Historical Collections of Private Passages of State: Volume 3, 1639-40. Originally published by D Browne, London, 1721.
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The Battel of Lutzen, 1632. when the King of Sweden was Slain, with Circumstances preceding the same.
The King being arrived at Naumburg upon Thursday, November the first, (old Style) took order to have his Army lodged in the Field, Town, and Suburbs. The same Day the King went cut upon a Party, for discovering of the Enemy. After him, that afternoon, went these three Gentlemen of the English Nation, Lieutenant-Col. Francis Terret, or Terwhit, Sergeant-Major John Pawlet, and Captain Edward Fielding; these three going alone by themselves, to a forsaken Village, where there were two ways thorow it (the King having gone the left Hand way, and they now taking the Right) fell into an Ambush of the Crabats: The first, and the last named of these three, were taken Prisoners by two Rit-Masters of the Crabats: One of them, named Potnick, a Greek Captain. These two Gentlemen, being carried Prisoners into the Imperial Leaguer, were on the Day of the Battle kept Prisoners in the Rear of the Enemy's Army, and after the Battel haled into Prague among the fleeing Imperialists. They were the first Night carried into Weissenfels, where Welinstein then lay in the Castle of it. He sent the Count of Pappenheim to them, the same Evening, to enquire of the King of Sweden's Strength, Lodgings, and Intentions. The most of the Imperial Foot lay now in, and near about this Weissenfels: Seven or eight Hundred of them keeping Guard upon the Market-place. The Imperialists then gave out themselves to be 50000, but it appeared to be spoken by a Figure, and to terrify the King. For that they were not any thing near that Number.
To return to the King. His Majesty the next Day (being Friday) in Person visited all the Avenues and Passes about the Town, and went out again with great Parties of Horse, to take some Prisoners, by whom to learn something of the Enemies. Finding that the Imperialists lay still; and that the Passes, by which he should have gotten to them, were both Dangerous and Difficult: He returned at Night again, and gave Order to Entrench the Army before Naumburg towards Weissenfels. Till the Trenches could be made, the Army lay in the Field: After which, the Foot were enquartered in the Town and Suburb, and the Horse in the next Villages: Some two or three Thousand being only left abroad all Night to watch the Trenches.
Upon Sunday, November 4. came there a Saxon Boor to Naumburgh unto the King, with a Letter in his Hand, to shew. The Letter was written by the Count Coloredo, Serjeant Major General of the Imperial Army, unto an Officer of his, that lay with his Regiment at Querfurdt on the Western side of the River Sala, right against Hall, and Ten English Miles from it. Coloredo had enforced this Boor to carry this Letter; And the Contents of it were to this purpose. That the Generalissimo had sent the Count of Pappenheim to take the Hall Castle: That his Men of Quersurdt should march up to join with Pappenheim: And that the next Morning the Imperial Army was to part from Weissenfels. This Letter seems to have been written upon the Saturday Night; according to which Date, it agrees rightly with Walenstein's discamping from about Weissenfels; which was indeed done upon the Sunday; after that Pappenheim was dispatched towards Hall-Castle.
Upon this Intelligence, his Majesty the same Day, Duke Bernard, and Serjeant-Major Kniphausen, being at a Council of War, the King propounded the great Question unto them two; Whether that in Pappenheim's absence, (he being gone to take in Hall Castle) the Duke of Fridland alone were to be set upon? Duke Bernard was for the Valiant Affirmative. That the advantage was good; and that seeing they knew not how long they should enjoy the Opportunity of this Division; Walenstein was presently to be attacked. But Major Nniphausen was for the sober Negative; and that the Enemy was not to be fought withal: His Reasons were two:
First, No Man is to fight, but when he is apparently stronger than his Enemy,which the King at this time was not.
Secondly, No Man is to attack a stronger Enemy, unless compelled by a pressing and unavoidable Necessity. That is, either to force his passage when he is hemmed in; or when hunger and want of Victuals constrain him to it. Neither of which being the King's Case, there was no Reason for present fighting.
These Reasons so far prevailed with the King, that giving over all Thoughts of present fighting, he was resolved to have left a Garrison in Naumburg, and to have marched with his whole Army to conjoin with the Dukes of Saxony and Lunenburgh, who designed to join their Forces to the King's Army, being eight Thousand Horse and Foot.
The King being thus resolved, sends Post unto the Elector of Saxony, to inform him of his purposes, and to lay the Plot for their Uniting. The King desired him to come to Eilenburg, upon the West of the River Mulda, 14 Miles West of Torgan, where the Duke then lay with an Army of 4000 Foot, and as many Horse, whereof 2000 Foot and 1500 Horse were the Duke of Lunenburg s.
Walenstein the same Sunday drew out from Weissenfels, leaving a Captain only with his Hundred Men, for the keeping of the Castle. Thence marched Walenstein unto Lutzen, two Duch Leagues to the East of it; where, and in the Dorps round about it, his whole Army enquartered.
