The Treasury and Privy Council Offices

Survey of London: Volume 14, St Margaret, Westminster, Part III: Whitehall II. Originally published by London County Council, London, 1931.

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'The Treasury and Privy Council Offices', in Survey of London: Volume 14, St Margaret, Westminster, Part III: Whitehall II, (London, 1931) pp. 68-100. British History Online [accessed 23 April 2024]

In this section


History of the Site.

The history of the site on which Barry's present building stands is a complicated one, and is here dealt with in five sections: (i) between Dover House and the Treasury Passage (including the site of the old Tennis Court, afterwards divided into the front portion of Dorset House and the old offices of the Secretary of State), (ii) the old Privy Council offices, (iii) the Montagu lodgings, (iv) the King Street Gate and premises adjoining, and (v) premises in Downing Street. There is a sixth section, the site of the later Tennis Court, but this it has been found convenient to deal with separately, in Chapter 4.

(i) Between Dover House and the Treasury Passage.—The whole of the frontage of this part of the Cockpit side was, until shortly after the Restoration, occupied by the Chief Close Tennis Court, originally erected by Henry VIII, which, with much internal alteration and adaptation, retained until the middle of the 19th century an exterior more or less unaltered.

In 1663, when the construction of the new tennis court on the site of the Brake was in progress (see p. 42), steps were taken to convert the old court, with adjoining buildings, into a residence for the King's son, the ill-fated Duke of Monmouth. (fn. n1) Operations seem to have been started in November, and on the 9th of that month Pepys records that "the Duke of Monmouth is to have part of the Cockpitt new built for lodgings for him." The work included the erection of additional floors, (fn. n2) the substitution of timber windows for the old stone windows, (fn. n3) and the provision of new lanterns. (fn. n4) The lodgings seem to have been ready for occupation at the end of 1664 or the beginning of 1665, for in a schedule, (fn. n5) drawn up in September, 1685, of goods supplied "for the furnishing the lodgings in the Cockpitt belonging then to the late Duke & Dutches of Monmouth, for which there hath never beene any discharge," there are two lists of carpets, tapestries, bed furniture, etc., (i) "plaissed for the Duke and Duchess of Monmouth at thear Lodgings in ye Cockpitt, Novembr ye 4th, 1664" and (ii) "plaiced for ye Duke of Monmouth in ye Cockpitt, March ye 3, 1664" (i.e. 1664–5).

Scott, Duke of Monmouth.

The extent of the duke's lodgings was greater than would appear from the plan of 1670. The northern portion of the block of buildings on the south side of the Treasury Passage, west of the new tennis court, not lettered on the plan of 1670, is marked on the plan accompanying the grant to Danby in 1676 (Plate 37) as belonging to the Duke of Monmouth, (fn. n6) and there is reason to believe that a part of the corresponding block on the north side of the passage came into the duke's hands after the death of Albemarle. In February, 1669–70, work was done (fn. n7) in "Cutting way in a plastered wall & putting in a doorecase in a greate roome belonging to ye cockpit lodgings & added to ye Duke of Munmouths lodgings" and "Cutting downe part of a bourded fence to make a passage out of ye Duke of Munmouths yard in to ye said Great roome." (fn. n8) In the absence of information as to the site of the duke's yard, it is not clear on which side of the Treasury Passage the "great room" was situated, but the fact that the Monmouth nursery adjoined both the new buildings of Danby and the Park, (fn. n9) makes it more than probable that the Monmouth lodgings came to include those parts of the Albemarle premises on the north side of the Treasury Passage which had not been granted to Danby.

On the other hand, there were portions of the main block of buildings which the plan of 1670 shows were not included in the Monmouth lodgings, viz. certain rooms marked "Sr Philip Killegrew," and the "Counts of Castlemains Kitchen." The former is no doubt a mistake for Sir Peter Killigrew, whose lodgings, like those shown on the plan, adjoined those of Albemarle. (fn. n10) The latter comprised several rooms, one of which, "formerly a kitching, with a little roome over it, & a Celler adjoyning, neer the Cockpitt, belonging to Her Grace ye Dutchesse of Cleaveland" (formerly Countess of Castlemaine), was in 1680 transferred to the use of the Duchess of Southampton. (fn. n11) Another of the rooms had been used as a laboratory. The earliest reference that has been found to the laboratory on the Cockpit side is in 1670. (fn. n12) In 1683 it was ordered that "the roome which was formerly the Laboratory in the ground Gallery goeing from the parke (fn. n13) into the Cockpitt, and which heretofore Her Grace the Dutchesse of Cleveland had," should be made into a kitchen for the Duchess of Monmouth. (fn. n14)

The lodgings, several times referred to, of Monmouth's young son, the Earl of Doncaster, (fn. n15) fronted the Park, and are probably identical with the Monmouth "nursery" (see p. 69).

Considerable works of alteration and rebuilding seem to have been carried out at the Monmouth lodgings in 1673–5. (fn. n16)

On 11th June, 1685, Monmouth landed in England as a claimant for the Crown, and the 6th of July saw him a fugitive after the fatal battle of Sedgemoor. Five days earlier his lodgings had been taken from him. On that date an order was issued (fn. n17) "to putt the Right honoble the Lord Dartmouth, (fn. n18) Master of ye Horse to His Matie, into possession of all those Lodgings in ye Cockpitt att Whitehall which lately ye late Duches of Monmouth possessed." (fn. n19)

Legge, Lord Dartmouth.

Dartmouth retained the lodgings for more than three years. (fn. n20) Then came the Revolution, and with it an order (fn. n21) (dated 19th February, 1688–9) "to marke the Lodgeings, and all other Offices thereto belonginge wherein the Rt Honoble the Lord Dartmouth now is in Whitehall for the lodgeings of the Ld Chamberlaine of His Mas Household."

This was Charles Sackville, sixth Earl of Dorset, (fn. n22) who held the post until 1697, (fn. n23) when he was succeeded by Peregrine Bertie. Succeeding lords chamberlain were the Earl of Jersey (1700–4) and the Earl of Kent. The last-mentioned was certainly in occupation of the rooms, references to which have been found up to 1706. (fn. n24) On the fall of the Whigs in 1710, Charles Talbot, Duke of Shrewsbury, became Lord Chamberlain, but no evidence is forthcoming for his occupying the lodgings, which were shortly afterwards (see below) in the possession of Stanhope.

It is not possible to say how far the lodgings of the Lord Chamberlain at first corresponded with those formerly in the occupation of the Duke of Monmouth, but after the fire of 1698, when room had to be found on the Cockpit side to accommodate many who had formerly had offices in the main portion of Whitehall, they covered much less area than the Monmouth rooms. (fn. n25) The southern portion of the street frontage was allocated to the office of the Secretary of State, (fn. n26) and the buildings in the rear were set apart for the Commissioners of Trade, the Scottish Secretary (after the Union) and others.

The main portion of the Lord Chamberlain's residence, which included the northern part of the old tennis court, was in June, 1717, in the occupation of the Rt. Hon. James Stanhope. (fn. n27) In the SurveyorGeneral's report on the suggestion that a lease of the premises should be granted, they were described as "Scituate in or near that part of the Palace … called the Cock Pitt, on the West Side of the Street between the Two Gates … and Containes in Front to the said Street on the Ground Floor 36 Foot, but being very irregular & consisting of Many breaks." Stanhope, it appears, had already expended in improvements the sum of £1541 7s., and was preparing to erect additional buildings at an estimated cost of £1200. (fn. n28) A lease for 31 years was thereupon ordered to be made out to Stanhope or such other person as he should nominate, and was in due course granted to his nominee, Thomas Pitt. (fn. n29) The boundaries of the property are given as the street on the east, the house of Hugh Boscawen and St. James's Park north, part of the garden belonging to the Scottish Secretary's office west, other part of the Cockpit "now used as part of the Secretary of State's office" south. The only dimension given is the 36-feet ground-floor frontage to the street, but the plan (reproduced on the opposite page) shows that the ground floor extended westwards as far as, but not including, the garden afterwards belonging to Dorset House (in fact, as far as the old "Passage from the Park" shown on the plan of 1670), and southwards took in only part of the site of that house. It will also be seen that the rooms were more extensive on the upper floors than on the ground floor, where the offices of the Secretary of State bit into the premises.

The first addition to the Stanhope property was made on 9th January, 1717–18, when a lease was granted of "all that Peice … of Ground situate … in his Maty Parke called St. James's Parke … where now or lately were Standing the Offices of Lord Chamberlaine & Scotch Secr[etar]ys, with a little Yard or Garden thereto belonging, Which said Peice of Ground is bounded Eastward on the Lodgings in the Poss[ess]ion of the Lord Viscount Stanhope, Southward on the Building or Office in the Poss[ess]ion of the … Commrs of Trade & Plantacons, and Westward and Northward upon St James Parke, and is in front to St James Parke North 50 Foot, and in Depth on the West Side to the said Parke 59 Foot, and on the South Side 62 Foot." (fn. n30)

Stanhope, Earl Stanhope.

Figure 14:

Plan of the Stanhope premises in 1717 (see p. 72).

The measurements show that the addition consisted of the northern block west of the "Passage from the Park" in the plan of 1670, comprising a large garden and the old building of the Duke of Monmouth's Nursery with a small enclosed yard in front. The old building is still shown on Kip's view of circa 1720 (see p. 115), but was very soon after demolished.

On 2nd July, 1719, Stanhope obtained a lease (fn. n31) of both sets of premises for 31 years.

In 1721 he died "at his house in Whitehall," (fn. n32) and two years later his widow also died. On 4th July, 1725, (fn. n33) the latter's executors sold the lease to Lionel, 1st Duke of Dorset, (fn. n34) who lost no time in endeavouring to secure a further extension of the premises in the rear. The upper floors of these additional buildings, which lay between Stanhope's house and the Treasury Passage, had been allocated to the Commissioners of Trade and Plantations, and in 1702 the ground floor had been granted to the Archbishop of Canterbury. (fn. n35) In 1724 the Commissioners had removed to the island portion of Rochester House (see p. 89), and the Bishop of London, in virtue of his office as Dean of the Chapel Royal, had, by the King's leave, been put in possession of their rooms. (fn. n36)

Immediately on the duke's coming into possession of the Stanhope premises (fn. n37) he presented a memorial (fn. n38) showing the inconvenience caused to him at "his House at the Cockpitt" by the fact that his garden was overlooked by the buildings in the occupation of the archbishop and the bishop. A fresh lease for 50 years was thereupon made out which included the buildings referred to, (fn. n39) described as abutting north on the duke's garden, south on the passage leading to the Treasury Chambers, east on the duke's house, and west on the lodgings of Edith College (see p. 30). Thus the duke obtained possession of the whole site occupied by Dorset House. The 1729 lease was afterwards cancelled and a new lease for 50 years granted on 1st March, 1755. Plans of the house, showing the arrangement of rooms in 1754, are reproduced in Plate 57.

