Historical Collections of Private Passages of State: Volume 5, 1642-45. Originally published by D Browne, London, 1721.
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The Beginning of the Year 1644. and the whole Proceedings in the North; as the Scots Actions from their entrance into England, Jan. 19 1643/4. The Siege of York, Battle of Marston-Moor, until the taking of Newcastle, Octob. 19. 1644.
The method designed in stating the Occurrences of this year.
We are now come to the year 1644. and 20th of King Charles's Reign: Wherein, that I may observe as much Method as so perplex'd a Scene of a Civil War (the Parent of Confusion) will admit, I shall,
- 1. Trace the Advance of the Scots Army, from their entrance into England, unto their sitting down before York; the particulars of that Siege, by the united Armies of the Scots, the Lord Fairfax's, and that under the Earl of Manchester: Prince Rupert's Advance to relieve it; and the Battle of Marston-Moor which ensued thereupon.
- 2. Set down the March of the Earl of Essex with his Army, and their defeat in Cornwal. The recruiting of that Army, and the second Battle at Newbury.
- 3. Recount, in Order of Time, the several other remarkable Skirmishes, Sieges, and Military Occurrences, as they happened in various parts of the Kingdom.
- 4. Recite such Royal Proclamations and Declarations of the King, and the two Houses, and other Civil Transactions, as belong to this Year.
- 5. The most material Passages in Ireland, and relating thereunto, during this Year.
- 6. Give an Account of the whole Proceedings of the Treaty at Uxbridge, which happened towards the close of this Year 1644.
An Account the Marches of the Scots Army, after their entring into England.
The Scots Army that entred England consisted of about Eighteen Thousand Foot, Three Thousand Horse, and between Five and Six Hundred Dragoons. The Officers Names and Places whence raised, appear by the following Lift.
A list of the several Regiments and Chief Officers of the Scotish Army.
- His Excellency the Earl of Leven, General.
- Lieutenant-General of the Foot, John Bayly.
- Major General of the Horse, David Lesly.
- General of the Artillery, Sir Alexander Hamilton.
- Treasurer and Commissary General, Sir Adam Hepburne, Lord of Humbee.
- Quarter-Master-General, Lodowicke Lesly.
Besides seven Companies of the Earl-Marshal's upon the March, and four Companies remaining in Berwick.
Regiments of Horse of about Sixty in a Troop.
All those Men, whose Names are of an Italick Letter, had served beyond Sea before.
General Leven, when he was on his March towards Berwick, enquired if the Committee appointed to go along with the Army into England, were ready to march with him, saying, he would not pass the Bound Rod (which is the limit of English ground beyond Berwick) until they came; for tho he had Power sufficient as General, yet it was a strengthning of his Power, and of great Advantage to have the Presence and Advice of a Committee, representing the Kingdom that employed him, and to whom he was a Servant.
Upon the 13th of January, 1643–4. the said Committee came to Berwick, and then the General prepared to march with all Expedition.
And on the 18th several Regiments marched from Dunbar thro the Snow, when it was almost Knee-deep.
Scots first advance from Berwick into England, Jan. 19. 1643–4.
Upon Friday, the 19th of January, there marched over from Berwick three Regiments of Foot and thirteen Troops of Horse. And the next day the Committee of both Kingdoms sent a Trumpeter to Sir Thomas Glenham, Colonel Gray, and the rest of the Officers and Gentlemen of Northumberland at Alnwick, with this Letter.
A Letter from the Committee of both Kingdoms, marching with the Scots, to Sir Thomas Glenham, and the rest of the Commanders and Gentry of the County of Northumberland, January 20.
A Letter, &c.
Altho we justly presume, That the solemn mutual Covenant, entred into by both Kingdoms, hath long since come to your Hands; and likewise, that you have had notice of the raising of the Army, desired by the Parliament of England, for the prosecution of those Ends therein expressed, viz. The Preservation and Reformation of Religion, the true Honour and Happiness of the King, and the publick Peace and Liberty of his Dominions: Yet that it may appear, both to you and all the World, how unwilling we are to make a forcible use of these Arms, which we have been constrained by the disappointment of all other means of Safety, to take up, we the Commissioners and Committees of both Kingdoms have thought fit, besides that Declaration (a Copy whereof we herewith send) lately emitted in the Name of the Kingdom of Scotland, for the satisfaction of the People, concerning the entrance of this their Army, to take more particular notice of you the chief Gentlemen and Commanders; hoping likewise, that things of so great and considerable Consequence will find with you such entertainment as may answer the Weight and Importance of them. We will not so much wrong the Cause we have undertaken, as to go about, after so many evident demonstrations of the necessity of our present posture, to dispute it with you: But rather, instead of Arguments, we think it reasonable to acquaint you with our well-weighed Resolutions; which are, thro the Assistance of that God, in whose Cause we are ingaged, and whose Strength we trust in, with our utmost Industry and Hazard, to endeavour the prevention of that imminent Danger, not only of Corruption, but of Ruin, which we see evidently intended to the true Protestant Religion, by the Popish and Prelatical Faction, who never wanted Will, but now think they want not Strength and Opportunity to accomplish it: As also the rescuing of his Majesty's Person and Honour, so deeply and unhappily entangled in the Counsels and Practices of them, whose Actions speak their Ends to be little better than Popery and Tyranny: And the redeeming the Peace and Liberty of his Majesty's Dominions, in which the Irish Rebellion, and the sad and unnatural Divisions in England, have made so great a Breach.
To the accomplishment of these so just and honourable Designs, we have reason to expect the Concurrence of all Men, who either are, or pretend to be due Lovers of their Religion, King, and Country; and shall be very sorry to want yours: But if mis-information, or any other unhappy grounds, shall so far prevail with you, as to reckon us in the number of your Enemies, (which certainly we are not, if you be Friends to those Ends mentioned in our Covenant:) And if instead of that Concurrence with us which we wish and hope to deserve, we find from you Opposition and Acts of Hostility, the Law of Nature and your own Reason will tell you what you are to expect. We only add, That tho it will not a little trouble us to see Men withstanding, not only us, but their own Good and Happiness; yet it doth in good measure satisfy us, that we have not neglected this, or any other means, to the best of our power or understanding, to prevent those Inconvetencies and Mischiefs that may arise from those Acts of force, which we shall be necessitated unto.
Subscribed at Berwick, Jan 20. 1644. by the Warrant and in the Name of the Committees of both Kingdoms, by us your Friends,
One of these direct to Sir Tho. Glenham, and the rest of the Commanders with him, at Alnwick, or elsewhere.
Sir Thomas Glenham's first Answer.
An Answer &c.
I Have received by your Trumpeter a Letter from your Lordship and Sir William Armyne: It is long and of great concernment. And the other directed to Colonel Gray, who for the reason before-mentioned, and for that here are none but Officers, he cannot return you an Answer so suddenly by your Trumpeter. But I will send presently to the Gentlemen of the County to come hither, and then you shall receive my Answer with the Officers and theirs by themselves, by a Trumpeter of my own.
Alnwick, Jan. 20. 1644.
Accordingly, on the 22d the Gentlemen of Northumberland met together at Alnwick; to whom Sir Tho. Glenham propounded these three Questions:
Consult of the Northumberland Gentry.
- 1. What should be done with those Places of the County, which were not yet in the possession of the Scots, and which they were not able to protect?
- 2. What Answer should be given to the Letter of the Two Committees?
- 3. Whether they should fight the Scottish Army?
As to the First, they were divided; the Yorkshire Officers thought it most expedient, that the Country should be burnt, wasted, and destroyed, to prevent its affording Harbour and Accommodations to the Enemy: But those of Northumberland opposed this Resolution, and would not yield that their Country should be destroyed and laid desolate.
To the Second likewise they were of different Judgments, some thinking it fittest to return a fair civil Answer to the Letter. Others, that it could not be answered by them, but must first be sent to the Marquess of Newcastle, as Commander in Chief; and there wanted not some that were of Opinion it ought to be communicated to his Majesty, before any Answer should be returned.
For the Third, they were unanimous, all agreeing, That they were not in a condition to give Battle to such an Army; yet resolved with those 16 Troops of Horse, and 2 Regiments of Foot, which they had then at Alnwick, and some 8 Drakes, and several Pieces of Ordnance, they would endeavour to defend the Bridge.
However, at last it was concluded, that a Letter should be sent in Answer to the Committee's, which was drawn up in these Terms.
Sir Thomas Glenham's farther Answer to the Letter from the Committees.
Sir Tho. Glenham's farther Answer.
I Have received yours, together with one to the Gentlemen of the County; and having communicated with them, we return you this Answer.
That without the sight of that Letter we could not have been induced, by any flying Reports, to believe, that the Scottish Nation, or the prevailing Party for the present in that Nation, would have attempted an Invasion of England; so contrary to the Laws of God, of Nations, of both Kingdoms, and especially to the late Act of Pacification; so opposite to their Allegiance and Gratitude to his Majesty, to that neighbourly Love which they pretend, to that discreet Care which they should have of their own safety: We could not otherwise have imagined, that they who by his Majesty's Goodness enjoy a settlement of their Church and State, according to their own desires, should needlesly and ingratefully emoroil themselves in a business that concerns them not, forfeit their Rights, disloblige his Majesty, and hazard the loss of their present Happiness.
No Order of any Committee or Committees whatsoever, of Men or Angels, can give them power to march into the Bowels of another Kingdom, to make offensive War against their Natural Sovereign, upon the empty pretence of Evil Counsellors, who could never yet be named. And as for the English Agents, we cannot believe them to be any Commissioners lawfully authorized, either by the Parliament, or by the two Houses, or yet by the House of Commons, whence so many of the Members are expelled by partial Votes, so many banish'd by seditious Tumults, so many voluntarily absent themselves out of Conscience; where desperation, or want of opportunity to depart, or fear of certain Plunder, are the chiefest Bonds which hold the little Remnant together from Dissipation; where the venerable Name of Parliament is made a Stale to countenance the pernicious Counsels and Acts of a close Committee.
For Subjects to make foreign Confederacies without their Sovereign's Assent, to invade the Territories of their undoubted King, to go about by force to change the Laws and Religion established, is gross Treason without all contradiction: And in this Case, it argues strongly, who have been the Contrivers and Fomenters of all our Troubles. No Covenant whatsoever, or with whomsoever, can justify such Proceedings, or oblige a Subject to run such disloyal Courses. If any Man out of Ignorance, Fear, or Credulity, have entred into such a Covenant, it binds him not, except it be to Repentance: Neither is there any such necessity as is pretended of your present posture; your selves cannot alledge, that you are any way provoked by us, neither are we conscious to our selves of the least intention to molest you.
Those Ends, which you propose, are plausible indeed to them who do not understand them; the blackest Designs did never want the same Pretences. If by the Protestant Religion, you intend our Articles, which are the Publick Confession of our Church, and our Book of Common-Prayer established by Act of Parliament, you need not trouble your selves, we are ready to defend them with our Blood: if it be otherwise, it is plain to all the World, that it is not the Preservation, but the Innovation of Religion which you seek, however by you stiled Reformation. And what Calling have you to reform us by the Sword? We do not remember that ever the like Indignity was offered by one Nation to another, by a lesser to a greater: That those Men who have heretofore pleaded so vehemently for Liberty of Conscience against all Oaths and Subscriptions, should now assume a Power to themselves, by Arms, to impose a Law upon the Consciences of their Fellow Subjects. A vanquish'd Nation would scarce endure such Terms from their Conquerors. But this we are sure of, that this is the way to make the Protestant Religion odious to all Monarchs, Christian and Pagan.
Your other two Ends, that is, the Honour and Happiness of the King, and the Publick Peace and Liberty of his Dominions, are so manifestly contrary to your practice, that we need no other Motives to withdraw you from such a Course, as tends so directly to make his Majesty contemptible at Home and Abroad, and to fill all his Dominions with Rapine and Blood.
In an Army all have not the same Intentions: we have seen the Articles agreed upon, and those vast Sums and Conditions contained in them; as if our Countrymen thought that England was indeed a Well, that could never be drawn dry; and whatsoever the Intentions be, we know right well what will be the Consequence: Tho, if it were otherwise, no Intention or Consequent whatsoever can justify an unlawful Action. And therefore you do wisely to decline all disputation about it; it is an easy thing to pretend the Cause of God, as the Jews did the Temple of the Lord; but this is far from those evident Demonstrations, which you often mention, never make.
Consider, that there must be an Account given to God of all the Blood which shall be shed in this Quarrel. The way to prevent it, is not by such Insinuations, but to retire before the Sword be unsheathed, or the Breach be made too wide. You cannot think that we are grown such tame Creatures to desert our Religion, our Laws, our Liberties, our Estates, upon command of Foreigners, and to suffer our selves and our Posterity to be made Beggars and Slaves without opposition. If any of ours shall join with you in this Action, we cannot look upon them otherwise than as Traitors to their King, Vipers to their Native Country, and such as have been Plotters or Fomenters of this Design from the beginning. But if mis-information or fear hath drawn any of yours ignorantly or unwillingly into this Cause, we desire them to withdraw themselves at last, and not to make themselves Accessaries to that Deluge of Mischief, which this second Voyage is like to bring upon both Kingdoms.
A Declaration publish'd by the Committees of both Kingdoms, touching the billeting the Soldiers upon the first Advance of the Scots into England.
"Whereas the Two Houses of the Parliament of England, considering the great and apparent Danger of Religion and Liberty, in regard of the great Forces of Papists, and others employed for the destruction thereof; have by their Commissioners desired the Assistance of the Kingdom of Scotland, to joyn with them in the just and honourable Endeavours of preserving and reforming Religion, procuring the Honour and Happiness of the King (now engaged in Counsels prejudicial to himself and his Kingdoms) and of settling and maintaining the Peace and Liberty of his Dominions. And whereas the Kingdom of Scotland have readily yielded thereunto, and raised an Army for the Ends above expressed, which is to be ordered by the Committees and Commissioners of both Kingdoms. We the said Commissioners and Committees being desirous to take the most orderly and reasonable way for the Provision of the said Army, have thought fit by this short Declaration to acquaint you with what is expected from you the Inhabitants of those Parts, thro which this Army shall pass, that so you may not be oppressed with arbitrary Taxes and unreasonable Spoils, which you have suffered from those who have lived amongst you and upon you.
