Historical Collections: Matters relating to Scotland, 1645

Pages 228-238

Historical Collections of Private Passages of State: Volume 6, 1645-47. Originally published by D Browne, London, 1722.

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Chap. VI. Of the Affairs in and relating to Scotland, 1645.

We have before in the Year 1644. given some Account of the Victorious Proceedings of the Marquess of Montross in that Time: And to prosecute the Actions of that Nobleman, will comprehend the most remarkable Occurrences of that Kingdom in this Year, he making the Principal Figure therein at this Time.

Montross worsted at Dundee, April 4.

His first Attempt then was on the Town of Dundee; to which, upon (false Intelligence that the Covenanters Army, under Sir John Hurray, General of Horse, and Lieutenant-General Bailey (which before were quartered, some on the South-side and some on the North-side of the River Tay) were all gone over to the other side of the River, he march'd about Midnight; April, 3. from Dunkelden with so much Expedition, that he was at Dundee by Ten of the Clock next Morning, and summon'd the Town, who (tis said) had Notice of his Advance, and promise of speedy Relief from Hurray; and so the Townsmen and Inhabitants, there being few Soldiers there, got themselves in a Posture of Defence. Montross sent down the greatest Part of his Forces, who storm'd the Town in three Places at once, gained one of the Forts, and possessing themselves of the Ordinance therein, turned them upon the Town, and set Fire on the Suburbs in several Places: In the mean Time Montross with about 500 Men stood on a Hill at some small Distance, not doubting of being Master of the whole Town, till the Scouts brought the Word that Hurray with 3000 Foot and 800 Horse was near approaching; whereupon he immediately gave Orders to his Men in the Skirts of the Town to retreat; which was difficultly obey'd, as being unwilling to Part from that Booty, and especially the Strong Drink they there met with: But in fine he got them off, the Enemy being almost within Musquet-shot, and so as well as he could, retreated, himself with his Horse bringing up the Rear: But in the Assault and Retreat lost great Numbers of his Men; and with much ado, and the Policy of a sudden wheeling to the South-west to baulk the Pursuers, Night growing on, and then next Morning turning Northward, and passing over South-Esk, at a Place not far from Careston Castle, and so to Brechin, he made his Escape to the Mountains. And tho' this Expedition was unfortunately (by the Misinformation of his Scouts) attended with Loss, yet considering all Things, as to the Valour and Prudence of the General, and the Hardiness and Patience of his Soldiers, who for Threescore Miles; together were either in Fight, or upon a March, without any Refreshment, it may be numbred amongst one of the most remarkable Exploits of those Times.

Fight between Montross and Hurray at Alderne, May. 4.

His next Risque was at a Village called Alderne in Murray, near Innerness, May 4. where being pressed by Hurray, and fearing on the other side to be encompassed by Bailey's Forces (for after the Battel of Dundee they had divided their Troops) he resolv'd by Necessity to engage Hurray, chusing the best Advantage of the Ground, whereon to expect the Enemy: Out of whose view, in a Valley, drawing up his Forces, and planting a few choice Foot with his Ordnance he committed the Right Wing to Alexander Mac-Donnel with 400 Foot and lodg'd them in Places fortified to their hand with Banks and Ditches, Shrubs and great Stones, enjoining him not to depart thence, but lye safe there, as a Reserve upon any Occasion; withal committing to him the Royal Standard, which Montross himself had usually born before him j hoping by the sight of that to engage the Enemy that way to their Disadvantage, whilst he took the Opportunity to infest them elsewhere: And this partly succeeded according to his Wish only Mac-Donnel by a too rash Courage advancing out of his Natural Advantages, to meet and charge the Enemy, was overborn and put to flight: Tho' the Enemy's Wing, which Montross himself charged, was also routed: So that it seem'd a kind of drawn Game, and both Sides, as they had fought stoutly, pretended to the Victory, there being about 2000 Men slain upon the Place.

In the mean Time the Parliament met at Edinburgh, to whom the Parliament of England sent Commissioners: And the Assembly of the Kirk were busy, and drew up the following Remonstrance, which about the latter end of June was presented to the King at Hereford.

To the King's most Excellent Majesty.

The Humble Remonstrance of the General Assembly of the Kirk of Scotland.

A Remonstrance of the Kirk of Scotland, presented to his Majesty at Hereford, about the 25th of June, 1645.

As our Record is on high, and our Consciences bear us witness, so the many former Supplications and Remonstrances to your Majesty from this Kirk and Kingdom, our Solemn Covenants, and the whole Course of our Proceedings from time to time, in prosecution of this Cause, do make known to the World, and we trust also to your own Conscience, our Loyalty and faithful Subjection, and how far our Intentions are from the Diminution of your Majesty's just Power and Greatness.

