Nos. 54 and 55, Charing Cross

Survey of London: Volume 16, St Martin-in-The-Fields I: Charing Cross. Originally published by London County Council, London, 1935.

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'Nos. 54 and 55, Charing Cross', in Survey of London: Volume 16, St Martin-in-The-Fields I: Charing Cross, ed. G H Gater, E P Wheeler( London, 1935), British History Online [accessed 23 July 2024].

'Nos. 54 and 55, Charing Cross', in Survey of London: Volume 16, St Martin-in-The-Fields I: Charing Cross. Edited by G H Gater, E P Wheeler( London, 1935), British History Online, accessed July 23, 2024,

"Nos. 54 and 55, Charing Cross". Survey of London: Volume 16, St Martin-in-The-Fields I: Charing Cross. Ed. G H Gater, E P Wheeler(London, 1935), , British History Online. Web. 23 July 2024.

In this section


History of the Site.

The early history of the site of Nos. 54–55, Charing Cross, has been dealt with in chapter 14. The ratebooks show that the house then occupying the site was occupied from 1604 to his death in 1624 by Sir Carew Reynell, (fn. n1) and then by his widow until 1626. The next resident who can be identified is Ralph Skipwith, whose occupation lasted from 1635 to 1651, when he was succeeded by Sir George Pratt. (fn. n2) Pratt died in 1673 leaving, in case his son Henry should die without issue, all his estate to his wife Margaret. (fn. n3) Sir Henry died childless in 1674, and Lady Pratt is shown in the ratebooks at the house until 1689. The house was then divided. In 1712 George Pratt Webb sold (fn. n4) to James Lawrence "all that Brick Messuage … now divided into two Messuages … now in the Tenure … of John Edridge, Scrivener, Peter Shafore, Coffeeman, and Mansell Bennett, Watchmaker, Scituate on the south west side of Chareing Cross."


In 1737 a deed of trust was entered into (fn. n5) by inter alios Elizabeth Griffin and Mary Dearing, two of the nieces of James Lawrence, in which the houses were described as "now in the Several Tenures … of Sir Thomas Ranton, Knight, and James Ticknor, Sadler."

The ratebooks show that Ticknor's was the northern house, and these facts enable Pratt's house to be identified with the large doublefronted building, the northern part of which has a shop front in which saddles and saddlecloths are displayed, shown in the view of Charing Cross circa 1740 reproduced in Plate 86. The corresponding house in the earlier view reproduced in Plate 85 also has saddles displayed. (fn. n6)

A later description of the house is contained in a deed of 1799 (fn. n7) concerning "one third part of … those two messuages … situate … on the south west side of Charing Cross … formerly in the tenure of Mr. William Randall, Tea Dealer, and Mrs. Ruth Hannington, Fishmonger, but then or late of Mr. Rutton, Tea Dealer and Mr. Adams, Mathematician, fronting … Charing Cross and … adjoining to a messuage … late in the occupation of Thomas Povey Esquire … south and … another messuage … formerly of Colonel Bond … towards the north, and abutting on Spring Garden … west." Further details are given in 1803 (fn. n8) concerning the southern house, formerly of Ruth Hannington, which is said to be "then in the tenure of Mr. Robert Blunt," and to abut on a house of Mr. Lane on the south and one of Messrs. Rutton, Fincham and Chapman, Tea Dealers, on the north. Johnstone's Directory for 1817 shows Robert Blunt, linen-draper and hosier, at No. 54, Charing Cross, and Messrs. C. and E. Finchams, tea-dealers and grocers, at No. 55. The two houses occupying the site of Sir George Pratt's house were therefore Nos. 54–55, Charing Cross.

Date and Description of Structure.

No. 54 consisted of four storeys, with a brick front and slate roof. Plain bands indicated the various floor levels. The ground floor had a shop front. Internally the premises were of no interest. There are no indications either in the deeds or in the ratebooks to suggest any rebuilding since the division of the house after the death of Lady Pratt.

Both houses (No. 55 had been rebuilt) were demolished in connection with the formation of the Mall Approach.

Historical Notes.

The occupants of No. 54, Charing Cross, from the death of Lady Pratt until 1840 were, according to the ratebooks, as follows:

1689–90 Stephen Durrosse
1691–92 John Downes
1693–1719 John Edridge (fn. n9)
1719–22 Edward Phipps
1723–40 Sir Thos. Renton (fn. n10)
1741–43 Richard Farmer
1744–55 Lydia Ormond
1756–67 William Hannington
1768 (Ratebook missing)
1769–77 Ruth Hannington
1778–84 William Hannington
1785–86 Christopher Hall
1787–96 Dudley Adams (fn. n11)
1797–1817 Robert Blunt (fn. n12)
1818–26 Mary Blunt
1828– Benjamin James

In the Council's collection is:

(fn. n13) General exterior to Charing Cross (photograph).


  • n1. By his will (P.C.C., 91 Byrde, dated 12th January, 1623–4, proved 1st October, 1624) he left to his "lovinge wife the Ladie Susanne Reynell the lease of [his] howse at Charren Crose."
  • n2. Sir George Pratt, of Coleshill, Berks, born about 1605, succeeded to the baronetcy in 1647. The Hearth Tax Rolls for 1666 and 1674 show Pratt's house assessed at 25 hearths. This suggests a house of considerable size.
  • n3. Daughter of Sir Humphrey Forster by Anne, daughter of Sir William Kingsmill.
  • n4. Indenture, dated 27th March, 1712. (Middx. Register, 1712, IV, 8.)
  • n5. Indenture, dated 22nd April, 1737, between Benjamin Griffin and Elizabeth his wife and others. (Ibid., 1737, III, 449.)
  • n6. As Ticknor's name first appears in the ratebook for 1720 and the view in Plate shows the house which was demolished to make way for the passage into Spring Gardens about 1729, the date of the view is fixed within fairly narrow limits. See further on p. 266.
  • n7. Indenture, dated 14th-15th January, 1799, between Sarah Pennington and others. (Middx. Register, 1804, II, 405.)
  • n8. Indentures, dated 16th-17th December, 1803, between Thomas Swallow and others. (Middx. Register, 1804, II, 402.)
  • n9. Will, dated 23rd March, 1718–9, proved 21st April, 1719. (P.C.C., 63 Browning.)
  • n10. "On Thursday last Doctor David Nisbett M.D., of Green-street, near Leicester-square, was married at St. Martin's in the Fields to Miss Renton, eldest Daughter of Sir Thomas Renton, of Charing Cross (who was knighted for some extraordinary Cures of Ruptures he did in the Reign of his late Majesty), a young Lady of Beauty and Merit, and a Fortune of 5,000l." (London Daily Post, 8th September, 1736.)
  • n11. Indenture, dated 14th November, 1798, between Dudley Adams, optician, and Robert Blunt, linen-draper, leasing to the latter the messuage late in Adams' occupation, but then of Blunt. (Middx. Register, 1798, IV, 402.)
  • n12. Will of Robert Blunt "of Charing Cross … Linen Draper" dated 24th September, 1793, proved 2nd May, 1816. (P.C.C., 233 Wynne.)
  • n13. Reproduced here.