"This is a Cause and Time wherein the Endeavours of every one who loves his Religion, King or Country, ought to be expressed to the utmost. And that which is required at your hands, is to provide and furnish to your best Ability, those Soldiers that shall be quartered with you, with such Provisions as shall be necessary, not exceeding the Allowances and Rates mentioned in a Schedule hereafter written, hereunto annexed. And for the better keeping of Accounts of what is delivered by you to the Officers and Soldiers, according to the Rates of the said Schedule, we desire that two sufficient Men in every Town, Hamlet, or Parish, the one for the Horse, and the other for the Foot, may exactly take and keep Notes of the Billetings, and of what shall be delivered to every particular Horse-man and Foot-man, that so Allowance and Satisfaction may be made to every Inhabitant accordingly; which we will take care shall be speedily done, either out of the Estates of Papists, and other Delinquents against the Parliament, or otherwise as we shall be enabled thereunto. Nor have you any reason to distrust us in this behalf, if you call to mind the equal Proceedings you have heretofore found from the Scotish Army, at their former Entrance. And in so doing, you shall, besides the Service which you do to the Publick, free your selves from any Irregular Carriages of the Soldiers, and be the better enabled to require a just satisfaction for any Injury done against you, or beyond this Order, of which we hereby assure you.
A SCHEDULE of Allowance to be made to Officers and Soldiers, Horse and Foot, in the Scotish Army, for their Entertainment in their March, or as they shall be quartered in England, not exceeding these Proportions and Rates hereunder mentioned.
If the Country People have no Oats, they may have them at the Magazine at Berwick, and shall have Allowance for fetching them.
The Officers of Dragoons are to have Entertainment at Discretion, not exceeding the Rates following.
|The Lieutenant-Colonel daily||00||06||00|
|The Major daily||00||05||00|
|The Captain daily||00||04||00|
|The Lieutenant daily||00||03||00|
|The Ensign daily||00||02||06|
|The Serjeant daily||00||01||04|
|The Corporal and Drummers, each||00||00||10|
On the 23d of January Lieutenant-General Bailey marched from Kelso to Woller, with six Regiments of Foot, and a Regiment of Horse; and on the 24th the General staid at Addarston, till the Artillery should come up, and the 24th was at Alnwick. On the 25th they had a difficult March in respect of the Thaw, which so swell'd the Waters, that oftentimes the Foot were up to their middles, and sometimes higher: Sir Tho. Glenham design'd to have cut down Feltam-bridge, but receiving an Alarm from the Scotch Horse, was obliged to retreat to Morpeth, where he staid not long, but marched to Newcastle.
After the Scots had passed Alnwick, the Marquess of Argyle marched to Cocquet-Island, which was yielded at the first shot. General Leven staid five days at Morpeth, and then advanced towards Newcastle, and came before that Town on Saturday the 3d of February, (into which the day before was come the Marquess of Newcastle.) The Forces being drawn up, the following Letter was sent.
To the Right Worshipful the Mayor, Aldermen, and Common-Council, and other the Inhabitants of the Town of Newcastle.
The Committees of both Kingdoms Letter to the Town of Newcastle, Feb. 3.
Right Worshipful and Loving Friends!
"Our Appearance here in this Posture thro Mis-informations and Mis-understandings, may occasion strange thoughts in you. If we had Opportunity of speaking together (which hereby we offer and desire) it is not impossible, that as we held forth the same Ends, viz. The Preservation of Religion, the King's true Honour and Happiness, the publick Peace and Liberty of his Dominions, so we might agree upon the same way to promote them: If you yield to this Motion, you shall find us ready to do our parts thereins but if worse Counsel take place with you, and all Parley be rejected, altho thereby you will be unjust to your selves, yet we have reason to expect ye should be so just to us, as to acquit us of the Guilt of those manifold Inconveniencies and Calamities that may be the fruit of those forcible ways you will thereby constrain us to. We desire your present Answer.—Subscribed the 3d of February, 164 ¾. by the Warrant, and in the Name of the Committees and Commissioners of both Kingdoms, by us
The Town's Answer.
"We have received a Letter of such a Nature from you, that we can not give you any Answer to it more than this, that his Majesty's General being at this Instant in the Town, we conceive all the Power of Government to be in him. And were he not here, you cannot sure conceive Us so ill read in these Proceedings of yours, as to treat with you for your satisfaction in these particulars you write of, nor by any Treaty to betray a Trust reposed in Us, or forfeit our Allegiance to his Majesty, for whose Honour and Preservation, together with the Religion and Laws of this Kingdom, we intend to hazard our Lives and Fortunes: And so we rest
- Cuthbert Carr,
- Ralph Grey,
- John Emerson,
- H. Rowcastle,
- Charles Clark.
- Francis Bowes,
- Francis Anderson,
- Hen. Maddison,
- Ralph Cock,
- Leonard Carr,
- Robert Shaftoe,
- John Marlay, Mayor.
- Nicholas Cole,
- Thomas Lyddel,
- Lionel Maddison,
- Alex. Davison,
- Mark Milbank,
Subscribed by us, the 3d of February, 1643. in the Names of the Common Council, and the rest of the Inhabitants of the Town of Newcastle.
Skirmishes near Newcastle.
In the mean time a smart Dispute happen'd; the Town had raised a Fort at the Entrance into the Shield-field, to gain which the Scots sent out two Parties, one to attacque the Fort on the East-side, the other on the West, in which Service divers of them were cut off by the Cannon, and particularly Patrick English, the Earl of Lindsay's Captain-Lieutenant, slain. That Evening the Marquess for the better Guard of the Town, set the Sand-gate, a Street without the Walls, and the other Suburbs, on fire, which continued burning all Sunday and Monday.
Early on Monday morning, the 5th of February, Sir Marmaduke Langdale and Colonel Fenwick with twenty five Troops of Horse, and about, four hundred commanded Musqueteers, fell upon two Regiments of the Scots Horse, under the Command of the Lord Balgoney, the General's Son, and the Lord Kirkudbright, quartered at Corbridge, two Miles from Hexham: On the Scots side, Ballentine, Lieutenant-Colonel to the General's Regiment, received them very handsomly; but the English Foot coming up, put the Scots to a disorderly Retreat, and the English pursued them a while, but not far, being loth to engage beyond their Foot. They had also sent Colonel Robert Brandling with ten Troops over the Water below Corbridge, to come upon the Rear of the Scots, but by this their Retreat it prov'd their Front; and Brandling no sooner saw them, but he forwardly rode out before his Troops to exchange a Pistol, and one Lieutenant Elliot on the Scots side rode out to meet him, and when they had discharged each at other, and were wheeling to draw their Swords, Brandling's Horse stumbled, and the Enemy was so near as to pull him off, and took him Prisoner; which so discouraged his Men, that they retreated, and gave the Enemy opportunity to kill some of them. The Scots lost this day Captain Forbs, a Cornet, and divers common Soldiers, and Major Agnew taken Prisoner.
Scots Army marches from Newcastle, Febr. the 22d.; The Scots pass the River Tyne, Febr. the 28th.
On Tuesday the 6th, the Scots great Guns that could not be carried by Land, arrived by Sea at Blyth's Nook, and next day were brought up to their Army. Henceforwards the Scots continued their Quarters near Newcastle, but no great Action passed for divers days: at last they resolved not to waste their time before this Town, but to pass the River of Tyne, leaving behind on the North-side of the Town six Regiments of Foot, and some Troops of Horse, under the Command of Sir James Lumsdatl, Major-General; and accordingly on Thursday the 22d of February, the Gross of their Army marched from their Quarters near Newcastle, to Hadden on the Wall, about four Miles up the River, and lay that Night in the Field: The next day they quartered along the River side from Ovingham to Corbridge, about two Miles from Hexham, where the Marquess of Newcastle had three Regiments of Horse quartered, who this day faced the Enemy; but finding themselves unable to oppose so great a Force, marched that Night from thence, leaving Major Agnew (whom they took in the Skirmish before-mentioned) behind them at liberty, that he might be a means of preserving Colonel Fenwick's House there from Violence, having been very civilly treated by the Colonel during his Imprisonment: And so on the day following, viz. February 28th, the Scots passed the River Tyne without any Opposition at three several Fords, viz. Ovingham, Bydwell and Altringham, the Foot wading very deep, and that Night quartered in Villages near the River. Being thus over Tyne, they marched to the Water of Darwen, and with difficulty got their Foot by Files over a Tree-bridge at Ehchester, half over night, and the rest next day, so that they all pass'd that Night into the Field. On Friday they came within a Mile of Chester-on-the-Street. On Saturday, March the 2d, they pass'd the River Weare, at the New-bridge near Lumley-Castle, rested all the Sunday at Harrington, and the adjacent Villages; and on Monday the 4th of March entered Sunderland.
The Marquess of Newcastle reinforced, marches after the Scots.; Scots take the Fort at Southshields.
On Wednesday the 6th, the Marquess of Newcastle being strengthned with Forces from Durham, and the Accession of twelve Troops of Horse from Yorkshire, under the Command of Sir Charles Lucas, so that the whole amounted to near 14000 Horse and Foot, was not wanting to attend upon the Scots, appearing within three Miles of Sunderland, which obliged the Scots to draw up their Army in Battalia, and lie all Night in the Field. The next day all the Forenoon was exceeding snowy, and about Noon the Marquess drew up near them again, upon Bowden-Hills; but the nature of the Ground was such, by reason of great Ditches and Fences between the two Armies, that neither Side could charge the other without vast Disadvantages so that they stood facing one another till Night, without any considerable Action. The next Morning there were some Skirmishing between small Parties; but the Marquess finding the Scots would not come on to engage him in that place, and not thinking it safe to fall upon them as they were then posted, resolved to retire to Durham, with an Intention to streighten the Enemies Quarters, who all this while were much incommoded, and under great difficulties for Provision; for of five Barks that were sent from Scotland to supply them, three were cast away, and two driven into Tyne by extremity of Weather, were seized by the Marquess's Forces, so that sometimes their whole Army had neither Meat nor Drink, and never had above twenty four hours Provision before-hand. Therefore to enlarge their Quarters on the 13th, leaving two Regiments to secure Sunderland, they drew towards Durham; but being not able to get Horse Provisions, and unwilling to remove further till Sunderland were better fortified, returned and quartered their Army on the North-side the River Weare towards Newcastle at the Shields: And on the 15th at Night commanded out a Party to assault the Fort upon the South-side of Tyne, over against Tinmouth-Castle, commanded by one Captain Chapman of South-shields, who bravely beat them off, and kill'd divers of them. The 19th of March the Scots kept a solemn Fast throughout their Army; and on the 20th, another Party was appointed to storm the aforesaid Fort, who with the loss of nine Men, and some more wounded, took the Fort, and in it found 5 Pieces of Ordnance, 7 Barrels of Powder, 70 Musquets; but the Men, when they found they could no longer maintain it, made their Escape to the Water-side, where Boats were ready to receive them; only the Lieutenant, and four or five more were taken Prisoners, and sixteen kill'd upon the place. The same day Lieutenant-Colonel Ballentine understanding there was a Troop of the Marquess's Horse quartered at Chester-on-the-street, came with a Party into the Town a private way, and wholly surprized them, and took the Guards last, and brought away 40 Horse with their Arms. But still the Scots were in pain what to do with their own Horse, for tho their Foot were supply'd with Provisions, their Horse must starve if they continued there; and if they went away without the Foot, the Marquess being so near with an Army, strong in Horse, it would be very hazardous if he should fall upon them: and on the other side, if their Foot remov'd from thence with their Horse, then they should lose the Advantage of their Supply by Sea, the Land not affording Provisions, all being driven away before them by the Marquess and Inhabitants, who for the generality in those Parts were for the King.
The two Armies face each other.
Whilst they were in this Dilemma, the Marquess decides the Debate by drawing up his Army on the 23d of March, from Durham and thereabouts, towards the Town of Chester, and on Sunday the 24th drew up at a place call'd Hilton, on the North-side of the River Weare, two Miles and a half from Sunderland; and the Scots drew up on a Hill East from them, towards the Sea. The Armies faced one another all day, and towards Night the Cannon began to play, and Parties of Musqueteers fell to it, to drive one another from their Hedges, and continued shooting till Eleven at Night, many being slain on each side: The Field-word given by the Marquess, was—.Now or Never; by the Scots—The Lord of Hosts is with us. On Monday they continued facing one another for some time, but many Hedges and Ditches between them: The Marquess seeing no possibility of engaging, drew off towards his Quarters; then a Party of the Scots Horse fell on his Rear, and kill'd and took about thirty; but Sir Charles Lucas with his Brigade of Horse forc'd them to retreat.
And now the Marquess marching towards his Quarters at Durham, the Scots disposed of themselves to Easington, being the middle-way betwixt Hartlepool and Durham, where finding pretty good Quarter for their Horse, they continued till the 8th of April, and then marched to Quarendon-Hill, within two Miles of Durham.
But about this time a Disaster happen'd to the King's Forces in Yorkshire, that occasion'd a kind of Necessity for the Marquess of Newcastle to retire thither, and therefore is fit here to be related.
When his Lordship marched towards Newcastle, and Sir Thomas Glenham was made Colonel General, and marched into the Field with the Army, he left Colonel Bellasis (now Lord John Bellasis) Governour of York, and Commander in Chief of a very considerable Party of Horse and Foot; and the Parliament being advertis'd of the Marquess's Advance against the Scots, the following Letter was written to the Lord Fairfax.
A LETTER to the Lord Fairfax.
Letter from the Committee of both Kingdoms to the Lord Fairfax, March 5, 1643/4.
We have taken into Consideration the Opportunity that is now offered for the reducing and assuring of Yorkshire, whilst the Marquess of Newcastle hath drawn the greatest part of his Forces towards the North, to oppose the Scots; and how necessary it is to hinder all further Levies there to encrease his Army; which the better to effect, we have written unto Sir Thomas Fairfax, that he forthwith march into the West-riding with all his Horse, and that he take with him two Regiments of Foot out of Lancashire. And we desire that your Lordship will also take the Field with as great a Force of Horse and Foot as conveniently you can, and joyning with Sir Thomas Fairfax make the best advantage you can of the present Opportunity, and of those Forces for effecting the Ends abovesaid: We desire that you will hold a continual Intelligence with the Scotish Army, and by drawing near to the Tees, or otherwise, to give them the best Accommodation you shall be able: And that you will please continually to advertise us of all your Occurrences and Affairs. This being all with which we shall at this time trouble your Lordship, We rest.