The next Day being Monday, November 5. the King according to his former Resolution, parted out of Naumburgh, to go towards the Duke of Saxony, leaving the Town and Garrison under the Command of the Saxon Colonel Vitzdum. For the more Lightness and Expedition in his March, he commanded his Baggage to stay with the Garrison still in Naumburgh, for a Day or two; being he thought but only to have gone and joined with the Elector of Saxony, and then to have returned again to Naumburgh. He supposing withall that Pappenheim being now absent, and Walenstein's Men not together, that he should not be disturbed in his March. About Four, before day-light (the Drums having beaten ever since One of the Clock) on the Monday Morning he advances towards Pegan. The King having Notice of Walenstein's forsaking Weissenfels, sends by the way, to take in that Castle. The Hundred Men that Walenstein had left in it, did Coloredo come so timely to setch off, that he had done it a very little before the Swedes coming.
In the middle of his March, about Ten of the Clock the same Forenoon, came there some Gentlemen riding, and some Boors running to the King, with advice that the Imperialists were lying still in several Dorps and villages hard by, about Lutzen, without any Intelligence at all of the King's being in Motion. This the King being informed of, calls presently his High Officers to a Council of War, to advise what was best to be determined. His Majesty even then (and then first) put on the Resolution for Fighting; openly speaking it out, That he now verily supposed that God had given his Enemies into his Hand. Ho! Brave Occasion, says the Duke of Saxon-Lawnenburgh: Now God Bless us (say divers great Officers) it is a happy Opportunity. And truly so it was, for divers Prisoners (even then brought in by the King's Parties and by Boors) being by the King examined whether they had any Alarm in their Quarters, of his Marching, freely confessed that they had none, and so much was evident enough, for that they were now supprised in their Quarters. Thus thought all the Officers; all being resolved to fall on presently; and indeed there was great Reason for it; for could the King's Army have fallen in amongst those Villages, he had given a Camisado to several of their Quarters at once, have cut off all singly, for that they could never have come together, to unite their Forces, or have succoured one another. This was Evident.
The Gentry and Boors that brought him the Intelligence, told him Lutzen was but hard by; which the King was in good hope of, for that he was even then in sight of it. The Army advanced stoutly, and doubled their March upon it; but their Legs found it a longer way than their Eyes, it being a sad Campagnia, full eight English Miles of Ground to Lutzen: Besides all this, was there a filthy Pass in the way, at a Bridge over a River (where but one or two Men could go over abreast) which hindred the Army full two Hours going. By this hindrance, was it even Night before the Army could get within two English Miles of Lutzen.
This ill-favoured Pass was within two English Miles of Lutzen, and in the Village that belonged to it, where there two Imperial Regiments of Horse (one of them Crabats) enquartered. These having a little Notice of the King's coming, had gotten up their Horses, and taken up a high Hill on the other side of the Pass next to Lutzen; they made as tho' they would have disturbed the King's Passage, but they did not, the King's Foot marching fairly over, with some Horse amongst them. Some of the King a Foot were still marching over, till it was dark Night or within it. Those that got over first, entertained a flght Skirmish with the Imperial Horsemen, without any loss to the King, killing some 50 or 100 of them, and taking one Crabats Ensign. And now the King taking another Hill (right against that which the imperialists possessed) he from thence let fly some Pieces of Ordnance amongst them, which caused them to take the Benefit of the Night, with some Confusion to March off in.
And here the King being supprised with the Darkness, was forced to sit down in the open Fields with his Army, himself lying in his Coach, as other Officers did that had them. Here lay he all Night in Battalia, every Regiment lying down in the same Order that they had marched, with their Arms by them. The Pike-Men they stuck up their Pikes an end by them, and every Rott (that is every six) of Musquetires bringing their Muesquets to their Rott-master, he set them right up with their Mouths upward, and bound them together with a Piece of Match, where they stood ready at Hand for all Occasions.
The Imperial Army was in a terrible Hubub at the King's coming over the Pass; for now was the Alarm sent in hot to all the several Dorps and Quarters, even from Lutzen unto Hall and Leipsich. Order upon pain of Death was given, for every Man of the Imperial Army, with all speed possible, to repair towards Lutzen, to their Generalissimo. Presently upon this began all the Rigiments to draw together, some of which were all Night upon their Marches, and some Horse that quartered very far off, being not able to reach up till 10 of the Clock the next Morning. And thus then (even then) did the Mist to long keep off the King next Morning, till his Enemies could be made strong enough for him.
As every Regiment came in, so were they put into Order, which continued all Night long, as the two English Gentlemen (then Prisoners there) observed. About 10 at Night did Walenstein begin to think of the Places most advantageous for the planting of his Ordnance; some of which having mounted upon the Wind-mill-Hills, he then began to cast up a Trench of Earth about them. All Night and next Morning his Dragoons and Pioneers wrought with their Spades about the High-way, and to make the Ditches or Drain by it, serve them for a Breast, work to lodge their Musquities in. And this was their Work too, all the next misty Morning, which fatal Weather gave them also the more respite to recover their Fears and Weariness, and to fortisy themselves against their unconquered Enemy. And thus was the Night (the last Night to some Thousands) over passed.
The King now over the Pass, had put himself into a Necessity of Fighting; and being thus engaged, the sooner he fought the better; for that his Enemy should be the less provided for him.
