Survey of London: Volume 16, St Martin-in-The-Fields I: Charing Cross. Originally published by London County Council, London, 1935.
This free content was digitised by double rekeying and sponsored by English Heritage. All rights reserved.
CHAPTER 3: II—OFFICE OF THE PAYMASTER-GENERAL
History of the Site.
The Office of the Paymaster-General occupies, for the greater part, the site of a portion of the old Horse Guards building, but the northern annexe is built on the site of a house erected, soon after the Restoration, by Sir Robert Holmes.
(i) Site of the main portion.
It has been seen (p. 9) that the north-west portion of the old Horse Guards building was in 1713 occupied by the house and office of the Paymaster of the Forces. It would appear that from the beginning the Paymaster was provided with a residence as well as offices. The first clear reference to this occurs in 1676, when Sir Stephen Fox was instructed (fn. n1) to "deliver upp, unto such Person or Persons as shall succeed you in your Office of Pay Master of the Forces, Your two office Roomes, with Chimneys and a Clossett next to Our Parke of St. James's, and a Lodging Roome without a Chymney. And that you have and reserve to your use the other part of the house there, now in your possession, for the dispatch of your affaires, and to keep your Clerkes together untill all your Accompts are and shall be declared," and, in view of Fox having spent £200 of his own in "makeing Conveniences in the said house," (fn. n2) to such further time "as the said two hundred Pounds shall be reimbursed to you by such Person or Persons as shall succeed you in your Office." The fact that the "rooms used for the said Office" are in early documents almost invariably described as "in the Tiltyard adjoining the Horse Guard" (fn. n3) suggests that the building formed a more or less distinct entity, and the suggestion is confirmed by a reference to the "house" in 1689 (fn. n4) as one of three (the other two of which were certainly quite distinct (fn. n5) ) adjoining the Horse Guards.
Kip's view of Whitehall (Plate 1) shows the old Pay Office on the extreme right.
Some new building apparently took place in 1693, (fn. n6) but details are wanting. In 1732–33 the premises were entirely rebuilt. (fn. n7) The exact date of the decision to undertake the work has not been traced, but on 20th October, 1732, a royal warrant refers to "the Work begun by Our Order of Rebuilding an Office for the Paymaster Gen1 of Our Forces and Stables for Our Horse Guards," and approves a payment of £1,000 on account. (fn. n8) The complete accounts were passed on 19th June, 1733, (fn. n9) at a total of £3,842 10s. 11d. (including the £1,000 already paid), the work being specified as "pulling down Rebuilding and Repairing the Office of Our Paymaster General of Our Forces and the House thereunto belonging—The Office of Commissary General of the Musters The Office of the Commrs of Our Royal Hospital near Chelsea And part of the Stables of Our Horse Guards." The sum included £44 for "the Rent of a House wherein the Office of the Paymr Gen1 of the Forces and Commissary Gen1 of the Musters was kept for one Year due and ending at Ladyday 1733." The work was carried out by John Lane, Surveyor of the Horse Guards. (fn. n10)
The portion of the Horse Guards Stables thus provided was "under the Paymaster General's Office" (see p. 22), and has now been converted to other uses.
(ii) Site of the northern annexe.