And altho' the Success of many of our humble Addresses to your Majesty hath been such as did frustrate our Disires and Hopes, yet this hath not blotted out of our Hearts our Loyalty so often professed before God and the World; but it is still our Souls desire, and our Prayers to God for you, That your Self and your Posterity may prosperously Reign over this your Ancient and Native Kingdom, and over your other Dominions.

And now as we have published a solemn and free Warning to the Noblemen, Barons, Gentlemen, Boroughs, Ministers, and Commons of this Kingdom, concerning the present Affliction of this Nation, and their Sins procuring the same; so when we call to Mind that God accepteth not the Persons of Men, and that the Greatest are not to be winked at in their Sins, we assure ourselves that the best and most real Testimony which we can give at this present of the Tenderness and Uprightness of our Affection to your Majesty's true Happiness, is this our humble and faithful Representation to your Majesty's great and growing Dangers, and the Causes thereof: Of which, if we should be silent, our Consciences would Condemn us, and the Stones themselves would immediately cry out.

The Troubles of our Hearts are enlarged, and our Fears encreased in your Majesty's behalf, perceiving that your Peoples Patience is above Measure tempted, and is like a Cart pressed down with Sheaves, and ready to break; while as besides many former Designs and Endeavours to bring Desolation and Destruction upon us, which were (and we Trust all of that kind shall be) by the marvellous , and merciful Providence of God, discovered and disappointed: Our Country is now Infested, the Blood of divers of our Brethren spilt, and other Acts of most barbarous and horrid Cruelty exercis'd by the cursed Crew of the Irish Rebels and their Complices, under the Conduct of such as have Commission and Warrant from your Majesty. And unless we prove unfaithful both to God and to your Majesty, we cannot conceal another Danger which is infinitely greater than that of your Peoples Displeasure: Therefore we the Servants of the most High God, and your Majesty's most Loyal Subjects, in the Humility and Grief of our Hearts fall down before your Throne, and in the Name of our Lord Jesus Christ, who shall judge the World in Righteousness, both great and small, and in the Name of this whole Kirk which we represent, we make bold to warn your Majesty, That the Guilt whole cleaveth fast to your Throne is such, as (whatsoever flattering Preachers or unfaithful Counsellors may say to the contrary) if not timely repented, cannot but involve yourself and your Posterity under the Wrath of the Everliving God: For your being guilty of the shedding of the Blood of many Thousands of your Majesty's best Subjects: For your permitting the Mass and other Idolatry both in your own Family and in your Dominions: For your Authorizing by the Book of Sports the Prephanation of the Lord's Day: For your not punishing of Publick Scandals, and much Prophaneness in and about your Court: For shutting of your Ears from the humble and just Desires of your faithful Subjects: For your complying too much with the Popish Party many Ways, and namely by concluding the Cessation of Arms in Ireland, and your embracing the Counsels of those who have not set God nor your good before their Eyes: For your resisting and opposing this Cause, which so much concerneth the Glory of God, your own Honour and Happiness, and the Peace and Safety of your Kingdoms: And for what other Causes your Majesty is conscious, and may best judge and search your own Conscience; (nor would we have mentioned any Particulars, if they had not been publickly known.) For all which it is high time for your Majesty to fall down at the Footstool of the King of Glory, To acknowledge your Offences, To Repent timely, To make your Peace with God through Jesus Christ (whose Blood is able to wash away your great Sins) and to be no longer unwilling that the Son of God Reign ever you and your Kingdoms in his pure Ordinances of Church-Government and Worship.

These Things if your Majesty do, it shall be no Grief of Heart unto you afterwards A Blessing is reserved for you, and you shall find Favour with God, and with your People, and with the Churches of Christ. But if your Majesty refuse to hearken to this wholsome Counsel (which the Lord forbid) we have discharg'd our Consciences; we take God and Men to witness, That we are blameless of the sad Consequences which may follow; and we shall wait upon the Lord, who when he maketh Inquisition for Blood, will not forget the Cry of the humble. In the mean while beseeching your Majesty to take Notice, That we are not staggering or fainting through Diffidence of the Success of this Cause and Covenant of the Three Kingdoms; unto which, as God hath given manifold Testimonies of his Favour and Blessing, so it is our stedfast and unshaken Confident That this is the. Work and Cause of God, which shall gloriously prevail against all Opposition; and from which, with the Assistance of the Grace of God, we shall never suffer ourselves to be divided or withdrawn; but shall zealously and constantly in our several Vocations, endeavour with our Estates and Lives the pursuing and promoting thereof.

But to return to the Field-Action of Scotland.

Montross defeats Bailey at Alford, July 2.