Tuesday (that fatal sixth of November) at last began to draw near, and alas it came all too early. A gentle Mist, as if fore-dooming how black a Day it would be, did his good Will to have kept it Night still; and the Sun as if his great Eye had beforehand over-read the fatality of the following Day, semed very loth to have begun it. But the Martial King, even forcing himself to awaken time,and hasten on Mortality, would needs make these Clocks and Larums of the Wars, his fatal Drums to beat two Hours before day-light. Arm, Arm, repair to your Colours, keep your Order, stand to your Arms. These were the Morning Summons to awaken the hearty Soldiers from a cold, a hard, and earthly Lodging. The Army was easy to be put in Order, for that the most part of it had lain and slept in Battalia. One while was the King purposed to have advanced and fallen on presently; but the War being God's Cause, he would like David, end himself, first ask Council of the God of Battels,and at least recommend his own Cause unto him. The Drums having beaten the first March he caused Prayers to be read to himself by his own Chaplain D. Fabritius; and when there were Ministers at Hand, the same was done through every Regiment of the Army.
The Morning proved so Misty, that it was not possible to see which way to March, nor where to find an Enemy to strike at. And this (unluckily) staid the King's Thoughts from advancing presently. This was a Fog of Advantage unto Walenstein, who purposing but to stand his Ground, (which by working all Night about the Ditch and Highway, his Pioneers had made more troublesome to be affaulted) was now resolved, that if he must fight, he would there abide the first shock; and no way to seek the Battel or to move towards his Adversary.
About Eight of the Clock the Mist brake up, and but for one Mischance in it, promised as fair a Day as ever was sixth of November. As it began to clear, the King took Occasion to encourage up his Soldiers; and going to his own Subjects first, he to this purpose bespeak them.
The King's Oration to the Swedes.
My dear Brethren carry your selves bravely this Day; fight Valiantly, in God's Name, for your Religion, and for your King. This if you do, God's Blessing, and the Peoples Praises shall be your Guerdon; and you for ever shall even be laden with an Honourable and Glorious Memorial; nor will I forget to reward you Nobly. If you play the Pultrons, I here call God to Witness, that not a Bone of your shall ever return again to Sweden.
To the Germans.
To the German Troops this was the Oration. O my Brethren, Officers and Fellow-Soldiers of the German Nation! I here most earnestly intreat and beseech you to make full Trial of your Valour this one Day against your Enemies; fight manfully against them this Day, both with me, and for me. Be not faint-hearted in the Bartel, nor for any thing discouraged. Set me before your Eyes,and let me be your great Example.
The King's Prayer.
These Orations of the King's being from both Nations, with a horrid clashing of their Armour, and with chearful Vows, and Acclamations, answered; the King as chearfully then replied: And now my Hearts, let us on bravely against our Enemies; and God prosper our Endeavours. Sprightfully withal casting his Eyes towards Heaven, he with a loud Voice sent up this sorcible Ejaculation, Jesu, Jesu, Jesu, Vouchsafe thou this Day, to be my strong helper; and give me Courage this Day to fight for thy Glory, and the Honour of thy great Names Sake.
His Royal person was that day, waited upon by Duke Francis Charles of Saxon-Lawenburg, and by some of his Majesty's own nearest Servants. The Lord Crailsham also, Great Master or Marshal of his Majesty's Houshold, had the leading a Body of Reformadoes, which were especially commanded to wait upon the King's own Person. And amongst these were our English and Scottish Gentry and Officers whom the King had at Schleusing heretofore reformed. Of this Body (which consisted of several Nations) were there still seven or eight to be close about the King, ready to be sent with Orders up and down the Army, who were still supplied by Crailsham. The King was that Day attired, as usually he was accustomed, in a plain Buff. Coat, and unarmed. Some Report that a Tenderness in his Shoulder, wherea Musquet Bullet had a long time stuck, would not suffer him to endure Armour. And therefore when he was this Morning desired to put on his Corslet he said, The Lord was his Armour, and refused it.
His Watch word; His Order.
The King's Watch-word, was the same which had been of so good an Omen before a Leipsich, GOTT MIT UNS, God with us. The General Walensteins being now the same which Tillies then was, Jesus Maria. This was the King's Order of embattailing his whole Army, which now (after he had left some at Naumburgh, and at Weisenfels, was between 17 and 18000 Men) he divided into two Fronts, and each of these into the Wings and Battel, with their Reserves. Each of the Wings was composed of six several Regiments or Squadrons of Horse lined with five several Bodies of commanded Musquetiers, every one of which Bodies had two small Drakes or Field-Pieces, which advanced playing still before them. The Battel in each Front consisted of four Brigades of Foot, a Reserve of Front and a Reserve of Horse hindmost of all, betwixt the two middle Brigades of the Reer, or second Front. Before each Brigade marched six Pieces of greater Ordnance. And this was the first sight of the Figure.
The Right wing was led by the King himself; the first Brigade Bodies of Commanded Musquetiers, were commanded by the Count of Eberstein. The Horse Squadrons of the Left Wing were committed unto the Glory of the Day, Duke Bernard of Saxon-Weymar. The five Bodies of Foot in the Lest Wing, were the charge of the Colonel Gorsdorff. The Battle made up of the four Brigades of Foot, was commanded by the Swedish Count of Neeles, Colonel of the King's Life-Guards. The four Foot Brigades of the second Front, or Reer, were commanded by Dodo Kniphansen, Serjeant Major General of the whole Army, to whose fair Conduct the Victory is also much beholden. The Horse of the Right Wing were entrusted to Colonel Claus Conrade Zoru of Bulach, by which name of Bulach he is commonly known. The Horse of the Left Wing were committed to Prince Ernest of Anhalt. The Reserve of Foot was commanded by Colonel John Henderson a Scottish Gentleman; and the Reserve of Horse by Col. Oeme of the Palatinate.