On 21st September, 1671, George Kirke, "housekeeper" of Whitehall Palace, who, in right of his office, held the custody of certain premises in what had originally been the northern portion of the Tiltyard (see the plan of 1670, p. 8), sold (fn. n11) to Sir Robert Holmes (fn. n12) his interest in part thereof, described as "severall parcells of ground formerly part of the Tilt yard and part of Walsingham Garden, whereupon the said Sir Robert Holmes hath lately built and inclosed a yard with a Brick Wall, abutting East on the kinges highway thirty five foote & an halfe, South on Sir Stephen Foxs Alley thirty seven foot … North on Sir Gilbert Pickeringes house and West on Walsingham Garden, and all those other parcells of ground from the said new building in length Sixty one foote … forty three foot of the said Sixty one foot fifteene foot in breadth and abbutts on the said Sir Stephen Foxs Alley South and on Walsingham Garden North, the other Eighteene foote next the Parke Wall but twelve foot in breadth." Sir Robert, who had already erected a house (fn. n13) on the ground, finding that the premises belonged to the Crown and that his title was somewhat insecure, petitioned for an Exchequer lease, and on 25th May, 1672, obtained a grant of the premises (fn. n14) from the Crown for thirty-one years. There is no evidence to show how long Sir Robert himself resided at the house, but it is recorded that his brother (Sir John Holmes) died at Sir Robert's house on 28th May, 1683. (fn. n15) This suggests that Sir Robert was still resident, but, if so, he did not occupy the house much longer, for the ratebooks (fn. n16) show that William Blathwayt was there in 1686.
Holmes died in 1692, leaving as his heir and executor his nephew, Henry Holmes, who in 1702 petitioned (fn. n17) for a renewal of the lease. This was granted on 12th July, 1703, for another term of thirty-one years. In 1729 both Henry Holmes and the Earl of Kinnoull (then sub-tenant of the house) applied for a new lease, the former alleging that the house was now so old that it must soon be rebuilt or substantially repaired "at a great charge." (fn. n18) Neither was successful, and on 17th February, 1734–5, letters patent were issued granting to Townshend Andrews a lease of the property for fifty years. Andrews rebuilt the premises, and shortly afterwards died. His widow, Catharine, on 9th June, 1737, disposed of the lease (fn. n19) to Sir Thomas Robinson, (fn. n20) who on 9th August, 1753, obtained a fresh lease to make up the existing term to fifty years. In Sir Thomas's petition (fn. n21) he states that the house was then in the occupation of the Earl of Ashburnham. (fn. n22) In 1758 Sir Thomas sold (fn. n23) the premises, stated to have been "late in the tenure … of Sir William Lowther, Baronet, deceased, and now in the tenure … of Henry Lyell Esquire," (fn. n24) to the Bishop of Bangor. (fn. n25) The Bishop (then of Lichfield) in 1769 obtained a reversionary lease of the premises for sixteen years from 9th August, 1803, and in 1770 sold the property, then "in the tenure … of Charles Townley, Esquire," (fn. n26) to Thomas Foley. From him it passed to Charles Townley (fn. n27) (24th June, 1774 (fn. n28) ), and on 25th March, 1775, was sold to Richard Payne Knight (fn. n29) for £5,000. According to the latter, he "was induced to pay so large a sum … by the pleasantness of the situation, which commanded a view of St. James's Park." The house erected for the First Lord of the Admiralty in 1786–8 partly obstructed this view, and in 1788 Knight petitioned the Treasury for compensation in respect of the diminution in value of his property and for expenses incurred in connection with the building of the First Lord's house. (fn. n30) In this, however, he was unsuccessful. (fn. n31) In 1804 Knight applied for a further lease. In the report (fn. n32) on his application it was pointed out that not only was the building in bad condition (fn. n33) and built on a disadvantageous plan, but that it projected about 20 feet before the front of the First Lord's residence, and so destroyed the effect of the regular elevation "of that new and substantial building," and obstructed its light and air as well as the view from the windows. It was therefore decided not to grant a new lease, but, on the contrary, to purchase the remainder of Knight's term, and pull the house down. On 7th August, 1805, Knight parted with his interest for the sum of £1,500. (fn. n34) The house was soon after demolished, and on the site was erected an addition to the Paymaster-General's office.
Herewith is reproduced a plan of the premises as existing in 1804. (fn. n35) It will be noticed that it includes a slip of ground (marked by the letters a, b, c, d) extending to the Horse Guards Parade. This, which was on the further side of the site of the old wall of St. James's Park, was not included in the original grant nor in any of the subsequent leases, but was first enclosed under the authority of a sign manual licence granted on 10th October, 1738, and from that date had always been enjoyed rent free as an appendage to the house.
