attended their Resolutions; but because their unseasonable slowness may produce at home as ill effects as a Denial, and hazard the whole Estate of things abroad; We have thought fit by you the Speaker, to let them know, that, without more loss of time, We look for a full and perfect answer of what they will give for Our Supply, according to Our expectation

and their promises; wherein, as we press for nothing beyond the present state and condition of our Subjects, so we accept no less then is proportionable to the greatness and goodness of the Cause; neither do we press them to a present Resolution in this, with a purpose to precipitate their Counsels, much less to enter upon their Privileges, but to shew, that it is unfit to depend any longer upon uncertainties, whereby the whole weight of the Affairs of Christendom may break in upon us upon the sudden, to our dishonour, and the shame of this Nation. And for the business at home, we commend you to promise them in our Name, that after they have satisfied us in this our reasonable demand, we shall not only continue them together at this time, so long as the season will permit, but call them shortly again to perfect those necessary businesses which shall be now lest undone; and now we shall willingly apply fit and seasonable Remedies to such just Grievances which they shall present unto us in a dutiful and mannerly way, without throwing an ill odor upon our present Government, or upon the Government of our late blessed Father. And if there be yet who desire to find fault, we shall think him the wisest Reprehender of errors past, who, without reflecting backward, can give us counsel how to settle the present estate of things, and to provide for the future safety and honour of the Kingdom.

The Heads of Sir Richard Westons's Message, For drawing a more speedy resolution from the House, besides that formerly understood concerning the King of Denmark, Count Mansfield, and his Majesty's Army in the Low-Countries, were these.

Sir Richard Weston's Message.

  • I. That his Majesty's Fleet being returned, and the Victuals Spent, the men Must of necessity be discharged, and their wages paid, or elle an assured mutiny will follow, which may be many ways dangerous at this time.
  • II. That his Majesty hath made ready about forty ships, to be set forth on second voyage, to hinder the Enemy, which want only victuals and some men, which, without present supply of Money, can not be set forth and kept together.
  • III. That the Army which is appointed in every Coast, must presently be disbanded, if they be not presently supplied with victuals and clothes.
  • IV. That if the Companies of Ireland, lately sent thither, be not provided for, instead of defending that Country, they well prove the Authors of Rebellion.
  • V. That the season of Providing healthful biduals will be past, if this month be neglected.

And therefore his Majesty Commandeth me to tell you, that he desired to Know, without further delaying of time, what supply you will give him for these his present occasions, that he may accordingly frame his Course and Counsel.

Which Message produced this Answer from the Commons.

Most Gracious Sovereign,

The Common's Answer to the King's Message by Sir Richard Weston.

"Your Majesty's Dutiful and Loyal Subjects, the Commons now assembled in Parliament, in all humility; present unto your Royal wisdom, this their Loyal Answer to the Message which your Majesty was pleased, by the Chancellor of your Exchequer, to send unto them, desrring to know, without any further deferring of time, what Supply they, would give to your Majesty, for your present and extraordinary occasions, that you might accordingly frame your Courses and Counsels: First of all, they most humbly beseech your Majesty to know and rest assured, That no King was ever dearer to his People than your Majesty; no People more zealous to maintain and advance the Honour and Greatness of their King, than they; which, as upon all occasions they shall be ready to express, so especially in the support of that Cause, wherein your Majesty and your Allies are now justy engaged. And because they cannot doubt, but your Majesty in your great wisdom, even out of Justice, and according to the Example of your most famous Predecessors, will be pleased graciously to accept the faithful and necessary information and advice of your Parliament, which can have no end but the service of your Majesty, and safety of your Realm, in discovering the Causes, and proposing the Remedies of these great Evils, which have occasioned your Majesty's Wants, and your People's Grief.

"They therefore, in confidence and full assurance of Redress therein, do, with one consent, propose (though in former time such Course hath been unused) that they really intend to assist and supply your Majesty in such a way, and in so ample a measure, as may make you safe at home, and seared abroad; for the dispatch whereof they will use such diligence, as your Majesty's pressing and present occasions shall require.