The Imperial Army had his Excellency the Generalissimo thus ordered. He first drew it all up into one mighty Front; which he then divided into three Bodies. His Right Wing of Horse (whose end was near the Town of Lutzen) was committed to the Count Ridolso Coloredo, that Day Serjeant Major General of the Army. This Wing had also its commanded Musquetiers besides some others that were lodged in the Gardens by the Town aforesaid. This Wing having also the Advantage of the Wind-Mils, and their Hills, by the Town side, made use of those Natural Batteries for the planting Nine Pieces of Ordnance; the Mills and Millers House serving them also for a good shelter. The Battel or middle Ward, was commanded by the Duke of Fridland himself, whose place was said to be in the Head of that great Regiment of Piccolomines Horse, which was in the very middle of the Foot Regiments. The left Wing opposite to the right Wing, was led by Colonel Hendrick Holck, newly made Lieutenant-Felt Marshal unto Pappenheim, who but commanded untill Felt-Marshal Pappenheim should be come into the Field.
The Figure described.
All this Imperial Order of Embattailing, is presented in one mighty Front; so namely, as it appeared to the King's People, and to him that took the Figure of it; since (very largely) Cut and Imprinted in Coper, by John Jacob Gabler of Leipsich; who also by the King's own Directions, after the Batter of Leipsich, made a Description last Year, and set forth the Figures of the Battel of Leipsich. And the manner of the same Figures of the Battel of Leipsich, we have in this also followed. We know that betwixt every Brigade of Foot, there should be so much room left as that another Brigade might advance up in the Distance between them being the breadth of one of them.
Having thus described the Order, the Field of the Battel would next be considered of. The King had a North-Easterly March of it, from Naumburgh towards Lutzen; so that the rising of the Sun was something within a while favourable. The Wind also (that little that was) blew fairly for him; so that the King very joyfully spake it, I thank GOD I have both Wind and Sun to favour me.
The Country was a goodly vast Level and Campain as Corn Lands could be, even as far almost as the Eye could rove ever. And yet was the place of Battel subject to as many accidents (and Walenstein was Master of them all) as a plain Country almost could be. The King right in his way of advancing had a wet Ditch (made by Hand) called the Flossgraben, cut traverse to him, so that he was sain to edge about to the Right with his whole Army to pass by it; and then to edge as much to the Lest again, to put himself right before the Enemy. The Imperial Army was embattled all along beyond a broad Highway, which led from Lutzen unto Leipsich. on this side of this, was there a kind of a broad Drain, or Ditch, which served for bounding and saving the Plowed Lands, and to keep withall the Highway the drier. This had Walenstein's Pioneers bestowed some cost upon; so that putting some commanded Musquetiers down into it, it served them as well as a Trench or Brest-Work. This was so troublesome for the King's Horse-men, that many of them were overturned and lest behind, in the getting over to charge Walenstein; for indeed there were divers Gaps through it, which the Horse justling for, overturned one another. The Ground also behind the Ditch, had two little risings, and those did Walenstein make choice of, for the planting of some Pieces. That Part of the Highway also twards Lutzen, had an old Trench or dry Ditch drawn to it, which being nothing of it self, but a Boundary for Lands; that also did Walenstein put Musquetiers into, which served them like the Highway Dich, for a Parapet or Brest-Work. A pretty Distance beyond the Highway, near unto the Town of Lutzen, were there three or four Windmills, amongst which, another Party stood. Behind these had Walenstein, lodged some Musquetiers, and the Mill-hills served as natural Batteries for him to plant Nine Pieces of Ordnance upon. Between the Mills and the Town, were there divers Gardens with Mud Walls round about them; and in these also (in one of them three hundred being after found Dead) had he caused Musquetiers to be placed. Leiosich Highway, as it went sloping along, so had he caused his Men so tend and hang towards it.
And now to the Action. The Sun having by Nine of the Clock clearly dispelled the Fig, it proved as promising a Morning as ever was sixth of November. And now the King got his loosing or Warning-piece, and so advanced.
Being past the Flossgraben, he left also the Dorp of Chursit behind him; betwixt which and his Army, he left his Coat and his Ammunition Waggons, of which there were not above 1000 at most, the King having left the rest at Naumburgh, with no purpose of Fighting. The King advanced, till he came with the end of his Right Wing within Musquet Shot as a little Wood, having all the way a full View of the Imperial Army.
That Walenstein much over-powered the King in Number may appear by the mighty long Front that he put out, near two English Miles from one Wing's end to another. This is also to be considered, that Walenstein's Discipline is to March Ten deep in a File; whereas the King was no more but Six Deep of Foor (I mean) and of the Horse but three or four deep, according as the Brigades was either stronger or weaker. Besides this, that Walenstein's Files were all the way almost as deep again; his Ranks also were in Front so much longer, that the King was sain to send for Bulach, and all the Squadrons of Horse, from the Right Wing of the Reer, or second Front to imp out his Feather at the end of the Right Wing, for fear that Walenstein should surround him. These Squadrons, when General Major Kniphausen found out of their Places, he sent a Gentleman to his Majesty, to know whether he had otherwise employ'd them. The King was at the same time likewise sending the Duke of Saxon Lawenburg unto Kniphausen, to tell him that he would but use them in that first Charge, and then return them back again to their Order. The Duke meeting with the Gentleman, and telling him thus much, both then returned to their Places.
