Thoroton's History of Nottinghamshire: Volume 1, Republished With Large Additions By John Throsby. Originally published by J Throsby, Nottingham, 1790.
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This Noble Manor of Newerk was by the famous Leofric Earl of Mercia, and his most pious Lady Godiva, given with Flatburch in this County, (now Fledborough) to the Monastery of Stow near Lincolne, in the time of King Edward the Confessor, who with his Queen and Nobles was present at, (fn. 1) and consenting to the Agreement made between the said Earl and Countess, and the Bishop Wulwi, that they should have Priests there, and altogether the same Service which was in St. Paul's at London, and that the Lands they should give, should be for the Food and Rayment of the Brethren (or Friars) there. And that the Bishop might have for his Table all those things which Ætheric the Bishop, and Ædnoth the Bishop had before him of those things by right belonging to his Bishopric, to wit, two parts of all things coming to that Monastery, and the Priests third.
King William the first confirmed their gifts, and at the request of Remigius the Bishop, gave to Stow the Church of Eynesham in Oxfordshire, and all the Land belonging to it, though Stow was accounted but a Cell of Eynesham, to which Bishop Robert, the Successor of Remigius, gave in exchange for Newerch and Stow before or about the tenth year of King Henry the First (who by the consent and counsel of his Bishops and Barons, had restored and repaired Eynesham, Cherlebery, Stoches, Wocote, and in Cantebriggescyr, in Histon, fifteen Hides, and three Virgats, and the Tithe of Thame, to wit, in Corn, Cattle, Wool, and Cheese, and one Bordar, with two Acres. Likewise the Tithe of Bannebery, and of Croppery, with the Bordars: like Middleton Tithe, and Tithe of Wax of the Altar of Stow.
The Conqueror's famous Survey shows, that Godiva the Countess paid the Dane-geld (the public Tax of that time) for her Manor of Newarke, (fn. 2) with the two Berues, Baldertune, and Farendune, as seven Carucats, and two Bovats of Land. Yet the Land of it in her own time, in King Edward the Confessor's Survey, was returned twenty-six Carucats. There, after the Conquest, Bishop Remigius (of Lincolne) had in Demesne seven Car. and fifty-six Burgesses, forty-two Villains, four Bordars, having twenty Car. (or Plough-lands) and an half. There were ten Churches, and eight Priests, having five Car. There were seven French (or Freemen) (Franci homines) having five Carucats and an half. There was one Mill, 5s. 4d. and one Piscary (or Fishing.) To Newerche lay all the Customs of the King, and Earl of that Wapentac. In King Edward the Confessor's time, the Rent of it was 50l. in the latter end of the Conqueror's, but 34l. It had Soc in Balderton, Chelintone, Scireston, Elvestone, Stoches, Holton, Cotintone, Barnebye, Wymunthorpe, Scorvely, Greton, Spaldford, Torneshay, Wiggesley, Herdebye, and Cotum.
St. Remigius in the twenty-fourth year of his Pontificate, 4 W. 2. viz. 1091. confirmed this Lordship to Stow. Robert Bloet succeeded him, and the exchange with the Abbey of Eynesham.
Alexander, the next Bishop of Lincoln, is said to have built the Castle in King Stephen's time, though it seems (by what follows) to be of older date, and therefore might possibly be but a re-edifying or repairing it, as may by some of the gifts of Robert the second Bishop of Lincolne (who immediately succeeding Alexander) which King Henry the II. confirmed to the Priory (fn. 3) of St. Katherin's, which by the consent of the Chapter of Lincoln he founded near that City, of the Order of that Sempingham, be manifested. Amongst which were the Churches of Newerc, Nortune, Bartune, and Newtune, and two Mess. or dwelling Houses in the Borough of Newerc and the Houses, with the Land on the North East part of the Mother Church, and four Bovats of Land in the Fields of Newerc, with the dwelling Houses, and twenty Acres in the Heath, and a dwelling House which the Church of Newerc had before, with two Bovats of Land in the Fields. And the Chapel of the Apostles, Philip and James, founded in the Castle of the same Town, and anciently given to the Mother Church, with the tenth penny of the whole Toll of the Borough of Newerc, except the Fairs. And 4s. Land which Malger held in Newerc.
(fn. 4) Simon son of Robert, son of Malger de Newark, passed to Warin, son of Hugh, upon Fosse of Newark, his Tenement in Milnegate, he paying 6d. to the Bishop of Lincolne, and 10d. to the Prior of Thurgarton, to whom the said Symon afterwards wholly released it. There were some other small parcels belonging to that Monastery, as there were to divers others, viz. St. Katherin's Kirkestede, and Neubo, in Lincolneshire; Broxton, and Burton Lazars, in Leicestershire; Mountgrace in Yorkshire; Shelford, Bradholme, and St. Leonard's Hospital in this County, and some others. Besides here were a great company of Chauntries in the Church of Newark, which is now one of the fairest Parish Churches I ever saw; but I cannot think the present Fabric older than Henry the Sixth, if so old. Yet I suppose it better than all the ten mentioned in Doomsday Book, which I guess were not all in the Town, though in the Soc. Who built it, or founded all the Chauntries, I cannot yet discover. Here was one at the Altar of All Saints, two at the Altar of the Holy Trinity, one of St. Nicholas, one of Corpus Christi, one of Mary Magdalen, another called William Saucemers, another William Newarks. Besides here were divers parcels of Land, and several Houses given to the maintenance of Priests, that were in the nature of Chauntries. Here was also a certain great House of Friars, of the Order of St. Augustine, which was granted from the Crown, 35 H. 8. (fn. 5) to Richard Andrews, and Nicholas Temple, and their heirs. Sir John Markham had it, and since it was Sir Francis Leeks dwelling House, and also the Lord Deyncourts, his sons; but his son, the present Earl of Scarsedale, sold it lately to Mr. Matthew Jenison, the present owner.
Next it, Southwards, stands another great House called the Chauntry, in which dwelt William Leek, half brother of the said Lord Deyncourt, and Father of the present Sir Francis Leek, Knight, and Baronet, who made it also his principal residence.
Next that is the Free-School, which together with a Song-School, situate on the North-west point of the Church-yard, for an Organist and six Choristers, was founded by Thomas Magnus, Arch-deacon of the East Rideing of Yorkshire, and Warden of the College of Sibthorpe in this County, which after the dissolution he had for life, it being granted to him and Richard Whalley, Esq. and the heirs of Richard, 37 H. 8. as in that place is shown.
