State Papers, 1653: September (5 of 6)

Pages 495-508

A Collection of the State Papers of John Thurloe, Volume 1, 1638-1653. Originally published by Fletcher Gyles, London, 1742.

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In this section

September (5 of 6)

An intercepted letter of K. Charles II. to the earl of Belcarres.

Oct. 2d [1653. N. S.]

Vol. x. p. 31.

My lord Belcarres,
I have receaved yours of the 9th of Aug. and to my exceeding discomfort find the faling out, which I most feared, difference and unkyndnes amongst those whom I love and trust most; but since I am sure your jealousies of on another cannot mak either of you les kynd and just to me, I will hope that for my sake you will lay aside all misunderstandings, and joyne heartily togither, that all other men, by your example, may be united in my service. That the messenger you sent to me, is not yet returned to you, hath proceeded meerlie from his owne miscarriage, which hath givin me great cause to suspect his honestie, the relation whereof I suppose you will have receaved from others. I doe assure you I am soe farr from changeing the good opinion you had reason to beleeve I had of you, when wee parted, that my confidence in your affection is rather increased than diminished, nor hath evir any man endeavored to doe you anie ill office with me; nor hath any man cause to think, that it is in his power to doe it; and I must doe Glencairn the justice to tell you, that all his letters to me have been so full of commending you, that he alway desyred to proceed upon your counsell and advyse; and I am sure Middleton looks upon you as on of his best friends, and by whom he desyres principally to be guyded. But I will not deny to you, that after I heard of Bamfield's being with you, and fawe how earnestly you recommended him to me, whom I had no mynd to trust (which I found by your letter to the earl of Dysert, before your own cam to my hands) and when I saw that it was designed to exempt at least all the Highlands from Middleton's command, and that Rogers had takin upon him to declair, that Middleton would not be welcom thither, and said many other things as secretly given him in charge by you, I had ane apprehension (without the least doubt of your constancy to me) that some men, of whom I had not the same good opinion, might have too much credit with you, and I knew not how farr they might tak upon them to use my name to you; which reasonably might mislead you, untill you myght receave positive directions from myself, which I knew you would observe. Besides I found you had trusted Bamfield and others too farr, that it might not be safe for you to appeare to dissent from them. Thus as well your own letters, as the relation of sir William Bellenden gave me great apprehension of your want of healthe; nor have there wanted reports of your deathe, so that I had no hopes, that you would have been able to have ventured into the Highlands. Upon all which reasons I sent the whole disposition of the E. of Glencairne, and intirely referred it to himselfe, to judge whither the service would be most effectually, and not least inconvenence, caryed on under the general commission, or by assuming the sole command himselfe, untill Middleton's coming, not without expressing somewhat of my own opinion, that it would be best for him to tak the charge himselfe; and I confes I am glade he hath done it, beleeving him in all respects to be much fitter then any man I had heard named for it. I will follow your advyse in hasting Middletone also soone as is possible, who I know longs to be with you. In the meane tyme, I cannot desire any thing more earnestly of you, then that you will lay asyde the unhappy misunderstandings, that is of late grown, and assist Glencairne all you may, and remove all jealousies from others; and that the great worke, which so much concerns us all, may be perfected without admitting any arguments or disputes, which may divert any, from whom we may reasonably expect assistance against the common enemies, who more depends upon the divisions and animosities amongst you, then upon their own strength. When I have told you, that Bamfield, with the two officers who were dispatched by you in Aprill, cam not hither, till after the middle of Sept. and that they are not all entrusted to the same purposes, you will not wonder (the state of affaires being so much altered since there coming from Scotland) that I make no alterations of the course I have already setled for the conducting of them; which I doubt not will prove very prosperous, if all, who wish the same thing, will continue in the way of compassing it. To conclude, be confident I will omitt nothing in my power for your assistance, nor the venturing my owne person with you, if I cannot dispose it better, for the carying on the work, and making your part the easier; and I will promise my selfe that concurrence in all thinges from you, which I cannot but expect from your fidelitie and affection to me, and you shall alwayes find me the same man, and as much as you can desyre


A letter of intelligence from Holland.