Meanwhile, the other (southern) portion of the old tennis court had been found to be in a dangerous condition. (fn. n40) On the undertaking of certain repairs in 1738 to that portion, which formed part of the Secretary of State's office, it was ascertained that "the Tower, Stair Case and Walls adjoining" were in such a condition as to necessitate their being pulled down. The chimneys were in danger of falling, and were also liable to take fire, owing to the fact that they stood for the most part on timber foundations. It was further found necessary to put in proper walls between the two portions of the old tennis court, since Dorset House was separated from the office of the Secretary of State only by a timber partition.

The Duke of Dorset died in 1765, leaving (fn. n41) to his third son, Lord George Sackville, who in 1770 assumed the name of Germain, his "dwelling House at Whitehall … and the Lease or Grant … from the Crown." In 1772, Lord George petitioned for a new lease. In the surveyor's report, the premises were stated to be in good repair, and later in the year a further lease was granted to run for 17 years from 1st March, 1805. (fn. n42) The ratebooks for 1766 to 1771 continue to show the "Duke of Dorset" as resident at the house, and in 1772 the name is crossed out and that of "Earl of Waldegrave" substituted. There is no evidence that Lord George ever resided at the house, and it may be that he let the premises to the second and third dukes until 1771. It is more likely, however, that the ratebooks are in error, for the dowager-duchess seems to have lived at the house until her death in 1768. (fn. n43)

Sackville, Duke of Dorset.

In 1785 Germain (who in 1782 had been created Viscount Sackville) died, leaving (fn. n44) his "Messuage at Whitehall … and the Offices and Apartments belonging to the same . . . which I hold by Lease from the Crown, and which are now [2nd February, 1783] in the Occupation of the … Earl of Waldegrave, and also the said Lease thereof" in trust for his eldest son, Charles.

The latter subsequently sold the lease to John Frederick, 3rd Duke of Dorset. The date of this transfer has not been ascertained, but is probably indicated by the substitution of the name of the duke for that of Waldegrave (fn. n45) in the entry relating to Dorset House in the ratebook for 1794. The duke died in 1799. By his will (fn. n46) the property passed to his widow, who in 1801 married Lord Whitworth. (fn. n47) In 1808 terms were settled for the purchase of the leasehold interest by the Crown, and at the same time plans were prepared by Wyatt for adapting the premises for use as offices for the Secretary of State for the Home Department and the Indian Board of Control. (fn. n48)

A drawing by Chawner, reproduced in Plate 59, shows the building as existing in 1809. In 1815 the front was found to be in a dangerous con dition, large stones falling from time to time on the pavement. (fn. n49) The necessary works for securing it were thereupon carried out, the front being cased with brick, and in the following year a series of three engravings appeared in the Gentleman's Magazine (Plates 58 and 59) showing "part of the Palace of Whitehall, built by Cardinal Wolsey [sic]," (i) restored, (ii) as it was in 1815, and (iii) as in 1816. The old facade lasted until 1846, when it was demolished for Barry's extension (see p. 94).

The building originally had a steep pitched roof with a gable end on the north provided with high angle turrets, (fn. n50) and was similarly treated at the southern end. The turret at the south-east corner is shown on Soane's drawing (Plate 70). The elevation to Whitehall consisted of a facade, divided by buttresses into five bays containing three stages. Two doorways (fn. n51) leading from the street are also shown. To the south of the building was the entrance to the Treasury Passage.

Figure 15:

The "Old Tennis Court" just before demolition.

At the north end, near the small wood staircase on the first floor, the removal of some of the plasterwork has revealed the thin red brickwork of a part of one of the old turrets, and it is possible that the remainder of the walling here is of similar construction, extending from the ground floor up to the roof. The staircase has turned balusters and a close string, and dates part of the 18th century.

The old West wall was retained by Barry, and is responsible for the difference in levels and waste of space in the planning to this portion of the present building (see Plate 82).

(ii) The Old Privy Council Chamber and Offices.—Reference has already been made(see p. 69) to that part of the Monmouth lodgings which was on the south side of the Treasury Passage, and west of the later tennis court, and which seems as late as 1697 to have been included in he lodgings of the Lord Chamberlain. After the fire of 1698 the Privy Council was accommodated in this portion of the Cockpit buildings, between the tennis court and the site of Kent's Treasury. The plan of 1793 (Plate 61) shows the position of the "Council Offices,” and the plan of 1824 (Plate 68) indicates the same room as "Lumber Room under Council Chamber." The position thus assigned to the Council Chamber towards the close of its existence is in ccord with the notices of its situation(close to the Treasury Passage) soon after 1698. (fn. n52) In this room, which seems to have become known as "The Cockpit," in distinction from other buildings on the Cockpit side, (fn. n53) Harley was stabbed, on 8th March,1710–11, by a French refugee, known as the Marquis de Guiscard. (fn. n54) Another notable event which took place in this room was the examination on 24th August, 1722, of Bishop Atterbury before his committal to the Tower. (fn. n55). The Council Chamber was sometimes used for courts martial. On these occasions it was usual to take steps for strengthening the building in view of the number of persons attending. (fn. n56) During the latter end of the 18th century complaints were from time to time received as to the coldness of the Council Chamber in the winter, (fn. n57) and in 1798 instructions were given for the counterceiling of the room. (fn. n58)

Figure 16:

Corbelled heads on southern door of "Old Tennis Court."

In 1809 complaints were made (fn. n59) that the rooms attached to the Privy Council Office were insufficient to accommodate the staff and records, and were moreover "in a very bad and even dangerous state." It was therefore decided to remove the Council Office to the quarters to be vacated by the Indian Board of Control, south of the premises of the Board of Trade. The move was effected in 1811.

(iii) The Montagu lodgings.—The early history of that part of the premises included in Cornwallis's lease of the tennis court and appurtenances (see pp. 42–3) which lay immediately south of the Treasury Passage, has not been discovered. The first reference to it which has been found is in 1697, when Henry Baker petitioned for a lease of the tennis court, etc. The report on the petition states that, excluding the premises belonging to the Earl of Rochester, "the Remainder of what was granted to Mr. Cornwallis Consists only of the Tennis Court and four Small Roomes adjoyning thereto, with Chambers over, and a very narrow peice of Old building wherein the widdow of Sr Charles Scarborow Lives." (fn. n60) In the grant to Thomas Chaplin in 1708 of the office of Master of the Tennis Courts (fn. n61) there is excepted "all and every the Ground, Buildings, Lodgings and Edifices adjoyning to the said Tennis Court near the Cockpit in Whitehall aforesaid which are now in ye severall Tenures or occupacons of … Ralph, Duke of Mountague and … Laurence, Earl of Rochester," and in the report on Horatio Walpole's petition in 1726 (see p. 90) the northern boundary of the latter's premises is described as "lodgings then in the possession of the Duke of Montague." It appears, therefore, that the site (fn. n62) formerly in occupation of Lady Scarburgh was now occupied by the Duke of Montagu.

There is nothing to show at what date Montagu entered into possession of these lodgings, but it seems a reasonable assumption that he came with the Great Wardrobe, of which he was master, after the Fire of 1698. A plan of 1725 shows the "Office of the Great Wardrobe" on the site of his lodgings, (fn. n63) and it is known that the Wardrobe was already on this side of the road in May, 1699. (fn. n64) Moreover, two references to Montagu's lodgings in the required position, near the Council Chamber and the Treasury Passage, occur in 1702. (fn. n65) Montagu (who became duke in 1705) on his death in 1709 was succeeded in the occupation of the premises by his son John, the second Duke, who is shown by the ratebooks to have remained until 1738. (fn. n66) For the next fifteen years the premises were (according to the ratebooks) empty, and then were for a time used as lodgings for the Secretary of State. (fn. n67) In 1768 the lodgings, or perhaps only the northern half, were adapted for use as the office of the Earl of Hillsborough, the newly-appointed Secretary of State for the American Colonies and President of the Board of Trade. (fn. n68) In 1774 the northern part of the premises was still in occupation by the Board of Trade, while the southern portion was used as the State Paper Office. (fn. n69)

In 1782 the Board of Trade was abolished, and the office passed into the use of the Home Secretary. (fn. n70) It apparently was afterwards used by the Commissioners of Enquiry. In 1786 the Board was reconstituted, under the presidency of Lord Hawkesbury, and one of its first proceedings was to ask "that the Apartments now occupied by the Commissioners of Enquiry, together with those at present allotted for the Paper Office … be forthwith made ready for the use of the said Committee." (fn. n71) The Commissioners of Enquiry were thereupon asked to look out for other accommodation, and the Keepers of the State Papers instructed to remove to Scotland Yard, while the Board of Trade entered into occupation of the whole of the Montagu premises. The plan of 1793 (Plate 61) shows them as in the occupation of "The Secretary of State for the American Department," a title more properly applicable to the period before 1782 when the secretaryship was abolished.

Two views of the premises in 1823 are given in Plates 62 and 64.

As regards the interior of the premises we have particulars of one room. In Ackermann's Microcosm of London (1809) is a drawing by Rowlandson and Pugin entitled "Board of Trade" (Plate 63), and in the accompanying letterpress is the note: "The apartments which are occupied by this Board, are in the northern part of the old building called the Treasury, in Whitehall. The room where they hold their sittings, and of which the plate gives a distinct representation, was formerly occupied as a bed chamber by the ambitious and unfortunate Duke of Monmouth, and is part of the original palace which escaped the fire." (fn. n72)

The room shown contains a remarkable decorative ceiling, and in the Soane Museum are drawings (illustrated on Plates 64 and 65) dated 1823, giving a view, plan and details of what is evidently the same room and the same ceiling. According to Plate 65 the corner panels of the ceiling contained the initials J.A.M.B. surmounted by a ducal coronet. (fn. n73) The reference can only be to James and Anne, Duke and Duchess of Monmouth and Buccleuch, and thus confirms the connection suggested above between the room and the duke. The height of the window indicated on the drawing of the room in Plate 64 enables the window to be identified with the second from the right on the first floor as shown in the sketch of the exterior reproduced in the same Plate, although the details of the window as shown by Rowlandson are not in accord with the sketch either of Soane or of Capon (Plate 62).

The presence of the Duke of Monmouth in a room fronting Whitehall to the south of the Treasury Passage is certainly surprising, but cannot be ruled out as impossible. The ground floor was, according to the plan of 1670, in the occupation of Cook, but there seems nothing to preclude the duke from occupying a room on the first floor, conveniently adjacent to his own apartments. That portion of the building was certainly not included in the building operations of the Duke of Montagu, for the texture of the wall as indicated on Capon's sketch suggests very forcibly that this was one of the original buildings erected by Henry VIII, though the wall may have been heightened and the windows enlarged.

Figure 17:

Monogram in ceiling of Board Room of the Board of Trade.

From plaster replica preserved in the Soane Musuem

In the Council's collection of prints and water-colours are two pencil drawings entitled respectively: "The President's Room in the Old Treasury, 1821" and "The Vice-President's Room in the Old Treasury, 1821." The drawings are unsigned, but the titles are certainly in the writing of Thomas Hosmer Shepherd. These constitute a serious difficulty. That of the President's Room, illustrated on Plate 63, shows a ceiling which is obviously the same ceiling as given in Ackermann and the Soane Museum drawing, but the room cannot conceivably be the same room. As the ceiling was certainly in the same room in 1823 as it was in 1809, the supposition that it was in some other room in 1821 cannot be entertained.