By an old Tradition in the Town, printed by Dr. Thomas Fuller, in his England's Worthies, he is said to have been found in the Church Porch of Newerke, and having neither Father nor Mother, was by the people called Thomas Amangus: (fn. 6) but it appears to be otherwise in his Deed of Settlement, wherein he mentions John Magnus his Father, and Alice his Wife, his Mother, and Joane, Elizabeth, and Katherine his Sisters. His Arms (possibly but of his own time) are still in several places of the School, and other-where, Bendy of six pieces, Vert and Gules, on a Fesse Or, a Lion Passant between two Cinquefoiles of the second, with his Motto under, AS GOD WILL.
The Lordship of Everton in this County, was the principal part of the endowment for the said Schools, with which he chiefly trusted the Vicar of Newarke, and Brethren of Trinity Guild, then the most considerable Governors of the Town of Newarke; but shortly after, viz. 1 January, 3 E. 6. (fn. 7) it was made a Corporation of one Alderman and twelve Assistants, and 2 C. 1. upon renewing the Charter, the Alderman Commenced Major, and the twelve Assistants, Aldermen, and so it continues, with what additions our present Sovereign King Charles the Second, hath made in the new Charter, as chusing two Burgesses to serve in Parliament, enlarging the compass of their Jurisdiction by annexing several Towns, and the like.
The whole Manor, Soc, and Wapentac continued to the Bishops of Lincolne, till the time of Edward the Sixth, that Rands alias Holbech, then Bishop of Lincolne, surrendred it to the Crown, in which it still remains.
It was usually divided into the Borough of Newark, and Northgate; at the further end whereof, from the Town, stood a fair House belonging to the Hospial of St. Leonard of Stoke (commonly called the Spittle) which Sir Robert Constable had by Lease, the interest whereof his son Henry Constable had; and from him it came to William Cecill, Esq. late Earl of Exeter, who built a goodly House there; which after his decease, was, by Act of Parliament, 17 C. 1. exchanged from the Hospital for Lands of better value, and estated upon his widow (Elizabeth) the Countess Dowager of Exeter, and her heirs. Shortly after the Wars happened, and Newarke became one of the most considerable Garrisons the King had, in which the Loyalty and courage of the Townsmen were ever remarkable, and sufficiently manifested in all the three Sieges: at the first whereof, Sir John Henderson, the prudent Governor, caused all Northgate, and that fore-mentioned House the Spittle to be burned; yet the Case of it made a receptacle for the Enemy at the second Siege, where Prince Rupert took a goodly train of Artillery, which I saw, together with their Foot Arms, when he so fortunately relieved the Town, then under the Government of Sir Richard, now Lord Byron; but before the third, there was not one Stone left unthrown down, and in or near the place, a strong Fortification raised in Sir Richard Willis's time (as I remember) and called the King's Sconce, which by his Majesties Special Comannd, then in the Scots Quarters on the North side of the River Trent, was about the sixth of May 1646, (fn. 8) with the Town, and Castle, and the rest of the Fortresses, concluded by Commissioners of the Right Honorable John Lord Bellasis the last Governor, to be surrendered the Saturday following, though it is said that Mr. Smith the valiant Major, upon his Lordships communicating to him the Kings Order, urged the said Governor with Tears, to Trust God and Sally, rather than think of yielding the Town, which indeed at that time suffered more by the Plague within, than the Enemy without.
b. The Vicarage of Newark was 18l. when the Prior of St. Katherin's was Patron. It is now 21l. 5s. 2d. in the King's Books, and his Majesty Patron.
Upon the upper part of the North Porch, on a Shield, there is a Crosse Croslet Botoné.
The great Window, of the Cross South aisle, seems to have been given by William Philpot, wherein the Arms of Deyncourt are often placed.
In the contrary aisle is, Arg. a Chief Gules, and Bendlet Azure (Crumwell) quartering with Cheque Or, and Gules, a Chief Ermine (Tateshal).
Gules, three Sheaves, within a Bordure engrailed Or, Archbishop of Cant.
Arg. a Chevron with a Cinquefoil sable in the first quarter, Rempston.
Azure, two Chevrons Or (Chaworth) quartering Arg. an Orle of Cinquefoiles about a Scutcheon sable (Caltost).
Azure, five Fusills in Fesse Or, each charged with an Escallop Gules (Plumpton) quartering Sable. A Bend between six Scallops Or (Folejambe).
Arg. three Birdbolts Gules, (Bozome).
Arg. on a Saltier engrailed Sable, nine Annulets Or, within a Bordure of the second Crusalè of the first (Leek of Kirton).
Gules, three Pickaxes Arg.
Arg. two Bars imbattailed Gules (Barry of Torlaston).
Arg. two Bars Vert (Harthill), impales with Leek.
Markham quarters with Leek.
In another Window, which Thomas Mering, and Mary his Wife, caused to be made. Arg. upon a Chevron Sable, three Escallops Or, (Mering) impales with Gules, a Saltire Ermine (Nevill). Mering impales Leek also. There is Babington's Arms likewise.
Sir Thomas Brough, Knight of the Order, built another Window, Azure, three Flower de Luces Ermine (Burgh) quarters with Paly Or and Sable, which also impales Or a Lion Ramp. Az. all which so together quarter with Gules, three Waterbougets Arg. (Lord Ros) which quarters Arg. a Fesse double Cotised Gules (Badlesmere.) Azure, a Chief, and three Chevronells intermixed in base Or, (Lord Fitz-Hugh) impales with Burgh, quartering as before; with which quarterings Brough also impales with Gules upon a Chevron Or, three Stars sable.
Pierpont (in another Window) viz. Arg. a Lion Ramp. sable with Cinquesoiles about him, impales with Arg. six Annulets sable, 2. 2. 2. (Maunvers.) Peirpont also impales with Azure, three Hedgehogs Or, (Heritz) and also with Sable, a Saltier engrailed Or.
Heritz impales with Arg. three Cocks heads Gules, if they be not Escallops, and so doth Pierpont.
And with Lozengy, Arg. and Gules, (Fitz-Williams).
In the South aisle there is a very large Marble, overlaid very much with Brass, excellently cut, whereon is the Portaiture of a Man with several Sentences out of Scripture in Latin, And
Hic jacet Alanus Fleming, qui obiit. Anno 1373, in die S. Helene cujus anima per Dei misericordiam requiescat in pace. Amen.
On a high Marble Tomb in Brass, upon the upper Edge.
(fn. 9) Hic jacet Robertus Browne, Armiger, & Agnes uxor ejus. Nuper Aldermannus Gildæ S. Trinitatis hujus Ecclefiæ, & Constabularius Castelli, & principalis Senescallus libertatis hujus villæ, ac etiam Receptor tam Thomæ Wulfy, Cardinalis Chor. quam Domini Johannis Longlandi Espiscopi Lincoln. præterea Vicecomes Com. Nottingham & Derby, & insuper Custos Rotulorum tam in Com. Nottingham, quam in partibus de Kesteven in Com. Lincolnie. Qui quidem Robertus obiit 10 die mensis Decembris, Anno Domini 1532. Cujus animæ propitietur Deus.