I Have given Mr. Bradshawe at Hambourgh tymely notice of their sending out of seventeen shipps the primo of this month, to wayte for the shipps in the Elve. I had likewise sent one to Texell, to take a view of what shipps wear there in readines to goe out, as to men of war, but he is not returned before I came hither. By next you may expect the particular account of them. Here are five shipps going to sea with the first fayre wynde, the most is but of thirty six gunns, and there are three men of warr new lanched, each of forty pieces of ordnance. They worke harde on them, and maye be ready in a month. There is also five at Amsterdam, from forty gunns to fifty, and may be ready in three weecks; but there is great want of gunns. They hope their fleet from the Sounde will bring some with them. There is great projecting how to rayse mony; there is certaynely great store in the country, but men will not part with it. Their fleet is not in the Sound, but at Schagen-Rief, not far from it; a fitt place for your fleet to destroye them. It concerns you to be strong at sea, for they will be above 100 ships, when they are joyned; but I hope you will prevent them. A good blowe to the fleet will wholy discourage them. I doe not heare any certayntye concerning their resolutions for peace: most thinke Holland is well inclyned, and doth labor to induce the other provinces to the same. I finde they declyne more and more the king's interest. Middleton gets nothing but fayre words; they will not believe, that the insurrection in Scotland will be of consequence. They promiss themselves great matters, being they heare by the last post, that some officers of the army are secured, which they thinke will breed ill blood; but I hope better. I have no more at this time, but that I am.

Yours to the utmost of my power.

Rotterdam, 23 Sept./3 Oct. 1653.

De Witt to Beverning.

Hague, 3a October, 1653. [N. S.]

Vol. vi. p. 363.

My lord,
Your lordship's letter of the 26th of this month came to hand presently after I had sent away mine; and by reason of the absence of the assembly of Holland, I read it myself, first to the council of the said province, and afterwards with their good liking to the generality, especially that which was mentioned therein, concerning the protestation and declaration of many of the English government. And although at the time of the reading thereof, there was not any one of the commissioners of the provinces, that said one word in public; yet I perceived by some of their countenances, that they did not take it well, that I had communicated unto you the business of sir Marmaduke Langdale and Middleton, which had been banded here in secret; which indeed I did foresee, but I thought it necessary, that the communication thereof should be done as aforesaid, because of the foregoing and following clause.

And therefore I desire you, when you write to me for the future, that you would put that apart in a letter, which you would have me to communicate with fruit; and that which is relating to our mutual confiding correspondence may be put in a letter by it self likewise: especially give me notice of the receipts of my letters, and the dates thereof, that so I may be at rest.

Opdam is making provision for to go to sea with all speed, although some provinces in the generality have declared, that they would have been glad to have received special order from their principals before the command of the fleet had been put into the said lord's hands. And their lordships have thought fit, that the commander de Ruyter and capt. Cruyck be desired to go in person in that ship, which the admiral shall go in, to serve him as counsellors and assistants. Upon the provincial advice of Holland concerning the English negotiation, by reason that some provinces therein concerned made reflection upon their principals, and especially the lords commissioners of Zealand, who had no order, it hath not yet been brought to any conclusion.

By letters from vice-admiral de Witt of the 14th of the last month received yesterday, we do gladly understand, that he with his whole fleet was safely arrived the 14th aforesaid, in the morning to the Jutsche-Riff, without meeting any enemy, or any ill rencounter by the way with any of his ships. And the lord Keyser doth write of the 20th in his letter, that they had notice of his arrival there; and that consequently the East India ships and other merchantmen with fourteen good Danish ships, were to set sail the next day to go to him; and that his majesty of Denmark had provided the Netherland ships with powder, men, and other necessaries.

The lord Keyser in his said letter, as also the lord Beuningen in his of the 13th of the same month doth advise, that the lord Pimentel, the king of Spain's ambassador to the queen of Sweden, after he had set sail from Gottenbergh, and had been at sea three days, his ship sprung a leak, and was forced to put into the said port again; and because he would not stay there, 'till another ship could be fitted to farther his voyage, he came back to the queen, who was then at Nortcoppen, giving out, that he had order to stay in Sweden all the winter over.

A letter of intelligence from the Hague.

Octob. 3, 1653. [N. S.]

Vol. vi. p. 363.