The King wondered not a little at it, when he saw how fair a Clew Wa lenstein spread; affirming to those about him, That if he had any Seconds behind his first Front, he could not judge him to be less than 30000.
Thus it is indeed, that Walenstein had given Proviant Commissions for 40000 and sometimes for 50000 Men; but yet had he not so many fighting Men, for that there were at least 10000 Women, Servants, and Children, and such Hangbiers belong to the Army, which are to be discounted. Besides this, it is to be considered, that Walenstein had but one Front, and the King too; that we may well allow Walenstein to be 26000 in the first Front, at the very first ordereing of the Battel. After which accounting those that were still coming in, even till 10 a Clock, and Pappenheim's Horse and Dragoons, which came in about One or Two of the Clock; and his Foot (who, as we thought made the second sierce Charge towards Night) and then doubtless these could not be sewer than 10 or 12000 which made up in all 30000 fighting Men.
The Armies being come within Cannon-shot, the great Ordnance began to play one upon another teribly. The Air roar'd, and the Earth trembled, and those manly Hearts that seared not dying, were yet very loth to have no more play for their Lives, than to be beat to Pieces with the Bullet of a Cannon. And here had Walenstein surely, a great Advantage over the King's Army; for his Ordnance being ready planted upon steddy and fix'd Batteries, the Canoneers traversed their Pieces, and delivered their Bullets with more aim than the King's Men could possibly, who gave Fire in motion still and advancing. His Majesty's Cannon, ever as a Piece was discharged, was there left to be brought after; the Army still advancing, and marching away from it. The King liked not this sport, for that the Imperial Cannon did his Men far more Spoil and Execution, than he possibly could again return them. Seeing therefore no good to be done this way, he causes his Army to advance upon the very Mouth of the Cannon, and to charge towards the Highway, and to beat out those Musquetiers that were lodged in it.
The Imperial Army stood their Ground all this time expecting that the fierceness of their Enemy's Charge, would indifferently well be abated by that time they had beaten out those Musquetiers, and had put themselves out of Order and Breath, with scrambling over the Ditches And indeed the place being almost Man's Height, many of the King's Horsemen were there left tumbling up and down; but of the rest that got over, this was the Order of their charge: The commanded Musquetiers, and the Foot of the Swedes Brigade having cleared the Highways. The whole Front advanced to charge together.
The Order of the first Charge.
This whilst they were doing, the little Drakes or Field Pieces (two of which marched before every Body of Musquetiers that lined the Horse of the Wings) were first fired, and the Musquetiers at the same time giving their first salve, the Horse then charged home upon the Imperial Horse, by the Drakes and Musquetiers, something before disordered. This Order was held in the first Charge by the whole Front of the Army.
But I must now leave the Battel and left Wing engaged, to speak of the Right Wing: First, where the King in Person commanded.
The Courageousness of the King.
The King at his first advancing, having observed wherabouts in the Imperial left Wing (now opposite to him) the Crabats were marshalled; and where the Curiasiers, who were compleatly armed in black Harness Cap-a-Peee, he calls the Finnish Colonel Stolhaushe to him, (as' tis likely he did other Colonels, as he rode along) and pointing to the Eenemy, As for those Fellows (meaning the Crabats) I care not for them, says the King, but Charge me those black Fellows soundly, for they are the Men that will undo us. Thus much did Stolhaushe himself oftentimes (and at Table) relate unto divers Gentlemen of the English and Scottish Nation; some of which tell the King's Words from Stolhaushe's Mouth, this way, Charge me those black Fellows Soundly, for 'its prophesied they shall be ruin of me. But this Word Prophesy, others consess that they heard not.
The King's Speech of the Imperial Curiasiers
The King was designed to fight, at the Head of the Smolanders Squadron, himself was still the foremost, with his Pistol in one Hand, and his Sword in the other. The Ostro Goths, or the Uplanders did now advance and charge the Enemy. Perchance these three now got the start, and were something more forward than the three Squadrons of the Ingermanlanders; the West Goths, and the Finlanders, towards the end of the Wing.
The Crabats wheeling about upon the King's Wagons; Are beaten off by Bulach
The three Squadrons, indeed, fell not on at the same place with the King, but advanced directly upon the Faces of those three Imperial Regiments of Curiasiers. Nor were they blamed after the Battle for any slackness, or not charging: For that the King (as we told you) had ordered Stolhaushe to charge these Curiasiers foundly. And as for Bulach, and those Squadrons of his, now placed to the right Hand of Stolhaushe and his Fins,they were in the very beginning of the Encounter so diverted, that they could not Charge right forward, as the King expected. And for that, this is the true Reason. That Regiment of Crabats in the very end of the Imperial left Wing, did in the very beginning of the Charge, wheel about betwixt the Wood and the end of the King's Right Wing, and there endeavour to fall upon the Swedish Ammunition Wagons in the Reer of the Army. These Crabats would have made a foul pudder among the Ammunition, and have blown up most of the Powder doubtless, had not Bulach had an Eye of them. He giving a home Charge upon them, beat them off from the Wagons for the present, but the Swedish Colonel facing about, to return to his own place again, was by the Crabats charged upon the Croops, and put to some Disorder. And this Disarray is easy enough to be believed, for that the manner of the Crabats fighting, being but for a spurt and in no good Order; whosoever will answer their Charge, must necessarily do it in Disorder too, or else they cannot follow the Crabats, to do any good upon them. And just now fell the Mist again, which did this good in that part of the Battel, that this disorder among the Swedish Horse was not discerned, and so no Advantage taken of it.