On a Grave-stone in the middle of the Quire.
Hic jacet Willielmus Boshom, Armig. qui obiit Anno Dom. 1469, Sept. 21, die. Cujus animæ propitietur Deus. Amen.
The Arms, three Bird-bolts.
At the South East corner of the Choir there is a Chauntry Chapel, and in it a Monument of — Markham, over which there is an Arch of Free-stone, and on the side of that, Prate pro animabus Roberti Markham, Armigeri, & Elizabethe uxoris ejus.
On the outside of it several Arms coarsely cut, Markham impaling Mering, Bozome, Markham, &c.
At the bottom of the great East Window,
— Thom. Mering, & Elizabet. ux. ejus hanc fenestram fieri causaverunt . . . . . M.CCCCo . . . . . gesimo.
At the bottom of the Great South Window of the Cross aisle, called Trinity Chapel, wherein are the Arms of England and France quarterly, and Deincourts, beforementioned.
Prate pro bono statu Willielmi Phelypot, & Johanne uxoris ejus & omnium . . . . . fororum. . . . & benefactorum. . . . . . . nunciatoris beat. Marie virginis qui istam fenestram fieri fecerunt, Anno Domini M.CCCCC. tricesimo nono.
On a Brass Plate in the out aisle is the Portaiture of William Phyllypot, in an Alderman's Furr'd Gown, and below it.
Here under this Stone lyeth buried the body of William Phyllypot, Marchant, and Elizabeth his wyffe; which William decessyed the viii, day of May, yn An. Dom. M.CCCCC.L. VII. whose dethe desyryng youe all to have in rememberans, calling to God for mercy.
On the same Stone above.
The eight day of July 1514, was buried the body of John Phyllypot, Grandfather to this William Phyllypot.
At the Vestry door on a Free-stone.
Hic jacet Johannes Phelypot, Junior, Draper, & Margareta uxor ejus; qui quidem Johannes obiit 23 Augusti, Anno Dom. 1519. Quorum animabus propitietur Deus. Amen.
In the Choir upon a Grave-stone.
Hic jacet Robertus Whitecoumbe, quondam Mercator villæ Calesie, qui obiit III Novembr. Anno Dom. M.CCCC.XL.VII. Cujus animæ, &c.
On a Marble, formerly almost covered in Brass,
Hic jacet Magister Johannes Burton, Doctor Sacræ Theologiæ, quondam Vicarius istius Ecclesiæ, qui obiit tertio die Februarii. Anno Dom. 1475. Cujus, &c.
Hic jacet M. Johannas Smythe in legibus Baccalaureus, quondam Vicarius de Newark, Et Vicariatus sui XL.IIII. Prebendarius de Lynchaster, ac Rector Kellam, qui obiit 14 die mensis Augusti, Anno Dom. 1521, Cujus, &c.
On a Brass Plate,
Orate pro animabus Simonis Bently, Capellani beati Nicola, & Domini Stephana Bently, Capellina S. Trinitatis fratrum quiescentum; qui quidem Simon obiit 21 die Jun. Anno Dom. 1530. Quorum animabus, &c.
In the North aisle two Portraits, with the Draper's Arms over them,
Orate pro animabus Johannis Bostone, Merceri, & Willielmi Boli, fillii dicti Johannis. Qui Willielmus obiit 4 die Aprilis, Anno Dom. 1551. Quorum animabus, &c.
Pray for the Soule of Thomas Griffeth, Gentleman, which decessed the V. day of March, Anno Dom. M.V. XIX On whose Soule J H U have mercy. Amen.
Depositum Johannis Pole, Med. D. Denati ad 6t. Nonas 8br, Anno Christi 1674.
In Newark Church, at the North West corner of the Choir, an Effigie, and over it, Or, an Eagle displaied Sable.
Under which is,
Here lyeth the body of Robert Ramsey, Esq. Servant to his Majesty, who dyed the 9 day of Aprill 1639.
Then follow Verses, and under them, Gules, a Regal Crowne Or, and on a Chief Arg. a Crosse of the first.
Here lyeth buried the bodye of Robarte Kirkebye, the first Maister of the SongSchool of this Towne of Newark, in which rowme he was plast by Master Thomas Magnus the Founder thereof, and continued a worthy Teacher therein the space of xlii. years, who departed this life the 19th. of Mar. in the year of our Lord God 1573. And here lyeth also Elizabeth his Wife, who died before him the 17th. of Novemb. Anno 1566. To whom God send a joyful Refurrection.
Anno Dom. 1579, Maii 17, ætatis fuæ 68. Here lyeth buried the body of Mr. William Leveret, Physician, thrice Alderman of this Town, who increased by the good help of the Right Honourable Henry Earl of Rutland, his Lord and Patron, the Corporation of the same Town. He was of Godly life, zealous in God's Religion, and a Benefactor to the poor, whose soul resteth with Christ Jesus in Heaven.
Acre potiti lucida inter ordines Cœlestium quietos, Thomæ Atknisoni, Sanguine qui cretus prisco Imagines Partrum sepultas, secundis eruit, Laboribus, & recenti cingit Adoreâ. Amoribus nexus castis & fœdere Certo, tuetur pignora genalis tori Pariter avorum ipse, ac nepotum decus, Rerum æstimator prudens, & recti tenax, Vtramque passus fortunam, stabilis & juris sui. Norunt Catervæ obstantes perduellium (Piissimorum hominum impiissimum genus) Quid Marte posset, volantes si explicuerit Ignes, & Iras victricis dexteræ. Læti repetimus revocatum ordinem, Vindicias sceleris, & culpas exules, Nomen Novarce, & invidendas civium Vires, illo Custode, rerum & arbitro. Demptum dolemus, orbi hunc urbis patrem Subscribimus Statuæ, hunc urbis Genium Obiit 10 Calend. Sextilis, Anno a partu virgineo M.DCLXI. Materno LX.
The Arms on the Monument are Ermine on a Fesse Sable, three Pheons Arg.
O memorande mihi post nullos (Smythe) ministros!
Quam cito te (verbi gladio) peccata prementem, Quam cito to (Domini recte sacra verba secantem,
Sæva falce sua mors importuna secavit?
Angelicam nisi certus eram te vivere vitam, Perpetuos tristi resonarem carmine luctus.