His Majesty makes this Reply to the Common's Answer.

Mr. Speaker,

The King's Reply.

The Answer of the Commons delivered by you, I like well of, and do take for a full and satisfactory Answer, and I thank them for it, and I hope you will, with all expedition, take a course for performance thereof, the which will turn to your own good as well as mine; but for your Clause therein, of presenting of Grievances, I take that but for a Parenthesis in your Speech, and not a Condition; and yet, for answer to that part, I will tell you, I will be as willing to hear your Grievances, as my Predecessors have been, so that you will apply your selves to redress Grievances, and not to enquire after Grievances. I must let you know, that I will not allow any of my Servants to be questioned amongst you, much less such as are of eminent Place, and near unto me. The old Question was, What shall be done to the Man whom the King will honour? but now it hath been the labour of some, to seek what may be done against him whom the King thinks fit to honour. I see you specially aim at the Duke of Buckingham; I wonder what hath so altered your affections towards him I do well remember, that in the last Parliament in my Father's time, when he was the Instrument to break the Treaties, all of you (and yet I cannot say all, for I know some of you are changed, but yet the House of Commons is always the same) did so much honour and respect him, that all the Honour conferred on him was too little; and what he hath done since to alter and change your minds, I wot not; but can assure you, he hath not medled, or done any thing concerning the Publick or Common-wealth, but by special directions and appointment, and as my Servant, and is so far from gaining or improving his Estate there by, that I verily think he hath rather impaired the same. I would you would hasten for my Supply, or else it will be worse for your selves; for, if any ill happen, I think I shall be the last shall feel it.

Afterwards the Commons sell upon the Duke, as the chief cause of all Publick Miscarriages. Doctor Turner, a. Physician, propounded in the House these Questions, which were then commonly called Queries, against the Duke of Buckingham, and were grounded upon publick Fame.

Doctor Turner's Queries against the Duke.

  • 1. Whether the Duke, being Admiral, be not the Cause of the loss of the Kings Royalty in the Narrow Seas?
  • 2. Whether the unreasonable, exorbitant, and immense Gifts of Money and Lands bestowed on the Duke and his Kindred, be not the cause of impairing the King's Revenue, and impoverishing the Crown?
  • 3. Whether the multiplicity of Offices conferred upon the Duke, and others depending upon him, (whereof they were not capable) be not the cause of the evil Government of this Kingdom?
  • 4. Whether Recusants in general, by a kind of Connivancy, be not born cut and increased, by reason of the Duke's Mother and, Father-in-law, being known Papists.
  • 5. Whether the sale of Honours, Offices, and Places of Judicature, and Ecclesiastical Livings and Promotions, (a scandal and hurt to the Kingdom) be not through the Duke?
  • 6. Whether the Duke's staying at home, being Admiral and General in the Fleet of the Sea and Land Army, were not the cause of the bad success and overthrow of that Action; and whether he did give good direction for that Design? (All these are famed to be so.)

Hereupon two Questions were moved in Parliament.

  • 1. Whether the Six Heads delivered by Doctor Turner, to be the cause of the Evils that were grounded upon Common Fame, be to be debated in Parliament.
  • 2. Whether an Accusation upon Common Fame, by a Member of this House, be a Parliamentary way?

It was declared by Sir Tho. Wentworth, Mr. Noy, and other Lawyers in the Debate, That there was a difference between Common Fame and Rumour: For the general voice (Vox populi) is Common Same: And if Common Same might not be admitted as an Accuser, Great Men would be the only safe Men, for no private person dare adventure to enquire into their Actions: But the House of Commons is a House of information and Presentment, but not a House of Definitive Judgment.

So the House came to this Resolution, That Common Fame is a good inbound, of Proceeding for this House, either by Enquiry, or presenting the Complaint (if the House finds cause) to the King or Lords.

The Commons the next day proceeding in that Debate, Sir Richard Weston delivered to the House this Message from his Majesty.