The next Engagement Montross had was with Bailey, at a Place called Alford, on the Second of July; where he gave the Command of his right Wing (on which side the Enemies Horse were most strong) unto the Lord Gordon, with Nathanael Gordon, an Old Commander, to be his Assistant: The Left Wing he dispos'd to the Earl of Abony, to whom was also joined Sir William Rollock: The Main Body were led by Glengar, and Drumond of Ball the Younger, unto whom he added George Graham, Master of the Camp, an expert Soldier: And the Reserve, which was altogether hid behind a Hill, was commanded by his Nephew Napier. Thus judiciously appointed, they smartly charged the Enemy, and after a brisk Dispute forced them to retreat. The Loss which Montross most regretted, being that of the Lord Gordon, who was there slain.

Montross's great Victory at Kilsythe.

But if Montross had here the Advantage, it was nothing comparable to that which not long afterwards he obtain'd at Kelsythe, not far from Sterling, where he utterly defeated Bailey's Forces, and had the killing of them for Fourteen Miles together, and took all their Ordinance, Ammunition, Arms, and Spoil. Argyle (who was there) escaping to the Scotish Frythe, shipp'd himself in a Vessel and got out to Sea. Sir William Murray of Blebe, James Arnot, Brother to the Lord Burghley, Col. Dice, Col. Wallis and others, were taken Prisoners. And Montross's Men gave out, That that Day they flew no fewer than 6000 of their Enemies, and that they themselves lost but Six Persons, whereof Three were Gentlemen of the Family of the Ogilby's, who had the best Share of acquiring this Victory.

Noblemen that join'd with Monstross; Prisoners at Edinburgh released, and the City begs favour of Monstross.

The next Day Montross march'd into Cluidsdale, and so to Glascow, taking that City into his Protection, and quarter'd his Army for some time at Bothwell, where several of the Nobility Came in to him; as the Marquess of Dowglass, the Chief of that Name; the Earls of Limmuck, Annandale, and Hertfield; the Lord Barons of Seton Drummond, Fleming Maderty, Carnegy and Johnston, Hamilton of Orbeston, Charter of Hempsfield, Tours of Innerliegh, Stuart of Resyth, and Dalyel, a Brother of the Earl of Carnwarths; and indeed the whole Country seem'd to be at his Devotion; insomuch, that he sending Col. Nathanael Gordon, and a commanded Party of Horse to Edinburgh, to summon that City, and command them to set the Prisoners that were there detained, at Liberty, viz. Lodowick Earl of Crawford, Chief of the Lindseys, James Lord Ogilby, Son to the Earl of Airley, and others; the City immediately discharged the said Prisoners, and sent Delegates with them to Montross, beseeching his Favour to the City, and promising all Obedience to the King: Upon which, and for that the Plague was then very rise in that City, he forbore marching thither with his Army.

David Lesley, with the Horse out of England, crosses the Tweed Sept. 6.

The Scots Army in England hearing of these great Successes of Montross at Home, raised their Siege from before Hereford, and dispach'd Lieutenant-General David Lesley with most of their Horse for Scotland. And by Order of the Two Houses, the 5th of September was kept at London as a Day of Humiliation and Prayer, for the Cessation of the Plague, and other present | Calamities of that Kingdom. The 6th of September Lesley passed the Tweed, and in Scotland muster'd Nine Regiments of Horse, Two Regiments of Dragoons, and Eight Hundred Foot, which were taken out of the Garrison of Newcastle, and other Forces rallied in that Kingdom.

Montross routed at Philiphaugh, near Selkerk, Sept. 13; Prisoners taken

Montross had Instructions from the King to march towards the Tweed, to be ready there to join with a Party of Horse which should be sent him out of England: But these being the Horse under Digby and Langdale, which were so unfortunately routed at Carlisle-Sands, as we have mentioned before; his Expectations therein was frustrated: And therefore, fearing the Enemy would block up his Passage into the North and Highlands, resolved with those few Men he had (for many of the Highlanders, according to their Custom, having got store of Spoil, were run Home therewith) to march into Niddisdale, and Annandale, and the Country of Aire, that he might there raise what Horse he could; and so marched towards Selkirke, where he quarter'd his Horse in a Village called Philip-Haugh, and his Foot in a Wood hard by, resolving to make use of all Advantages of Ground, having on the one Hand a deep Ditch, on the other, Dykes and Hedges, which he caused to be lined with Musqueteers; and tis like had been better prepar'd, if he had not been deceiv'd by the Mistake of his Scouts, who assured him no Enemy was near. For tho' Lesley, after a Muster on Gladesmors, a Plain in Lothianshire, had quarter'd the Night before within four Miles of Selkirk, yet Montross had no Notice thereof till about Ten a Clock the next Morning, being Saturday the 13th of September, his Scouts came almost breathless to inform him, that Lesley was marching up within a Mile of him; and soon after came in View; where- upon Montross sent out a Party of 200 Musqueteers, who were forced to retreat treat in great Disorder; and then Lesley's Van advanced, and for about an Hour (being from about Eleven a Clock till Twelve) the Battel was very fierce; Lesley's Horse endeavouring to break through, and Montross's Men with great Resolution maintaining their Ground; till at length Lesley charging very desperately at the Head of his own Regiment, broke the Body of Montross's Foot, and put them into Confusion, and then his Horse being few, could make little Opposition; so that the Foot were almost all cut off, or taken Prisoners, amongst whom about an Hundred were lrish, who afterwards were all shot at a Post. Montross sought very bravely, and rallied his Horse, and charged the Pursuers once or twice, and by that Bravery lost more Men than otherwise he would have done. Here were taken Prisoners, the Earl of Traquaine, the Lords Seto, Drummond, Ogilby, Gray, and Linton; the Lord Napier's Eldest Son, Sir William Rollock, O Chaen, Lieutenat-General to the Irish, and many other Persons of Quality. All the Baggage, and with it the Marquiss's Commission from the King to be Governour of Scotland, and a Roll, wherein were the Names of all that either were come in to, or held Correspondence with Montross; which occasioned Trouble to many Persons afterwards.