Several designs are preserved in the Soane Museum showing suggestions for the new Board of Trade offices, and one series, dated May, 1823, includes a plan for a new Board Room facing Whitehall, with an indication of an oval ceiling. This plan agrees very fairly with Shepherd's drawing. In the latter the ceiling is provided with a panelled soffit supported on consoles, a fact which suggests that it had been originally made for a room of less dimensions. It is, therefore, possible that Shepherd's drawing does not represent an actual room, but that Soane, contemplating the possibility of re-erecting the ceiling in the new Board of Trade offices, had a sketch prepared by Shepherd beforehand to illustrate the general effect. (fn. n74)

(iv) The King Street Gate and adjoining premises.—The King Street Gate was the southern of the two built by Henry VIII, one at each end of the property added to York Place in 1530 to form the site of Whitehall.

In 1708 the Gate was described (fn. n75) as "an ancient piece of Building, opening out of the Cockpit to King str. in the N. part of Westminster. The Structure is old, with the Remains of several Figures, the Queen's Arms, Roses, etc., whereby it was enriched. It hath 4 Towers, and the S. side is adorned with Pilasters and Entablature of the Ionic Order."

Figure 18:

Ground plan of the King Street Gate

The Gate is clearly shown in "Agas" (see p. 23), and an engraving of it made by Vertue in 1725, two years after its demolition, is reproduced in Plate 66. It was a rectangular building, of two storeys, constructed of stone, with circular corner turrets having domical roofs. The main portion was probably covered with lead laid to a flat pitch. The central opening for vehicles was square-headed, and on each side were round-headed openings, flanked with panelled pilasters, for pedestrians. The main storey had windows with four-centred lights divided by transomes. The general wall surface was decorated with mouldings and pilasters with bust terminals. The latter are said to have been made in biscuit ware, of white clay, glazed like potters' ware.

As will be seen, the Gate was from the early part of the 17th century

used, together with adjoining premises on both sides, as lodgings. No record exists of its ever, like the Holbein Gate, having been utilised as a means of access to the Cockpit side, which purpose it was presumably at first intended to serve. It is possible, however, that the "long gallery," (fn. n76) still existing near the Brake at the very beginning of the 17th century, had formerly been the continuation, on the west side, of the passage over the gate.

The first person who can be said with certainty to have occupied the Gate as lodgings is the Countess of Buckingham. (fn. n77) In Finet's account (fn. n78) of the arrangements made for viewing the royal procession on 9th February, 1625–6, it is related that the Queen was dissatisfied with the position assigned to her. "She affected to stand in the Banquetting House, or in the Privy-gallary, when the King had given reasons for her better sight in the house of the Countess, Mother to the Duke of Buckingham, over the Gate in Kings-street." The countess was in occupation as early as 1619–20, (fn. n79) and extensive building (or rebuilding) works had been carried out for her. (fn. n80) Some of the rooms were on the east of the Gate, (fn. n81) but certain offices were on the other side. (fn. n82)

The countess was in danger of losing her lodgings in 1628, (fn. n83) but the threat to dispossess her was not proceeded with, and in 1631 she entertaind the King and Queen there. (fn. n84) In an account (fn. n85) of the activities of the Jesuits in England in June, 1627, it is related that "the Countess of B[uckingham]'s lodge, called the Porche, at the end of the King's garden, lodgeth three continually, to wit, Fisher, Walpole and Floyd, besides two others that daily dine there, but lodge at the White Lion in King Streete, as I thinke, or els the Red." On 19th April, 1632, the countess died "at her Lodgings in ye Gatehouse at Whithall, entring into King's Street." (fn. n86) In the following year the lodgings were used by the Princess Mary, (fn. n87) and in 1638 were assigned to the Duchess of Chevreux during her stay in London. (fn. n88)

During the next few years the history of the lodgings is a blank, but shortly before the Restoration they are found in the occupation of Edward Montagu, afterwards Earl of Sandwich. (fn. n89) From references in Pepys' Diary it can be shown that Sandwich's lodgings included the Gate, and adjoining premises on either side. The following passages will make this clear.

(i) "Then to my Lord's lodgings at the Gate" (22nd March, 1659–60). "Home to dinner, and then went to my Lord's lodgings to my turret there" (18th February, 1659–60). These suggest that the lodgings comprised a gatehouse with the turrets, and this is confirmed by the fact that in August, 1668, certain work done (fn. n90) at Sandwich's lodgings included "laying stepps of oaken planks at ye foure Turret Doores there."

(ii) The references to the erection of the new tennis court on Sandwich's garden and to the fall of the building which "hath beaten down a good deal of my Lord's lodgings" (see p. 42), prove that part of the lodgings was on the west side of the Gate. This is confirmed by the entry under date of 31st December, 1660: "That being done I went to my Lord's. … So Mr. Shepley and I over to Harper's, and there drank a pot or two." The house of Mary Harper (fn. n91) (who seems to have combined the business of ale-house keeper with that of a registry office for servants) was, according to the ratebooks, on the east side of King Street, immediately south of Hance's House.

Montagu, Earl of Sandwich.

(iii) There are also two references which imply that the lodgings extended to the east side of the street. "So to my Lord's lodgings, where Tom Guy came to me, and there staid to see the King touch people for the King's evil. But he did not come at all, it rayned so; and the poor people were forced to stand all the morning in the rain in the garden. Afterward he touched them in the Banquetting House" (23rd June, 1660). The reference is not conclusive, though it implies that the lodgings had a view of the Privy Garden. The next is more explicit. "I to my Lord's … Late writing letters and great doings of music at the next house, which was Whally's; (fn. n92) the King and Dukes there with Madame Palmer. … Here at the old door that did go into his lodgings, my Lord, I and W. Howe did stand listening a great while to the music." (13th July, 1660.) Whalley's house, as has already been shown, (fn. n93) was Hance's House, on the east side of the street. Confirmatory evidence of the fact that part of Sandwich's lodgings was on that side is given by the reference (fn. n94) to "Pointing the Greate leads and the Leades next the Privy Garden over the Ld Sandwich his Lodgings with Plaister of Parris."

The date when Sandwich took up his residence here has not been ascertained, but it is known (fn. n95) that he had lodgings at Whitehall before 11th March, 1655–6, and that Pepys at that time was living with him and acting for him as a kind of steward. These lodgings were almost certainly identical with those which Sandwich was occupying at the Restoration, and Pepys' "turret" may have been the actual room occupied by the diarist in his early days. Sandwich retained the lodgings until his death. (fn. n96) Under date of 31st May, 1672, Evelyn records: "It was not above a day or two that going to Whitehall to take leave of his Lordship [Sandwich], who had his lodgings in the Privy Garden, shaking me by the hand he bid me good-bye, and said that he thought he should see me no more." When these words were written Sandwich was dead, having been blown up with his ship on 28th May in the naval battle with the Dutch at Solebay.

Maitland, Duke of Lauderdale.

The next resident was the Duke of Lauderdale, (fn. n97) whose lodgings were likewise on both sides of the road. Thus in 1676 there is a reference (fn. n98) to "new ripping, lathing & tileing over that part of Duke of Lotherdales lodgings which is Next unto ye tennis Court," i.e. on the west side of the road. On the other hand an entry (fn. n99) in the records, dated December, 1677, relates to "the new garden doore in the Priviegarden next the Duke of Lotherdales," and even more precise in its location of part of Lauderdale's premises on the east side of the road is the permission, dated 16th August, 1682 (fn. n100) given to James Cotter "to repaire the Shed that is in ye Passage formerly goeing into King Streete Out of ye Privy Garden betweene ye Duke of Lauderdales house & ye house where Mr Guy lives, & to build a roome over it, it being now in his possession for keepeing broomes & shovells." Guy's house, which was certainly on the east side of the road, is dealt with below. Lauderdale, who had been living in a house on the east side of the Privy Garden, (fn. n101) seems to have removed to the Sandwich lodgings before March, 1672–3. (fn. n102) He died in August, 1682, and the next occupant of the lodgings was the Earl of Rochester, (fn. n103) whose name replaces Lauderdale's in the overseers' accounts for 1684. (fn. n104)

On 4th January, 1686–7, a lease for 31 years was granted (fn. n105) to Rochester (in the name of William Shaw) of a house, with all buildings under or upon the great gateway situated at the north end of King Street, extending eastward 78 feet within or near the south-west corner of the Privy Garden, and in width at the east end 46 feet. It abutted on the Privy Garden on the north, and the house of Henry Guy on the south, and is said to be actually in the tenure and use of the earl, while part had been "lately enlarged and new built towards the said Privy Garden at his Lops own proper cost. (fn. n106) The house of Guy constitutes a difficulty, since it lay between Rochester's house and Hance's house, whereas Pepys' note on 13th July, 1660, implies that the former building, then in the occupation of Sandwich, was next door to the latter. The evidence of the overseers' accounts is not very clear, but it would seem that Henry Guy, together with Henry Savile, first appears in 1676. In the 1678 and 1679 books the entries run:—

His Grace ye Duke of Lauderdale his Benevol'
Mr. Hen Savill 10 d.
Henry Guy Esqr 10 d.
James Harper d/4 d. ob.
His Grace ye D. of Lawderdale his Benevolence
Henery Guy Esqr xx s.
James Harper d/4 d. ob.

The increase of the sum to be paid by Guy from 10d to 20s is inexplicable. Hance's House is, as usual, not shown at all, and James Harper had replaced Mary Harper in the next house south ward in 1670. The only possible suggestion that will meet the case (and that will not explaing the 20s) is that the residence of Savile and Guy was really a part of Lauderdale's lodgings. Although this supposition is not rendered easier by the fact that there was a passage between the two houses (see p. 86), it is probably true, for an account of works done in April, 1686, (fn. n107) begins "For worke done at my Ld Treasurers [Rochester's] in Coll. Guys Lodgings." Lower down, an entry concerning "plaine wanscot collour done three times in Oyle in the Lodgings that were Mr Guys" suggests that the latter had been again added to the main building. (fn. n108)

In addition to the premises on the east side of the road, the grant of 1687 included property on the other side. It will be remembered (see p. 42) that in 1675 Charles Cornwallis acquired the interest of Thomas Cook in the tennis court and appurtenances, and obtained a lease thereof from the Crown for 21 years. After the death of Cornwallis his interest in a portion of the property had been acquired by William Shaw (acting on behalf of Rochester), and the grant referred to above contained an extension of the lease for a further period of 21 years from Lady Day, 1697. The premises are described as "all that mansion house … next the Cockpit, late in the tenure … of Thos. Cooke, together with a small piece of ground … adjoining, containing in length 62 feet 2 inches." (fn. n109)

Hyde, Earl of Rochester.