Gulielmus Smythus obiit Pastor de Newark. O mihi (Greavese) satis duris spectate periclis, Mitte precor gemitus, lacrymas effundere mitte. Nam mihi Mors lucrum, mihi Christus vita perennis, Corpus in hoc tumulo est, animam super æthera vexit Rex, Deus omnipotens, Arx, Corus, Petra, Poirum:
Det Deus Astriferum mecum te scandere cœlum. Obiit 2 Novemb. An. Dom. 1585, ætats fuæ 36 Edovardus Greausus quondam verbi Domini præco in Ecclesia Norvarcensi.
Me quoque terra tegit tandem (suavissime Smithe) Ossa sub hoc tumulo recubant, super æthera fertur
Spiritus, ut tecum cœlesti pace fruatur. Utque tibi fuerim sincero junctus amore Tam tibi vicinum placuit mihi (Smithe) sepulcrum.
At mi Seele vale ne sim tibi causa doloris.
Quis mihi fræna dabit luctus compescere tantos Quantos quam Chari Mors dira ministrat amici? Si quicquam posset pietas aut gratia vulgi, Mors nondum Greausum prostrasset funere tristi. At quia stelliferi voluit te Rector Olympi In cœlos tolli, non restat causa doloris.
Obiit Dec. 21, An. Dom, 1586, ætatis suæ 28.
On the backside of the East part of the Choir under an Effigies.
This Monument represents the person of John Joye of Belvoyer, Esq. deceased in Lent 1608, who served a long time the House of Rutland, first Secretary to the Right Honourable and worthy Lords Edward and John, Earls of Rutland in their several times, and lastly Steward of the Household to the Right Honourable and noble Lord Roger, now Earl of Rutland, &c. He was about the age of 60, and in his declining time made choyce to end his dayes in this Town, and to leave his body here Enterred, whose love and charitable affection, he hath by his last Will expressed to this Church and Poor of the Town. Et sic in vita & morte gaudet in Domino.
On the North side of the Choir, an Effigies, and under it,
To the memory of Mr. John Johnson, Alderman, and twice Major of the Loyal and unanimous Corporation of Newarke, who deceased the 24th day of January, Anno Dom. 1659, and lies interred near this place, with hopes of a joyful Resurrection.
After many English Verses,
Hoc grati animi ergo triste Monumentum posuit Johannes Johnsonus Cognatus ejus.
On the South Wall of the Church against the Choir steps, Quod reliquum est Gulielmi Hobman præfecti hujus oppidi Novarchiensis spe Resurrectionis, Hic requiescit, qui postquam fere Semiannum temporibus procellosis Lancem Justiciæ æquo liberamine Et intermerata fidelitate, sustinuisset, Tandem (relicts matre, uxore, Tribus filiis & una filia) Regimen Successori, Corpus Terræ, Animam Deo pie resignavit 8 die mensis Martii, Anno salutis Humanæ, 1659.
There was shield of Arms also upon this Monument, but by Mr. Dugdale Norroy, in his visitation, ordered to be defaced.
There are very many Epitaphs and Verses besides these, which to avoid prolixity I must abbreviate, or omit, and therefore shall only name the persons, and time of their deaths.
Willielmus Grene, Baker, obiit Mar. 20, 1529, Cujus, &c.
Lambart Watson, Draper, dyed Sept. 1, 1530. On whose, &c.
Beatrix Lawe, obiit Nov. 14, 1450.
Gervase Bowman, ob. April, 22, 1619.
Nicholas Penythorne . . . . . . .
William Symson, Upholstor . . . . 1546.
Henricus Fawconer, & Margareta ux. Hen. ob. Apr. 11, 1480.
William Robinson, Glover, thrice Alderman, dyed Dec. 7, 1575.
William Hodgekynson, Barber, and Wax-chandler, Aug. 27, 1529.
Edward Saynton, Gentleman, twice Alderman, and Justice of Peace, Mar. 2, 1573.
Thomas Hobman, Ironmonger, son of Thomas, Alderman, Feb. 13, 1640.
John Beke, Waxchandler, dyed Jan. 12, 1512.
Agnes his wife died Jan. 24, 1533.
Alice, the wife of Nicholas Tomson, Feb. 23, 1540.
Hugh Kelsterne, Draper, Alderman, died July 9. 1563.
Alles his wyffe died before him, Anno Dom. 1539.
Hugh lived 80, and his son Edward Kelsterne, Draper, the Alderman, 68 years, who had two Wives, and ten Children by the first, he died Febr. 1, 1588.
Elizabetha filia Edw. Kelsterni, & uxor Christoph. Jenison, obiit 15 Octob. 1589. Her son Edward Jenison made Verses for her in Latine, and also for his Father. Qui quidem Christoherus Jenisonus, vere generosissimus, tertio Alderm. hujus oppidi obiit 13 Janur. 1606, ætat. sue 67.
Robertus Webb infæliciter obiit 20 Jul. 1610, as his sons Verses show.
Anne, wife of John Shawe, Gent. died 16 Oct. 1619, æt. 28.
By the North East corner of the Church upon a Marble within an Alabaster on the wall.
M. S. Henrico Trewmanno viro fæliciter docto & hujus Ecclesiæ præsuli vigilantissimo Quis hunc quæsivit angulum quæris?
Veritatis Angelus Quis hic Conditus est, viator rogas? Sale & Melle conditus ipse & Sal & Melo, —Verus homo veri Dei [APSEYDIS AGGELIOTHS]
Absit venalis gloria, & Colossis mendax Marmor. Non adblandiente verborum, lapidumve strue Illum, vel vivum, velmortuum ementiemur, Cum sibi sculpta laus, —Et doctum existit Monumentum.—Hen. Trewman. Hic Sydus eluxit inter sydera jam coronatus. Dum desideriis syderatos relinquens nos Cœlicolis triumphant sacer mysta, Insanis populi turbis, Sæculorum sævis turbinibus inturbatus Insolitus mundi, & procellosis fluctibus Non minus solito serenus; Sic cautus ipsius Gubernator In tranquillo fatalis naufragii speculator tutus, Et clarior in obscuritate temporum factus, Stelliferi claritate Olympi gaudes
O lampas fulgen Quid quæris amplius? Regi à Sacris, cœlestis orator, & Capellanus: - - -Populo à Mysteriis veritatis Assertor, & minister: Amicis à sacro fœdere sanctissimus cultor, Cœli jam municeps.
In eloquio casti sermonis, joci In consuetudine, Generosi-honesti.
Flores & fructus: Et rerum veritate, & verborum varietate Facundus omnibus, & fæcundus-mellifluus Artifex.
Sic lucidissimis elegantiarum gemmis ornatum, Et divino Entheatum pectus fervore Plusquam Humana sapuit: Mirantesq, omnes attonuit audientium Choros.