Another Message from, the King by Sir Richard Weston.

That his Majesty had taken notice of a seditious Speech uttered in the House by Mr. Clement Cook: The words are said to be to this effect, That it were better to die by an Enemy, than to suffer at home Yet his Majesty, in his wisdom, hath for born to take any course therein, or to send to the House about it, not doubting but the House would in due time correct such an Insolence. But his Majesty hath found, that his patience hath wrought to an ill effect, and hath emboldned one since to do a strange act, in a strange way, and unusual; that is, Doctor Turner, who, on Saturday last, without any ground of knowledge in himself, or proof tendred to the House, made an enquiry of sundry Articles against the Duke of Buckingham, as he pretended, but indeed against the Honour and Government of the King and his late Father. This, his Majesty faith, is such an example, that he can by no means suffer, though it were to make Enquiry, of the meanest of his Servants, much less against one so near unto himself; and doth wonder at the foolish impudency of any Man that can think he should be drawn, out of any end, to offer such a Sacrifice, much unworthy the greatness of a King, and Master of such a Servant. And therefore his Majesty can no longer use his wonted patience, but desireth the Justice of the House against the Delinquents; not doubting but such course will be taken, that he shall not be constrained to use his Regal Authority to right himself against these two persons.

Dr. Turner's Explanation.

Upon this Message, Doctor Turner made a short Explanation of himself, desiring to know wherewith he was charged: What he said, he said, the House can witness; and what he said, he spake for the general good of the Common-wealth, and not upon the least reflexion of any in particular. This he thought a Parliamentary way, warranted by antient Presidents. To accuse upon Common Fame, he finds warranted, first, by the Imperial Roman Laws, and the Canons of the Church, which allowed Common Fame sufficient to accuse any Man. And they that are learned amongst them, give two reasons: First, for Greatness. Next, for Cunning. Our Ancestors, within these walls, have done the like, and that to a Duke, the Duke of Suffolk, in the time of King H. 6. who was accused upon Fame. And lastly, (he said ) Mr. Chancellor himself did present the Common Undertakers upon particular Fame; and why he should not have as ample privilege in this place, he knew no reason to the contrary.

The Commons having appointed another day for the Debate of this business, in the mean time came this Letter from Doctor Turner to the Speaker.

Dr. Turner's Letter to the Speaker.


These Lines first petition you to signifie to the Honourable House of Commons, That my desires are st ill the same to have made my personal appearance before you, but my ability and strength to perform it are not the same; and therefore that I humbly desire them to excuse me on that part, and to accept of this my Answer unto the matter that I shall speak to. I do confess, that on Saturday last in the afternoon, I did deliver in certain Accusations of Common Fame into the House of Parliament against my Lord Admiral; and that out of so many (all bearing the signature of Vox populi) I chose out some few, not because they were greater, or more known Grievances, but because they did seem to direct us to find out the Griever, or the first Cause: for I did think it was then full time to agree the Agent and the Actions, and that it was time also to leave considering Grievances in Arbitration. I do now also agree unto you that which hath been reported unto you by Mr. Wandesford; and by that, if you shall think fit, will put my self unto your Censure, hoping and assuring my self, that you will find my design to include nothing else within it, but duty and publick service to my Country; and also that my addressing those Accusations to the House of Parliament, shall, by you, be found to be done by a mannerly and Parliamentary way. But howsoever it becomes me to submit my Cause to your Wisdoms and equal Judgments, which I do heartily; and whatsoever you shall please to appoint me, 1 shall dutifully satisfie, when God shall be pleased to restore me able to attend your service, I doubt not but to give you an honest account of all my actions herein. And if I shall first to my Grave, I desire, if you find me clear, the reputation of an Honest Man, and an English-man, may attend me thereunto. Thus I rest,

To the Honourable, Sir Heneage Finch, Speaker to the House of Commons.

Your dutiful and humble Servant,
Samuel Turner.


  • 1. The Earl of Bristol.