Monstross gets to the Mountains; Royalists put to Death in Scotland.

Montross with his shatter'd Forces being got beyond pursuit, made a Halt at a Town call'd Peblis, to refresh his Men, and by break of Day next Morning (by the Conduct of Sir John Dalyel) passed over Cluid at a Ford, resolving to make what haste he could into Athole, that taking his Rise there, he might draw what Forces he could raise of the Highlanders: Therefore passing first over the Forth, and then the Ern, and Marching through the Sherisdom of Perth by the Foot of the Mountains, he came thither, having sent before Douglas and Airley with a Party of Horse into Angus, and the Lord Areskin into Marr, that they might raise their Friends and Dependants in those Parts; and also dispatch'd Sir John Dalyel unto the Lord Carnegy, with Commissions for the same Purpose. But tho' he used all possible Endeavours, he could not afterwards raise any very considerable Army; tho' still he kept up his Forces, and by sudden Marches and Attempts did continually alarm and vex the Covenanters, who caused several of his Friends whom they had taken Prisoners, to be Executed; viz, Col. Nath. Gordon, Sir William Spotswood (lately Principal Secretary of Scotland) Andrew Guthery, Son to the Bishop of Murray, and William Murray, Son to the Earl of Tullibardin: But the Lord Ogilby made shift to escape; for pretending himself Sick, on that Occasion got leave for his Mother, Wife, and Sisters to visit him, and one of the Sisters lay down in the Bed in his stead with his Cap on, and he putting on her Gown, went freely away with the other Ladies: The Sister was question'd and much Threatned for this Contrivance, but by the help of the Hamiltons and Lindsey, to whom she was Related, was after some Time discharged.

Montross was extreamly grieved for the Death of these his Friends, and endeavoured to Revenge the same: And when at last, after the King's going to the Scotish Army in England, he received his Majesty's Order to dismiss his Forces, and retire out of the Kingdom, he submitted thereunto (tho' not without some Reluctance, as believing those Commands extorted from the King), and with several of his choicest Friends Embark'd at the Haven of Stanbyve, and Sail'd into Norway on the 3d of September 1646. and in the Four and thirtieth Year of his Age.

Letters from the Scots Parliament to the city of London, Jan. 27. 1645/6.

Right Honourable,
Your several Addresses to the Honourable Houses of Parliament, and the Relation of our Commissioners, hath given us so perfect Knowledge and deep Impression of your Affection and true Zeal for the Reformation of Religion, and Uniformity of Church-Government, as hath much refreshed us in our greatest Difficulties, and doth far exceed our Acknowledgments.

Your constant Care of Advancing and Furnishing very great Sums of Money to the Armies who stand for Defence of Religion, and just publick Liberty of the Subjects in all the three Kingdoms, is an evident Demonstration how much you prefer the good of the publick to the private Interest: And your special Regard in chearfully supplying the Armies of this Kingdom with Money and other necessary Provisions, in the Times of their most urgent Necessities, hath so greatly endeared unto us the Brotherly Affection of that famous City, as will not only be a real Tye of Amity for the present, but will likewise lay a firm Foundation of reciprocal Kindness and inviolable Friendship for all succeeding Ages. And as the many real Proofs of your Affection and Fidelity, in doing and suffering for the Cause of God, gives unto us full Persuasions and Confidence of your Constancy for promoting thereof,'till (by God's Blessing upon the joint Endeavours of both Nations) Truth with a just Peace (which is the highest of our Desires) be settled in all the Kingdoms: So do we conceive it suitable to your Deserts, and agreeable to the Gratitude of this Kingdom to return you most hearty Thanks; and to assure you, That all our Actions shall witness the Candor and Sincerity of our Intentions, and most earnest Desires to embrace and improve all Opportunities which may conduce to the Prosperity of your City, and testify the Brotherly Affection of

Your most Loving and Faithful Friends,
Crawford and Lindsay President of Parliament.