Rochester died in 1711, and in the same year his son, Henry, the second Earl, applied for a fresh lease. On a survey of the premises it was found (fn. n110) that "the greatest part [were] very old and decayed, and that which was last built being joyned to the old building hath also severall decays in it, so that 'twill require a very considerable and constant charge to keep up the same in habitable condicion." A new lease of all the premises was granted to the earl (fn. n111) for 31 years. Licence was also given to enclose with pales a piece of the Privy Garden, 26 feet wide, extending the length of the earl's premises on the east side of the road.

A conjectural plan of the Rochester property is given on the opposite page. It is based on the plan of Whitehall in 1670, supplemented by the plans of the Walpole property in 1764 and 1783. Measurements in brackets are taken from the grant of 1727, other measurements from the plan of 1783. It will be noticed that the plan of 1670 is convicted of a serious inaccuracy, inasmuch as it does not indicate the plot marked A as a part of Whitehall Palace. This plot never belonged to the Downing estate, and its presence is necessary to allow of access from the Rochester premises on the west side of the road to the Gate. The plot marked B was part of the Downing estate.

As regards the premises on the east side of the road, the length as shown on the plan of 1670 corresponds with that given (78 feet) in the grant of 1687, but the width in the latter (46 feet) cannot be reconciled with that (about 20 feet) shown in the plan. It seems just possible that the strip of the Privy Garden 26 feet wide, mentioned for the first time in 1711, was already in 1687 considered, as part of the premises. Guy's house has been included in the Rochester property.

In 1723 all the premises were resumed by the Crown in connection with the provision of improved means of communication with the Houses of Parliament, and on 13th August of that year a warrant (fn. n112) was issued authorising the Surveyor-General "to wait upon Our very Good Lord Henry, Earl of Clarendon (fn. n113) and Earl of Rochester, and to receive of him … the Custody … and Keys of the Houses lately inhabited by him on both Sides the Old Gateway, together with the sd Old Gateway in King Street." He was directed to keep possession of the houses and buildings for the King's use, but "imediately to proceed in pulling down the said Gateway intirely," the materials of which were not to be "taken as Fees, carryed away, or Purloyned," but sold for the King's best advantage.

Figure 19:

Conjectural plan of the "Rochester" property.

The setting back of the Privy Garden wall (fn. n114) to the line of the narrow passage leading to Cannon Row, together with the destruction of the Gate, left the earl's premises on the east side of the road as an island facing north on what came to be called "the Great Area before the Cockpit."

Steps were immediately taken to fit up the building as an office for the Board of Trade and Plantations, which since 1698 had been located on the Cockpit side in rooms afterwards granted to the Bishop of London (see pp. 73–4). It was found that "the Wall adjoyning to the Old Gate" was "so very weake that it must of Necessity be rebuilt," and the rest of the house was "in so ill a Condition, that to repair and fitt it up for their Lordships reception may amount to about the sum of Seven hundred & Fifty pounds." (fn. n115)

The building did not, however, long survive the Gate. In 1742 it was transferred (fn. n116) to the Westminster Bridge Commissioners, demolished, and its site thrown into the open space on the north side of the junction of King Street and the newly formed Parliament Street (see plan reproduced in Plate 67). In the indenture it is described as "late part of the Dwelling house of Henry, late Earl of Rochester, since resumed into the Hands of the Crown and now used as an Office for the Board of Trade and Plantations, containing in front towards the said Great Area eighty five feet, and in bredth forty six feet, abutting North on the said great Area, South on a Messuage and Ground in Possession of — Bridges, (fn. n117) East on a narrow Footway or Passage leading from the said great Area to Westminster Hall, and West on King Street."

We now turn to that portion of Clarendon's premises which was situated on the west side of the road. Shortly after the resumption of the premises by the Crown, Horatio Walpole, (fn. n118) auditor and Surveyor-General of His Majesty's Revenues in America, asked (fn. n119) for a grant to him and his successors in office of that "part of the Lord Clarendons House which lyes adjoyning to the Cockpit," saying that he was "in very great want of roome to keep the Books and other accounts relating to the revenues of His Majts dominions in America, wch are grown very Voluminous, as allso for transacting the Business of his said Office," and pointing out that it had been usual for the Crown to allow to all other auditors of the revenue offices "which Continue to their Successors in Office." Instructions to repair and fit up the house for the purpose were accordingly given.

In 1726 Walpole presented a further petition, asking that in consideration of the great expense to which he had been, and would be, put in building he might be granted a lease of the premises. The report (fn. n120) on this further memorial describes the property as "part of what was reassumed … from the said Earl of Clarendon, scituate on the North West side of the way leading from the Cockpit to King street … Abutting South East on that Street, South West on Houses in Downing street, North West on Stables in the possession of Count Bothmar, and North East on Lodgings in the Occupation of the Duke of Montague, and the Tennis Court in the Cockpit. It contains in Front 104 feet … in Depth on the North East side 23 feet, where there is a break of 53 feet, and in Depth on the south West side 25 feet 9 Inches, where there is another break of 11 feet 6 Inches so that the Breadth at the North West end is only forty feet …, but the Depth from the said Way to the said Stables is 65 feet 4 Inches." A lease for 50 years was granted to Walpole on 28th June, 1727. (fn. n121) At the south-west end of the property was a vault 41 feet by 9 feet which had also been included in Lord Clarendon's premises, but formed no part of the Palace of Whitehall, having been rented from the Downing estate. The Downing interest was purchased at a cost of £185, (fn. n122) and the vault annexed to Walpole's premises. (fn. n123) Eleven years later, when Walpole obtained a reversionary grant of certain premises in Downing Street (see below) the leases of the whole were so arranged as to expire together in 1788. (fn. n124)

Lord Walpole of Wolterton.

In 1757 Walpole died, and in 1764 his son (fn. n125) petitioned for a new lease. The house was then in the occupation of the Dowager Lady Walpole, who had a life interest therein. A fresh lease for 50 years from 1764 was granted, (fn. n126) and in 1784 a further reversionary lease, to expire in 1833. (fn. n127) The plan of the premises made in 1783 (fn. n128) is reproduced on p. 92.

Long before the expiration of the lease, it had been purchased by the Crown. A letter, dated 1st October, 1784, from Lord Sidney to the Commissioners of H.M. Treasury, (fn. n129) states that an agreement had been come to with Lord Walpole for the purchase of the house "for the use of the Office for the Transaction of the Affairs of the East Indies." The indenture (fn. n130) accompanying the sale was dated 14th February, 1785. (fn. n131) A view of the locality in 1807 (reproduced on p. 93) shows the premises lying on the extreme right. The Indian Board of Control remained in these quarters until 1810, when it removed to Dorset House (see p. 75), and the premises came into the occupation of the Privy Council.

(V) Premises in Downing Street.—In 1738 Horatio Walpole petitioned for a reversionary grant of four houses on the north side of Downing Street, between King Street and the gateway leading to the stable yard belonging to the house now known as No. 10, Downing Street, as well as certain stables and coach-houses close by. All were on the site of Hampden House, granted to Sir George Downing in 1664 for a term of 99 years (see p. 109). The then owner, Charles Downing, had assigned his interest in these premises to Walpole, who, as the result of his petition, obtained a reversionary grant for a term of 25 years from 23rd February, 1763. (fn. n132) The premises were included in the further leases granted to Walpole in 1764 and 1784 (see above), and on the last occasion were stated to be "small houses, very old and in bad repair." They were not included in the sale to the Crown in 1785.

Figure 20:

The "Walpole" property in 1783.

Walpole parted with his interest to Thomas Blatcher, who in 1804 sublet No. 3, Downing Street for the remainder of the term to John Cockayne. In 1806 the Indian Board of Control, being pressed for room, purchased the sub-lease. After the Board's removal to Dorset House, this accommodation was not required, and efforts were made to let the premises, which were not successful until 1816. (fn. n133)

In July, 1824, in connection with the building of the Board of Trade and Privy Council Offices by Soane, attention was called (fn. n134) to the desirability of acquiring the residue of the Crown lease of the four houses (then reckoned as three), (fn. n135) and at the same time of terminating the tenancies of the six houses (fn. n136) lying further west, on the other side of the gateway. The proposal was adopted, and in the early part of 1825 the materials of all the houses were sold and the sites cleared.

Figure 21:

"South view of the City of Westminster from the roof of the Banqueting House," 1807.

From J. T. Smith's Antiquities of Westminster

Soane's Building.

In 1824 plans by John (afterwards Sir John) Soane were approved for a new building, to accommodate the Board of Trade and the Privy Council Office, with a frontage to Whitehall extending from the Treasury Passage to the northern corner of Downing Street, and a return frontage along the eastern portion of the latter street. It was subsequently (7th December 1826) decided to include the Treasury Passage in the frontage. (fn. n137) building was completed in 1827.

It had a classic stone façade, interspaced with engaged fluted. The thian columns embracing the ground and first-floor storeys, and an entablature surmounted by a high balustraded parapet forming a screen to the storey. The general wall surface was rusticated and contained squareheaded openings (Plates 69 to 72). At the southern corner the columns were disengaged, forming a return pavilion treatment, (fn. n138) which it was intended to repeat at the northern end when the front should be extended to include the site of the old building on the other side of the Treasury Passage.

The Present Building.

Soane's frontage was not destined to last long. The need for additional accommodation soon became pressing, and Charles (afterwards Charles) Barry was in 1844 instructed to prepare plans. The scheme adopted consisted in raising Soane's elevation and containuing it to mask the old premises, then occupied by the Home Office, lying between the Treasury Passage and Dover House.

By November, 1845, (fn. n139) the front of Soane's building had completely dismantled, and stripped of all its columns and stonework, and less than a twelvemonth later preparations had begun (fn. n140) for the removal of the old elevation of the northern building, which, though altered from time to time, had existed from the reign of Henry VIII.

Soane's building had been designed with the Order at the street level, a very ineffective treatment in the environment of Whitehall. Barry re-designed the front, increasing the height by a storey, with the groundfloor treated as a rusticated podium. He re-used Soane's columns at the higher level, also the old entablature, with the frieze enriched. At extremity of the front, including the return to Downing Street, he continued the attic storey above the main cornice as a pavilion treatment. The surface was rusticated, interspaced with foliated pilasters, and surmounted with a balustraded parapet. The whole building thus treated gained in dignity and importance (Plates 75 and 76).

The entrance to the old Cockpit passage had been included in Soane's facade, and it will be seen by the plan (Plate 82) that it was found necessary to form the new entrance slightly to the south, thereby affecting the alignment of the corridor connecting with Kent's Treasury in the rear. The front wall of the old Tudor building facing Whitehall had to be demolished for the extended frontage, but the inner or western wall was retained.

The new frontage line of the extension to Whitehall at the northern end finishes about seven feet in advance of the frontage of Dover House. Had Barry retained Soane's pavilion treatment at each extremity of the facade, with the columns detached as originally intended (Plate 68), the projection would have been even greater, but the scheme apparently was not found desirable.

In the block facing Whitehall are certain decorative features in the style adopted by Soane. The vestibule to the Downing Street entrance has a flat ceiling upon fluted pendentives (Plate 87), while the lobby adjoining has an effective grouping of Grecian Doric columns conveying the impression of great strength and solidity (Plate 88).