Signed in the Name, and by the Warrant of the Committees of both Kingdoms, by
Your very loving Friends,
and Humble Servants,
Derby-House, 5 March, 1643.
For the Right Honourable, the Lord Fairfax.
Accordingly Sir Thomas Fairfax who had been besieging the Countess of Derby in Latham-House, left Sir William Fairfax, Colonel Ashton, Colonel Rigby, &c. to continue that Siege, and repaired into Yorkshire with near two thousand Horse. In the mean time Colonel Bellasis, Governour of York for the King, was not idle; but understanding Colonel Lambert with his Regiment was quartered at Bradford, marched thither to surprize them: but Lambert having notice of their Approach, sallied out to meet them, till perceiving how numerous their Party was, he thought it not safe to adventure beyond his Work, which they briskly assaulted, and he as well defended, forcing them to retreat; and then falling on the Rear took Colonel Bagshaw, several Captains, one hundred and fifty Horse, and sixty Foot, Prisoners.
But much worse Fortune had the same Colonel Bellasis soon after at Selby, whither he drew his Forces to hinder the Conjunction of the two Fairfax's, which Defeat was the Cause of the Marquess of Newcastle's return out of the North: An Account whereof be pleased to take, as it was given by the Lord Fairfax to the Committee of both Kingdoms, in the following Letter.
The Lord Fairfax's LETTER to the Committee of both Kingdoms.
The Lord Fairfax's Letter, touching the Fight at Selby, April, 11, 1644.; Colonel Bellasis taken Prisoner, and 1600 of his Soldiers.
According to the Orders sent to me and my Son from Your Lordships we have now joined our Forces together, tho the Enemy held all the Passes from the East Riding to the West, and by that means intercepted divers of our Letters, and thereby became acquainted with our Appointments, and so endeavoured to prevent them; which forced me to decline Selby, and make a Passage over the River ten Miles below it, in Marshland, where my Men and Carriages being passed with some difficulty on Sunday and Monday last, I instantly marched with the whole Army, consisting of two thousand Horse and Dragoons, and as many Foot, to Ferry-Bridge, and so to Selby, where Colonel John Bellasis (commanding in chief in Yorkshire) then lay with an Army of fifteen hundred Horse, and eighteen hundred Foot, as themselves confess, tho Reports make it much more numerous. Upon Wednesday our forlorn Hope of Horse beat in a Party of the Enemies Horse, and followed them into the Town, taking divers Prisoners; and the Day being far spent, I quartered the Army within a Mile of Selby that Night, and drew them out again early the next Morning, and then with the Foot in three Divisions, one led up by my self, a second by Sir John Meldrum, and a third by Lieutenant-Colonel Needham, fell upon the Town, to storm it in three places all together, where the Enemy received us with much Courage, and made strong Resistance for two Hours, or thereabouts; but in conclusion my own Foot-Regiment forced a Passage by the River-side, and my Son with his Regiment of Horse rushed into the Town, where he was encountred by Colonel Bellasis, and the Enemies Horse; but they being beaten back, and Mr. Bellasis himself wounded and taken Prisoner, and our Foot entred on all sides the Town, the Enemy was wholly routed, and as many as could, saved themselves by flight, some towards Cawood, some towards Pontefract, and the rest towards York, over the River by a Bridge of Boats laid by themselves: We pursued them everyway, and took in the Town and Chase, the Prisoners, Ordnance, Arms, Amunition and Colours mentioned in the List enclosed. Of my Men I lost in the Fight divers gallant Commanders and Soldiers, and very many fore wounded; and indeed all my Army, both Commanders and common Soldiers, behaved themselves with as much Courage as ever I observ'd in Men; all which we must acknowledge to God alone, who both infuseth Courage, and giveth Victory where he pleaseth. I shall now, I hope, be able to raise more Forces in the Country, and improve this Victory that God hath bestowed on us to the best Advantage. This being all for the present, until further Occasion, I rest
Your Lordships most Affectionate and Humble Servant,
Selby, 12 April, 1644.
A LIST of the OFFICERS taken Prisoners.
- Col. John Bellasis.
- Col. Sir John Ramsden.
- Sir Tho. Strickland.
- Lieut. Col. Tyndal.
- Lieut. Col. Forbes.
- Major Heskit.
Commanders of Horse.
- Major Wentworth.
- Major Sadlinton.
- Major Rogers.
- Capt. Horsfield.
- Capt. Beversham.
- Capt. Washington.
- Capt. Grimston.
- Capt. Cholmley.
Captains of Foot.
- Capt. Scudamore.
- Capt. Williamson.
- Capt. Morrit.
- Capt. Turner.
- Capt. Skelden.
- Capt. Briggs.
- Capt. Waterhouse.
- Capt. Kirk.
- Capt. Hardcastle.
- Capt. Lister.
- Capt. Nevil.
- Capt. Conyers.
- Capt. Lieut. Salvin.
- Capt. Lieut. Conyers.
- Elias Walker, Master of the Magazine.
- Richard Ludlow, Provost-Marshal, and divers Serjeants, Trumpets, Drums, &c.
- Four Brass Pieces of Ordnance.
- Seven Barrels of Powder.
- Sixteen Bundles of Match.
- Two thousand Arms, or upwards.
- Above five hundred Horse.
- Sixteen hundred common Soldiers.
- The Pinnace taken at Gainsborough.
- All their Bag and Baggage, and many Ships and Boats upon the River.
The two Houses appointed a solemn Thanksgiving to be kept for Success on the 23d of April.
The Marquess of Newcastle receiving this unwelcome Intelligence, and finding the Scots (as we mentioned before) were advanced within two Miles of his Quarters at Durham, thought not fit to stay between two Armies of the Enemies, viz. the Scots, and the English that had thus prevailed in Yorkshire, but immediately to march into Yorkshire, to preserve if he could the City of York, out of their hands.
The Marquess of Newcastle returns towards York, April 13.; And the Scots after him.; The Scots and the Lord Fairfax join their Armies April 20, and besiege the Marquess of Newcastle in York.
Accordingly on Saturday the 13th of April, (two days after the Battel at Selby) the Marquess having sent for what Forces could be spared out of Newcastle and Lumley-Castle, to strengthen his Foot, began to remove his whole Force from Durham, and that in a great deal of haste, being much alarmed with the loss of Selby; being also by Letters from York much importuned to hasten: so the Marquess left cumbersome Provisions behind him. He directed his march Westward towards Bishops Awkland, in and about which they lay that Night, and next Morning marched towards Bernard's-Castle and Pierce-brigg: Hereupon General Leven raised his Leaguer from Quarendon-Hill, and marched that Saturday to Ferry-Hill, and so forwards on the Lord's day to Darnton; the next day a Party of their Horse fell upon the Marquess's Rear, and killed and took about Eighty of them. The Marquess hasten'd his march for York, where he arrived April the 19th. The Scots on the 17th came to Wetherby; the next day the Lord Fairfax and Sir Thomas Fairfax came to view the Scots Army, and the day following General Leven gave them a Visit at their Quarters, where it was agreed that both Armies should on the 20th join at Tadcaster, and march up to York, which was done accordingly, and that City invested by their united Forces, who yet were not enough to beleaguer it on all Parts: For the Marquess having a great strength of Horse, between four and five thousand, and the advantage of a Bridge over the River, could easily transport them to either side in short time: so that if the Besiegers divided their Forces, the River being betwixt them, he might fall on the weaker, and the rest would not be able to relieve them. Therefore to augment their Numbers, it was thought fit that the Earl of Manchester with his Army out of the Associated Counties should also advance to this Leaguer; touching whose coming up, and the Exploits by them performed some time before in Lincolnshire, it will be necessary here to speak.
The taking of Lincoln, May 6, 1644.
On Friday, May the 3d, the Earl of Manchester sat down before Lincoln, and after some resistance, made himself Master of the lower part of the City, the Besieged retreating to the Minster and the Castle on the top of a high Hill; the next day there fell so much Rain as hindered any great Action: that night Manchester intended to storm them, and drew up his Foot, and sent for the Horse from their Quarters, to be ready by two of the Clock in the Morning; but the Weather continuing so violent, prevented it; the Mount whereon the Castle stands being exceeding steep, and by reason of the Rain very slippery. Next day they had notice, that a great Body of Horse, to the Number of five or six thousand, under Colonel Goring's Command, were coming to relieve the City; this hastened Manchester into a Resolution to storm them that Afternoon, and to that intent the Scaling Ladders were brought forth, and the Foot were ready to set on; but understanding the said Horse could not come up that Night, it was put off till next Morning; and to prevent the Relief expected, Cromwel with two thousand Horse was sent to meet them: The Foot were ordered that Night to lie upon the several Quarters of the Hill, round about their Works, and to be all in a readiness to fall on, when they should hear the great Ordnance go off, which was between two and three a Clock in the Morning, there being then six Pieces discharged at once; then in a moment they all began the Attack, and in a quarter of an Hour got up to their Works, tho the King's Forces made a gallant resistance; and being under their Works, set up their Scaling Ladders, whereupon those within left firing, and threw down mighty Stones from over their Works, which did the Assailants more prejudice than their Shot, yet at last up they got, and slew about fifty in their Works, and the rest cried for Quarter, which was given them.
There were taken Sir Francis Fane, the Governor; Colonel Sir Charles Dalison, Colonel Middlemore, and Colonel Baudes; two Lieutenant Colonels, two Majors, twenty Captains, four Drums, one Trumpet, about seven hundred private Soldiers, one hundred Horse, all their Arms and Ammunition, and eight Pieces of Ordnance. All the Pillage of the upper Town which was taken by Storm, was given to the Soldiers. On Manchester's side there were eight killed, (whereof Captain Ogleby and Lieutenant Sanders were two) and about forty wounded.
The Number and Charge of Manchester's Forces, as provided for by Ordinance, May 15.
The two Houses taking this Success of Manchester's into Consideration, on the 15th of May pass'd an Ordinance for maintaining the Forces under his Command; reciting, That whereas the seven Associated Counties of Essex, Suffolk, Norfolk, Hertford, Cambridge, Huntington and Lincoln, with the Isle of Ely, out of their loyal respect to his Majesty, their pious disposition to the Peace and Happiness of this Kingdom, in obedience to the Orders of Parliament, have raised and maintained to the Number of fourteen thousand Horse, Foot, and Dragons, and with them (within five Months last past) have done many Services tending much to the safety of the Kingdom; and intend to raise a far more considerable Force both of Horse and Foot, and have also bought many Arms and Ammunition, and must buy more, whereby to furnish themselves with a Train of Artillery, and have been and must be at great Charges in maintaining and recruiting the said Forces, and in keeping several Garisons, making and erecting of Fortifications, Magazines, Courts of Guard, and other things requisite and necessary for the defence and safety of the said Association against the Incursions of the Enemy; by all which means the said Association is become much indebted, and without the speedy raising of large and considerable Sums of Money, proportionable to their vast Expences, cannot long subsist in a Condition to keep themselves from Ruin, and to advance the Publick.
It is therefore ordained, that for the Intents and Purposes aforesaid, the several Weekly Sums following shall be charged, rated, taxed and levied, viz.
The same to be collected and paid weekly, to begin from the first of May, 1644. and so to continue weekly for four Months, and to be paid and disposed of by Directions from the Earl of Manchester.
Manchester advances Northwards, and sends Horse to attend Sir Ch. Lucas.
The Earl being thus encouraged both with Success, and Provision made for his Army, caused a Bridge of Boats to be made near Gainsborough, the better to hold Communication (upon any occasion) with the Scotish Army, and that of my Lord Fairfax, and appointed two Regiments of Foot with Cannon to guard that Work: Over this Bridge near three thousand Horse were dispatch'd unto Baintree, Ratford and Tuxeford, and there joined with two thousand sent from the Scots, and the Lord Fairfax, to wait the motion of Sir Charles Lucas, the Marquess of Newcastle's Lieutenant-General, whom he had sent out of York with a strong Body of Horse to forage abroad in part of Yorkshire, Derbyshire, Nottinghamshire, and Leicestershire, for their Assistance.
The Earl of Manchester's Army joins in the Siege of York, 3 June, 1644.
As for Manchester's Foot, they marched May the 25th from Lincoln to Gainsborough, and the next day into the Isle of Axholm, and thence to Thorn and Selby; and on Monday the 3d of June drew to the Leaguer at York about six hundred Foot, and one hundred Horse, and twelve Field-Pieces, being quartered before Bowdoms-Bar, and that side towards Clifton.
The same day some of the Parliaments Soldiers took Walton Hall, near Wakefield; and in it Sir Francis Wortley, the Elder, (one of the first Gentlemen that engaged a Party for the King in Yorkshire) and with him one Hundred and Twenty Soldiers. But (to ballance this) the very same Night sixty Horse sent by Sir Hugh Cholmley out of Scarborough came to Buttercoms, where Mr. Henry Darley (a Member of the House of Commons, and one of their Committee attending the Scots Army) was quartered, and the Drawbridge being that Night accidentally left down, they entred, and took him in his Bed, and carried him Prisoner to Scarborough.
Hitherto York had been under a kind of Blockade, and many petty Skirmishes had happen'd between them and the Armies that lay before them: But now they are begirt and shut up far closer than before, and fierce Batteries begin to be made upon them: For on the 5th of June a Work was raised upon a Hill near Walm-Gate, and therein four pieces of Cannon planted, which play'd all that Afternoon upon the Castle, Tower, and Town. Nor were they idle from the Town, but bestowed above a hundred great Shot from several Plat-forms on the Besiegers: And June the 6th they fired most part of the Suburbs, and drew their People into the Town; the Besiegers endeavour'd to quench those Fires, and preserve the Houses for their own shelter, and several hot Skirmishes happen'd between them on that Account.