St. Andrews, 27. Jan. 16435/6. For the Right Honourable the Lord Mayor, Aldermen, and Common-Council of the City of London.

Letter from the Parliament of Scotland to the Assembly of Divines at Westminst. Feb. 3. 1645/6.

Right Honourable and Reverend,
The large and abundant Proof you have given now a long Time of your Sincerity, Constancy, and unwearied Painfulness in advancing and settling the Affairs of Christ, together with your Vigilancy and Circumspection against any Way destructive to the Unity desired and intended in our Solemn League and Covenant, remonstrated to us by the General Assembly, and their Commissioners from Time to Time; as it doth comfort us in all the sad Sufferings of this Land, so shall you receive the sweet Reward of your toilsome Labours in that Work so acceptable to God; and thereby your Name shall be famous to all Churches abroad, and your Memory gracious to Posterity.

And altho' the Honourables Houses of Parliament in that Kingdom are exercised with such Difficulties as occasion these long Delays of establishing the Government of the Church agreeable to the Word of God, and the best Reformed Churches; yet are we confident, that (by the Blessing of God upon the Endeavours of the Honourable Houses) their Wisdom and Zeal will break through all Difficulties and Delays, for settling that Government to our common Joy, whereby the Hearts of the Lord's People, fainting under languishing Expectation, may be comforted, the Adversaries frustrated of their vain Hopes, deluding Errors suppressed, dangerous Schisms may be prevented, and gross Prophanity, and every Thing which is against the Power of Godliness maybe banished away; for which we have more fully represented our most earnest desires to the Honourable Houses; and withal, do certify our Confidence and firm Resolution by the Lord's Assistance, from his All-sufficiency, That we shall give constant and real Testimony to our dear Brethren of England, and to all the World, who shall impartially Consider our Proceedings, that no Difficulties, no Dangers, nor Sufferings whatsoever, shall make us swerve from the mutual League and Covenant, nor from the active Prosecuting the Ends thereof, by all possible and lawful Means, to the utmost of our Power. We rest,

Your Loving and Faithful Friends
Crawford and Lindsay. President of Parliament.

St. Andrews, Feb. 3. 1645/6.
For the Right Honourable and Right Reverend the Assembly of Divines at Westminster.

A Letter from he Parliament of Scotland to the two Houses of Parliament in England Feb 3. 1645/6

Right Honourable,
The Estates of Parliament of this Kingdom have considered the Desires of the Honourable Houses concerning the Garrisons Placed by the Scotish Army, in the Towns and Castles of Carlisle, Newcastle, Tinmouth, Hartlepool, Stockton, Warkworth and Thirlwal, expressed in the Letter of the 13th of November last; and have sent Instructions to their Commissioners to give such an Answer to the Honourable Houses, as they are confident may serve most for promoting the Cause wherein both Kingdoms are so highly engaged, and carrying on the War to the best Advantage.

They have further given Direction to their Commissioners to make known to the Honourable Houses, the earnest Desires of this Kingdom for the settling of Religion and Church-Government (which, as it was the Principal Ground of their Engagement in this Cause, so will the perfecting of it be their chiefest Joy, and Glory of both Kingdoms) and their Propension for carrying on the War with the United Affection, and Forces of both Kingdoms; and that no good Means be left un-assayed for attaining a firm and lasting Peace, it being the constant Resolution of this Kingdom against all Opposition, to strengthen and cherish the Unity and Brotherly Kindness between the Kingdoms; and Peace settled with Truth, and these Things performed by the Honourable Houses (which by Treaty they are obliged unto) to recall the Scotish Army with as great Alacrity as they were ready to send the same into England for the Assistance of their Brethren.

The Inconstancy of the Weather in this Season hath been an Impediment to the Passage betwixt this and Ireland, so as they have not yet had an Answer to their Letters sent hither concerning Belfast; but they have commanded their Committee to return Answer to the Honourable Houses in that particular, how soon they shall receive Information concerning the same. We are,

Your Affectionate Friends, and Humble Servants,
Crawford and Lindsay. President of Parliament.

St. Andrews, 3. Feb. 1645/6. For the Right Honourable the Lords and Commons assembled in the Parliament of England at Westminster.

Right Honourable,
Another Letter from the same to the same, dated also the same Day.