Fœlicitatem, quam vivendo dedit, abstulit abeundo: Sic utilis terris, sic dulcis cœlo, Nusquam non integer
Charissimi Soceri memoriæ piè consulens, triste hoc sui obsequii ministerium posuit L. Jenison. Ætatis Quinquagesimo quinto obiit 2 Decemb. Anno Restituto Mundo 1655.
In the South aisle on a Brass Plate,
Here lieth the body of Jane Bethell, only daughter of William Bethell, and Elizabeth his wife, of the Reddinge Grange in the County of York, Gent. she died the 30 of Octob. 1610, being of the age of sixteen years when she died.
Hic jacet Robertus Eurion, Tanner, Katherina, Agnes & Johanna uxores ejus; qui quidem Robertus obiit ultimo die Novemb. Anno Dom. 1539, Quorum, &c.
Johannes Martinii Quod reliquum est & claudit potuit Hic jacet: Qui Laboribus Patriæ, Amicis, Oppidique Hujus Senatui, fœliciter datis, Post sexaginta tres Annos Consectos, occubuit.
Hunc Grati nepotes jactabunt olim, Et meritis impar præmium intulisse Dolebunt frustra.
Here lieth the body of George Sanduich, Barber, Servant to the Right Honourable Earl of Rutland, who deceased the 18th of April, 1613.
Here lyes Mrs. Alice Cam, wife of Mr. Henry Cam of this Town, daughter of Mr. Robert Baxter of South-Clifton, buried August 28, 1671.
Henry Cam buried March 6, 1671.
There are many more Arms obscurely painted, and cut in the Church, as on the Roof, Arg. a Fesse Dancè between three Waterbudgets sable.
Arg. a Crosse Ragulè couped sable.
Gules, a Cup Arg. and sometimes Or. &c.
THE additions to this place will necessarily extend to some considerable length. Its consequence in history at the grand rebellion, its considerable charities or rather benefactions, its corporation, and its present importance, are objects of attention, in general, but slightly noticed, or neglected in Dr. Thoroton's account of this town. I have therefore endeavoured to supply, with the information I am in possession of, those deficiencies or omissions; but with as much brevity as possible. Sufficient materials, it cannot be doubted, might be collected to furnish a separate history of this place of no small magnitude and usefulness. Such a work from the pen of the respectable Southwell Historian, who is a neighbouring resident, could not fail to be highly gratifying.
The antiquity of Newark, Thoroton has given in his usual manner of relating the ancient history of other places; but he has wholly omitted to notice the opinion of some antiquity writers who have placed the Roman Station, Ad Pontem, here (fn. 10) Neither Newark, nor Southwell where Mr. Rastall has taken some pains to fix this Station, abound with those evident tokens of age, as in places where stations are pretty fully ascertained. At Leicester, the Ratæ of the Romans, on the removal of the ground for the purposes of building or improvement, coins of the Roman Emperors, tesselated pavements, and ancient pottery, are found daily, and often in abundance; but at Newark and Southwell we find, instances, very few indeed of discoveries of this sort; and I believe less so in Newark than in Southwell. The predilection of writers to their native places, or other attachments, I fear, has been the cause in some measure, of the variety of sentiments we meet with, respecting the Roman Routs.
In describing Newark, its Castle may be considered the first object of note. In or about the reign of King Stephen, it is supposed this noble edifice was erected by Alexander, Bishop of Lincoln, or as some imagine by Roger Bishop of Salisbury, who had built Shirburn, the Devizes and Malmesbury. The town it is said, took its name from the erection of this important edifice (fn. 11), being a new work. This Bishop, Roger, built a castle also at Sleaford, and was a founder of several monasteries. On some account, not very favourable to the character of King Stephen, he imprisoned the Bishop and other of his friends, where they were allowed to live only on bread and water. Their liberty was obtained on condition of their delivering Newark Castle, and some other strong places they were in possession of into the king's hands.
In King John's reign Newark Castle made a stout resistance against the barons. The king, after experiencing many disasterous circumstances, in removing himself and treasure to a place of safety in Lincolnshire, from Lynn in Norfolk, lost all his baggage at high water in crossing the marshy lands, which were overflowed by the river Well Stream. At Swine-head Abbey, where he lodged that night, he was taken ill of a fever; next day he was carried on a litter to Sleaford Castle, and the succeeding day to Newark, where he made his will and died, Oct. 18th, 1216 (fn. 12)
In the reign of Henry III. this place was in the possession of the barons. It stood however, only an eight days siege against the King, when it was restored to the Bishop of Lincoln.
Nothing very material occurred, concerning this place, till the civil wars in the last century, when it made a most conspicuous figure. The loyalty of its inhabitants, at that time, was exceeded by those of no other place in the King's dominions. At the commencement of these troubles, the Earl of Newcastle fixed a strong garrison in Newark to annoy the Lincolnshire forces and those of Fairfax, raised for the parliament (fn. 13) In the spring of the year 1643, it was attacked by an army of 5000 horse and foot, under the command of Lord Willoughby, of Parham; but after some fruitless attempts, to subdue the garrison, the siege was raised. Soon after another attempt was made by the forces under the command of Lord Fairfax. Sir John Biron commanded the brave garrison, which consisted chiefly of the inhabitants of the town, and the gentry and others in the neighbourhood. The garrison was at first hardly pressed; but a body of forces arriving under the command of Prince Rupert, unexpectedly at Newark, fell upon the besiegers, in their entrenchments, took their works, baggage, ordnance and ammunition, with about 3000 muskets and fifty barrels of powder. Sir John, or Sir Richard Biron, the commander of the garrison, was for his services, on this occasion, created Lord Biron; and the prince received the most flattering testimonies of praise, for this brilliant success (fn. 14)
The king and his friends, on many distressing occasions, found this place a safe asylum. On his attempt to join Montross in Scotland, after sustaining some loss in Yorkshire, he retreated to Newark. Here he stayed settling some differences which had arisen in his army; but his stay here was attended with much hazard; for Pointz, and Rossiter, commanders on the side of Parliament had, as they thought, so effectually surrounded the town, that they judged it impossible for the King to escape. He being made acquainted with his dangerous situation set out, on a dark night from Newark, for Belvoir castle, where he arrived about three o'clock in the morning unperceived by the enemy. At this time the king's affairs were in a most lamentable condition; and having scarcely a place of safety left for him in his dominions, he fled to Scotland for refuge. In the mean time Newark was regularly besieged, and at length given up, by the king's directions, upon honourable conditions, the Lord Bellasis, Governor.
The mounds of earth raised at the siege of this place are still visible, they form irregular lines, and indicate no extraordinary skill in tactics. In those entrenchments there appears something like a cellar or store room. A hole in the spire of the Church, still appears, which, it is said, was made at the siege by a cannon ball, it passed through one side of the spire above the pinnacle, but the other resisted its force, it consequently sell within the steeple.