The Earl of Manchester's Forces fell on near Walm-Gate, and took St. Nicholas Church, but were forced to desert. The Scots made an Attack near Mickle-Gate-Bar, and brought away a Booty of Cattel and Horses; the Besieged made several gallant Sallies, and were beaten back with like Courage: Every day produced some notable Action, but too tedious to be here inserted: Nor indeed could I ever see an exact Diary of the first part of this Siege, which makes me more sparing of Particulars.
The Hopes the City had of Relief, were from Prince Rupert, who after he had relieved Newark with a great Loss to the Parliament, his Highness repaired back into Shropshire, and took in the Garison at Longford near Newport, the same being surrendered upon Articles concluded upon between Serjeant Major Skrymshier on the Prince's behalf, and Captain Parry who commanded there, viz. That the House should be delivered, and all things therein to be left there for his Majesty's Use: That the two Captains should march away on Horseback with Swords and Pistols, but the rest of the Soldiers to leave all their Arms behind them, and that they should have a Convoy to Eccleshall-Castle. Here were taken four Barrels of Powder, some Granadoes, Match and Bullet proportionable, Store of Corn and other Provisions, one hundred Musquets, and some Pikes.
Stopworth in Cheshire taken by Prince Rupert, May 25.
After this his Highness marched towards Lancashire, designing to relieve the Countess of Derby, who for the space of eighteen Weeks was besieged in Latham-House, and made a gallant Defence; but in his way on May the 25th came before Stopworth, a Town in Cheshire, but seated on the Bank of the River Mersey, which divideth that County from Lancashire, where the Parliament had a strong Garison, who marched out to meet him, and lined the Hedges where he was to pass with Musqueteers; but they were beat from thence by Colonel Washington and a Party of Dragoons, who forced them into the Town in such disorder, that the Prince with his Horse followed them at the heels, and entred pell mell with them, and so took the Town, with all their Cannon, most of their Arms and Ammunition, and some Hundreds of them Prisoners.
The Countess of Derby at Latham-House relieved, and that Siege raised.
From thence he sent Forces to relieve the beforementioned Countess; but the Besiegers hearing of the Prince's Advance, and his Success at Stopworth, had raised the Siege of their own accord, and marched away with Bag and Baggage: And Colonel Rigby with part of those Forces, went to Bolton in Lancashire, where before there was little Ammunition, few Men, or other means of Defence. But with this Accession there were in all about two thousand Soldiers, and five hundred Club-men, which yet proved insufficient.
Bolton taken by Pr. Rupert, May 28.
For on Tuesday, May the 28th, Prince Rupert bringing thither his whole Army, consisting of ten thousand or upwards, appeared about two of the Clock in the Afternoon before the Town, approaching on the Moor, on the South-West part of it; but presently cast themselves into several Bodies, and sent out Scouts to discover where they might most advantageously enter. Those in the Town prepared for their Defence, and gave the Assailants half an hours sharp Entertainment, and repulsed them; but in the second Attack, which was performed with all imaginable Fury, a Party of Horse broke into the Town, at a place called The private Akers, (it being suspected that a certain Townsman for a Reward had been their Guide that way, as the most feasible Passage) and they being once got in, every one endeavoured to shift for himself; and the Prince's Forces rushed in on all quarters of the Town, and put great Numbers to the Sword, pursuing their Victory not only in the Town, but some Miles round, in Our-houses, Fields, High-ways and Woods, killing, destroying, and spoiling almost all they met with; and (as the Towns-People alledged afterwards) denying Quarter, and using other Violences, besides totally plundering the Town, and staying four Ministers. It was acknowledged by the Prince's own Party, that they there put to the Sword about twelve hundred; but for this severity alledged, That the Prince sending an Officer to summon the Town they not only refused, but in defiance caused one of the Prince's Captains whom they had taken not long before, to be hanged in his sight. But as I find not this Captain's Name any where mentioned, so the other Party wholly denied that part of the Story. On the Parliament's side two Captains were slain, but Colonel Rigby, a Counsellor at Law, and Member of the House of Commons, who commanded here in chief, escaped with some scattered Forces to Bradford in Yorkshire.
Prince Rupert takes Leverpool, June 11.
In the next place his Highness advanced to Liverpool, an Haven-Town of Lancashire, on the Edge of Cheshire, where Colonel More was Governor for the Parliament, to whose relief forty English and Scots (of the Party sent off from York into those Parts) were lately come from Manchester to Warrington, and so by Water to Leverpool: But notwithstanding their Assistance, and the stout resistance made by them and the rest of the Garison, the Prince made himself Master of the Town, but of no great Booty besides: For the Governor finding it not tenable against so great a Force, privately drew off his best Ordnance, Arms, Ammunition, and afterwards most part of his Soldiers, and richest Goods in the Town, and safely convey'd them on board the Ships in the Pool; and then the Assailants with little Opposition entred the Town, where finding themselves disappointed of Plunder, the Common Soldiers were much incensed, and reveng'd themselves on the Inhabitants, and those Soldiers they found left behind, and would scarce allow them Quarter.
This Town was of great importance, by its convenient Situation for the landing of Forces from Ireland. After this the Prince marched to Blackburn, where Colonel Shuttleworth skirmished with some of his Forces, and from thence his Highness continued with all Expedition his march towards York; where in the mean time the Marquess of Newcastle (to gain time, as it was believed) till the Prince might come up, had made some Overtures for a Treaty; for on Saturday the 8th of June, his Lordship sent a Trumpeter to the Scotish Leaguer with this Letter.
A LETTER to the Earl of Leven.
The Marquess of Newcastle's Letter to the Earl of Leven.
I Cannot but Admire that your Lordship hath so near beleaguer'd this City on all sides, made Batteries against it, and so near approached to it, without signifying what your Intentions are, and what you desire or expect; which is contrary to the Rules of all Military Discipline, and Customs of War: therefore I have thought fit to remonstrate thus much to your Lordship, to the end that your Lordship may signify your Intentions and Resolutions therein, and receive Ours; and so I remain,
Your Lordship's humble Servant,
York, 8 Junii, 1644.
Directed for his Excellency the Earl of Leven.
To which General Lesley returned this Answer.
The Earl of Leven's Answer.
At this distance I will not dispute with your Lordship Points of Military Discipline, nor the Practice of Captains in such Cases; yet to give your Lordship satisfaction in that your Letter desires from me, your Lordship may take notice, that I have drawn my Forces before this City, with Intention to reduce it to the Obedience of King and Parliament; whereunto if your Lordship shall speedily conform, it may save the Effusion of much Innocent Blood, whereof I wish your Lordship to be no less sparing than I am; who rest
Your Lordship's most Humble Servant,
From Fowforth, 8 June, 1644.
To his Excellency the Lord Marquess of Newcastle.
There was also a like Letter directed to the Lord Fairfax, and the same Answer in effect return'd; but understanding that the Earl of Manchester had received no Letter, General Lesley and the Lord Fairfax did signify to the Marquess of Newcastle, that seeing the Earl of Manchester was equally concern'd with themselves, except he also were addressed unto, they neither could nor would admit any Parley without him: whereupon the next day this following Letter was brought to the Earl of Manchester, with the Transcripts of what had been sent to the Earl of Leven and Lord Fairfax enclosed.
A LETTER to the Earl of Manchester.
The Marquesses Letter to the Earl of Manchester.
The enclosed is the Effect of two Letters I wrote yesterday, one to the Earl of Leven, the other to the Lord Fairfax; and I had done the like to your Lordship then, if I had had any Assurance of your Lordship's being in these parts in your own Person: but since I am now satisfied of your Lordship's being here, I have thought fit to present the same to your Lordship's Consideration, with this desire that I may receive your Lordship's Resolution therein, and so I remain
Your Lordship's most Humble Servant,
York, June 9. 1644.
To the Right Honourable the Earl of Manchester.
To this immediately Manchester return'd,
Earl of Manchester's Answer.
By Favour of his Excellency the Earl of Leven, and the Lord Fairfax, I was no stranger to your Lordship's former Letters, and your Lordship having now with Civility put me in a Conjuncture with them, I shall desire your Lordship to believe that my Heart is the same with theirs in this Business, and their Expressions in their Letter to your Lordship, are fully owned by me as my sense; and therefore if your Lordship will please to read the first Letter from the Earl of Leven and the Lord Fairfax, you shall by that clearly see the Resolution of
Your Lordship's most Humble Servant,
Leaguer before York, June 9. 1644.
Names of the Commissioners for the three Generals.
That Night all the three Generals met, and expressed their Concurrence in a readiness to treat about the surrendring the City in such sort, that Mens Lives and Estates might not be exposed to Ruin unnecessarily. General Lesley nominated Commissioners, the Earl of Lindsay, and the Lord Humbee, Commissary General of his Army: The Lord Fairfax named Sir William Fairfax and Colonel White; the Earl of Manchester propounded on his part Colonel Russel and Colonel Hammond, and signified such their readiness to Parley and their Commissioners Names to the Marquess of Newcastle; but withal that they were unwilling to yield unto a Cessation of Arms in any part of the City, but the Place that should be appointed for Treaty.
The Marquess deferred his Answer two days, and then his Letter was as followeth.
A LETTER to the Earl of Leven, the Lord Fairfax, and the Earl of Manchester.
The Marquess's Letter to the three Generals.
I have received your Lordships Letter, with the Names of the Commissioners appointed by your Lordships: But since your Lordships have declared in your Letter to allow a Cessation of Arms only on that side of the Town, during the time of the Treaty, I find it not fit for me to encline to it upon those Conditions, and had return'd your Lordships this Answer long before this time, if some weighty Affairs had not retarded my desires in that particular; I am
Your Lordships most Humble Servant,
The next Day they sent the following Summons, directed to the Marquiss of Newcastle.
The Marquiss summoned to render the City, June 12.
We the Generals of the Armies raised for the King and Parliament, and now employed in this Expedition about York, that no further Effusion of Blood be occasioned, and that the City of York and Inhabitants may be preserved from Ruin; do hereby require your Lordship to surrender the said City to us, in the Name and for the Use of the King and Parliament, within the space of twenty-four Hours after the receipt hereof; which, if you refuse to do, the Inconveniences ensuing upon your Refusal must be required at your Lordship's hands, seeing our Intentions are not for Bloo, or Destruction of Towns, Cities, and Countries, unless, all other Mean, being used, we be necessitated hereunto, which shall be contrary to the Minds and Hearts of,
Your Excellency's Humble Servants,
Leven. Fairfax. Manchester.
June 12. 1644.
The Marquiss's ANSWER next Day, directed to all the three Generals.
The Marquiss's Answer to the Summons.
I have received a Letter from your Lordships, dated yesterday about four of the Clock in the Afternoon, wherein I am required to surredner the City to your Lordships within twenty-four Hours after the receipt; but I know your Lordships are too full of Honour to expect the Rendring the City upon a Demand, and upon so short an Advertisement to me, who have the King's Commission to keep it, and where there are so many generous Persons, and Men of Honour, Quality, and Fortune concerned in it. But truly I conceive this said Demand high enough to have been exacted from the meanest Governour of any of his Majesty's Garisons: And your Lordships may be pleased to know, that I expect Propositions to proceed from your Lordships, as becomes Persons of Honour to give and receive from one another; and if your Lordships therefore think fit to propound Honourable and Reasonable Terms, and agree upon a General Cessation from all Acts of Hostility, during the time of a Treaty, then your Lordships may receive such Satisfaction therein, as may be expected from Persons of Honour, and such as desire as much to avoid the Effusion of Christian Blood, or Destruction of Cities, Towns, and Countries, as any whatsoever; yet will not spare their own Lives, rather than to live in the least stain of Dishonour. And so desiring your Lordships Resolution, I remain
Your Lordships most Humble Servant,
York, 13 June, 1644.
Names of the Marquiss's Commissioners.
The three Generals consulting, left they should seem averse to Propositions for an Accord, yielded to a general Cessation during the Treaty, and three Hours before, and three Hours after; and thereupon the Marquiss nominated his Commissioners, viz. The Lord Witherington, Sir Thomas Glemham, Sir William Wentworth, Sir Richard Hutton, Sir Thomas Mottam, and Sir Robert Strickland. They were to meet the others before named at three a-clock next Day, in a Tent between two Forts: One lately taken by the Besiegers, and in their possession, and the other belonging to the Town; and had on each side a hundred Musqueteers to attend them. Mr. Boteler, the Marquiss of Newcastle's Secretary attended on their Commissioners; and Mr. Primrose, Secretary to the Scots Army, and Mr. Weaver, as Secretaries to the Commissioners of the other Party.
The Commissioners continued together from Three a-clock till Nine. The Result was, That the Commissioners for the City tendred to the others a Paper, containing as followeth:
PROPOSITIONS to be tendered to the Enemy.
Propositions tendred by the City to the three Generals.
That the City shall be rendred within twenty Days, in case no Relief come to it by that time from the King or Prince Rupert, upon these Conditions:
That the Marquiss of Newcastle, with all his Officers and Soldiers therein, have free Liberty to depart, with Colours flying, and Match lighted; and to take with them all Arms, Ammunition, Artillery, Money, Plate, and other Goods belonging to them: For which End, That Carriages be provided them, and Victuals, and other Provision for their March.
That they be convoyed to the King, Prince Rupert, or any other Garisons of the King, where they please: And that they be not forced to march above eight Miles a Day.
That they shall have liberty to stay, or appoint others to stay forty Days in the Town, for the Sale of such Goods, or for conveying of them to other Places, which they shall not be able to carry away with them.
That no Oath, Covenant, or Protestation be administed to any of them, further than is warranted by the known Laws of the Land.
That the Gentry therein have liberty to go to their Houses, and there be protected from Violence, and not questioned for what they have done: Nor any Oath or Covenant to be tendred to them, as aforesaid
That the Townsmen enjoy all their Privileges and Liberty of Trade and Merchandize as before, and not to be questioned for any thing they have done against the Parliament; and that no Oath be tendered to any of them.
That the Garison to be sent into York, be only Yorkshire Men.
That all the Churches therein be kept from Prophanation, and no Violation offered to the Cathedral Church. That divine Service be allowed to be performed therein, as formerly. That the Revenues of the Church remain to the Officers thereof, as it hath done; and that the Prebends continue their Prebendaries and other Revenues according to the Laws.