As the Parliament of the Kingdom doth Acknowledge the Zeal and Endeavours of the Honourable Houses of Parliament, for the good Progress already made towards Reformation of Religion, and Uniformity of Church Government: So it is expected, that(when they shall Seriously consider the Brotherly Affection and great Sufferings of this Kingdom, who from a Peaceable Condition which we formerly enjoyed, did engage ourselves in a Dangerous and Bloody War with England, against their Enemies, when their Affairs were in the hardest and lowest Condition, upon a mutual League and Covenant to settle Religion and Church Government, according to the Word of God, the Practice of the best Reformed Churches, and as might draw the nearest Uniformity betwixt the two Kingdoms, (which was Acknowledged to be the chief Ground of craving Aid and Assistance from this Kingdom) the Honourable Houses will now (after so mature Deliberation) add their Authority and civil Sanction without further Delay, to what the Pious and Learned Assembly of Divines, upon mature and accurate Debates, have advised to be most agreeable to the Word of God; and perfect what remains to be done in the Work according to the Covenant; which I am commanded by the Parliament of this Kingdom to demand, and do accordingly in their Names demand of the Honourable Houses of Parliament of England: The Performance whereof will be most acceptable to this Kirk and Kingdom, as a special Recompence of the Labours and Blood which hath been shed in assisting you to promote the Cause of God, and will be a Means to procure God's blessing upon the Proceedings and Undertakings of both Kingdoms. And the Parliament of this Kingdom is persuaded, That the Piety and Wisdom of the Honourable Houses will never admit Toleration of any Sects or Schisms, contrary to our Solemn and Sacred Covenant.

The next Desire of the Parliament of this Kingdom (and which of all things next to Truth is most desirable) is, That all lawful Means be used for attaining a just and well-grounded Peace: For which End, I am commanded to desire, and do accordingly in the Name of the Parliament of this Kingdom desire, That the Propositions of Peace be dispatched to his Majesty, and may be so Pursued and Managed, as may best Procure the settling of Truth and Peace, that there may be an End of the great Distractions and Unnatural War of all the three Kingdoms.

This Kingdom lieth under the Burthen of great and vast Expence in raising and entertaining Armies; and hath with the Loss of the Lives of many precious Men, set their own Houses on Fire to quench the Flame of yours, and almost destroyed their own Nation to preserve yours. And seeing the seasonable Assistance afforded by this Kingdom to you, and by the late Successes wherewith God hath blessed your Armies, you are in a great Measure freed of your Trouble, and are in a far better Capacity to pay the Money due to our Armies in England and Ireland, than you were at any Time since the beginning of these Wars, I am likewise commanded by the Parliament of this Kingdom to demand, and accordingly do in their Name demand of the Honourable Houses of Parliament, to make Payment before the Third of May next, of the Sums of Money duly owing by them to this Kingdom and their Armies in England and Ireland, according to the Treaties between the Two Kingdoms (the Account whereof will be given in by our Commissioners) that this Kingdom may be thereby relieved of the great Burthens and Pressures of our Debts contracted in this Cause, and be enabled and encouraged for joint carrying on of the War, till the Church of God be fettled in Purity and Peace.

And it is further craved from the Justice of the Honourable Houses of Parliament, That they will take into their serious Consideration the great Losses sustained by this Kingdom at Sea, through the not Attendance of their Ships upon our Coasts, according to the Treaty, and make Reparation thereof; and of the Losses which Scotland hath sustained by the Irish Invasion, which the Kingdom of England is bound to suppress by the large Treaty. In all which, the Desires of the Parliament of this Kingdom are no other than, That Religion and Church-Government may be settled according to our Covenant: That the War may be carried on with Brotherly and constant Affection, by the Joint Counsels and Forces of both Kingdoms: That a well-grounded and durable Peace may be endeavoured betwixt the King and his Subjects: That Payment be made of the Sums due to this Kingdom and our Armies by Treaty y and that (against the Malice of our open Enemies, and secret Plots of such as for their own Ends are labouring to sow Sedition betwixt Brethren tied by so many Relations) mutual Amity and Union between the Kingdoms may be strengthened and perpetuated to all Posterity. We rest,

Your Affectionate Friends, and Humble Servants,
Crawford and Lindsay, President of Parliament.

St. Andrews, 3. Feb. 1645/6. For the Right Honourable the Lords and Commons assembled in the Parliament of England at Westminster.

A Letter from a Committee of the Parliament of Scotland to the two Houses of Parliament, in England. Feb. 10. 1645.