In this Interim, yea, at this Instant, it is said the King was slain, it being II of the Clock when the Mist fell again.
All this while are the Imperialists Masters of the King's Body, and of the Ground they had beaten the Swedes from. They had the King in their Possession, and there they stript him, every Man being greedy to get some part of his Spoils, that they might hereafter glory to have taken it from the King of Sweden.
Several Reports there went abroad the Army, of the Circumstances, of his manner of dying, some relating it one way, and some another; but all with sorrow agree he was slain.
The Noise of the King's Death was presently dispersed Abroad; but yet Belief was not fully given to it, for that some Prisoners affirmed he was but hurt, and carried in a close Coach, following his white Ensign. The Swedesh Prisoners that reported him to be but wounded, were those that were taken so soon as ever he offered to Retreat. But that they said he was carried off in his Coach, &c. was their Judgment, that being wounded, it was likely he would go off in his Coach, which at first stood behind the White Regiment, but was gone out of the Field when the Crabats fell upon the King's Waggons.
The King's Death concealed from his own Army.
His Death was not certainly known, but to some few of the Great ones (no not to those of his own Wing) for 24 Hours after; all believing what was, either by Art or Error, given out, how that he was but carried off wounded,
Return we now into the Battel, and to the Right Wing again. The Mist that we before told you of, was not (by their own side) judged to be any way Prejudicail, but Advantageous rather unto the Swedish; seeing that the Imperialists, who had now the better of it, were by the falling of this Mist so arrested, as that they pursued not the Retreat which they had put the Swedish unto. The Rumour likewise of the King's Death, made them so to clutter about the Body, that also staid them.
All this while were the four Foot Brigades of the Swedish Battel, pellmell at it: And they (even by my Spaniards Confession) got Ground apace of those Imperialists whom they had attacked. And now also did Stolhaushe (who certainly had an Item given him of the King's Death, or great Danger) charge so siecely towards that very place, that he beat off the Imperialists, and recovered the Body; which he brought off naked, after it had been a full quarter of an Hour in the Enemy's Possession. And now was Piccolomine's Regiment soundly peppered: The Swedish both Foot and Horse, after an Hour's Fight, beating all the Imperialists along before them, till they had driven them to the very Gallows behind them. And dow did the Swedish get Possession of those seven Pieces of Ordnance of Piccolomines. These Ordnance were the easier to be taken, for that they plaid not; Walenstein's Powder-Waggons were by Mischance blown up, so that his Cannon were scarce heard of all the Day after.
And thus ended the second Charge: For by this time was the Mist become so Extraordinary, and by the smoak so thickened, as the Swedes could not see how to pursue their Advantage; and here was the Mist become as Beneficial to the Imperialists; as it had been favourable before unto the Swedish. In this time fell there so terrible an affrightment in the Imperial Army, that 1000 or 1500 Dutch Horse ran all away together. One of them was by a Gentleman of our Nation (then Prisoner in their Reer) over heard to say, Oh! I know the King of Sweden well enough, I have served him; he is best at the latter end of the Day, But the chief Fright was among the Ladies, the Captains Wives, and other Women, then behind the Army. Many Gentlewomen got out of their Coaches, cut asunder the Harness, and mounted stradling upon the bare Horsebacks, and away they spudded among the Soldiers. Now went the Waggon-horses and the Ordnance-horses to it, all were ridden away with, divers Women and Children were trodden to Death: Nor would the Horsemen turn Head, notwithstanding they heard the Charge presently again renewed, and those about the Mills all this time at it, till they were gotten over a Pass, four or five English Miles from the place of Battle. The Fright so pursued them, tho no Body else did, that coming to this Pass, the Officers drew out their Swords, and slash'd and beat off the Soldiers to give them way to get over. There were at least four or five Thousand People of them, and they quartered themselves confusedly up and down in the Villages which the Boors had forsaken: Nor durst they ever return into the Battle. Amongst these were my Author carried away, from whom I learned it.
After a little pause, the Count of Pappenheim, with his Horse and Dragoons arrived; whom some will needs have to have been in Person at the beginning of the Battel. By his coming was the Charge thereabouts renewed. He put himself into the Imperial left Wing (which was most distressed, and which had been reserved for him) to be opposite to the Swedish Right Wing; where he supposed the King in Person had Commanded. Just as he was ordering his Horse, he was struck with a Bullet of a Falconet, or small Sling-piece, about the shoulder, of which he died presently; even so soon as he was taken down from his Horse, to have been carried into Leipsich. This was a brave fighting Gentleman, whose Body was by Walenstein carried into Prague; where it was to be seen publickly. The Emperor (as a little French Relation affirmeth) had newly sent the Collar of the Golden Fleece unto him and Walenstein: Which Honour before ever he received, he was, in the place where he should have worn his Order, thus dubbed with a Sling-piece. He had made his Will a little before; had shriven himself, and Communicated at a dry Mass: And made this short Testament upon it. His Soul he commended to GOD, his Body (if he were slain) to the Emperor; and his Wife and Children unto Walenstein.