That all Ministers and other Ecclesiastical Persons therein, of what Country soever, have liberty to depart with the Army, or to their own Livings, there to serve God, and to enjoy their Estates without disturbance. That no Oath or Covenant be proffered to them, as aforesaid; nor they questioned hereafter for what they have done for the King's Party.
That good Hostages be given, and to remain in Custody; and that Clipora's-Tower (the chief Fort in York) be still kept garison'd by the King's Party, until the Articles abovesaid be punctually per formed: And then the said Garison, and all Arms, Ammunition, and Cannon therein, be safely convoy'd to what Garison of the King's they please.
The Commissioners for the Besiegers expressed great dislike of these Propositions; and, after long Debate, three of them went to the Armies, to acquaint the Generals that employed them there with; from whom, after about two Hours stay, they brought a Paper, signed by them all three, offering the Town these Conditions; viz.
PROPOSITIONS tendred to the Marquiss.
Propositions tendred by the three Generals to the Marquiss.
That the City of York, and all the Forts, together with all Arms, Ammunition, and other Warlike Provisions whatsoever, in and about the same, be rendred and delivered up to us, for and to the Use of the King and Parliament, upon the Conditions following: viz.
That the Common Souldiers shall have free Liberty and Licence to depart and go to their own Homes, and to carry with them their Clothes and their own Money, (not exceeding fourteen Days Pay) and shall have safe Conduct and Protection of their Persons from Violence, they promising that they will not hereafter take up Arms against the Parliament, or Protestant Religion.
That the Citizens and ordinary Inhabitants of the said City shall have their Persons and Houses protected from Violence, and shall have the same free Trade and Commerce as others under Obedience of King and Parliament; and that no Regiments or Companies shall be admitted or quartered in the Town of York, except those that are appointed for the Garison thereof.
That the Officers of all Qualities shall have liberty to go to their own Homes, with Swords and Horses, and shall have Licence to carry their Apparel and Money along with them, (the Money not exceeding one Month's Means for every several Officer.)
Any Officer that shall be recommended by the Marquiss of Newcastle, shall have a Pass from one of the Generals to go beyond Seas, they promising not to serve against the Parliament and Protestant Religion.
That the Gentry, and other Inhabitants of the County of York now residing in the City of York, shall have liberty to go to their own Homes, and shall be protected from Violence.
That a positive Answer be returned to these Propositions by three of the clock to-morrow Afternoon, being the 15th Instant And, in case they shall not be then accepted, we shall not hold ourselves bound to them: And, in the mean time, we declare there's no Cessation after the three Hours already granted.
Upon Reading these Propositions, the Commissioners for York were very impatient, and so far from accepting them, that they would not carry a Copy of them to the Marquiss, and so the Treaty broke up without effect. But next Morning, General Lesley sent in a Copy by a Drummer; to which the Marquiss returned this Answer:
The Marquiss's ANSWER to the Generals Propositions.
The Marquiss's Letter efusing that last Propositions.
I have perused the Conditions and Demands your Lordship sent, but when I considered the many Professions made to avoid the Effusion of Christian Blood, I did admire to see such Propositions from your Lordships, conceiving this not the way to it: For I cannot suppose that your Lordships do imagine, that Persons of Honour can possible condescend to any of these Propositions; and so remain,
Your Lordships most Humble Servant,
York, 15 June, 1644.
The Cessation being now expired, the Souldiers both in the City and Leaguer, Musqueteers and Cannoneers, who all the Week before had Day and Night answered each other, did renew and increase their Assaults. Upon the sixteenth day, Manchester's Men having undermined a Tower belonging to the Mannor near Bootham-Bar, were compelled to spring the Mine (fn. 1), and accordingly the Tower was blown up, and in the Fall of it many Townsmen and Women killed: and this Breach being made, about two hundred of the Besiegers entred, and having scaled two or three Walls, possessed themselves of the Mannor. But the City being herewith alarmed, their Forces flocked thither from all Parts, and surrounded them, and blocked up the Breach, the only Way of Retreat; yet they fought resolutely as long as their Powder lasted, and then submitted; fifteen of them being killed, and sixty wounded, who, with about a hundred more, were made Prisoners. There were also killed before they entred the Breach about twenty, and forty wounded; so that in all that Day the Besiegers were computed to lose near three hundred Men.
From this time, till Monday, June the twenty-fourth, no extraordinary Action happen'd, but daily small Skirmishes, and Cannon playing frequently both Night and Day: But about four a-clock in the Morning, June 24. a Commanded Party of six hundred, sallied out from Munch-Bar, and furiously assaulted the Earl of Manchester's Leaguer; but, after a sharp Conflict, were obliged to retreat with Loss.
Notice of the Prince's Advance to York.; The Siege rais'd July 1.; The Prince relieves York.
On Sunday the 30th of June, towards Evening, the Generals had certain notice, that Prince Rupert, with his Army of near twenty thousand Men (for he had gathered all the Forces he could in his March; and Sir Charles Lucas with the Marquiss of Newcastle's Horse were joined with him) was advancing, and that he would quarter that Night at Knaresborough, or Burrough-brigg, (the former being not above fourteen, and the latter twelve Miles from York:) Whereupon, not thinking themselves able to fight him, and also continue the Siege, and supposing it safest to fight him with their whole Strength, resolved that Night and in the Morning to raise the Siege; and accordingly, on Monday the first of July, drew off all their Forces, Horse, and Foot, and Artillery, without any Loss, and marched to a great Moor, four or five Miles from York, on the South-West side of the River Owse, called (from the adjacent Villages) sometimes Hessam-Moor, but most commonly Marston-Moor; and there drew up in Battalia, expecting the Prince would have made that his way to York. But his Highness's Intent upon the Relief of the City, caused only a Party of his Horse to face the Enemy on the Moor, near a Bridge, where they might at pleasure secure their Retreat, and in the mean time himself with about two hundred Horse marched to York, on the other side the River; but his Foot and Ordnance quartered that Night in the Forest of Gortrey, within five Miles of the City.
The Life of William Duke of Newcastle, fol. 46.
The Prince and Marquis falling into Consultation; the Marquiss (as I find in his Life, said to be written by his Dutchess) "Desired his Highness not to attempt any thing as yet upon the Enemy; for he had Intelligence, that there was some Discontent between them, and that they were resolved to divide themselves and so to raise the Siege without fighting: Besides, that he expected within two Days Colonel Claverine, with above three thousand Men out of the North, and two thousand drawn out of several Garisons, (who also came at the same time, though it was then too late.) But his Highness answered my Lord, That he had a Letter from his Majesty, (then at Oxford) with a positive and absolute Command to fight the Enemy, which in Obedience, and according to his Duty, he was bound to perform. Whereupon my Lord reply'd, That he was ready and willing for his part to obey his Highness in all things, no otherwise than if his Majesty was there in Person himself. And though several of my Lord's Friends advised him not to engage in Battel, because the Command (as they said) was taken from him; yet my Lord answered them, That happen what would, he would not shun to fight, for he had no other Ambition but to live and die a Loyal Subject to his Majesty. And after the Army was drawn up, my Lord asking his Highness what Service he would be pleas'd to command him; he return'd him this Answer, That he would begin no Action upon the Enemy, till early in the Morning, desiring my Lord to repose himself till then: which my Lord did, and went to rest in his own Coach, which was close by in the Field; but had not been long there, but heard a great Noise and Thunder of Shooting, which gave him notice that the Armies were engaged—But to return.
The Description of the Battel at Marston-Moor, July 2. 1644.
The Parliamentarians finding themselves disappointed, and that the Prince had relieved the City without fighting, quartered themselves that Night at Long-Marston, and in the Towns adjacent; but a great Part of their Horse staid all Night upon the Moor. Next Day they resolv'd to march to Tadcaster, Cawood, and Selby, partly to possess the River, and thereby hinder him from furnishing York with Provisions out of the East-riding; as also to obstruct his March Southwards, he having scarce any other Way to march, the Earl of Denbigh and the Lancashire Forces being advancing from the West, whence he came.
Accordingly, on Tuesday, July the second, early in the Morning, their Foot and Artillery were commanded to march towards Tadcaster, the Scots leading the Van; but before they were arrived within a Mile of that Town, notice was given, That the Prince about nine a-clock, with the Van of his Army, consisting of five thousand Horse, was come upon the Moor, near Marston, and press'd close upon their Rear, and was drawing on the rest of his Forces, appearing resolved to fight them. Hereupon their Foot and Carriages were ordered back with all speed, (some of them being advanced four or five Miles.)
In the mean time both Parties were busy in drawing themselves up into Order: The Prince had possessed himself of so much of the Moor, and advanced so near them, that they had not liberty enough to draw up upon the Moor, but were forced to draw their Men into a large Field of Rye; which being a Rising Ground, the Prince sent a Party to hinder them of that Advantage, but they were beat back, and that Corn Field possessed by the Enemy; whose Pioneers made way to get ground, whereon to extend the Wings of their Army, placing their Right-Wing just by Marston-Town side, the Town on their Right-Hand, fronting on the East: and as their Foot and Horse came up, form'd their Battalia and Left-Wing, endeavouring to gain as much of the left Point as they could; so that at last their Army fronted to the Moor, from Marston to Topwith, being a Mile and an half in length. The Prince having part of his Foot beyond Owse, was as late as they before he had fully drawn up, but between two and three a-clock both Armies were pretty well formed.
The Prince, with the Forces drawn out of the City, had in the Field, in all, some fourteen thousand Foot, and nine thousand Horse, and about twenty-five Pieces of Ordnance: His Highness himself led on the Right-Wing of Horse, which had in it twelve Divisions, consisting of a hundred Troops, and might be five thousand Men. Their Left-Wing of Horse was commanded by Sir Charles Lucas and Colonel Hurry; but who commanded their main Body, whether General Goring, or Major-General Porter, or Major-General Tyliard, or all of them, I have not been able to learn: Nor do I and what particular Charge the Marquiss of Newcastle had this Day in the Field, though 'tis certain he was engaged very valiantly in the Battel.
On the other side, the three conjoined Armies, (by reason of the Parties they had sent forth, as into Lancashire, under Sir John Melarum, &c. which were not yet return'd, and the Men they had lost in this tedious Siege) were so much reduced, that they did not exceed the Prince's in number; but in that respect both Armies seemed pretty equal. Their Right-Wing of Horse was commanded by Sir Thomas Fairfax, consisting of eighty Troops, being his own, and part of the Scotch Horse. Next, in the main Battalia, was the Lord Fairfax, commanding the Foot towards the Right-Wing, consisting of all his own Infantry, and two Brigades of Scots for a Reserve: And towards the Left, General Leven, with the rest of the Scotish Foot, and two Brigades of the Earl of Manchester's, with six Regiments of Scots, and one of Manchester's Brigades for a Reserve. The Left-Wing of their Horse was commanded by Manchester, and his Lieutenant-General Cromwell, consisting of the Earl's whole Cavalry, and three Regiments of the Scotish Horse, under Major-General Lesley, making in all about seventy Troops. The Prince's Army extended in the Front somewhat further than theirs, and therefore on their Left-Hand, to secure the Flank, were placed the Scotish Dragoons, under the Command of Colonel Friel.
The Field-Word given by the Prince was, God and the King: by he other Party, God with Us. The great Ordnance on both sides began to play about three of the clock, but without doing any considerable Execution on either part. All things being ready about five a clock, there was a general Silence on each side, expecting who should begin the Charge; for that there was a small Ditch and a Bank between the two Armies, (tho they had drawn up their Wings within Musquet-shot) which either side must pass, if they would charge the other, which would be a Disadvantage, and apt to disorder them that should first attempt it. In this Posture they continued a considerable time, so that on each side it was believed there would be no Action that Night; but about seven a-clock in the Evening the Parliament's Generals resolv'd to fall on, and then the Signal being given, the Earl of Manchester's Foot, and the Scots of the main Body advanced in a running March, soon made their way over the Ditch, and gave a smart Charge.
The Front Divisions of Horse mutually charged, and particularly the respective opposite Right and Left-Wings meeting. The first Division of Prince Rapert's advanc'd, and with them his Highness, in Person, charged Cromweli's Division of three hundred Horse, in which he was in Person, and very hard put to it, being charged by Prince Rupert's bravest Men, both in Front and Flank, and stood at Swords Point a pretty while, hacking one another: But at last Cromwell broke through, and at the same time the rest of his Horse of that Wing, and Major-General Lesley's Regiments (who behaved themselves very well) had wholly broken all that Right Wing of the Prince's, and were in the chase of them beyond their Left-Wing: And the Earl of Manchester's Foot, on the right-hand of them, went on by their side almost as fast as they, dispersing and cutting down his Foot. The Marquiss of Newcastle's Regiment of White-Coats were almost wholly cut off, for they scorn'd to fly, and were slain in Rank and File; and the rest of that part of their Army which escaped killing or being taken Prisoners, fled in confusion towards York.
But the Prince's left Wing, led by Colonel Hurry, had better success, and did as much to the Parliament's Right; for though Sir Thomas Fairfax, with Colonel Lambert, and five or six Troops charged through them, and went to their own Left-Wing, the rest of his Troops were defeated: And the Lord Fairfax's Brigade being furiously assaulted, and at the same time disorder'd by some of Sir Thomas Fairfax's new raised Regiments, who wheeled about, and being hotly pursued, flying back upon them, and the Reserve of Scotish Foot, broke them wholly, and trod many of them under foot; so that their Right-Wing, and part of their main Body were routed, and fled out of the Field several Miles towards Tadcaster and Cawood, giving out, that all was lost.
Things being in this Condition, the Royalists pursuing, and just ready to seize all the Carriages, Cromwell with his Horse, and Manchester's Foot came back from the Chase of the Prince's Right-Wing, and perceiving their Friends in the mean time thus worsted, advanced in good Order to a second Charge with all the Prince's Horse and Foot, that had thus disordered their Right-Wing and main Battel; who seeing their Approach, gave over the Pursuit, and prepared to receive them; both sides being not a little surpriz'd to see they must fight it over again, for that Victory which each thought they had already gain'd. However, the Royalists marched with great Resolution down the Corn-Field, the Face of the Battel being exactly counter-changed; for now the King's Forces stood on the same Ground, and with the same Front that the Parliament's Right-Wing before stood to receive their Charge: And the Parliament's Forces in the same Ground, and with the same Front as the King's did when the Fight began.