The entrance lobby from Whitehall has a flat vaulted ceiling (Plate 87). The main staircase is in stone, with iron balustrading having cast-iron rosettes as ornamentation (Plate 88).

The Privy Council Chamber, which is at the south-western end overlooking Downing Street, was carried out by Soane, and had the lower part of the walls panelled in oak, with Sienna marble columns to the door-cases, and a flat vaulted ornamental plaster ceiling (Plate 89). The design was much criticised at the time, mainly on account of the novelty of its lighting. Draughts were anticipated, and the vault was regarded as a poor substitute for the usual flat ceiling. Soane had a dispute with Greville, the clerk of the Council, who obtained a Treasury order for its demolition. (fn. n141) Soane, however, who had been Pitt's architect, and had as a friend the great minister's "aidede-camp," Rose, evidently found support for his views, as the work which had been ordered did not proceed beyond the erection of a scaffold. The original proportions of the chamber, have, however, since been affected by the removal of the vaulted ceiling and the columns to the door casings. Extra height has been obtained by substituting a flat ceiling with a deeply moulded cornice and interspacing the clerestory windows with a series of plain panels (Plates 90 and 91).

The Privy Council Board Room or Second Court adjoining, also carried out by Soane, is panelled in oak, and contains a marble mantelpiece (Plate 92).

Rooms Nos. 164 and 162 have panelled plaster ceilings, consisting of ribs with laurel leaves and crossed ribands, with rosette pendants at the intersections, and a wide margin with a foliated scroll and cartouches (Plate 93).

The method of conveying light to the main corridors by means of top lights and wells through the respective floors is interesting, and was no doubt necessitated by the extra storey added by Barry (see Plate 86).

Figure 22:

Ceiling to bay window in Lord President's Room.

The Lord President's Room is on the first floor overlooking Horse Guards Parade, and in the portion of the block which was formerly Dorset House. (fn. n142) The room has an ornamental plaster ceiling, divided into panels containing a scroll design and finished with a modillion cornice (Plate 94). There is also a white marble mantelpiece, with an overmantel containing a mirror, which has a carved frame with fluted Corinthian columns and pilasters, and a broken ogee pediment forming a setting for a boldly carved eagle, while the soffit is carved with a fret (Plate 95). The chief mouldings to the are picked out in old gold. The bay window (fn. n143) has been rebuilt and continued up to the floor above (Plate 96), and other alterations have been carried out, including the removal of a projecting geometrical staircase in western corner of the room adjoining (Plate 57).

The Waiting Room, which was formerly a dressing-room, has its led and a heavily moulded wood cornice. The window reveals are also panelled and have lift-up seats, while the glass panes are divided usual number of squares by substantial sash bars. The fireplace marble surround (Plate 98). The room generally dates from the of the 18th century, and is contemporary with the workmanship staircase described later.

The ante-room is panelled and contains a screen of Ionic columns and a coved ceiling supporting a lantern light (Plate 97).

The silver service of the Lord President's Room (Plate 97) is chiefly of the Queen Anne period, and comprises:—Ink and pen box, with claw feet, and with "A.R." and Royal Arms inscribed on the lid.

I pen tray.

I air of snuffers, with claw feet, and with "A.R." and the Royal Arms inscribed.

4 Fluted candlesticks on square moulded bases, each 11 inches high.

2 Dispatch boxes "IN" and "OUT", with claw feet, and Royal Arms inscribed on the lid.

1 Sheffield plated candlestick with pie-crust edge and snuffer attached, and the Royal Seal.

In Room No. 226 the window reveals are panelled with leaf decoration to the mouldings, while the door-cases (Plate 98) have broken pedimented heads borne on scrolled trusses with a carved pulvinated frieze between, with oak leaves, fruit and crossed ribands. The chair-rail and skirting around the room are also carved.

The lobby is panelled and has the door-cases treated in a similar manner to Room No. 226, the doors themselves being double-leaved, eight panelled.

The main staircase, which has a square lantern light to the well, and a coved ceiling, continues from the ground to the first floor in two has turned spiral balusters, square newel-posts and carved close strings (Plate 99).

The hall is paved with squares of black and white marble and, with the stair balustrading, is contemporary with Dorset House.

Some of the of the Tudor remains of the Palace buildings on this side of Whitehall have been retained in the corridor (the Treasury Passage) which runs east and west and formerly gave access to the old Cockpit. A doorway on the south side of the corridor in the basement (ground level) has stop-chamfered stone jambs and a four-centred head, while the iron rides for the hinges are still in situ (Plate 101). This doorway can be identified on the plan of 1670. Near by is a blank window of three fourcentred lights in a square head (Plate 101). On the floor above there are two windows of three lights and one of two lights (Plate 102). On the opposite side of the corridor is a window of three four-centred lights with transomed lights below, all in a square head (Plates 103 and 104). Over the easternmost window on the south side on the floor above is a further window of three lights (Plate 100). The corridor itself is 10 feet in width and comprises two floors, with the walls built of brick with stone dressings; the basement, which is really the ground level, is vaulted in brick springing above a plain band similar to the adjoining work by Kent. The exterior face of a portion of the old Tudor brickwork to the corridor can be seen on the south side (Plate 100).

Figure 23:

Treasury Buildings, doorway in basement corridor

There are some good wrought-iron gates and grilles in the basement corridor contemporary with the work of Kent (Plate 105).

Figure 24:

Iron Fanlight in Basement Corridor

Condition of Repair


In the Council's collection are:—

(fn. n144) Plan of the Treasury, Tennis Court, etc., 1793 (copy of a plan in the Soane Museum).
(fn. n144) Plan of Treasury Passage and adjoining premises to the north, 1824 (copy of a portion of plan in the Soane Museum).
(fn. n144) Plan of the Tennis Court, etc., at Whitehall, 1793 (copy of a plan in the Soane Museum).
(fn. n144) Sections of the Tennis Court at Whitehall, showing its connection with the surrounding buildings, 1793 (copy of a drawing in the Soane Museum).
(fn. n144) Offices of the Board of Trade, 1823 (photograph of drawing in the Westminster Public Library).
(fn. n144) "View of the Board of Trade, Whitehall," with views and sections of the Board Room (photograph of drawing in the Soane Museum).
(fn. n144) Details of the Board of Trade Board Room (photograph of drawing in the Soane Museum).
(fn. n144) Plan of the site of the Board of Trade and Privy Council Offices, 1824 (photograph of a plan in the Soane Museum).
(fn. n144) Elevation of Treasury Buildings, Whitehall, looking south-west (photograph).
(fn. n144) Elevation of Treasury Buildings, Whitehall, looking north-west (photograph).
(fn. n144) Treasury Buildings, return front to Downing Street (photograph).
(fn. n144) Treasury Buildings, ceiling to lobby leading from Downing Street (photograph).
(fn. n144) Treasury Buildings, lobby to staircase in Downing Street (photograph).
(fn. n144) Sketch of interior of Privy Council Chamber (photograph of drawing in Soane's Public and Private Buildings (1827).
(fn. n144) Interior of Privy Council Champer, looking east (photograph).
(fn. n144) Interior of Privy Council Champer, looking west (photograph).
(fn. n144) Interior of Privy Council Board Room (photograph).
(fn. n144) Vaulted ceiling to entrance lobby from Whitehall at south end (photograph).
(fn. n144) Staircase to second floor of Treasury block at south end (photograph).
(fn. n144) Plaster ceiling in Room No. 164 (photograph).
(fn. n144) "The The Front of the Treasury Buildings towards Whitehall" (T. Chawner, 1809) (photograph of sketch in Crace Collection, British Museum).
(fn. n144) Sketch of building included in above (photograph of print in Crace Collection).
The King Street Gate (photograph of drawing in the Sutherland Collection, Bodleian Library).
(fn. n144) Plan of Board of Trade and Council Offices, 1844 (copy of plan in the possession of H.M. Office of Works).
(fn. n144) Ground-floor plan of proposed alterations and additions to Privy Council Office, The Board of Trade and Home Office, by Chas. Barry, 1845 (copy of plan in the possession of H.M. Office of Works).
(fn. n144) First-floor plan of proposed alterations and additions to Privy Council office, The Board (fn. n144) Ground plan of above (copy of plan in the possession of H.M. Office of Works).
possession of H.M. Office of Works).
(fn. n144) First floor of the Treasury Buildings, Whitehall (as at present) (copy of plan in the possession of H.M. Office of Works).
(fn. n144) Second floor of the Treasury Buildings, Whitehall (as at present) (copy of plan in possession of H.M. Office of Works).
(fn. n144) Third floor of the Treasury Buildings, Whitehall (as at present) (copy of plan in the possession of H.M. Office of Works).
(fn. n144) Sections through the Treasury Buildings, Whitehall (copy of plan in the possession of H.M. Office of Works).
(fn. n144) Plans (three) of His Grace the Duke of Dorset's House, Whitehall, in 1754 (copies of plans preserved in the Public Record Office).
(fn. n144) Hall and staircase to Dorset House, at north end of Whitehall (photograph).
(fn. n144) Exterior showing bay window to Lord President's Room (photograph).
(fn. n144) Chimneypiece in Lord President's Room (photograph).
Detail of marble mantelpiece in Lord President's Room (photograph).
(fn. n144) Ornamental ceiling in Lord President's Room (photograph).
(fn. n144) Ceiling to bay window in Lord President's Room (photograph).
(fn. n144) Old silver service in Lord President's Room (photograph).
(fn. n144) View of ante-room to Lord President's Room (photograph).
(fn. n144) View of window in Waiting Room (photograph).
(fn. n144) Detail of door-case to Room No. 226 (photograph).
(fn. n144) Exterior view showing Tudor windows and walling, south side of corridor (photograph).
(fn. n144) Tudor doorway in basement corridor (photograph).
(fn. n144) Detail of doorway and window in basement corridor (measured drawing).
(fn. n144) Blank Tudor window in basement corridor (photograph).
(fn. n144) Elevation of three-light Tudor windows, south side of first-floor corridor (photograph).
Elevation of two-light Tudor window, south side of corridor (photograph).
(fn. n144) Exterior of six-light Tudor window, north side of corridor (photograph).
(fn. n144) Detail of above (measured drawing).
(fn. n144) Wrought-iron gates and grille to basement (photograph).
(fn. n144) Wrought-iron gates (measured drawing).
(fn. n144) Grille (measured drawing).