The castle, at this time, is a ruin of consequence, but not splendid. That portion, seen towards the stream, has a smooth surface and now almost entire (fn. 15) A large break in this wall would let the eye into the internal parts of the ruin, which at present are screened at this point of view. When time shall have effected this purpose, the whole will form, more of picturesque beauty than we behold at present.
The King's munificence to Newark.
Charles the First honoured this place by creating Robert Peirpoint, Baron Peirpoint and viscount Newark, which titles have been enjoyed ever since by his successors, the Earls and Dukes of Kingston.
The charter, granted by Charles the First, to this place, is of considerable length. A translation of it was printed by Holt of Newark, in 1790, with that of his Son and successor, Charles the Second. The preamble to the former sets forth that, "Whereas our Town of Newark-upon-Trent, in our county of Nottingham, is an antient and populous town, and the Aldermen, and Assistants inhabiting the said town, have had and enjoyed divers liberties, franchises, immunities, and pre-eminences as well by the charters of our late father, James, late king of England, of blessed memory, as by the charters of our late sister Lady Elizabeth, late Queen of England, and by the charters of divers others our progenitors and predecessors, late kings of England, heretofore had, made, granted or confirmed, as also by reason of divers prescriptions, usages, and customs in the said town, time out of mind had, used, and acustomed." It speaks also, of the great increase of the town, in traffic, and population, whereby it requires a more special government than heretofore. This charter ratifies and confirms all former grants, privileges, &c. and creates anew, into one body corporate and politic, with the additions of certain liberties, privileges, immunities and franchises as follow. That it shall remain a free town of itself, under the denomination of "the Mayor and Aldermen of the Town of Newark-upon-Trent, in the county of Nottingham." That they, under this name, may receive and possess lands, liberties, jurisdictions, &c. for them and their successors, and also to grant, demise and assign lands, &c. by the name aforesaid. And that by this name they are enabled to plead, and to be impleaded. That they shall have a Common Seal which they may change and alter at their pleasure; they are empowered to make statutes, laws, and ordinances for the government of the town, as in their wisdom shall think fit, with a power to punish offenders with fine, pains, or penalties. By these presents Henry Gill was appointed "the first original Mayor," to continue in office till the feast of St. Michael. These following were appointed Aldermen, John Noble, Thomas Jenison, Christopher Haslem, Peter Smith, John Jenison, Thomas Holman, William Midlebrook, John Staindge, Henry Clifton, Christopher Wilson, and Robert Oram. The major part of the Mayor and Aldermen, above-named, and their successors by this charter are impowered to chuse a new mayor in each succeeding year on the Feast of St. Michael. It provides also, for supplying the place of the Mayor and Aldermen in case of death or otherwise. It provides also for a Recorder to be chosen, by the Mayor and Aldermen. It constitutes the Mayor, Recorder, and four senior Aldermen, justices, with power, as is usual, to punish offenders. It grants a prison within the precincts of the town to confine offenders in; with authority to the Justices to commit offenders to the County Jail at Nottingham, at their discretion. It also empowers them to chuse a coroner, clerk of the market, and town clerk. The mayor for the time being, to be the king's escheator, other inferior officers are mentioned, as well as other powers exercised lawfully by other incorporations of this sort.
This charter was granted the first day of July, in the second year of Charles' reign.
The new charter of Charles the Second, dated the fourth day of April, in the twenty-ninth year of his reign, is little more than a confirmation of the former, excepting that "there shall be from time to time two Burgesses of our Borough aforesaid to serve in parliament, of us our heirs and successors, and that it shall be lawful, to and, for the Mayor and Aldermen, and their successors, and all the inhabitants, of the said Borough or Town for the time being, who pay and contribute Lot and Scot in the said Borough, to chuse the Burgesses to serve in Parliament." A Custos Rotulorum was appointed by this charter, in the person of Henry Duke of Newcastle, afterwards to be appointed by the major part of the Mayor and Aldermen. A Court of Record was moreover established by this charter. Two fairs or wakes it constitutes, or confirms, to be held in Newark, one on the twenty-first, and twenty-second days of October, and the other to be held upon Friday and Saturday, before the Lord's Day, called Careing Sunday. The king also grants to this Coporation the right of patronage to the church ofWinthorp.
The number of Aldermen who governed in succession from the first incorporation of this place, in 1540, by Edward the Sixth, till the time it was chartered by Charles the First, was 77. The first Alderman was Anthony Forster, and the last Henry Gill, who was the first Mayor in 1625. Mayors there have been 173, A. D. 1793.
IS a noble edifice, but the buildings which surround it are a great impediment to a distant view of it. This pleasing structure was built in the reign of Henry the Sixth. The tower part of this church is light and handsome, the spire possesses symmetry and beauty. Bells eight. Within, it has a cathedral like appearance on a small scale. The nave is very narrow, and rather gloomy. The painted glass, in the windows in general, is in good preservation; to attempt a description of which would lead me beyond the limits of this undertaking. There are numberless fine groups of figures representing the particular circumstances of our Saviour's Life and sufferings; and several coats of arms. One of the windows, it is said, was given by Alderman Philpot, another by Thomas Meering, Esq. and a third by Sir Thomas Brough; for particulars, (see Thoroton, above.) Thanks to the protectors of Newark, in the civil wars, for these remains of a noble art. The organ is a disgrace to every thing around it: the case is painted with ruddle, and the pipes, in front, are as foul as time and neglect could make them. The aisles are losty, and the floor is covered with remembrances of the dead. The altar painting is a daubing unworthy the roof that covers it. The monuments and brasses chiefly remain as in Thoroton's time; one of the latter figures is represented in the plate, page 243, fig. 5. It is Alderman Phillpot, who served the office of Alderman in 1550, the second after its incorporation (fn. 16) The brass for Allinus Fleming, is large and is a display of engraven ornaments not common; (see Philpot's inscription, page 393, Thoroton.) The arms of Robertus Browne, Armiger, are given in the same plate, fig. 7. see also his inscription above in Thoroton.