A good representation of the house is contained in Scott's picture of Whitehall circa 1750 (Plate 31). It comprised a vaulted basement storey (retained in the present building), three square storeys above and garrets in the roof.
Description of the Structure.
The elevation of the PaymasterGeneral's office to Whitehall shows a dignified treatment of brick with stone dressings. The design displays a vertical composition of three parts, the pedimented gable adding importance to the centre. As has been mentioned above, the main portion of the building was erected in 1732–3, by John Lane. The northern annexe was added in 1806, and efforts were made to effect a harmony with the main front (Plate 32).
The present stone facade to the western front of the building was originally the park front of No. 37, Great George Street, (fn. n36) and was taken down and re-erected in its present position by H.M. Office of Works in 1910 (Plate 34). It took the place of a plain brick front, relieved with brick bands at the various floor levels, as shown in the view reproduced on the next page. Certain internal alterations were carried out at the same time, including the provision of a new kitchen and refreshment-room on the topmost floor.
Some of the rooms have their walls panelled, and contain moulded stone mantelpieces.
Room No. 1, at the ground level, was originally used as stables for the Horse Guards. It had a brick-vaulted ceiling, which has recently been removed and the room converted into an office.
The most important room in the building is that of the PaymasterGeneral on the ground floor. The walls are panelled in deal in two heights, and finished with an enriched entablature comprising a modillion cornice, a pulvinated frieze with laurel and entwined ribbons, and a moulded architrave. It should be noted that the cornice and the frieze are in plaster. The mantelpiece, which is the central feature of the southern end of the room, comprises a carved wood surround with a broken pedimented overmantel (Plate 40). The northern end is divided by Ionic pilasters into three bays, consisting of an arched recess with a doorway on either side and circular lights over (Plate 40). The panelling was originally fixed in the house (demolished in 1806) on the site of the northern annexe. From Plates 38) and 39 it will be seen that it was found necessary to make certain alterations to admit of the panelling becoming adaptable for its present position, and that when the new western front was erected further alterations had to be made on account of the positions and sizes of the new windows.
The lobby adjoining is panelled and has decorative features complementary to the room (Plate 41).
Room No. 10 on the first floor has the walls panelled in two heights and finished with a moulded cornice.
Room No. 11 has the walls covered with square panelling, with a cornice similar to that in room No. 10. The mantelpiece consists of a mitred architrave moulding in stone around the fire opening (Plate 42). and a good ornamental cast-iron grate (Plate 42).
Room No. 25 on the second floor has plain square panelling and a shallow moulded cornice. The fireplace has a moulded stone architrave and a good ornamental cast-iron grate (Plate 42).
In room No. 14 is a handsome grandfather clock in a walnut case (Plate 41). The clock face bears the name "Windmill, London," with the date 1710 and the Royal Arms over.
The staircase to the front portion leading from the first to the second floor has turned balusters and a closemoulded string (Plate 43). The main staircase leading from the hall by the Paymaster-General's room has a more substantial balustrading (Plate 43). A small winding staircase (Plate 44). which leads out of room No. 33 on the second floor gives access to the attics, and appears to be of an earlier date.
Condition of Repair.
The duties of the Paymaster-General, as consolidated by the Acts 5 and 6 William IV, cap. 35 (1835), and 11 and 12 Victoria, cap. 55 (1848), comprise those carried out before the passing of those Acts by a number of officers in the following different offices, viz.: (fn. n37)
The Army Pay Office, at Whitehall, the present site of the consolidated office.
The Navy Pay Office, in Somerset House.
The Ordnance Pay Office, in the Tower.
The Ordnance Pay Office, in Dublin.
The Office of the Paymaster-General of the Civil Services, in the Treasury.
The Office of the Paymaster of Civil Services, in Dublin.
The Office of the Paymaster at Chelsea Hospital.