  • n1. It would seem that a portion of the old tennis court had already been used for residential purposes. On 9th December, 1662, an order was given to the Lord Chamberlain and Sir John Denham in the following terms: "Whereas we have granted the use of halfe of the roomes or building in the Cockpit, formerly a tennis court, unto our trusty and well-beloved Vanderdoes, to be by him employed for our service, and according to our directions: Our will and pleasure is that you forthwith cause the said Mr. Vanderdoes to be put in possn of the said roome or apartement. And our further pleasure is that he have liberty and permission to make such partitions, roomes, divisions and alterations there, as may render it proper for the service we intend it, and as he shall find fit." (S.P., Dom., Entry Book IX, p. 91.)
  • n2. "Carpenters Imployed in frameing and makeing ready one new Floore—foote long—foote wide, with five sum[m]ers in it, to be put up and layd at the old tennis Court for the makeing of lodgings there for the Duke of Monmouth" (P.R.O., Works, 5/4, November, 1663); "fitting up two paire of staires Cont' 25 stepps … bridging the whole floore Cont' 22 square 48 foote" (Ibid., February, 1663–4).
  • n3. "Masons Imployed in takeing downe all the stone windowes of the old tennis Court next the streete, and digging downe the stone walls underneath the said windowes lower for the placeing of new timber windowes there; workeing of 50 foote of the old window stones for an Architrave to be sett about the new timber windowes to fasten them to the wall there. Carpenters Frameing and makeing three new timber windowes and setting up one of them in the roome of one of the old stone windowes taken downe there, also working and makeing ready more window stuffe for other windowes to be put up there" (Ibid., November, 1663); "Carpenters Imployed in frameing and makeing two new timber windowes x foote high 5 foote ½ wide with transomes in them for the Duke of Monmouthes lodgings at the old tennis Court and setting up the same, and two more of the same bignes there" (Ibid., December, 1663). There are other references.
  • n4. "Cutting up the lead of the lanthorns upon ye roofe of the tennis Court; cutting up 12 sheets of olde lead where the Lanthorns stood there & laying 12 new sheetes in theire places againe and covering wth lead the two new lanthorns there." (Ibid., February, 1663–4.)
  • n5. B.M. Addl. MS. 15897, ff. 1–4.
  • n6. It is referred to in the following: "Washing, Stopeing & Whiteing 4 Ceilings in ye Duke of Monmouths Lodgings next the Tennes Court." (P.R.O., Works, 5/32, July, 1679.)
  • n7. P.R.O., Works, 5/13.
  • n8. Is this the great dining-room ? In 1674 work was done in "joysting and bourding two gutters over the Duke of Monmouths great dineing roome, each of them sixtie foote long" (P.R.O., Works, 5/23), suggesting a very large apartment.
  • n9. (i) "Finishing with fine stuff ye gable end of Roome belonging to the Nursery belonging to ye Duke of Monmouths next the Ld. Trea[sure]rs new building" (P.R.O., Works, 5/28, November, 1677); (ii) "Washing, Stopeing and Whiteing 4 Ceileings in the old Building next ye Parke at the Duke of Monmouths Called ye Nurserey" (Ibid., 5/32, July, 1679). From the description, it would certainly appear that the Nursery was the old building with small enclosed yard in front shown on both the plan of 1670 and the views reproduced in Plates , , .
  • n10. "Lathing & plaistering the wall on both sides of ye new dorecase putt up in a lower roome at Sr Peter Killigrews lodging, lathing & plaistering a doreway on both sides betwixt ye said roome & the Duke of Albemarles lodgings." (P.R.O., Works, 5/13—February, 1669–70.)
  • n11. P.R.O., L.C. 5/143, p. 456.
  • n12. "Washing, stopping & whiteing the Ceiling & walls of ye Elabouratory at the Cockpitt." (P.R.O., Works, 5/15, December, 1670.) Three references occur in the following year: "putting up lx foote of Shelveing in the Elaboratory at the Cockpitt Lodgings." (Ibid., 5/16, February, 1670–1.) "Working vij new stepples for ye furnance in the Elaboratory at the Cockpitt"; "mending the paving in the passage by the Elabouratory at the Cockpitt with x inch tiles." (Ibid., 5/17, March, 1670–1.) For details of the laboratory in the main portion of the Palace see Survey of London, Vol. XIII, pp. 100–1.
  • n13. I.e. the passage entitled "Passage from the Park" in the plan of 1670.
  • n14. P.R.O., L.C. 5/144, p. 700.
  • n15. "We are told that the Earl of Doncaster, Son to his Grace, the Duke of Monmouth, being lately walking with his Tutor in St James's Park, his Majesty espying, was pleased to call him to him, and cherished him, to the great joy of those then present." (The True Domestick Intelligence, 2nd–5th March, 1680–1.) James Scott, at first styled Earl of Doncaster, was born in 1674. On his father's forfeiture he lost the title, and was subsequently styled Earl of Dalkeith. He died in 1705.
  • n16. "Charges in building severall new roomes for his Grace the Duke of Monmouth at the Cockpitt over agaynst the privie garden in the months of July, August, September and November, 1673" (P.R.O., Works, 5/21); "Charges in doeing diverse necessary works and alterations at his Grace the Duke of Monmouths Lodgings at the Cockpitt from the 7th of May, 1674, to the end of January, 1675" (i.e. 1675–6) (Ibid., 5/23).
  • n17. P.R.O., L.C. 5/145, p. 216.
  • n18. George Legge, created Baron Dartmouth in 1682. He was in command of the fleet at the time of the invasion by the Prince of Orange. He died in the Tower, where he was awaiting trial for treason, in 1691.
  • n19. On 8th July the Earl of Feversham wrote to Dartmouth expressing pleasure at the news, and asking to be allowed the lodgings vacated by the latter (Hist. MSS. Comm., Dartmouth MSS., Vol. I, p. 128); see also petition (9th February, 1685–6) of Robert Churchill, John Gibson and Stephen Emmitt for payment of £110 19s. for "fitting up the Lodgings intended for the Rt. Honoble the Lord Dartmouth at Whitehall." (P.R.O., Ind. 4617, p. 271.)
  • n20. Several references to his residence here occur. See, e.g. letters addressed to him (i) from Philip Musgrave, dated 28th November, 1688, with the news that "all his Lordship's family at the Cockpit are well" (Hist. MSS. Comm., Dartmouth MSS., Vol. I, p. 216); (ii) from Phineas Bowles, dated 25th December, 1688; "As the most acceptable duty I could pay your Lordship in my absence, I made all haste I could to Town, where I arrived . . . this evening, when I went immediately to the Cockpit to wait on my Lady." (Ibid., Vol. III, p. 140.)
  • n21. P.R.O., L.C. 5/149, p. 2.
  • n22. The author of "To all you ladies now at land." He died in 1706.
  • n23. In the Works accounts for January, 1693–4 (P.R.O., Works, 5/46) during the occupation of the Earl of Dorset there occurs the following entry: "Setting up the Range in my Ld Chamberlins kitchin 8 fot long, 3 fot deep One brick ½ thick to make good after Prince Lewis [of Baden] dynd there, taking downe the stoves & carrying the bricks & rubbish away and making good the brick arch of the Chimney." The occasion was no doubt that referred to by Luttrell (Brief Relation): "Tuesday, 9 Jan. [1693–4]. On Sunday his majestie dined with the prince of Baden at the lord chamberlains."
  • n24. "My Lord Chamberlaine having lent some part of his Lodgings at the Cockpitt to Mr. Eyre, does desire that you will give Orders that Water may be lay'd in to the pipe and Cisterne in the Landry as formerly." (22nd August, 1706, P.R.O., Works, 6/3, p. 13.)
  • n25. They would seem, however, in 1697 to have included the Monmouth rooms to the south of the Cockpit passage and adjoining the new Tennis Court. "Ld. Chamberlain—Stopping holes in severall floores & taking out ye 4 light windows in ye roome next ye Tennis Ct." (P.R.O., Works, 5/49.)
  • n26. Among the rooms comprising the Secretary of State's office would be that allocated to the Gazetteer. This post was from 1707 to 1710 held by Steele, several of whose letters are headed "Lord Sunderland's Office, Whitehall." (Aitken's Life of Richard Steele.)
  • n27. The Baptism Register of St. Margaret's records on 23rd January, 1717–8: "The Hon. George Stanhope, son to the Right Hon. James, Viscount Mahon, of Elvaston … borne 27th of December, in the Cockpitt in Whitehall." Stanhope had been commander of the British forces in Spain. In 1710 he gained the victories of Almenara and Saragossa, but was surprised by Vendôme and obliged to capitulate at Brihuega in the same year. He was Secretary of State from 1714 until his death, except for a time in 1717–18, when he was First Lord of the Treasury and Chancellor of the Exchequer. In 1717 he was raised to the peerage as Baron Stanhope of Elvaston and Viscount Stanhope of Mahon, and in the following year was created Earl Stanhope.
  • n28. P.R.O., T. 54/24, p. 215.
  • n29. "Diamond Pitt," East India merchant and governor of Madras, father-in-law of Stanhope, and grandfather of William Pitt, Earl of Chatham.
  • n30. P.R.O., T. 54/24, p. 366.
  • n31. P.R.O., E. 367/4232.
  • n32. Dict. Nat. Biog.
  • n33. There is some doubt about the date. A copy of the actual document has not been found. It is referred to in the copy of the lease (P.R.O., E. 367/4232) of 1726 mentioned below as "a certain indenture bearing date 4th July last past, in the 12th year of Our reign," which implies 4th July, 1726. This date seems inconsistent with the statement by the SurveyorGeneral on 23rd June, 1726, that the duke had already purchased the house, and still more in conflict with the duke's own reference on 3rd July, 1725, to "his house at the Cockpitt," which must, however, have pre-dated his actual possession of the house even if that event took place on 4th July, 1725.
  • n34. Succeeded his father in the earldom in 1706, and created duke in 1720.
  • n35. "These are to Require yu to deliver to his Grace ye Ld Archbishop of Canterbury, ye possession of the Lodgings at ye Cockpit under ye Council of Trade." 8th Decr., 1 Anne (P.R.O., L.C. 5/153, p. 311).
  • n36. "There are Several Rooms on the one pair of Staires Floor, opposite to the Councill Chamber, which were lately in the Possession of the Lords Comrs for Trade and Plantations, but are now in the possion of the Lord Bishop of London, who has likewise all the Roomes or Garretts over the said Floor (Except Such as belong to the Lord Chamberlain) And has also one Room on the Ground Floor." (P.R.O., T. 54/30, p. 163.) The following Treasury minute on the subject is of interest: "My Lords apprehend that … future Bishops of London or Deans of his Mats Chappell may lay Claim or Pretence to the said Rooms, Therefore to Obviate all such Claims … their Lordps do declare that his Majestys Grace and favour in the Premisses was to the person of the present Bishop only and not to be taken as an Emolument belonging to the Bishops of London or Deans of the Chappell." (P.R.O., T. 29/25, p. 7–26th January, 1724–5.)
  • n37. Actually it would seem on the day before the passing of the deed of purchase (see above).
  • n38. P.R.O., Ind. 4624, p. 203.