Monuments and inscriptions of note, since the time of Thoroton, are as follow.— In the South aisle is a mural monument to the memory of John Heron, Esq. and Jane his wife. He died in 1727, aged 63.—Near it Bernard Wilson, D. D. upwards of 40 years vicar of this place, is remembered on a neat mounment: He died in 1772, aged 83.— Another says Mrs. Ann Taylor, youngest daughter of John Heron, Esq. wife of Dr. R. Taylor, physician extraordinary to the king, died in 1757, in the 68th year of her age. Her character must be strained, or she must have been more than mortal.—Daniel Grayle, Gent. is remembered with his bust, he died in 1727, aged 60.—Opposite, a small tablet is placed for Frances, wife of John Girton, she died in 1752, aged 39.—Richard Eastland, Alderman, died in 1778, aged 51.—Richard Harrison, died in 1755, aged 54.—William Broadhurst, died in 1772, aged 27.—John Milnes, thrice Mayor, died 1739, aged 77.— William Handley, in 1788, in his 69th year.—William Kellinger, in 1760 aged 73.— John Farrow, in 1760, aged 73.—William Farrow, in 1758 aged 69.—John Tomlinson, in 1722, aged 74—James Tomlinson, in 1722, aged 70.—John, son of John Twelch, in 1775, aged 25.—John Milnes, Gent. in 1772, aged 60.—Thomas Grooves, Esq. in 1790, in his 90th year.—Samuel Spragging, in 1716, aged 46.—Samuel Spragging, in 1780, aged 80. Many of the above are remembered on floor stones; many others there are in this church too numerous to notice. The church-yard possesses gravestone inscriptions almost without number. Colonel Cavendish, a commander in the king's army, during the troubles, was slain near Gainsborough, and afterwards buried in this church. Thirty years after his body was taken up and buried at Derby.
The communion plate, belonging to this church, deserves particular notice, it is all of silver. I will enumerate it as briefly as possible; the dish for bread was the gift of Lady Frances Leake, in 1705, it is 22 inches over; two large flaggons and four smaller, are the gift of the same lady, the former 15½ inches high, and 5½ over; she gave also, two large cups, two bread plates, and two noble candlesticks; the cups 5½ inches over and 12 inches high; the candlesticks measure 20 inches in height and 9½ over the bottom. Two vessels, in the form of ladles, to collect the alms in, were the joint gift of Robert Palmer, clerk, above thirty years, and Susanna Anfield. A small salver was the joint gift of Richard Jackson and Robert Beck. This valuable plate was attempted to be stole about 27 years ago, by some villains who contrived that one of them should secrete himself in the church at a funeral. In the night he let his companions into the church, who together (three in number) by the help of instruments forced open an amazing strong iron chest, in which it was deposited. They also broke open the outside case of another iron chest, which contained the deeds and writings belonging to the estates of the town; in which, also, the trustees kept the money arising therefrom; but they could not force the inside one. This appeared to be their prin cipal object, for the communion plate they left as they found it. All the booty they procured, from this atrocious act, was the money in the poor's box, a sum inconsiderable; one of the offenders, who it appeared had broken out of Newgate, but the night before the robbery, was transported, the assize following, for robbing a house in Nottingham.
Patron of this vicarage, the king. Incumbent Rev. Davis Pennel; living about 220l. per annum. The fees of this office are very small. The church is dedicated to Mary Magdalen. Archipisc. pro Syn. 17s. 6d. Archidiac. pro pox. 17s. 6d. Val. in decum. pul. anc. porc. pom. &c. Sol. pro Bellstrings, 4s. &c. pri Sanctæ Katherinæ, Linc. propr. King's books 21l. 5s. 2½d. Yearly tenths 2l. 2s. 6½d.
Thomas Magnus, Thoroton informs us, founded a Free-school and a Song-school, in this place. Magnus, by indenture made the 21st of February, in the 23d year of the reign of King Henry the Eighth, left lands to the yearly value of 42l. 8s. 4d. for these respective foundations, and for other laudable purposes; 18l. of which was appropriated for the salary of two prests. "Whereof the one prest shall have sufficient connyng and lernyng to teche gramer, and the other prest connying and learnyng to teche playne Song, &c." and play on the organ (fn. 17) The teacher of the Grammar Schools, salary to be ten pounds per annum, and the Song masters eight. Six children are directed, by this instrument, to sing and "play at the organs." These young singers were appointed a salary of 26s. 8d. per annum. An obite was ordered to be kept for his soul and others at the expence of 40s. per ann. 40s. he also gave towards the maintenance of the Alderman in his office for the time being. Many other sums of less notoriety were to be paid out of this donation: the surplus now arising from his bequests, which he gave, in trust, to the vicar, mayor, aldermen, and churchwardens, for the time being, for the towns use, amounts to an amazing sum. In the parish church of Seassy, in the North Riding of York, is Mr. Magnus' epitaph.
"Here lyeth Mr. Thomas Magnus, arch-deacon of the East Riding in the metropolitan church of York, and parson of this church, which died the 18th day of August, anno domino 1550, whose soul God pardon."
Over the School entrance in Newark.
"This Grammar School was founded by the reverend Thomas Magnus, 1529."
Robert Brown, by will bearing date 1532, gave a number of tenements, in Newark, and land at other places, to be applied to the use of the common weal of the town. "Whether it be in reparation of the church there, or any good works to be done in the said town of Newark, as mending of highways, &c. His bequest has added very considerably to the revenues of the town.
Alderman William Phillpot, was another great contributor to this place. He founded an alms house, and chapel for five poor men, and left ample possessions, by his will bearing date March 18, 1556, to the Aldermen and twelve assistants, and their successors, in trust, for the maintenance of the same. He particularly orders that none be admitted into this alms-house, "but such poor men as be aged, impotent, blind, or lame. Out of the surplus of the estates he bequeathed, he left five pounds annually for paveage."
An inscription, within the chapel, which is kept neat and clean, says "Mr. Thomas Summers, who died in 1703, left to the poor of this Corporation, 500l. out of his lands at Carlton-upon-Trent; out of the interest of which, to five beadsmen 5s. per week, the rest to be given to the poor at Candlemass. Over the end alms-house, in the yard, "This alms-house was enlarged and further endowed by an increase of rents of Mr. Phillpot's estates for five additional poor women, in the year 1783." Another inscription, without, recites the founder's name, &c.
In 1738, there was a decree in Chancery for the future management of these several estates and donations, prior to which, in the year 1736, Lord Talbot, Lord High Chancellor of England, declared that the three several charities should be established agreeable to the donors intentions, excepting that portion given to superstitious uses. But as estates had much increased in value, and as they could not be then managed agreeable with the several wills, the case was referred to a Master in Chancery to report thereupon; who certified, in December 1737, that the reserve rents of Magnus' estates amounted to 881 16s. 8d. a-year; and the improved value 368l. 10s. That the then rents of Brown's estate amounted to 38l. 5s. 8d. a year, and the improved value 115l. Phillpot's amounted to 52l. 17s. 4d. and the improved value 158l. 4s. 2d. Lightbourne the Master in Chancery, reported that he conceived that the three charities might be managed together, most agreeable to the donors intentions. The Mayor and Aldermen taking exceptions to this report, it was argued before Lord Hardwicke, in 1738, who decreed, that a Receiver should be chosen by the Vicar, Mayor, senior Alderman, and four Churchwardens for the time being, on Monday in Whitsun-week, He to pay the money he receives, from the rents, within a stated time, into the hands of the Churchwardens; and after paying of salaries to the masters of the Grammar and Song school, singing boys, &c. whose salaries were now to be, the first 20l. the second 17l. and the boys 8l. a-year. The surplus to be applied, by order under the hands of the trustees, in works for the general good of the town, agreeable to the donor's will. It was also decreed, that out of the increasing rents they were to advance the salary of the Grammar School-master till it should amount to 40l. per ann. the Song School-master, 20l. and the boys 24l. Then the residue, as before, to the use of the town in beautifying the church, or other public uses.