The Office of the Receiver of the Constabulary, in Dublin.
The Office of the Clerk of the Bills and Receiver of Fees, at the Treasury.
The Pay Branch of the Office of Public Works and Buildings, at Whitehall.
In addition to these offices in which the payments for the respective branches of the public service were conducted, there were also various accountants with balances in their hands who were charged with the payment of the salaries and contingent expenses of their respective departments, and whose payments have from time to time been transferred to the Paymaster-General.
The following is a list (fn. n38) of Paymasters of the Forces and Paymasters-General from the Restoration to the present day. The official residence had been given up before 1836, (fn. n39) but it is doubtful how many of the Paymasters of the Forces had availed themselves of it personally. It was certainly at times in the occupation of a deputy.
|Paymasters of the Forces|
|1661||Sir Stephen Fox.|
|1676||Sir Henry Puckering alias Newton. (fn. n40)|
|1679||Sir Stephen Fox.|
|1680||Nicholas Johnson and William Fox. (fn. n41)|
|1685||Richard, Earl of Ranelagh.|
|1714 (fn. n42)||Robert Walpole (afterwards Earl of Orford).|
|1715||Henry, Earl of Lincoln.|
|1721||Charles, Lord Cornwallis. (fn. n43)|
|1722||Spencer Compton (afterwards Earl of Wilmington).|
|1746||William Pitt (afterwards Earl of Chatham).|
|1755||Henry, Earl of Darlington, and Thomas Hay, called Lord Viscount Dupplin (afterwards Earl of Kinnoull).|
|1756||Lord Dupplin and Thomas Potter.|
|1757||Henry Fox (afterwards Lord Holland).|
|1765||Frederick North, called Lord North, and George Cooke.|
|1767||George Cooke and Thomas Townshend (afterwards Viscount Sydney).|
|1784||William Wyndham Grenville (afterwards Lord Grenville).|
|1784||William Wyndham Grenville and Constantine John, Lord Mulgrave.|
|1789||Lord Mulgrave and James, Marquess of Graham.|
|1791||Dudley Ryder (afterwards Earl of Harrowby) and Thomas Steele.|
|1800||Thomas Steele and George Canning.|
|1801||Thomas Steele and Sylvester, Lord Glenbervie.|
|1803||Thomas Steele and John Hiley Addington.|
|1804||George Rose and Lord Charles Henry Somerset.|
|1806||Richard Chandos, Earl Temple, and Lord John Townshend.|
|1807||Charles Long (fn. n44) (afterwards Lord Farnborough) and Lord Charles Henry Somerset.|
|1813||Charles Long and Frederick John Robinson (afterwards Viscount Goderich and Earl of Ripon).|
|1826||William Vesey Fitzgerald (afterwards Lord Fitzgerald and Vesey).|
|1830||Lord John Russell (afterwards Earl Russell).|
|1834||Sir E. Knatchbull, Bt.|
|1835||Sir Henry Parnell, Bt. (afterwards Lord Congleton).|
|1836||Sir Henry Parnell, Bt.|
|1841||Edward John Stanley (afterwards Lord Stanley of Alderley and Lord Eddisbury of Winnington).|
|1841||Sir Edward Knatchbull, Bt.|
|1845||William Bingham Baring (afterwards Lord Ashburton).|
|1846||Thomas Babington Macaulay (afterwards Lord Macaulay).|
|1848||Granville George, Earl Granville.|
|1852||Lord Stanley of Alderley.|
|1852||Charles, Lord Colchester.|
|1852||Lord Stanley of Alderley.|
|1855||Edward Pleydell Bouverie.|
|1858||Richard, Earl of Donoughmore.|
|1859||Algernon George, Lord Lovaine (afterwards Duke of Northumberland).|
|1859||William Francis Cowper (afterwards Lord Mount-Temple).|
|1865||George J. Goschen (afterwards Viscount Goschen).|
|1866||William Monsell (afterwards Lord Emly).|
|1866||Stephen Cave (afterwards Sir Stephen Cave).|