  • n39. The lease did not contain any provision for the accommodation of the archbishop and bishop although it had not "appeared … that either of these Reverend Prelates is willing to part with his … Lodgings," since any such clause would "be deemed repugnant to the Habendum in the said Lease and consequently adjudged void." It was, therefore, advised that covenants should be made before the passing of the lease to secure to the prelates quiet possession of their lodgings. (P.R.O., T. 54/30, p. 164.)
  • n40. P.R.O., T. 56/19, p. 112.
  • n41. P.C.C., 407, Rushworth.
  • n42. P.R.O., T. 55/16, p. 471.
  • n43. "Saturday night about Twelve o'Clock at her House at White-Hall, her Grace the Dutchess of Dorset." (St. James's Chronicle, 14th June, 1768.)
  • n44. P.C.C., 482, Ducarel.
  • n45. There were three Earls Waldegrave who, if the ratebooks are correct, occupied Dorset House: John, the 3rd Earl, who died in 1784, and who certainly resided at the house; George, the 4th Earl (d. 1789); and George, the 5th Earl, who was a boy of 10 at his death in 1794.
  • n46. P.C.C., 583, Howe.
  • n47. J. T. Smith, writing in 1807, refers to the "long stone gallery, for some time occupied by the late duke of Dorset, but now by Lord Whitworth." (Antiquities of Westminster, 2nd edn., p. 20.)
  • n48. In 1817 the Board removed to Cannon Row (Sir Wm. Foster's John Company), and in the following year its place was taken by the Commissariat Department. (P.R.O., Works, 4/23, p. 73–14th February, 1818.)
  • n49. P.R.O., Works, 1/6, p. 480.
  • n50. See Hollar's view in Plate of Vol. XIII.
  • n51. The northern door bore the initials C.R. and Crown on the lintel, while the southern had corbelled heads designed by Wyatt (see illustration on next page).
  • n52. "These ar to … Require you to give Orders, Immediately for mending ye Pavement of the long Passage of the Cockpitt near ye Earl of Montagu's Lodgings [see p. 79], & for White washing the Walls, as far as ye Councill Chamber." (10th February, 1701–2, P.R.O., L.C. 5/153, p. 143.) "These are . . . to … require you to Build a Shedd for a Kitchen in ye Court at the Cock pitt, between yen cill Chamber and the Tennis Court." (5th March, 1701–2, P.R.O., Works, 6/3, p. r.)
  • n53. For instance, a note on the plan of i 824 marks a staircase as "temporary stair to the Council Room commonly called the Cockpit."
  • n54. A detailed account of the incident may be found in a contemporary pamphlet: "A true Narrative of what pass’d at the Examination of the Marquis de Guiscard at the Cock-pit."
  • n55. He was arrested in his house at Westminster. On his coming before the Council toward mav'd with a great deal of Calmness, and They, with much Civility toward ty to speak for himself as much as he pleas'd, and they listen'd to his Defence Attention; and, what is more than ordinary in such Cases, after he had with Liberty to re-enter the Council-Chamber to make for himself such Representations and Requests as he thought proper … After three Quarters of an Hour's Stay at the Cockpit, he was sent to the Tower privately, in his own Coach, and without any Manner of Noise or Observation." (Memoirs ofDr. Francis Atterbury, by T. Stackhouse, pp. 87–8.)
  • n56. "The Judge-Advocate having obtained leave to hold the Court Martial in the Council Chamber at the Cockpit, some day in the next Week for the Trial of Colo. Lambert, I have my Lord Presidents Commands to aquaint You with it, and at the same time to desire that you will … give the necessary Directions for Surveying and securing the said Chamber in like manner as was done in Decr. 1757, when Sir John Mordaunt was tryed there." (P.R.O., Works, 6/17, p. 183–7th February, 1759.)
  • n57. See, e.g. letters from the Lord Chamberlain's office in August, 1791, and October, 1795. (P.R.O., Works, 4/17 and 4/18, f. 146.)
  • n58. P.R.O., Works, 6/23, p. 68.
  • n59. P.R.O., P.C. 2/184, pp. 198–9.
  • n60. P.R.O., T. 54/15, p. 305. Sir Charles Scarburgh, who died in 1694, was physician to Charles II, James II, Mary and Prince George of Denmark. He had occupied rooms in the Scotland Yard portion of the Palace.
  • n61. P.R.O., L.R. 1/65, f. 50.
  • n62. Some, at any rate, of the rooms were new. In a petition of Thos. Chaplin, dated 25th March, 1708, after mentioning the grant to Cook, he proceeds: "since wch some other Buildings have been erected by Du: Montague and Ld Rochester by the sole consent of the Masters of the Tennis Court." (P.R.O., Ind. 4622, p. 296.)
  • n63. Sheppard's Whitehall, p. 174.
  • n64. "For 2 new X window bars and fastnings to Shutters in the Wardrobe at the Cockpit." (P.R.O., Works, 5/50.)
  • n65. "These ar to Pray & Require you to give Orders, Immediately for mending ye Pavement of the long Passage of the Cockpitt near ye Earl of Montagu's Lodgings"; "Whereas I have appointed ye room under ye Councill Chamber at ye Cockpit formerly ye Earl of Montagues Kitchin wth ye little room within it, for ye Rt. Honble ye Lady Frechville, etc." (P.R.O., L.C. 5/153, pp. 143, 280.)
  • n66. In a plan, undated, but not earlier than 1735, preserved in the Bodleian Library (Gough Collection, XXII, f. 27), the premises fronting Whitehall south of the Treasury Passage are marked "Master of ye Great Wardrobe Lodgings".
  • n67. The plan of the "Walpole" property (which adjoined the Montagu lodgings on the south) in 1764 gives the northern boundary as "Secretary of State," and this is confirmed by the ratebooks, which show the Duke of Newcastle and George Grenville there, though the dates of their occupations (1754–63 and 1763–77) are manifestly wrong (Grenville died in 1770). There is a reference in 1756 to "His Grace the Duke of Newcastles Apartment in the Cockpit" (P.R.O., T. 29/32, 11th August, 1756). The other ratebook entries are: (i) 1777–93, "Lord North" (which is quite inexplicable), and (ii) 1794 and onwards, "Lord Hawkesbury's Office." In fact, the premises were used as Hawkesbury's Office from 1786.
  • n68. "Recd. from the Treasury their Lordships direction for making repairs and alterations in the Apartments late the Secretary of States at the Cockpit, Whitehall, for an office for the Right Honble the Earl of Hillsborough" (P.R.O., Works, 4/14–15 Jany., 1768).
  • n69. "The Secretary having reported to the Board, that, by reason of the great addition made of late years to the Books and papers of this Office [Board of Trade], the rooms assigned for the accommodation of their Lordships and their Officers were become insufficient to contain the same, it was ordered that the Secretary should write to the Secretary to the Lords of the Treasury, desiring either that the other State papers, now kept in the rooms adjoining to these Apartments on the South, may be removed, or etc." (P.R.O., C.O. 391/81–5th November, 1774.) The plan of the "Walpole" property in 1783 (see p. 92) shows the "State Paper Office" in the southern portion of the Montagu lodgings.
  • n70. "Mr Woolfe reported that he had recd a message from the Secretary of States Office to remove Presses, etc., from out of the Office late made use of as a Plantation Office on account that Lord Shelburnes Office was removing there." (P.R.O., Works 4/16–10 May, 1782.)
  • n71. P.R.O., T. 29/58, p. 39.
  • n72. Microcosm of London (1809), III, p. 197.
  • n73. A plaster replica of one of these panels is preserved at the Soane Museum, and is illustrated on p. 81.
  • n74. The above seems the only possible solution, but it is open to the criticism that the drawing is dated 1821, while Soane's plan was apparently not evolved until 1823. Moreover, out of the 242 original drawings by T. H. Shepherd preserved in the Council's collection, it would be hard to find another instance in which he has given details of a building projected, and not in actual existence.
  • n75. Hatton's New View of London, I, p. xi (a mistake for ix).
  • n76. "Boordinge of gutters on the longe gallerye nexte the brake." (P.R.O., E. 351/3236, 1600–1.) See also: "For xx fotes of newe glasse in the gallary by the great tenye plaie." (P.R.O., E. 101/474/19—Oct.—Nov., 1549.)
  • n77. Mary, daughter of Anthony Beaumont, married (i) Sir George Villiers, by whom she was mother of the 1st Duke of Buckingham. She afterwards married (ii) Sir William Rayner, and (iii) Sir Thomas Compton, who died in 1626. In 1618 she was created Countess of Buckingham. She died in 1632, aged 62.
  • n78. Finetti Philoxenis, p. 171.
  • n79. "Twoe newe roomes for the Countes of Buckingham." (P.R.O., E. 351/3253.)
  • n80. "For finishing all the faciaes, Cornishes, Doores, windowes and all other mouldings of Brickworke in and about the buildings which were lately erected … at Whitehall for the Countesse of Buckingham, as alsoe for colouring all the rest of the Brickworke of the sayd Buildings on the outsyde with redd over twice over." (P.R.O., E. 351/3254–1620–1.)
  • n81. "For … paintinge greene colour in oyle a newe pergula in the Countesse of Buckinghams lodgings, the arbor and watchhouse in the privy garden and the windowes in the same lodgings over the pergula in a wainscott coulor." (P.R.O., E. 351/3257–1623–4.)
  • n82. "For paveing with raggstone … lxj yardes from the Tennis courte to the lady of Buckinghams kitchen." (P.R.O., E. 351/3253–1619–20.) A reference to a kitchen of the Lord Admiral in much the same position ("breakeinge out a way in a greate brickwall at the end of the Brake adioyninge to the Lorde Admiralls kitchen … makinge a small oven in the saide kitchin, breakeinge out a waie in a greate stone wall towardes the streete for a tymber windowe to be putt in there"—P.R.O., E. 351/3244–1609–10) suggests that the Lord Admiral (Charles Howard, Baron Howard of Effingham, created Earl of Nottingham in 1596) may have lived at the Gate. His residence at Hance's House, close by, must have terminated by 1606, when his son-in-law, Lord Kinclaven, was in occupation. (See Survey of London, Vol. XIII, p. 232.) He resigned office in 1619 by arrangement with the Duke of Buckingham, and it may be conjectured that it was as the result of this bargain that the duke's mother obtained the lodgings.
  • n83. "The old Countess is yet in her lodging at Whithall, out of Wc she hath been warned: the cause wrof is ether true or fained sicknes, ye lodging being designed upon my Ld of Arundell." (9th January, 1627–8, B.M. Harl. MS. 383, f. 53.)
  • n84. "On Sunday night, the old Countess of Buckingham feasted both their majesties in her lodging at Whitehall; and on Monday night, my lord chamberlain did the like at his lodgings at the Cockpit [see p. 49], after his extraordinary great winnings at a horse-race at Winchester." (Letter dated 21st April, 1631, in The Court and Times of Charles I (1848 edn.), II, p. 107.)
  • n85. Records of the English Province of the Society of Jesus, by H. Foley, I, p. 509.
  • n86. Collectanea Topographica et Genealogica, VIII, p. 23.
  • n87. "The Prince came on Tuesday last to his lodgings at Whitehall, and the Lady Mary to hers over the Gatehouse, there where the Countess of Buckingham lay." (Letter dated 10th October, 1633, from Nicholas to Capt. John Pennington. Cal. of S.P., Dom., 1633–4, p. 242.)