He being short, his Officers, flocking about him, were heard to cry Oh! our General is Slain. Immediately whereupon his Horse turned Head, and ran out of the Battle without stroke striking, back again towards the Weser, and the Lower Saxony.
But the Walensteiners, whom Pappenheim's coming had set on, fell to it closely: Piccolomini advanced, and Tersica with their Cavalry; and the Foot Regiments seconded them with extremity of Resolution. And now began the sorest, the longest, and the obstinatest Conflict, that had been since the King was killed. The Charge was sustained be the Swedish, with much Gallantry, and never was Battel better Fought: Nor seldom have Batallions ever stood, amongst whom so much spoil hath been committed. Full two Hours were they in hot Battle. On the Imperial side was Piccolomini twice or thrice shot; Serjeant Major Bruner slain, and so was a Young Count of Wallenstein. The Abbot Fulda was at this Charge also slain. And think then how many Officers and Common Soldiers was it likely that these great Commanders did take along to wait upon them to the next World.
On the Swedes side the chief of the spoil light upon the two middlemost Brigades of Foot belonging unto Grave Neeles, and Colonel Winckle: The Imperialists charged with so much fury, and with Batallions of two or three Thousand in a Regiment, that they by force drove the Swedish to Retreat in the plain Field, and (as the most say, even then recovered their seven Pieces of Ordnance. Grave Neeles, Colonel of the Life-guards (which is the Yellow Regiment) was there shot a little above the Knee, of which, being carried off spoiled, he after died. Out of this Brigade, did the Imperialists carry away seven Colours, and to tell the Truth, the King's own Company, which served here amongst the Guards, lost their own Ensign or Standard Royal too. He that had carried the Colours was after seen with his Sword in his Hand, but his Clout was missing.
Colonel Winckle's Blue Regiment likewise found as hard a treatment. Himself (brave Man) was shot in the Arm a little above the Elbow, and in the Hand, and carried out of the Battle. His Lieutenant Caspor Wolff was slain upon the place, and most of his Colours taken. These two Brigades were of the flower of the Army; old Soldiers of seven or eight Years Service, (the most of them) and whom the King had there placed, for that he most relied on them. These old Blades stood to their Arms stoutly; and the adverse Writers conses that their Dead Bodies now recovered the same Ground, which living they had defended. These were old beaten Soldiers indeed, but it was so long since they had been last beaten, that they had by this time forgotten to run away. This is the Reason they were so shattered; that when towards Night, they were to have fal'n on again, both these Brigades put together, could not make one squadron strong, which is but the third part of one of them.
The Swedes Brigade fared something better, because near unto the Horse: And yet there came not above Four Hundred off alive, or unwounded. Duke Bernard's Brigade was something more out of Gunshot, for that they were next the Horse of the lest Wing. Yet here was Colonel Wildestein shot in the Breast, of which he after died: Duke Bernard, Lieutenant Col. Winkler being slain upon the place. In this fore bickering, the spoil on the Imperial side, sell mostly upon old Bruner's and young Waleistein's Regiments, both which were killed; with full half if not two Thirds of the Soldiers. These Regiments performed their Duties so valiantly, and Wallenstein himself took such special Notice of them, that he a long time after (if not still) maintained them in his own House at Prague for it. Henderson's Reserve of Foot in the mean time had also their share in the knocking: One of the Offices and Uses of the Reserve, being still to supply and second where most need is with fresh Men to dearn up the Holes, and stop up the Gaps of the slaughtered. And whereas those our Brigades of the Van had so terribly been Shattered, General-Major Kniphausen, had out of his care sent up these two Brigades of the Count of Thurn, and the Colonel Mitzlaff to relieve them. After a while he sent them up those four Squadrons of Horse, who so well (together) restored the Encounter, that the Imperialists began to give Ground; which the Swedes so far pursued, till they had recovered the seven Pieces again, and four others at the left Hand of them.
Look we now aside, to see what was done in the Reer, and left Wing by Kniphasen and Duke Bernard. General Major Kniphausen having sent two Brigades of his four, and four Squadrons of Horse to the Relief of the Vantguard, sent also his other two Horse Squadrons, commanded by the Prince of Anhalt, and the Lieutenant of Baron Hoffkirch, unto Duke Bernard. As for the other two Brigades of Foot, (his own and Bosen's) together with Oems his Reserve of Horse, these did Kniphansen still keep by him in the Reer of the Battel.
Duke Bernard had as hard a Chapter of it, as any Man against the Imperalist s Right-Wing, at the Wind mills, and (surely) had the most renowned Don Quixot been there, there had been exercise enough for his Valour at these Wind-mills. Soberly. This was the hardest Post for Advantage of Situation, all the Field over: And Count Coloredo as well main tained it against him. Never Man did more galantly behave himself (avauchtit) that first and last, in this and other Places, he charged several times, one after another. And Coloredo gave Duke Bernard leave so charge all. He had so good an advantage of the two Ditches and the Wind-Mills that he would not scarce offer upon Duke Bernard.
The brave young Duke, pressing on in the beginning of the Fight, had set the Town of Lutzen on Fire: His Reason being that seeing if he would get the Wind-mills he must with the end of his Wing even touch (as it were) the very Walls of the Town. Should Coloredo, then, have first filled those Walls with Musquetiers they must needs have so sorely galled his Horsemen that there had been no comming near. Nor could Horse and Pistols have any Service against Walls and Musquitiers. In one of these Charges did Coloredo so Thunder upon Duke Bernard, that the Valiant Prince thought it not unsouldier-like done to shelter himself behind the Millers House.