In what matter manner the captains have been punished, that did fail in doing their duties, you may see by the inclosed print. Our ships are safe arrived in the Sound and Vlecher; but the number of the men of war being only forty, so that the king of Denmark will add eighteen of his ships, but to go no farther than the riff of Schagen; for the king seeing, that as well Sweden as the duke of Holstein do endeavour all that they can, to agree with the parliament, and will have a neutrality and amity with the English, doth begin to give ear thereunto; the duke of Holstein being very much suspected, that he doth endeavour to debauch Denmark, assuring him of the amity of the English, if so be the king will but restore the twenty six ships he hath formerly taken or stopt of the English.

So much it is, that the king will not lend or join his ships with the Hollanders, so that the Hollanders have but poor profit of their great subsidies, which they pay to the king.

They have here agreed to the transport of contraband goods, as pitch, tar, hemp, and the like, to neutral places, giving security, that they shall not export them from England. In the mean time they are angry, when the Swedes or the Eastlanders do go to neutral places with contraband goods.

There are seventeen men of war gone towards the Elbe, to cruise before or near the Elbe, and to attack the English or Hamburghers, going or coming from or towards the Elbe, so that that good town is in a sad condition, being troubled and vexed by the English; and here they are held almost for enemies, or favouring the English, for they do presuppose, that the English drive no other traffic but towards the Elbe.

They are still equipping in the Texell; but the vice-admiral John Everts doth continue in his humour not to go to sea under the flag of de Witt. The lord of Opdam hath stipulated not to go to sea but with a considerable fleet, as Tromp himself did always maintain and say so, who did likewise take the liberty of himself to come into the Wielingen, when he found himself the weaker.

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Bremen is no manner of way engaged with States General; on the contrary they have received very bad usage from them, so that Bremen doth deserve to be well used by council of state; but the other whereof you write is wholly engaged with States General.

They write, that the lord Chanut is to come hither as ordinary ambassador, in the place of the resident Brasset, who is almost blind.

The alliance formerly begun with France is yet upon the same terms, nothing farther done in it, for that doth wholly wait the event and issue of the treaties, which do depend between this state and England.

The lord Jongestall is returned hither, and they have begun to debate again upon the English affairs, wherein all the provinces have not shewed themselves inclined to follow the resolution and opinion of Holland. I remain

Your humble servant.

A letter of intelligence from Holland.

Vol. vi. p. 265.

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I am sorry to take notice of your indisposition, hopeing per next to heare of your recovery; but I have had my share too, being the effects of inhabiting a watery clymate, otherwise I had beene out of towne now, as I wrote yow in my last, since when I have heard little from the east concerning our adventures there, only that the ships at Dantzigk and Konigsberg were makeing all the haste they could to meete the convoy in the Sound, who were not got thither, but were not farre off, as the last letters say. Wee make noe great doubte of the safe retourne of those ships with the East India and Streights men, for tis reported, dyvers of the English fleete were lost in the late storme, which wee suppose will make the rest very cautious of keeping the sea, especially neare these coastes. Yesterday went out of the Texell seventeen men of warre, to wayte for the English ships comeing out of the Elbe; nay some say, they have order to goe in and take them, haveing laden, as wee hear, great store of pouder and other ammunition, which is soe ill resented here, that one of our burgermasters is to post away speedily for Hamburg, to talke with the states of that citty, seeing wee were formerly denied the like liberty. Therefore they must not take it amisse, if wee make bolde to violate their streames; but if that take noe effect, they are to joyne with de Witt, so that then hee will be about sixty strong, besides twenty more, which are makeing ready in Texell, and five or six from Zeeland and the Mase, under the command of John Everson; but wee hope the fleete will bee at home before these will be ready, though mynheer Van Opdam, the new lieutenant admirall, having beene first at Rotterdam, came hither this day to take his place of president in the court of admiralty, and is now feasted by the lords of that court at the heeren logament, which I believe hee likes a greate deale better then goeing to sea, though hee bee a man of Saui's stature. His next remove will be to the Texell: doubtlesse hee will bee the more wellcome here, being such an anti-prince-man, as hee is noted to bee; however peace would serve our turnes best, especially wee that are merchants, of which some of the most knoweing here speake very confidently, the rather because not only the states of this province are inclincable to it, but they have also sent some rethoricians and logicians, to perswade the stubborne states of Zeeland to it, who have beene hitherto refractory out of theire affection to the prince; and wee are the more confident of obtaineing it, because the interest of England and this province, especially in opposition to him, are soe neare of kin, soe that yow may suddenly expect our two deputies againe with larger instructions. Of this more from the Hague. Wee heare young Tromp is come to Rochell with five or six men of warre and some merchantmen, whom wee expect suddenly through the channell, as alsoe de Boer with the rest out of the Streights, hee being commanded home. One thing I cannot omitte, though it be some time since, that a committee for trade was erected, which wee then feared would have proved very prejudiciall to our state, but wee are glad to see that 'was only nominall, so that wee hope in time those of London will forgett that ever they were merchants. For our part, if wee can but gett our ships home safe from the Sound, wee will be content to sitt still a while, and sing Te Deum laudamus, not else. At present I take leave, and remaine