|1868||Frederick Temple, Lord Dufferin and Clandehoye (afterwards Marquess of Dufferin and Ava).|
|1872||Hugh Culling Eardley Childers.|
|1873||William Patrick Adam.|
|1880||Hon. David Robert Plunkett.|
|1880||George Grenfell, Lord Wolverton.|
|1885||Frederick, Earl Beauchamp.|
|1886||Thomas John Hovell, Lord Thurlow.|
|1886||Frederick, Earl Beauchamp.|
|1887||Adelbert Wellington Brownlow, Earl Brownlow.|
|1890||Victor Albert George, Earl of Jersey.|
|1891||Robert George, Lord Windsor (afterwards Earl of Plymouth).|
|1892||Charles Hayne Seale-Hayne.|
|1895||John Adrian Louis, Earl of Hopetoun.|
|1899||Charles Richard John, Duke of Marlborough.|
|1902||Sir Savile Brinton Crossley.|
|1906||Richard Knight Causton (afterwards Lord Southwark).|
|1910||Hon. Ivor Churchill Guest (afterwards Lord Ashby St. Legers and Viscount Wimborne).|
|1912||Edward, Lord Strachie.|
|1915||Thomas Wodehouse, Lord Newton.|
|1916||Sir Joseph Compton-Rickett.|
|1919||Sir John Tudor-Walters.|
|1923||Sir William Joynson-Hicks, Bt. (afterwards Lord Brentford).|
|1923||Major A. B. Boyd-Carpenter.|
|1925||George Granville Sutherland, Duke of Sutherland.|
|1928||Richard William Alan, Earl of Onslow.|
|1929||Sydney, Lord Arnold.|
|1931||Sir John Tudor Walters.|
|1931||Ernest Henry, Lord Rochester.|
In The Council's Collection Are:
(fn. n45) Elevation to Whitehall (photograph).
(fn. n45) South elevation overlooking Horse Guards stable-yard (photograph).
(fn. n45) West elevation to park before alteration (photograph, kindly lent by the late Assistant Paymaster-General).
(fn. n45) West elevation to park as at present (photograph).
(fn. n45) General views of the Paymaster-General's room(2) (photographs).
General view of the Paymaster-General's room (photograph).
(fn. n45) Panelled room, formerly in the house on the site of the northern annexe, from drawing preserved in the Westminster Public Library (photograph).
(fn. n45) Details of panelling of Paymaster-General's room before alterations (copy of drawing in the possession of H.M. Office of Works).
(fn. n45) View of room formerly stables of Horse Guards.
(fn. n45) General view of lobby adjoining Paymaster-General's room (photograph).
(fn. n45) General view of main staircase adjoining Paymaster-General's room (photograph).
(fn. n45) General view of staircase to front portion, showing top flight from first to second floor (photograph).
(fn. n45) Attic staircase leading from room No. 33 on second floor (photograph).
General view of room No. 3 on ground floor (photograph).
(fn. n45) General view of room No. 10 on first floor (photograph).
(fn. n45) View of mantelpiece and panelling in room No. 11 on first floor (photograph).
(fn. n45) Grandfather clock in room No. 14 (photograph).
(fn. n45) View of panelling and mantelpiece in room No. 25 (photograph).
General view of cupboards across end of room No. 33 (photograph).
Plan of basement (copy of drawing in the possession of H.M. Office of Works).
(fn. n45) Plans of ground and first floors (copy of drawing in the possession of H.M. Office of Works).
Plan of second floor and attic plan (copy of drawing in the possession of H.M. Office of Works).
(fn. n45) Elevation to Whitehall front (measured drawing).
(fn. n45) Elevation of west front overlooking parade ground (copy of drawing in the possession of H.M. Office of Works).
(fn. n45) Detail of panelling in Paymaster-General's room (copy of drawing in the possession of H.M. Office of Works).