Browne's donation was decreed with equal justice to the benefactor's intention. A receiver to be chosen. The disposal of the money in the Vicar and Mayor for the time being, for the repairs of the church, or the common weal of the town.
Phillpot's charity.--- It was decreed that the Alms-men should be chosen by the Mayor and Aldermen, and twelve commoners of the town. The estates to be let to the best bidder, in all their respective charities. The five pounds left originally, by the will to be laid out by the surveyors of the highways. The increasing revenue from the estates to be applied to the raising the pay of each Alms-man, to 61. a-year, besides full apparel, &c. And as soon as the fund would allow it, to add ten poor persons to the original five. The business of all the charities was decreed to be transacted in the church.
There are now maintained, in the Alms-house, twelve men widowers, and six widows, Their pay is nearly three shillings per week.
By attention being paid to these several donations to the town, and by letting the estates to the best bidders, the trustees have been lately enabled to lay out, upon the church, the improvement of the streets and other public uses, upwards of one thousand pounds per annum, whenever they found it needful.
They built from the increase of the value of the estates, about twelve years since, a very handsome Town-Hall, at the expence of many thousand pounds. This building stands in the market-place. The front is narrow, but light and elegant: its depth is considerable. Here are held the concerts, meetings, and corporate assemblies; over the pediment is a figure of Justice.
In consequence of such large public sums of money being at the disposal of the trustees, there have been, of late, the most violent contests for Church-wardens. I am told that bribes of three guineas for a vote have been frequently given on this occasion. The parties have been distinguished by the appellation of red and blue, at these elections.
Besides the charitable donations above-named, here is an alms-house for three widows. Two dissenting religious houses, I understand, are in this place; one of which was built about the year 1783. The other, since that time, for the followers of Mr. Wesley, who by the bye, can scarcely be denominated dissenters from the established church, as they prosess a reverence for the Church Liturgy, a predilection to the present establishment in church and state, and pay an implicit obedience to the laws of each. If they differ from us, it is, perhaps, in a more strict and rigid discipline.
A cotton-mill has been lately erected here.
Here is a light cross, the shaft fluted, with this inscription on brass, "Repaired and ornamented 1778, at the expence of Charles Mellish, Esq. recorder." In Gough's additions to Camden, we learn, that there was a cross erected here, as well as at Hardby, Lincoln, Leicester, Geddington, Northampton, Stony Stratford, Dunstable, St. Albans, Waltham, Cheapside, Charing Cross, and by Westminster, for Queen Eleanor, who died at Hardby, it is said, the 19th of King Edward the First, a place a few miles from Newark (where the inhabitants retain an imperfect tradition of a queen, fee page 385.)
Newark contains about 1700 rateable dwellings, and sends two members to parliament.
In 1646, Charles the First, was under the necessity of coining at this place: a representation of which may be seen in the plate of coins, fig. 15, in that portion of this history, under the head Nottingham.
In the additions to Gough's noble edition of Camden, we have the following account of Newark, selected with his usual care and penetration, from a variety of authors.
"Newark-upon-Trent, a good market town. The market place is large and regularly built, with two good inns. The trade of Newark is greatly increased, as are the inhabitants and buildings; and in consequence thereof the river has lately been made navigable up to the town by Act of Parliament, and considering that there is no particular
manufacture carried on here, this place is as much increased and improved in all respects,
of late years as any town in the kingdom. Its situation on the north road and five
horse fairs, where great numbers of brood mares are brought up and dispersed over the
north countries, are its principal support. Here were formerly two churches, but one of
them was destroyed during the siege in the civil war; the other built in the reign of Henry
Sixth, is justly reckoned one of the finest parish churches in England. The stone spire
at the west end is lofty, adorned with the Twelve Apostles in niches, and stands on a
square tower ornamented with arch work and imagery. In the windows of the north
aisle have been painted the history of the New Testament, of which are still several
good compartments, and the great east window had the history of Joseph. The pillars
are light and beautiful: the choir enclosed by a rich wooden screen, and behind it a
spacious east aisle. The very beautiful font of grey marble repaired since the civil wars,
has on its foot this inscription, and on the shaft the Twelve Apostles."
[see printed page 406]
"Here was a house of Austin and another of Observant friars; also an hospital of St. Leonard, founded by bishop Alexander, and another of the Knights Templars annexed to it, and burnt in the civil war. An almshouse for five poor widows, founded by William Philipott 1557, now augmented to maintain fifteen. Edward the Sixth incorporated this town under one alderman, and twelve assistants. During the troubles at the end of John's reign this castle was in the hands of the royal party, and stoutly defended for the king. The barons frequently sallying out to ravage the lands of the insurgents, the Dauphin sent Gilbert de Gaunt, whom he had created Earl of Lincoln, but he, hearing of the king's approach, retired to London. John having lost great part of his army, with his baggage and military chest, in crossing the Washes, came hither only to die of a broken heart. After the treaty signed 1218 between Henry the Third, and Lewis of France, the castle was seized by some of the discontented barons, but after it had stood a siege of eight days by the king's troops under the Earl Marshal, it was given up to Robert Bishop of Lincoln, to whom it of right belonged. King Charles the First's garrison in the castle was twice besieged 1643, and 1646, but surrendered by the King's order by Lord Belasise the governor. The King retreated here after his defeat in going to join Montrose in Scotland, and again when he attempted the expedient the second time. When he put himself into the hands of the Scots this castle was by his order surrendered to them. The parliament afterwards caused it to be demolished, so that there remains now only the west wall and part of the south angle being built very strong. A thin gold ring belonging to Mr. Heron of Newark, found in a garden there, and shewn the to Society of Antiquaries 1741, had this inscription: AGLA. THALCVT. CALCVT. CATTAMA. IC. Bishop Alexander had a charter for coining money at Newark. A piece of his coin would be a great curiosity. Urns have been found near the Foss at Newark."