15 2 /10 53.

Semper idem.

Indors'd by Thurloe, Peterson 21 Sept./3 Octob. 53.

N. Vander Graffe to Beverning.

3 Octob. 1653. [N. S.] p. 358.

My lord,
The assembly of Holland broke up on Sunday last, after they had agreed upon vigorous means to equip with all diligence, and to make such provision for the new lord admiral Opdam, that he may set out to sea with reputation. We hope, that God almighty will so bless him, that he may put an end to this cruel and unchristian shedding of blood. We long for the return of de Witt with his merchantmen. The king of Denmark will likewise assist him with a strong convoy.

We have sent some ships towards the Elbe, for there are some English ships there, that load powder and other ammunition against the contract made with them; and more ships are sending that way. Those of the admiralty begin to equip with vigour, for they begin to have a fight of some monies that are going.

Trade is somewhat dead, but mens hearts are as courageous as ever, and people are willing enough to contribute; so that we are like to prosper.

Enchuysen is made secure by ten companies of soldiers. The affairs are now so very much changed there, that they are now generally for the states.

Mool is amongst the prisoners, and will undoubtedly be punished with death. I have seen attestations to his charge and accusation. I do not well understand the sense of the last part of your letter. I will keep it 'till you come over. If his excellency Cromwell would but once incline to a peace, he would get a great deal of same both far and near; but it seems the time is not yet come to that.

Bisdommer to Vande Perre and Berverning.

Hague, 3 Octob. 1653. [N. S.]

Vol. vi. p. 360.

My lords,
The lord of Opdam went from hence yesterday morning for Rotterdam; and after he had taken possession of the presidial chair in the college of the admiralty, came back hither that night; and for the same end he went to Amsterdam and Hoorne, where he did the like, and is now preparing for the sea, and will not retard his going, if he can help it, being resolved to hasten the equipage all he can. He hath already taken his leave of the lords commissioners of Amsterdam, who have adjourned for the space of three weeks, together with the other members of the lords states of Holland, to whom he declared, that he did not doubt but to set out to sea with the fleet of this state, before they should be met together again.

The vice-admiral John Everts being sent for, and desired to go to sea with the present fleet, that lyeth ready in the Texell, and to go and meet vice-admiral de Witt, did thereupon desire to be excused, alledging here several reasons, which were afterwards deduced more at large by the lords commissioners of Zealand in the assembly.

It being formerly put to the question, whether the hired ships of war in the Mediterranean sea should be paid off, or no; it is resolved and thought fit, that they be continued in the service, and that by provision they shall be commanded by captain Roothaes, to whom a commission and order according to the usual form and custom shall be sent.

The lords states of Guelderland being informed, that at the present general council day of war at Elsen, it was resolved to raise soldiers to put into the towns of Emmerick, Rees, Orsoy, and some others, to reduce them under them and under the empire, have thought fit to send in commission thither, in their name, the lord of Eck. They did likewise desire, that their high and mighty lordships would send one thither also, who instead of sending a commissioner have sent a letter to the commissioners met. It is presumed, that the lord of Eck is to address himself first to the duke of Newburgh and bishop of Munster, as directors of the council.

We do not hear of any English ships upon our coast.

A letter of the Dutch deputies in England.