The Battel thus renewed, grew very desperate; but in fine, after the utmost Efforts of Strength and Courage on either side, Victory wholly inclined to the Parliament's Forces, who before ten of the clock, had cleared the Field, and not only recovered their own Ordnance and Carriages, which were in so much danger, but took all the Prince's Train of Artillery that he brought into the Field, and followed the Chase with great Slaughter within a Mile of York.
There were taken Prisoners of Note, Sir Charles Lucas, Lieutenant-General of the Marquiss of Newcastle's Horse; Major-General Porter, Major-General Tilyard, and the Lord Goring's Son; and near an hundred other Officers, fifteen hundred common Soldiers, twenty-five Pieces of Ordnance, one hundred and thirty Barrels of Powder, several thousand Arms, and, as was computed, about an hundred Colours; for which, though there was a Proclamation made to bring them in to the Generals, yet the Soldiers had already torn to pieces most of them, delighting to wear the Shreds in their Hats: Some of them sent up to the Parliament, by Captain Stewart, were,
- Prince Rupert's Standard, with the Arms of the Palatine, near five Yards long and broad, with a Red Cross in the middle.
- A Black Coronet, with a black and yellow Fringe, and a Sword brandished from the Clouds, with this Motto—Terribilis ut Acies ordinata.
- A Willow-Green, with the Portraicture of a Man, holding in one Hand Knot, in the other a Sword, and this Word—This shall untie it. Another coloured, with a Face, and this Motto, Aut Mors, aut Vita decora.
- A Yellow Coronet, in its middle a Lion couchant, and behind him a Mastiff seeming to snatch at him, and in a Label from his Mouth written, Kimbolton; at his Feet little Beagles, and before their Mouths written—Pym, Pym, Pym; and out of the Lion's Mouth these Words proceeding—Quousque tandem abutêre Patientiâ nostrâ?
There was also taken the Marquiss of Newcastle's Cabinet and Papers, and amongst them (as was said) certain Letters written to him by Sir John Hotham, and his Excellency's Commission from the King, constituting him General of all the Forces raised, and to be raised North of Trent, and of several Eastern Counties, and impowering him to confer the Honour of Knighthood upon such Persons as he should conceive deserved it, (which Privilege he had exercised and made, in all, the Number of twelve Knights:) As also to coin Money, and Print whensoever he saw occasion for it; which Letters and Commission were sent up to the Parliament.
Touching the Numbers slain on either side, in this Battel, the same is uncertain; the Countrymen (who were commanded to bury the Corps) gave out, That they interr'd four thousand one hundred and fifty Bodies. It was generally reported, that at least three thousand of the Prince's Men were killed: But the Parliament-Party would not acknowledge in all their three Armies above three hundred slain.
A LETTER to the Committee of both Kingdoms.
A Letter from the three Generals, and the Committee with the Armies, to the Committee of both Kingdoms, July 5. 1644.
Since our last to your Lordships, the Condition of our Affairs is not a little changed; for on Monday last, upon notice of Prince Rupert's marching from Knaresborough towards us, we resolv'd, and accordingly drew out the Armies to have met him; and for that end did march that same Night to Long Marston-Moor, about four Miles off the West stat of York: but he having notice thereof, aid pass with his Army at Burrough-brigg, and so put the River of Ouse between him and us, whereby we were disenabled to oppose his Passage into York, the Bridge we built on the West-side of the Town being so weak, that we durst not adventure to transport our Armies upon it: This made us resolve the next Morning to march to Tadcaster, for stopping of his Passage Southward: And the Armies being so far on their way, as the Van was within a Mile of it: notice was sent to us by our Horse-men, who were upon our Rear, that the Prince's Army, Horse and Foot, were advanced the length of Long Marston-Moor, Order Book and was ready to fall upon them: Whereupon we recalled the Army, and drew them up on a Corn-Hill, upon the South-side of the Moor, in the best waywe could, so far as the straightness of the Fields, and other Disadvantagesof the Place could permit. Before both Armies were in a readiness, it was seven a-clock at night, about which time they advanc'd the one to the other; whereupon followed a very hot Encounter for the space of three Hours, whereof (by the great Blessing and good Providence of Goa) the Issue was, the total routing of the Enemies Army, the Loss of all their Ordnance, to the number of twenty, their Ammunition and Baggage, about a hundred Colours, and ten thousand Arms; there were killed upon the Place about three thousand of them, whereof many are chief Officers; and fifteen hundred Prisoners taken, amongst whom there were above a hundred Officers, in which number is Sir Charles Lucas, Lieutenant-General to the Marquiss of Newcastle's Horse; Major-General Porter, and Major-General Tilyard, besides divers Colonels, Lieutenant-Colonels, and Majors.
Our Loss (God be praised) is not very great, being only one Lieutenant-Colonel, some few Captains, and about two or three hundred common Soldiers. The Prince, in a great Distraction, with a few Horse-men, and almost no Foot, marched the next Morning from York Northwards. We are now lying down in our old Leaguer before York, which we are in hopes in a few Days to gain, and are resolv'd to send a great part of our Cavalry after Prince Rupert. We having nothing to add, but as the Glory of all the Success belongeth to God; and the Benefit, we hope, shall redound to the whole Kingdom: We have appointed this next Sabbath for a Day of publick Thanksgiving throughout the Armies, so your Lordships would appoint a Day for the some, to be kept throughout the Kingdom, and notice sent to us thereof, that we may all together join in it, and we shall continue
Your Lordships most Affectionate Friends and Servants,
From the Leaguer before York, 5 July, 1644.
Cromwell, who was acknowledged by all to be a great Agent in this Victory, was wounded in the Neck, but not dangerously: Sir Thomas Fairfax carried himself with great Bravery, and being unhors'd and flung on the ground, and wounded in the Head and Face, was relieved and carried off by a Party of his own Horse. On the King's side abundance of Gentlemen expressed wonderful Courage, and charged with as much Resolution as could be expected from Men; insomuch that it was then confidently reported, Prince Rupert should say—I am sure my Men fought well, and know no Reason of our Rout, but this; Because the Devil did help his Servants.
The very next Morning after the Battel, the Marquiss of Newcastle took a resolution to forsake the Kingdom, and therefore taking leave of the Prince, went out of York, conducted by a Troop of Horse and Dragoons, to Scarborough; where two Ships being ready to set sail for Hamburgh, he embarqued himself and his Company therein, having with him his two Sons. (Charles Viscount Mansfield, and Henry Lord Cavedaish) his Brother Sir Charles Cavendish; Dr. Bramhall Bishop of London-Derry; the Lord Falconbridge, the Lord Widrington, the Earl of Elthyne, Lieutenant-General of his Army, the Lord Corn-worth, and Sir William Carnaby; and in four days time arrived at Hamburgh, viz. on the eighth of July: and the Marquiss came no more into England, till the miraculous Restauration of King Charles II.
Likewise Prince Rupert on the Wednesday, next day after the Battel, leaving Sir Thomas Glemham Governour of York, drew out what Forces he could rally together to a Rendevouz about Burrough-brig, twelve Miles North from York, and attended the coming up of Colonel Clavering and his Forces, and afterwards marched into Lancashire.
The Parliament's Armies kept the Field that Night they sought, and were quartered in Villages thereabouts next day, to refresh themselves; but on Thursday the fourth of July, drew down to their old Leaguer before York, and towards night summoned the Town to surrender upon Mercy: Whereunto answer was return'd by Sir Thomas Glemham and the Mayor, That they could not yield it up upon such Terms. So the Soldiers went vigorously on with their Attacks and Batteries. On Sunday the seventh of July, was throughout the whole Army a publick Thanksgiving for their late Success: And upon Thursday the eleventh of July having made their Approaches almost up to the very Walls, prepared their Ladders, and all things requisite for Storming; the Besieged desired a Treaty: whereupon on Saturday-Morning, Sir William Constable and Colonel Lambert, upon Hostages given for their Security and safe Return, were sent into the City, who having spent that day in Parley, return'd with request to the three Generals, that Commissioners might be authorized to treat and conclude upon Articles for the peaceable Surrender of the City; who appointed the Lord Humbee, Sir William Constable, Sir Adam Hepborn, and Colonel Montague: who having concluded, on Monday about Noon came back with the Articles to be signed by the Generals, being as followeth.
The Articles agreed upon for the Surrender of York, July 15. 1644.
ARTICLES agreed upon, between Alexander Earl of Leven, General of the Scotish Forces, Ferdinando Lord Fairfax, and the Earl of Manchester, Generals of the English Forces about York, on the one part; And Sir Thomas Glemham, Knight, Governour of the City of York, and Colonel-General of the Northern Army, of the other part; anent the Surrender and Delivery of the said City, with the Forts, Towers, Cannon, Ammunition, and Furniture of War belonging thereunto, in manner after specified, to the said Generals, for the Use of the King and Parliament, the 15th Day of July, 1644.
The said Sir Thomas, as Governour of the said City, shall surrender and deliver up the same, with the Forts, Tower, Ammunition and Furniture of War belonging thereunto, between this and the sixteenth of July Instant, at or about the eleventh Hour thereof in the Forenoon, to the said Generals, or any in their Names, for the Use aforesaid, in Manner and upon the Conditions after-written.
That the Governour and all Officers and Soldiers, both Horse and Foot; the Governours, Officers, and Soldiers of Clifford's-Tower, the Officers and Soldiers of the Sconce, the Officers and Soldiers belonging to the Train and Out-works; shall march out of the City on Horse back, and with their Arms, Flying Colours, Drums beating, Matches sighted on both Ends, Bullets in their Mouths, and with all their Bag and Baggage; that every Soldier shall have twelve Charges of Powder.
That the Officers and Soldiers shall not march above ten Miles a day: That they have Accommodation of Quarter and Convenience of Carriages; that a Troop of Horse out of every of the three Armies, shall attend upon them for their Convoy in their March (that no Injury or Affront be offered them) to Skipton, or the next Garison-Town, within sixteen Miles of the Prince's Army.
That such Officers and Soldiers as are sick and hurt, and cannot march out of the Town, shall have liberty to stay within, till they be recovered, and then shall have Passes given them to go into the Prince's Army, wherever it shall be, or to their own Houses and Estates, where they may rest quiet; or whither else they shall please: That it may be recommended to my Lord Fairfax for their Subsistence, during their Cure or being ill.
All Officers and Soldiers Wives, Children and Servants, now in Town, may have liberty to go along with their Husbands, or to them; or if they please to return to their own Houses and Estates, to enjoy them under such Contributions as the rest of the Country pays: That they may have liberty to carry with them their Goods, and have a convenient time, and Carriages allowed to carry them away.
That no Officer or Soldier shall be stopped or plundered upon his March.
That no Man shall intice any Officer or Soldier, as he marches out of the Town, with any Promises of Preferment or Reward, or any other Grounds whatsoever.
That the Citizens and Inhabitants may enjoy all their Privileges which formerly they did at the beginning of these Troubles, and may have Freedom of Trade both by Land and Sea, paying such Duties and Customs as all other Cities and Towns under the Obedience of the King and Parliament.
That the Garison that shall be placed here, shall be two parts of three, at the least, of Yorkshire-men; and no free Quarter shall be put upon any without his own Consent, and that the Armies shall not enter the City.
That in all Charges, the Citizens resident and Inhabitants shall bear such part with the County at large, as was formerly used in all other Assessments.
That all Citizens, Gentlemen, and Residents, Sojourners, and every other Person within the City, shall at any time when they please, have free Liberty to remove themselves, their Families, and Goods, and to dispose thereof, and of their Estates at their pleasure, according to the Law of the Land; either to live at their own Houses, or elsewhere, and to enjoy their Goods and Estates without Molestation, and to have Protection and Safeguard for that purpose; so that they may rest quietly at their Abode, or travel freely and safely on their Occasions: and for their better removal, they shall be furnished with Carriages, paying for their Carriages reasonable Rates.
That all those Gentlemen and others whatsoever, that have Goods within the City, and are absent themselves, may have free Liberty to take, carry away, and dispose of those Goods as in the last Article.
That neither Churches, nor other Buildings be defaced, nor any plundering, or taking of any Man's Person, or any part of his Estate; and that Justice according to Law, within the City, shall be administred in all Cases by the Magistrates, and be assisted therein, if need be, by the Garison.
That all Persons, whose Dwellings are in the City, though now absent, may have the Benefit of these Articles, as if they were present in the City.
But before the Generals signed, and returned a Counter-part of these Articles, they added the Explanation following:
An additional Explanation of the Articles.
By the Articles of Agreement, touching the Rendition of the City of York, the Generals of the Armies have treated as Generals in reference only to themselves and their Soldiers, and it was not intended to tntrench upon any Ordinances of Parliament; but all such Persons and Estates as were subject to Sequestrations, might still be liable and subject thereunto, notwithstanding any general Words in the Articles: And thus these Generals do declare under their Hands. And the Commissioners of the Treaty do declare, That they did several times, during the Treaty, express to the other Commissioners, that they had no Order to meddle with any Ordinance of Parliament, or to go further than the Bounds of the Army. Subscribed by
Ferd. Fairfax. Manchester.
York surrender'd July 16.
Accordingly on Tuesday the 16th of July, the Forces in the City marched forth, the Besiegers being drawn up on both sides the way, for the space of a Mile from Michael-Gate, for them to pass through between them; they were in number about a thousand, besides Sick and Wounded. Then the three Generals went together into the City, directly to the Minster-Church, where a Psalm was sung, and Thanks returned to God by Mr. Robert Douglas, the Earl of Leven's Chaplain; and Thursday following appointed to be kept solemnly by the whole Army, as a Day of Thanksgiving.
Some of Manchester's Troopers pillage contrary to Articles.
But the Forces that went out of York, passing the next day through the Horse-Quarters of Manchester's Army, some of the Troopers fell upon their Carts and Waggons, and took away Clothes, Plate, and Money, contrary to Articles, of which the Generals having notice, expressed themselves much offended: and Manchester having used divers Means to discover the Offenders and Goods, that they might be restored, caused the following Declaration to be published in the Head of every Troop of Horse under his Command.
A DECLARATION Published by the Earl of Manchester.
A Declaration against them, commanding Restitution.