Right Honourable,
Being appointed by the Parliament of this Kingdom, now adjourned, to keep Correspondence with the Honourable Houses of Parliament of England, and being intrusted with the Pursuance of their Desires for the furtherance of the Common Cause, and the publick and mutual Good of both j Kingdoms; We do in the Name of the Parliament, and by their Authority certify, That this Kingdom, notwithstanding all their Sufferings and Discouragements, are not moved or shaken from their former Resolutions and Vows, but will live and die with their Brethren of England, in the Prosecution of ' the Ends expressed in the Solemn League and Covenant: Being confident of the like Inclination and Resolution of the Parliament and Kingdom of England, against all such groundless Suspicions and needless Jealousies to the contrary, as bad Instruments from the Beginning to this Day, have been, from their envy of our common Happiness, and for their own private Ends, inventing and suggesting; that all the common Troubles which both Kingdoms have endured, may end in a publick Tragedy, to the Scandal and Grief of the Reformed Churches, the hardning and strengthning of our common Enemies, the making of ourselves the Instruments of our own mutual Ruin and Destruction; and, which is most of all, the Dishonour of the great Name of our God, with whom we have entred in Covenant for the Propagation of the Gospel, and the Advancement of the Kingdom of his Son.

For the present, according to the Trust committed unto us, we make our Address to both Houses in the Particulars following, and do not doubt but we shall receive such Satisfaction as may be a real Testimony of their Justice and Brotherly Kindness. Upon Information from our Commissioners there, the Parliament before their adjourning did understand what was written by one calling himself Robert Wright, and informed by another whose Name was kept in the Dark, and confirmed by a Letter of Mr. Jermin to the Lord Digby, against this Kingdom, their Army in England, and their Commissioners there. I The Accusations are of so high a Nature, and so sophistically insinuated, that the Parliament, which during their sitting, were upon all Occasions endeavouring the best Ways of the preserving the happy Conjuction of the Two Kingdoms, were much affected therewith, as a Matter wherein they were much concerned, both for their own Vindication; and the Satisfaction of their Brethren. If there shall be any Matter or Ground of such Accusation found against any Person of this Kingdom, or our Army, or any of our Commissioners, we are no less willing that it be examined, and Punished to the full, than we Desire and Expect that the like be done against any in England, that Transgress in that Kind; which is conform to our Covenant, wherein we all Swear, With all Faithfulness to Endeavour the Discovery of all such as have been, or shall be Incendiaries, Malignants, or Evil Instruments, by hindering the Reformation of Religion, dividing the King from his People, or any of the Kingdoms from the other that they might be brought to publick Trial, and receive condign Punishment, as the degree of their Offences shall require or deserve. But let us desire and expect from our Brethren, all Charity, Tenderness, and Respect to this Kingdom and Army, and Commissioners, of whose Faithfulness they have had so large and manifold Experience, and in their several Letters to this Kingdom did give them so ample Testimonies; that no Aspersion or Suspitions lay upon them, by concealing the Names of any Persons who can be discovered. And therefore, according to the Trust committed unto us, we do desire in Name of the Parliament and Kingdom of Scotland (if that Robert Wright be not yet found out, who he is; and that hidden Knight, after so long a Time be not yet unsecreted, and made known by Name) all Means may be used for discovering the one, whose Letters have been so frequently Produced before the Committee of both Kingdoms; and revealing the other to our Commissioners, which is in the Power of some of the Members of the House of Commons to do; that both Kingdoms may be satisfied when the Truth is brought to light, and all such Jealousies and Misunderstandings may be prevented for the future.

We do also represent to the Honourable Houses of Parliament, That this Kirk and Kingdom is more scandalized and grieved in the Matter of Religion which immediately concerneth God and his Honour, than in any Thing on Earth touching themselves and their own Name.

A Directory for the Worship of God is agreed upon in the Assembly, and authorized by both Kingdoms, and Practised Carefully by this Church; but the Service-Book still retained in some Places of England under the Parliament's Power, and the Directory very much slighted, and by some avowedly written against. Instead of the intended Unity of Religion, Blasphemous Errors, Heresies, Sects, and Schisms, are increased and multiplied through the want of Church-Government. The National Assembly of this Kirk in their Answer to the Declaration of the Parliament of England, of the date July1642. profess, That themselves and all the well-affected within the Kingdom, are exceedingly grieved and made heavy, because the Reformation of Religion had moved so slowly, and suffered so great Interruption. And the Lords and Commons in Parliament assembled, in their Reply did profess, That the miserable Estate of the; Church and Kingdom was not able to endure any longer Delay. Like as in their Declaration sent to the general Assembly they profess, That they do not doubt but to settle such a Reformation of the Church, as should be most agreeable to God's Word. And in the asorementioned Reply do declare, That their purpose is to Consult with Godly and Learned Divines, that they may settle such a Government as may be most agreable to God's most holy Word.

Some Commissioners from this Kirk have attended the Assembly of Divines there, for the space of two Years and a half; and long ago the Assembly have offered their Advice to both Houses, yet can we hear nothing of the settling of a Government; but upon the contrary, if a real Growth of all Sects and Errors, and of great Endeavours for Toleration thereof; which maketh us and this Church and Kingdom, who cannot understand where the Difficulty and Obstruction lieth to wonder at so long a Delay; wherein we are very much Interested, not only in Relation to the Glory of God, our mutual League and Covenant, and the Peace and Happiness of that Church and Kingdom; but also in Regard to the Unity of Religion amongst ourselves, and of the Peace of this Kingdom, which cannot be long preserved from so dangerous Contagion; which would be more grievous and intolerable unto us, than all our Troubles and Sufferings have been: And therefore from all these Considerations, in Name of this Kingdom and Parliament, we do in all earnestness Desire, That Church-Government may now at last, without further Delay, be settled according to the Covenant.