At this time (as we told you) did Major Knaphausen keep his two Brigades, and Oems his Reserve, together unengaged: Doing no more with them, then fair and softly advance them towards the Enemy; at such a time as he saw the Brigades of the Van to get any Ground of them The distance of his Reer from Front was about six Hundred Pace, and that scantling he still kept himself behind the other. This was on small occasion of the winning of the Battel: Seeing that so often as any of the Van were disordered, and put to the Retreat; they with him, still find a whole great Body together unbroken, by the sight of which they resumed new Courage, and were set in order again.
And very glad was Duke Bernard, when in the next breaking up of the Mist, he came and found Kniphausen in so good Order; whom (as he openly prosessed) he seared to have sound all to Pieces. For now, betwixt three and four of the Clock (which was not before Sunset) did the Mist break up; and there was a fair half Hour after it. At which time Duke Bernard, going abroad, to over-view the Posture and Countenance of the Army (which since his hearing of the King's Death, the Mists and Smoak had not suffered him to discover any thing of) he came now along by the Battel unto the Right Wing, speaking to the Officers and Soldiers, and Encouraging them to a new On set; plainly he found the whole Army (except Kniphausen's Part) in no very good Order; which he and Kniphausen (who took much good Pains likewise about it) did their best to reduce them too. When the Word was given for a new Charge, Alas Comrade (said the poor Soldiers one to another) must we fall on again? Come, says the other (embracing him) Courage; if we must let us do it bravely, and make a Day out. As Duke Bernard was leading on, the Imperial Generalissimo sent his two Colonels, Persica and Piccolomini, to discover in that clear Weather what the Swedes were a doing; who brought his Excellency Word again, that they were rallied about the Wood, and in very good Order advancing towards him.
This (no doubt) made the Imperialists Hearts quake to think upon the Terror of a forth Charge. And now could the Swedes discover the Imperial Horse Retreating, in indifferent good Order towards the Wind-mills: Whereupon they bringing forwards Ten Pieces of Cannon, and turning those likewise upon them, which were before taken, they gave the Imperial Horse such a rousing Salve of great Ordnance, and charged so upon it, that they put them into Disorder. And here (as my Spanish Relator says) did the Generalissimo light upon a slight fillip by a favourable Musket Bullet, which made no Wound, but lest a blew Remembrance only upon him,
And now were the Imperialists beaten round about even to the very Wind mills, the Swedes being Masters of the Ground that they shouldered the other out of. But just now a little before Sunset, fell the fatal Mist again; which so hastened on the Night, that the Swedes could not well see which way to pursue their Enemies. Duke Bernard, in his coming back was thus heard to say. Merciful God ! but for this Mist, we had even now gotten the Victory. Hence went he back again over all the Batallions, to his own Post again, towards which he now perceived the Imperialists to be making.
And now by Sun setting was all the Field clear of the Imperialist's, excepting only about the Wind-mills: And there plainly were both Coloredo's and Duke Bernard's Men, faln off one from another, like two Duellers leaning on their Swords to break Breath again. Certainly, they had so banged one another, that neither of both were in order: But either Party shot at adventure right forward, and let the Bullet find his own way as it could, through that Night of Smoak and Mistiness. Those Musquetiers which (we told you) were lodged in the Mud-walled Gardens, were seen to give Fire continually, but no Men to be discerned. And the Swedes at adventure shot at them again: And as at Night they got Ground, they stormed into the Gardens, as if they had been so many Castles. Here the next Day many were found Dead, 300 in one of them.
And just in the edge of the Evening, when the Swedish well hoped all had been finished, had Duke Bernard fresh word brought him, that Pappenheim's Foot were even now arrived from Hall, and were beginning a fresh Charge, about the Wind-mills. Thus ran the Word over the Army, Pappenheim's Foot are come, Pappenheim's Foot are come. This the Swedish believed.
Nor was all the Service (after half an Hour's silence on both sides) turned into the Wind-mills. The Imperialists Courage, like the throws of a dying Body, struggled hard at the last cast, for Life; and made for the time, as sierce a Charge of it, as any had the day before passed. To withstand this now, does Kniphasen bring his second fresh Brigades: with whom are the other two of Thurn's and Mitzlaff's conjoined, that he had before sent to the Relief of the Vantguard; which indeed, had not so cruelly been shattered. Now also Duke Bernard, rallying all the Horse together, advanced to the Charge. The Imperialists had a new put down some Musquetiers into the cross Ditch or Boundary of Lands, which not a little troubled the Swedish. Once or twice did they offer to force that Trench, and storm over it; but it was so troublesome and dangerous in the dark, that they did but over tumble one another, and were fain to keep on the other side of it, to bring on some Musquetiers, and from thence to to give their Volleys. The best of it was, not above 100 Paces distant from the Highway, close behind which the Imperialists were ranged. That which most galled the Imperialists, was the Swedish Ordnance, which on the Right Hand Flank of them, and on the nearer side of the Highway, were now turned upon them. This most cruel and hot Fight continued till about five a Clock in the Evening, much about which time the Walenstiners, or Pappenheimers, or both together, fell off in the dark, and gave it quite over.