Being informed that divers Soldiers and Troopers under my Command, did plunder divers Waggons and Carriages belonging to the Enemy, when they came out of York, and were by the Generals articled with, to have safe Conduct for their Persons, Arms, and Baggage: And forasmuch as Endeavours having been used to discover in whose Hands the Goods so plundered are, the Success is without any considerable Effect hitherto: I do hereby declare, that if any Person who hath had a hand in this Action, so much to be abhorred by all honest Men, (being a Breach of Faith, which being once given, ought by all professing, Christianity inviolatly to be observed) and shall, out of a true Remorse for their Offence, within two Days after publication hereof, bring into the hanas of the several Captains respectively of his or their said Troops respectively, to which he or they belong, all such Money, Plate, Horse, Arms, or other Goods so taken, as aforesaid; they shall be freed from Punishment for such his or their Offence. But if any Trooper or other Soldier, shall, through Obstinacy, wickedly aeain any of the things before mentioned, beyond the time hereby limited for them to be brought in; or shall not at least acquaint his Captain, Lieutenant, or other Officer with his Resolution so to do, in case the said Goods be not now in his or their hanas, and by reason thereof cannot be restored within the time appointed; the said Person or Persons so offending, shall expect no Favour or Mercy at all, but the uttermost Severity, being Death by the Articles of War, published by his Excellency the Earl of Essex in that behalf. Given under my Hand, 25 July, 1644.
York being thus surrendred, the three Armies thought fit to separate; and upon Consultation between the Generals and the Parliament's Commissioners, it was agreed,
How the three Armies dispose of themselves.
- 1. That the Lord Fairfax should remain at York, as Governour of that City, and send a thousand Horse into Lancashire, to join with the Forces of that County, and of Cheshire and Derbyshire, to attend the Motions of Prince Rupert, who was marched that way, and endeavour the reducing of Leverpool, and with the rest of his Forces to secure the County of York.
- 2. That the Scotish Army should march Northward, to join with the Earl of Calendar, who was advancing with additional Forces, and to reduce Newcastle.
- 3. That the Earl of Manchester should march towards Lincolnshire, and recruit his Army from his own Association.
Accordingly on Saturday the 20th of July, the Earl of Manchester advanced Southward, and quartered his Foot that Night and Sunday at Todcaster, and on Monday marched to Ferry-briggs, and passed near Pontefract-Castle, (a strong Garison of the King's;) but being only upon a March, did not think fit to set down before it. Tuesday the 23d, he came to Doncaster, and from thence sent a Party under Lieutenant-Colonel John Liburn to take in Tickhili-Castle, about five Miles from thence; which being summoned, desired a Parley, and sent Commissioners to his Lordship's Quarters at Doncaster; where it was agreed, the Castle should be surrendered on the 26th, with all the Arms, Ordnance, Colours, Drums, and Provisions: The Governour, Officers, and Soldiers to pass quietly to their homes unplundered and not molested. The Governour and Officers only to go out with their Horses, Swords, and Pistols; and the same was surrendred accordingly: There being found one Iron-Piece mounted, one hundred Musquets, sixteen Horse and Arms, a hundred Quarters of Grain, many Barrels of Butter, some Beasts and Sheep, and other Provisions. But the Lord Manchester gave the Commanders several Horses to carry away their Baggage, and each of their Wives an Horse to ride on.
Aug. 1. The Earl from Doncaster sent Major-General Craford, and part of his Forces, viz. twelve hundred Foot, and a Regiment of Horse to Sheffield, where in the Castle was a Garison of the King's, a Place of considerable Strength, both for natural Situation and Fortifications; for it stood in a Triangle of two Rivers, the Water deep on the West and East sides, a strong Fort before the Gate, pallisado'd; a Trench twelve Foot deep and eighteen Foot broad, about the Fort, and the other parts of the Castle; and a Breast-work pallisado'd within the Trench, betwixt it and the Castle. The People of Sheffield were generally favouring the Parliament's Party, and therefore entertain'd their Soldiers very kindly, and assisted them in casting up their Works against the Castle: which standing out very resolutely, they were forced to send to York for an Iron Demi-Cannon, and that great Piece commonly called the Queen's Pocket-Pistol; which being brought up, they therewith battered it so violently, that the Governour on the 10th of August thought fit to parley, and at last agreed on the following Articles.
ARTICLES of Agreement between the Commanders Authorized by Major-General Craford, and Major Thomas Beamont, Governour of Sheffield-Castle, for surrendring the said Castle to the Right Honourable the Earl of Manchester, upon the Conditions following:
Articles for surrendring Sheffield-Castle, Aug., 10.
That the Castle of Sheffield, with all their Fire-Arms, Ordnance and Ammunition, and all other Furniture of War, with all other Provisions therein (except what is allowed in the following Articles) be delivered up to Major-General Craford, to-morrow in the afternoon by three of the clock being the 11th of this Instant August, without any Diminution or Embezlement.
That the Governour and all Field-Officers, Captains, Lieutenants, and Ensigns, shall march out of the Castle upon the Delivery thereof with their Drums and Colours, and each his own Horse, Saddle, Sword, and Pistols, to Pontefract-Castle, or such other Place as they shall desire, with a sufficient Convoy or Pass for their Security; and the common Soldiers, with the inferiour Officers, to march out with their Swords and Pikes, each to his own Home, or where else they please.
That all such Officers and Soldiers as march out upon this Agreement, shall have liberty to carry with them their Wives, Children, and Servants, with their own Goods properly belonging to them, and have all convenient Accommodation for carrying the same.
That the Lady Savile, with her Children and Family with her, and their own proper Goods, shall, and may pass with Coaches, Horses, and Waggons, to Thome-hill, or elsewhere, with a sufficient Guard befitting the Quality of her Person, without Injury to any of their Persons, or plundering any of their Goods. Or otherwise, she or they, or any of them to go or stay at their own pleasure, until she or they be in a Condition to remove themselves.
That the Gentlemen in the Castle, being no Soldiers, shall march out with each his own Horse, Saddle, Sword, and Pistols, and shall have liberty to remove their Goods, and to live at their own Houses, or elsewhere, without molestation, they conforming themselves to all Ordinances of Parliament: And that they shall have Protections from the Earl of Manchester or Lord Fairfax for the same; and all Officers and Soldiers who desire to lay down Arms, shall enjoy the same Protection.
That the Governour, Officers, Soldiers, Gentlemen, and all others who are by this Agreement to carry their Goods with them, shall have six Weeks time for the removing of them; and in the mean time they are to be left in the Castle, and secured from Embezzling; and this Article is to be understood of all such Goods as are at present either within the Castle, or under the absolute Command thereof.
That Kelme Homer, now dwelling in the Castle, shall have liberty to remove his Goods into the Town, or elsewhere, without molestation.
That all Officers and Soldiers, Gentlemen and other Persons, shall according to the Articles above-mentioned, march out of the Castle without any injury or molestation, by plundering, stripping, or otherwise.
That Hostages (such as Major-General Craford shall approve) be delivered by the Governour upon signing these Articles, for the Delivery up of the Castle, and safe Return of the Convoy; which Hostages shall be returned safe, upon the Performance thereof, unto such Places as they shall desire.
Signed by us the Commissioners authorized by Major-General Craford, at Sheffield, this 10th day of August, 1644.
Signed by us the Commissioners authorized by Major Tho. Beamont, Governour of Sheffield-Castle, at Sheffield, this 10th day of August, 1644.
Next day the Lady Savile, with her Retinue, marched forth of the Castle, with her Coach to Woodhouse, having a Convoy thither. The Governour also marched out with about two hundred Soldiers. The Booty got in this Castle was some hundreds of Granadoes, a great quantity of round Shot, from the Cannon to the Minion, ten Barrels of Powder, eight Iron-Pieces, two Mortar-pieces, five hundred Arms, and such abundance of Provision, that the same was sold to the Town of Sheffield for two hundred and fifty Pound, for the Use of the Army.
Col. Fretchwell's House surrendred, Aug. 12.
Aug. 12. Craford summoned Colonel Fretchwell's House, and obtained it to be surrendred without Blows; where he got eleven Iron-Guns, three hundred Arms, and a considerable quantity of Powder, and that the Colonel should slight his Works, which were very strong.
Balsover-Castle surrendred, Au. 14.
On the 14th he drew his Forces before Balsover-Castle, and began to erect his Batteries, but was prevented by the coming of a Drum from the Castle for a Parley, which concluded in Articles of Surrender: That Major Edward Muschamp the Governour, should the next day surrender the Castle, with all Fire-Arms, Ordnance, Ammunition, Furniture of War, and Provisions: The Governour, Officers, and Gentlemen to march out with Drums and Colours, Horses, Swords, and Pistols; Troopers with Swords and Horses; common Soldiers with Swords and Pikes; and to carry with them their own proper Goods. They were con voy'd to Newark; but the Governour straying from his Convoy, was pillaged of all: whereupon Colonel Pickering gave him Arms and Horse befitting his Quality, and sent him with a Guard to the Convoy. In this Castle were found six Pieces of Ordnance, three hundred Fire-Arms, ten Barrels of Powder, Match and Bullet proportionable, but little Provision.
Wingfield-Mannor yielded Aug. 21.
Their next Attempt was upon Wingfield-Mannor, a strong House in Derbyshire; where they found Sir John Gell lying before it, with about five hundred Foot, and six hundred Horse: and having joined their Forces, and placed their great Ordnance with his Brass and Iron-Culverings; after they had played some time, and made a Breach, Craford summoned the Castle, which was on the 21st of August surrendred by Colonel Molineux the Governour, upon Articles much the same as those of Sheffield. In the Place were five hundred Arms, four Barrels of Powder, eight Pieces of Ordnance, and a good quantity of Provision.
Welbeck-House surrendred to Manchester, Aug. 2.
Whilst these things were a doing by Major-General Craford, the Earl of Manchester himself summoned Welbeck-House in Nottingham-Shire, (the Mansion Habitation of the Marquiss of Newcastle) which was surrendred, and in it eight Pieces of Ordnance, two hundred Musquets, and Store of Match and Bullet. The Care of the House was left to Colonel Thorney, but the Marquiss of Newcastle's Daughters, the Lord Witherington's Children, and others, were suffered to continue there.
On Sunday the 4th of August, some Troops of the Earl's being quartered at Tuxford in the Clay, within ten Miles of Newark, Colonel Eyre, with about two hundred or three hundred Horse, marched from Newark in the Night through the Forest; and avoiding their Out-guard, being two Troops, which stood two Miles from Tuxford towards Newark, by marching a private way, suddenly beat up their Quarters at Tuxford, killed a Lieutenant and a Quarter-Master, and some common Troopers, and carried away eight Prisoners and some Horses.
On Monday, August, 5. Manchester drew his Army to Gainsborough, twelve Miles from Lincoln, and quartered his Foot there, and in the Towns thereabouts, but himself rode to Lincoln; and Craford and his Party returning out of Derbyshire towards the end of that Month, came also to Gainsborough and Parts adjacent.
The Scots Marches and Actions after the taking of York.; The Earl of Calendar.
General Leven taking his March from York towards Newcastle on the first of August, sent away Major-General Lesley with three Regiments of Horse, and one Regiment of Dragoons before, to join with and assist the Earl of Calendar, (who was some time since entred England with a Reserve of ten thousand Scots) till such time as he might come up with the Body of his Army. That Earl having taken Hartlepool and Stockton, advanced to Newcastle on the 26th of July, and endeavoured to possess himself of Gate-side; and many Skirmishes passed thereupon between his Forces and those of the Town: but at last he made himself Master of it, and so block'd up the Town on that side. About the 10th of August, General Leven came up with his Army, and passing the Tyne, set down on the North-side of the Town, which was now closely besieged, and three thousand Country-men summoned to bring in Mattocks, Spades, and Shovels, and labour in the Trenches. The Town being well provided, and having a strong Garison, held out very resolutely, as will appear by the following Passages.
To the Mayor, Aldermen, Common-Council, and Burgesses of the Town of Newcastle.
A Letter from the Committee of both Kingdoms to the Town of Newcastle, Sept. 7. 1644.
The Answers you have returned to the several Letters you formerly received from those now in the Service of the King and Parliament, sufficiently manifest and declare to all the World your evil Dispositions and Affections to their Affairs; and your Hands may one day rise up against you in Judgment, if you prevent it not. But that no honest Ways or lawful Means may be left unessayed for the Good of the Town, (if the Lord please to open the Eyes of the Inhabitants to fee what is for his Glory and their own Weal) We, the Committees of both Kingdoms, have thought fit once more to invite you for your own Benefit, to treat about that Love and Obedience, which you seem to say in your last to the Lord General's Excellency, you declare to all the World you bear to King and Parliament. To which Tryal and Test we do now the more earnestly incite you, to the end the further Effusion of Christian Blood may be prevented, and a right Understanding amongst those that seem to make profession at least, as you do, of one and the same Ends, obtained.
And because we have seen by experience, you have heretofore trusted to rotten Reeds and broken Staves, (and peradventure, some amongst you may persuade you to do so still) not trusting only to your own Strength within, but also relying upon others without your Walls, who may fail you, if you lean upon them, and in your greatest Confidence utterly deceive you, and by that means bring you suddenly to ruin: Consider sadly of your present Condition; and though it should not please God to give you his Grace to do as true-hearted English-men, loyal and faithful to the Crown of England, and the true Religion therein professed, ought to do, yet endeavour to acquit yourselves like rational Men; which is the last Advice, in this kind, you are like to receive from us,
Your Friends, if you hearken to our Advice,
Sinclair. Will. Armyne.
Elswick, 7 Sept. 1644.
Signed in the Name and by the Warrant of the Committee of both Kingdoms.
The Town hearkened not to these Persuasions, and the Siege being now much advanced, and the Mines and Batteries in readiness, the Scotch General sent them the following Summons.
General Leven's Summons to Neucastle, Octob. 14.