We do in like manner Press what hath been Solicited by our Commissioners for the space of eight Months past, That the Propositions of Peace. after so much Debate and Deliberation agreed upon unanimously by both Kingdoms, the most Material whereof have been fully Treated upon at Uxbridge, may be forthwith sent to his Majesty; wherein this Kingdom is more earnest, that they know not the Cause why the sending of these Propositions is so long suspended: They long for the End of this unhappy War, by the happy settling of Religion and Peace; and so much the more, that they do perceive some would make use of the Continuance of these Wars, to raise and foment Jealousies and Differences betwixt these Kingdoms, and to seperate those whom God hath so strictly tied for so good Ends, by so many Bonds and Relations; and we are confident will never suffer to be divided, but still continue them in a firm and blessed Conjunction against all Machinations of Satan and his Instruments: Which shall ever be the settled Resolution and constant Endeavour of

Your Lordships most Affectionate Friends, and Humble Servants,
Loundoun, Cancellarius,
I. P. D. Com.

St. Andrews, 10. Feb. 1645/6. For the Right Honourable the Lords and Commons assembled in the Parliament of England at Westminster.

Letter from the General Assembly of the Presbytery in Scotland, to the Assembly of Divines at Westminster, Feb. 12. 1645/6.

Right Honourable and Reverend,
Your Letter of the 15th of January did refresh us not a little; for therein we beheld (that which we also heard by the particular Relation of the Right Honourable the Lord Chancellor, and the Lord Wareston, Witnesses of all) the Work of your Faith, the Labour of your Love, the Patience of your Hope, your Constancy in Well-doing, your Sympathy and Bowels of Love towards us your Beloved and Covenanted Brethren; your holy Zeal for the Lord, your Painfulness and Diligence to have his Temple purged of all Errors and Schisms, and his Government established and settled on the right Foundation; your Watchfulness to hold fast our solemn League and Covenant, to entertain the Brotherhood and Unity between the Nations, to shun every Thing destructive thereof, and contrary thereunto: For all the lively and lovely Expressions whereof, we cannot but bless the Lord, rejoyce in your behalf, and gather Hopes of a very rare Blessing to ensue upon your Faithful Labours.

We are confident that the Master-builder shall appoint and reward your Work, and strengthen your Hearts and Hands, that you shall see with Comfort the sweet Fruits of all your Pains, and transmit to Posterity that which shall make your Name to be had in everlasting Remembrance, and to smell as a precious Ointment to After-Ages. We are not Ignorant with how many Difficulties you are compassed; but we Trust, that your seeking of the Lord shall not be in vain; for not by Might, nor by Power, but by the Spirit of the Lord of Hosts shall the Mountains be made Plain, and the Head-stone of the Building be brought forth with shoutings. Many go about to cut asunder the Staves of Beauty and Bonds, and to break the Brotherhood between Judah and Israel; but blessed be the Lord your God, who hath filled your Hearts with a better Spirit, even his own Spirit, a Spirit of Wisdom and Understanding, a Spirit of Unity and Verity; the Fruits and Operations whereof, as they have been hitherto, so we doubt not they shall be hereafter Manifested more and more in your constant Care and Endeavours with the Honourable Houses of Parliament, for establishing the Government of the Church conform to the Word of God, and the Example of the best Reformed Churches, and for removing all Jealousies, and preserving entire Unity between the Kingdoms; which hath been, and ever shall be among the chiefest of our Desires and Travels here.

We do and shall rejoyce in all our Undertakings, Engagements, and Sufferings for you and with you, and are resolved to spend and be spent for your good, for promoting and settling the great Affairs of the Kingdom of our Lord among you, and for making his Jerusalem a Praise in the Earth; that all with one heart and one consent may serve and glorify him in the Unity of Doctrine, Worship, and Government. This is the Sum of all our Desires and Designs, which this worthy Bearer the Lord Waryston, can at greater length make known unto you. Now unto our God, who will perfect that which he hath begun, and hasten the Day whein all the Sons and Daughters of Judah shall rejoice, and cry with shouting, Jerusalem is built, and Babylon is fallen we recommend you and your Labours in this great Work.

Subscribed in Name and by Command of the Commission of the General Assembly, by Mr. Robert Dowglas, Moderator.

St. Andrews, 12. Feb. 1645/6. For the Right Honourable and Right Reverend the Assembly of Divines at Westminster.