  • n88. "Lodgings are provided for her [the duchess] in the Garden at Whitehall, where the old Countess of Buckingham lay; here she shall also be defrayed, and is every day expected" (7th February, 1637–8, Letters and Dispatches of Thomas, Earl of Strafforde (1740 edn.) II, p. 148); "The Duchess of Chevreuse has at last arrived. … She is lodged at the Court in very noble quarters prepared for her long ago" (30th April, 1638, Cal. of S.P., Venetian, 1636–9, No. 431).
  • n89. Edward Montagu, 1st Earl of Sandwich, kinsman and patron of Pepys, and the "my Lord" of the Diary, was born in 1625. He distinguished himself in the service of the Parliamend, particularly as general at sea. A strong supporter of Cromwell, he lent an ear to overtures from the King after Richard Cromwell's fall, and, as general of the fleet in 1660, was one of the two principal persons concerned in effecting the Restoration. For his services he was created K.G. and Earl of Sandwich. He negotiated the marriage of Charles with Catherine of Braganza, and conducted the Queen to England. He afterwards fell into disfavour, owing to the manner in which he dealt with the cargo of some Dutch East Indiamen which the captured. In 1666 he was sent as ambassador extraordinary to Spain. On the outbreak of the Dutch war in 1672 he was second in command of the English fleet under the Duke of York, and was killed in action at Solebay.
  • n90. P.R.O., Works, 5/11.
  • n91. There are many references to Mrs. Harper in the Diary. "This morning Mr. Sheply and I did eat our breakfast at Mrs. Harper's (my brother John being with me) upon a cold turkeypie and a goose" (6th January, 1659–60); "At last I went to King-street … and so after drinking a pot of ale alone at Mrs. Harper's, I returned to Mr. Bowyer's" (23rd April, 1661); "Thence to Mrs. Hunt's, where I left my wife, and I to walk a little in St James's Park, while Mrs. Harper might come home, with whom we came to speak about her kinswoman, Jane Gantleman, to come and live with us as a chamber mayde" (13th August, 1663); "Thence to Mrs. Harper … and there Mrs. Harper sent for a maid for me to come to live with my wife" (4th September, 1663); "… directly home again, it raining hard, having first of all been with Creed and Mrs. Harper about a cook maid" (11th September, 1663); "to supper and to bed, my wife finding fault with Besse for her calling upon Jane that lived with us, and there heard Mrs. Harper and her talk ill of us, and not told us of it" (20th June, 1664).
  • n92. If this can be accepted as literally correct, then Sandwich's lodgings included what was afterwards Guy's house (see p. 87 for the suggestion that the latter was actually only a part of the larger house). In 1650 the house to the north of Whalley's was occupied by Sir William Armyn (Survey of London, Vol. XIII, p. 233). Armyn, a notable parliamentarian, member of the Council of State, died in April, 1651.
  • n93. Survey of London, Vol. XIII, p. 233.
  • n94. P.R.O., Works, 5/13—November, 1669.
  • n95. Macmillan's Magazine, LXIX (1894), p. 32.
  • n96. In 1664 he had also rented a house in Lincoln's Inn Fields (afterwards Nos. 57–58), see Survey of London, Vol. III, pp. 92–3.
  • n97. John Maitland, Earl (afterwards Duke) of Lauderdale, was from 1660 to 1680 Secretary for Scottish affairs, in which position he displayed great ability and absolute ruthlessness. His private life was marked by the most outrageous profligacy. In 1672 he was created duke, and died in 1682.
  • n98. P.R.O., Works, 5/27—September, 1676.
  • n99. Ibid., 5/28.
  • n100. P.R.O., L.C. 5/144, p. 229.
  • n101. His lodgings there are shown on the plan of 1670, see Survey of London, Vol. XIII, p. 87.
  • n102. "Taking downe a stone window at the Duke of Lautherdalls new Lodgings." (P.R.O., Works, 5/19—March, 1672–3.)
  • n103. Laurence Hyde, Earl of Rochester, was the second son of the great Earl of Clarendon, and was thus brother-in-law to James II. He was created Earl of Rochester in 1681, and on the accession of James in 1685 was appointed Lord Treasurer. Two years later he was dismissed because he refused to become a Roman Catholic. He was Viceroy of Ireland in 1700–3. Patron of Dryden, and the "Hushai" of Absalom and Achitophel. He died in 1711.
  • n104. In February, 1684–5, there is a reference to "laying a step at the doore in the privy garden by my Lord Rochesters lodgings." (P.R.O., Works, 5/38.)
  • n105. P.R.O., L.R. 1/63.
  • n106. P.R.O., E. 367/2978.
  • n107. P.R.O., Works, 5/40.
  • n108. The last book of overseers' accounts showing Guy in occupation is that for 1687. Henry Guy was one of Charles II's boon companions. He was Secretary of the Treasury in 1679–88, and again from 1691 to 1695. In the latter year he was convicted of having accepted a bribe, was forced to resign, and committed to the Tower. On 9th November, 1685, he wrote to the Customs Commissioners asking them to send to his house in King Street a parcel of fruit trees "which arrived in the yacht which came in last night directed to Henry Savile Esq, vice-chamberlain to the King" (Cal. of Treasury Books, 1685–9, p. 407), a letter which is interesting as containing not only an allusion to the house above dealt with, but also a reference to his friend with whom he had formerly shared it. Savile had, in a letter written to Lord Halifax in 1679, praised Guy's "steady friendship."
  • n109. In a document of 1697, (P.R.O., T. 54/15, p. 305) the property is described as "the House at the South end of the Tennis Court and a Yard of 62 Foot 2 Inches in length and 20 Foot 2 Inches in breadth, (whereupon his lordp [the Earl of Rochester] hath erected a Kitchen and other Low buildings near the Gateway going into Kings Street)."
  • n110. P.R.O., T. 54/21, p. 256.
  • n111. P.R.O., L.R. 1/65, ff. 71–3.
  • n112. P.R.O., T. 54/28, p. 63.
  • n113. The 2nd Earl of Rochester had on 31st March succeeded to the earldom of Clarendon on the death of his cousin Edward, the 3rd Earl.
  • n114. The new wall was "to be built with the Stone of the Old Wall and made good with the Stone taken down from the Lord Clarendons Tower." (P.R.O., Works, 4/2–14th August, 1723.)
  • n115. P.R.O., Works, 6/15–30th September, 1723.
  • n116. P.R.O., T. 55/6, pp. 151–2.
  • n117. See Survey of London, Vol. XIII, p. 235.
  • n118. Horatio Walpole, 1st Baron Walpole of Wolterton, was younger brother of Sir Robert Walpole. In 1717 he was made surveyor of the plantation revenues. He was several times ambassador. In 1756 he was created baron, and died in the following year. In Pascoe's No. 10, Downing Street he is confused with his better-known namesake and nephew, Horace Walpole, the virtuoso.
  • n119. P.R.O., Works, 6/15.
  • n120. P.R.O., T. 54/30, p. 327.
  • n121. P.R.O., L.R. 1/66, ff. 83–4.
  • n122. The payment was made out of money in hand "of quit rents in the Colony of Virginia."
  • n123. Cal. of Treasury Books and Papers, 1729–30, p. 36–22nd March, 1728–9.
  • n124. P.R.O., T. 55/5, p. 49.
  • n125. Horatio Walpole, born in 1723. He succeeded his father in 1757 as 2nd Lord Walpole of Wolterton, and, in 1797, followed his cousin (Horace, the well-known virtuoso) as 4th Lord Walpole of Walpole. He was created Earl of Orford (of the second creation) in 1806, and died in 1809.
  • n126. P.R.O., T. 55/13, p. 366.
  • n127. P.R.O., T. 55/20, p. 481.
  • n128. In 1783 the son of the above mentioned (Horatio, afterwards 2nd Earl) seems to have been living at the house. "On Friday evening the new-born son of the Hon. Mr. Walpole was baptized at his house at Whitehall, and named Horatio" (Morning Herald, 16th July, 1783). Horatio, 3rd Earl of Orford, was born on 14th June, 1783.
  • n129. P.R.O., T. 29/56, p. 93.
  • n130. Crown Lands Entry Book, G. 4, pp. 332–5.
  • n131. As bearing on the subject of the accuracy, in detail, of the ratebooks, it may be mentioned that it is not until 1794 that the entry "Office of India Papers" supersedes "Lady Walpole." Lady Walpole, in fact, had died "at Whitehall" on 9th March, 1783. (Gentleman's Magazine.)
  • n132. The house at the corner of Downing Street was an alehouse, known as The Axe and Gate, which, it was thought "by the noise of company resorting thither at all hours must be some inconvenience to the petitioner," but we do not find that Walpole, when he had obtained his lease, took any steps to suppress it. It was still an alehouse in 1825.
  • n133. Sir Wm. Foster in his John Company gives details of the circumstances leading up to the acquisition of the premises by the Board of Control, but his statement that after the Board's removal to Dorset House "No. 3, Downing Street was made over to the Privy Council" is not in accordance with the facts.
  • n134. Crown Lands Entry Book U. 6, p. 218.
  • n135. Namely The Axe and Gate public-house, No. 2, and the King's Head (formerly King Henry the VIII's Head) public-house. No. 2 is the former No. 3, purchased by the Board of Control in 1806. It would therefore seem that the original No. 2 had been combined with The Axe and Gate.
  • n136. Shown on the plan of 1749 (Plate ). These had come into the hands of the Crown on the expiry in 1820 of the last lease granted to the Downing family (see p. 112).
  • n137. P.R.O., Works, 1/15, p. 30.
  • n138. An illustration by Boys (Plate ) shows this corner treatment very clearly.
  • n139. The Athenæum, 8th November, 1845.
  • n140. "The northern wing of the Privy Council Office, Whitehall, as altered by Mr is to be commenced immediately. A boarding has been formed preparatory for taking down the old Treasury Offices, on the site of which it will stand, and an eyesore in one of our noblest thoroughfares will thus at last be removed." (The Builder, 12th September, 1846.)
  • n141. Bolton's Works of Sir John Soane, p. 451. See also (i) letter, dated 6th September, 1827, from Greville: "I am directed by the Lords of His Majesty's Most Honourable Privy Council to desire that you will give orders for the removal of the Eight Columns in the New Council Chamber at Whitehall. Their Lordships being of opinion that these Columns interfere with the Arrangements which will be necessary for the transaction of Business in that Apartment" (P.R.O., Works, 1/15, p. 400); and (ii) letter, dated September, 1827, from the Secretary to the Treasury: "I am commanded by the Lords Commissioners of His Majesty's Treasury to transmit herewith a letter from the Clerk of the Council, dated 14th Inst., relative to the substitution of a Flat Roof for that which is now in the Council Chamber at Whitehall" (Ibid., p. 413). It was subsequently explained that it was not the roof but the ceiling which required alteration, and Soane reported on 28th September that the work would cost £330, and would delay the completion of the room about 5 weeks.[Additional note reads: (iii) 'Received a Letter from the Treasury approving of the Estimate for removing the Columns &c and for substituting a Flat Ceiling instead of the present One in the New Council Room Amounting to £331.10.0' (PRO, Works, 4/28, 23 October 1827).]
  • n142. All this portion is very interesting, and should be compared with the old plan of Dorset House reproduced in Plate .
  • n143. This bay window is now carried down to the ground; on the plan of Dorset House supported on piers.
  • n144. Reproduced here.