We Alexander Earl of Leven, Lord General of the Scotish Armies, that it may be more manifest, and appear to all Men how exceedingly we desire you to prevent those Evils which cannot be longer avoided: Notwithstanding you have been formerly invited by our several Letters in all fair manner, to think on those Ways which might conduce to your Welfare, do by these Presents require and summon you to give us and surrender the Town of Newcastle to us, to be kept for the Use of the King and Parliament: That Citizens and Soldiers may be safe, and the Town being preserved from Ruin, may enjoy the Fruits of settled Peace, whereof other Towns reduced to the same just Obedience do now literally taste. You are likewise earnestly desired by no means to conceal this our last Offer and Warning from the Citizens and Soldiers, as you will be answerable to God, and those when it may concern. If in these things you fail, you may then expect the Extremities of War; and we profess ourself, and the Army under our Conduct to be altogether, free and innocent of whatsoever Bloodshed and other Calamities may ensue through your Obstinacy. Hereto we expect a present Answer. Given under my Hand at Elswick before Newcastle, 14 Octob, 1644.
To the Mayor, Aldermen, and Common-Council of the Town of Newcastle.
The Town's Answer, Octob. 5.
We have received your Letter, wherein you require and summon us to give up and surrender the Town, as you say for the Use of King and Parliament, alledging divers Reasons, mixed with Threats, to move us thereunto; all which we have well weighed and considered; and as formerly, so now return this Answer, That we declare to you and all the World, that we keep this Town for the Use of his Majesty; and that we have full Power and Authority from his Majesty so to do: and of either you or any other can show us better or later Warrant from his Majesty, we will submit. And although we neither dare nor will acknowledge, that Disloyalty to our lawful King (which you can reducing to just Obedience) is the Way to preserve us from Ruin, and to enjoy the Fruits of a settled Peace; yet, that you and all the World may see we desire to shun the Effusion of Christian Blood, we desire you to send us in Weiting, upon what Terms and Conditions you would have us deliver up the Town, and then we shall return you a further Answer, which we hope will be satisfactory. And if this will not give you content, proceed and prosper as your Cause requires, and let the Blood that is or shall be spilt, lie upon their Souls and Consciences that deserve it: And if we be in the fault, let this subscribed under our Hands, testify against us.
Octob. 15. 1644.
John Marlay, Mayor.
Nich. Cole, &c.
Subscribed in all by thirty Persons of Note.
To this the same day Leven returned an Answer, desiring that Hostages might be sent from either side, and some appointed to treat touching Terms and Conditions. To which, Sir John Marlay and the rest, Octob. 16. reply, That as to sending Hostages, they do not hold they have Power as Mayor, Aldermen, and Common-Council, but solely to be in Mr. Mayor, as he is Governour of the Military Affairs. Whereupon the same day Leven addressed a Letter to Sir John Marlay, desiring from him the Names of Hostages and Commissioners: Who, Octob. 17. desires the Earl to name his Commissioners first, that he might suit them as to their Qualities, having no Noblemen in the Town, but two of the Earl's Countrymen And after some other Letters had passed, the Commissioners were named as followeth:
Names of Commissioners to treat.
For the Town.
Sir John Marlay, Kt. and Governour.
Sir Nicholas Cole, Knight Baronet
Sir George Baker, Knight.
For the Besiegers.
Sir Adam Hepburn.
Sir David Hume.
These met in the Town, and after three or four Hours Debate, finding the Governour very high, concluded on nothing: But after their Return, the Commissioners for the Town sent the Earl of Leven this Letter:
The Town's Letter to Leven, 18 Octob.
We have had some Discourse this Day with your Commissioners; but you have bound them to have our Answers to your Demands in so short a time, as we could not give them that Satisfaction as we would gladly, considering they demanded that which was not according to your Proportions; namely, his Majesty's Honour and the Welfare of Newcastle. But we are so unwilling to see Christian Blood shed, as that if you please to rest satisfied till Monday, we shall then, God willing, send you such Propositions as we hope will give content. If this will not serve, we trust God will deliver us out of your hands; and so we rest
Your loving Friends,
Newcastle, Octob. 18. 1644.
To which the same Night Leven sent this Answer.
I received your Letter this Night at eight a-clock; wherein you shew that you had some Discourse with the Commissioners sent from this Place, and alledge, they demanded that which was not according to my Propositions, namely, his Majesty's Honour and the Welfare of Newcastle; and promise to send Propositions on Monday next. As your Assertion of the Commissioners Demands is more than you can make good, that they were against either his Majesty's Honour on the Welfare of the Town of Newcastle; so I admire how you are not ashamed, still to continue in your dilatory Way, and draw on the Guilt of innocent Blood upon your Head. You demanded a Treaty, and Commissioners to be sent into Newcastle, which was accordingly granted; who expected that you should have proposed Conditions and Propositions to them, whereby a happy and peaceable Conclusion might have been made. And albeit you would neither propose to them, nor suffer any thing to be put in Writing, yet they were content so far to open themselves to you, even in the Particulars that could have been demanded either for the Officers or Soldiers, Townsmen or Strangers, that no better Conditions had been given to any Town reduced to the Obedience of King and Parliament within England. This your dealing makes it too apparent, that, whatever your Pretences be, your Intentions have not been real: Yet such is my earnest Desire and real Intention to shun the Effusion of Christian Blood, that I have caused to draw up such honourable Conditions, as you cannot in reason refuse, which I have herewith sent you: Whereunto if you agree, I desire that you send to my Lord Sinclair his Quarters at Sandgate, tomorrow being the 19th of October, at or before six a-clock in the morning, four or five sufficient Hostages, for Delivery of the Town upon these Conditions, by Monday the 21st. at two a-clock in the Afternoon. And if you fail of sending out these Hostages at the Hour appointed, I shall take it as a Refusal, and give up all Treaty; and in the mean time, no Cessation till the Hostages come out upon the Conditions aforesaid, whom we expect before or at eight a-clock, or not at all. So I rest.
Elswick before Newcastle, October 18.
CONDITIONS whereupon the Surrender of the Town of Newcastle,
the Castle and Forts thereof, with all the Ordnance, Ammunition, and other Warlike Furniture thereto belonging, are demanded by his Excellency the Earl of Leven, Lord-General of the Scotish Army, to be kept by him for the Use of his Majesty and the Parliament of England.
Earl of Leven's Propositions to the Town of Newcastle.
That the Officers and Soldiers who desire to go out of Towns shall have liberty to pass with their Arms, Bag, and Baggage to what Place they please, the same not being already beleaguered; and shall have a safe Convoy thither, it being within forty Miles distance, and shall be accommodated with Draughts in their March.
That all Strangers, Residents, Sojourners, or Inhabitants, who desire to go out of Town with the aforesaid Officers or Soldiers, shall have the like Liberty, Convoy, and Accommodation.
That sick and hurt Soldiers shall have all necessary Accommodation, till their Recovery, and shall have a safe Conduct as aforesaid.
That the Citizens, Burgesses, and Inhabitants, shall have their Persons, Houses, Families, and Goods kept from Violence, and shall have the same free Liberty of Trade and Commerce, as any other Town reduced to the Obedience of the King and Parliament.
That their Privileges, Liberties, and Jurisdiction shall be preserved inviolate, conform to their antient Charters in manner above-written.
If any of the said Citizens, Inhabitants, or others presently within the Town, shall desire to go and live in their Country-Houses, they shall have Protection and Safeguard for their Persons and Estates.
That no Billet shall be granted upon any of the Inhabitants without their Consent.
The whole Army shall not enter the Town, but only a competent Garison.
Hereunto, instead of Hostages, the Governour, &c. the next day sent this Answer.
The Governour's Answer.
We received your Letter, wherein you say we cannot make good, that your Commissioners Demands are against either his Majesty's Honour or the Welfare of Newcastle: We will give you but one Reason amongst many, whether it be for his Majesty's Honour, that the Town of Newcastle should be rendered to any of another Nation; nay more, if it be for the Honour of the English Parliament: And that it is not for our Welfare, is so clear, as it needs no Answer. And whereas you say, you wonder we are not ashamed to be so ailatory, having demanded a Treaty; We say, we wonder you can be so forgetful, knowing we have your Letter to show, that the Treaty was your own Motion. But for Answer to the rest, and to our Articles, We say, the Delivery of Newcastle is not of so small moment. But if you intend as you say, time may well be given till Monday for giving answer; for in case we should given consent to let you have this Town, there are divers more Articles than you have set down, both fit for us to demand and you to grant; therefore if you would shun Effusion of Blood, as you profess, forbear your Acts of Hostility, k till we give you answer upon Monday, wherein we will not fail; otherwise we doubt not but God will require an Account at your hands, and besides, will keep and preserve us from your Fury: So expecting your Answer, we rest
Newcastle, 19 Octob. 1644.
The same Morning likewise the Governour sent a Letter to the Lord Sinclair, in these words:
The Governour's Letter to the Lord Sinclair, questioning whether there were any such Man as Leven.
I Have received divers Letters and Warrants, subscribed by the Name of Leven, but of late can hear of none that have seen such a Man; besides, there is a strong Report that he is dead: therefore to remove all Scruples, I desire our Drummer may deliver one Letter to himself. Thus wishing you could think on some other Course to compose the Differences of these sad distracted Kingdoms than by battering Newcastle, and annoying us who never wronged any of you; for if you seriously consider, you will find that these Courses will aggravate, and not moderate Distempers: but I will refer all to your own Consciences, and rest
Newcastle, 19 Octob.
Newcastle taken by the Scots by Storm, Octob. 19. 1644.
The Scots interpreted this last Letter (especially) to be a Jeer and Affront, and therefore began to play violently upon the Walls from the several Batteries, and the several Regiments were drawn up, standing to their Arms, while the Breaches were in readiness, and the Mines sprung. About three a-clock in the Afternoon, the Town-Garison, by their Countermines, had very near approached some Chambers where the Powder was lodged for blowing up the Walls; which being signified to General Leven, he forthwith ordered, that fire should be given to those two Mines endangered, and afterwards to maintain the Breaches carefully, whilst the general Assault should be made from all Quarters. A little after the Day failing, and the Breaches being made, tho not so large and passable as was needful, the rest of the Mines were fired, and the Regiments advanced all at once towards the Breaches, and those Places of the Wall which were open'd by the Mine: But in this Attempt they were excellently entertained by the Besieged, who left nothing unessay'd to repel the Fury of the Assault They played incessantly from the Castle upon the Breaches, and the Flanking Towers of the Walls, with scattered Shot, and the Scots received a considerable Loss of Soldiers and Officers of Quality; yet still they pressed on, and after two Hours desperate Dispute upon the Breaches, forced their first Entry at the Mine sprung on the West-side of the Town, near to Close-gate: But then the Horse in the Town gave them three brave Charges, which they stoutly sustained, and kept their ground, till the Reserve of that Post came to assist. Then they marched for the Relief of the rest of the Breaches; and the Soldiers of the Garison seeing further Resistance vain, forsook the Walls; and the whole Body almost of the Army entring, they soon became Masters of the Town: And the Scots at that time did much publish their Clemency and Kindness, affirming, that never was Town gained by Storm, wherein less Cruelty and Insolency, and more Mercy and Moderation, in respect of Plunder, was shown.
Upon their first Entry, the Governour, Lodowick Lindesay, Earl Crawford, the Lord Maxwell, Doctor Wisher, and others that had been most resolute for holding out the Town, betook themselves to the Castle. The next Day the Earl of Leven himself came into the Town, and with his chief Officers went forthwith to the Church, to give thanks for their Success; and on Monday-morning the Governour sent him the following Letter from the Castle.
Sir John Marlay's LETTER to the Earl of Leven.
Sir Jon Marlay's Letter from the Castle.
Although you have the Fortune of War against me, (and that I might, I confess, have had honourable Terms from your Excellency) yet I note your Nobleness will not think worse of me, for doing my Endeavours to keep the Town, and to discharge the Trust reposed in me, having bad strong Reasons so to do, as is known to many. And now whereas I am conmpeh'd to be take myself to this Castle, I shall desire that I and those with me, may have our liberty and your licence to stay or go out of the Town, with your safe Pass, to his Majesty's next Garison, which is not beleaguered, with our Horses, Pistols, and Swords, and to have fourteen days time to dispatch our Journey, so many as please to go. And truly, my Lord, I am yet confident to receive so much Favour from you, as that you will take such care of me, as that I shall receive no wrong from the ignoble Spirits of the vulgar sort, (for I doubt no other.) I must confess I cannot keep it long from you; yet I am resolv'd, rather than to be a Spectacle of Miser) and Disgrace to any, I will be sueath my Soul to him that gave it, and then refer my Body to be a Spectacle of your Severity: but upon these Terms abovesaid, I will deliver to you: And so intreating your Answer, I rest
Your Friend and Servant,
From the Castle in Newcastle, October 21. 1644.
But General Leven would not allow these Conditions; and Sir John, and those that were with him, were forced to surrender upon Discretion: and Sir John was committed to his own House, with a strong Guard to defend him from the Outrages of the People; and afterwards being sent up to the Parliament, whilst he was in the Serjeant at Arm's his hands, found means to escape.
A LETTER to the Committee of both Kingdoms, upon the taking of Newcastle.
A Letter from the Committee with the Scotish Army, to the Committee of both Kingdoms, 23 Octob. 1644, upon the taking of Newcastle.
We know not any letter use you or we can make of the great Success wherewith it hath pleased God to bless our Attempts against this Town, than to make it evident to the World, that Truth and Peace are the utmost of our Desires and Designs; for this purpose we must uncessantly renew our former Desires to you, that all other Affairs whatsoever set aside, you will so far take to heart the settling of Matters of Religion in the Worship of God and Government of his House in this Kingdom, as you may in your own and our Names, become earnest Sollicitors with the Assembly of Divines, to put that Business to a Period; and with the Parliament, that where the Foundation is laid by the Assembly, their Authority be not wanting for the compleating of the Work: No greater Encouragement than this can come to the Hearts of all those that are engaged in this Cause with you, nor can any Means be so powerful to remove those great Prejudices raised against our Cause by the abundance and variety of Sectaries, Separatists, and Schismaticks living among us, to the great Scandal of the Gospel and Professors thereof. This being done, we may with the greater Confidence expect a Blessing upon our Endeavours for Peace: For which, as no Success can alter our Desires, so we are confident you are using all Expedition possible for complcating your Propositions thereof, that they may be dispatched to his Majesty, whose favourable Acceptance thereof is prayed for by
Your Affectionate Friends and Servants,
Sinclair, J. P. D.
Newcastle, 23 Octob. 1644.