My lord,
We find ourselves obligied to acquaint their high mightinesses with frankness, that some provision ought to be made concerning the prisoners, or else we fear some bad consequences on that head, a great number of them being no natives of our country, but Germans, Bremeners, Hamburghers, Westphalians, nay even Swedes and Danes, as we daily observe by experience. They talk after a desperate manner, and threaten us to enter themselves in the service of this commonwealth, seeing that they, as they say, are neglected by us. They think that in case any ransom should be mentioned, there would be any hope for their delivery. And although we very much question it, and do not intend to meddle with the consultations of their high mightinesses, yet it is our opinion with submission, that something or other ought to be done to give some satisfaction to the complaints of those people, and if possible, to make the blame fall upon the government here. Our letters are now come to our hand well and duly sealed, and we do not question but the complaints, which we have made, tho' with discretion, to the council of state, have procured us the satisfaction, that for the future we need not fear any such things more. We have enquired as much as possible into the transactions of colonel Wurts, and can find nothing else but that he is sent by the duke of Holstein, according to all appearances to keep a watchful eye on our negotiations, for the interest of the king of Denmark having a great while ago left the Swedish service, as we understand. We will not fail to watch his actions narrowly for the future, as likewise those of Mr. Frisendorff, if he happens to come here. The negotiation of the ambassador of Portugal, which was entirely finished and concluded, seems again to stop in the execution by non-compliance, as we think we are well informed, on the part of Portugal. With the permission of their high mightinesses we have to add, that we every day and by several persons are asked, if there is any likelihood, that in a short time we may be instructed with any further and nearer proposals for an accommodation with this commonwealth; and we hear from several parts, and from people of distinction, who have any knowledge in the affairs, and whom we think may be depended upon, that the parliament as well as the council of state are at present greatly disposed for it, which is well to be minded, as also, that in case of any further delay and suspension of any nearer conferences, our stay here would perhaps not be so favourably looked upon. This day general Cromwell asked us if our letters brought us any further orders. This we have thought our duty to acquaint their high mightinesses withal, if perhaps it might be of any weight in their consultations. With the assurance of our friendly respects we conclude, and are,

My lord,
Westminster, 23 Sept./3 Octob. 1653.

Your sincere friends and servants,
Beverning, Vande Perre.

Vande Perre to de Bruyne, pensionary of the province of Zealand.

Vol. vi. p. 355.

My lord,
Yesterday in the afternoon I received your lordship's of the 27th, whereby I perceived, that the character I sent you is come safe to your hand. I could not likewise see, that yours had been opened. Pray take notice again of the seal of that letter, wherein the character was, whether nothing was broke off it, or that it had been tampered with; that so we may write our secrets to one another, that none may know them, though they should meddle with our letters, which you may manage on your side, and I here, as occasion shall serve; as also to keep me at present out of harm's way. 12. 17. 57. 17. 28. 12. 3. 17. 6. 12. 5. 10. 14. 3. 17. 6. I was glad to see by your letter the resolution of the states of Zealand taken concerning my lord Stockaert, as also the prisoners; and I shall govern myself therein accordingly. I should have been glad to have had copies of them sent me; as also of the resolutions concerning the English affairs, and my lord Beverning's and my stay here.

The negotiation of the Portugal is like to come to nothing, he not performing what he agreed to.

They are busy here to redress the extravagancies in mens and womens apparel.

The lord Whitelocke, ambassador appointed for Sweden, intends to take his journey this month, with a train of seventy persons; and the state doth allow him 1000l. per mensem for his ordinary expences; and is to be transported from hence to Gottenberg, and there are sixteen men of war to attend him thither, and from thence he goes by land to Stockholm. Wednesday came news, that all the great ships were come into the river, there to winter. Most of the fleet in the last great storm have lost their masts, and are so much damnified, that they are not fit for service at present. Some do say, that there are yet forty of their smallest ships upon the coast of Holland. Captain Schellinger, we hear, is dead, who stole away from his guard; and because he could not get over, kept himself hid in the country. Adding only to this, that at present here 7. 7. 17. 24. 7. 6. 7. 14. 12/12. 5. 13. 7. 6. 12. 26. 22. 21. 26. 12. 14. 12. 7. 27. 21. 27. 10. 3. 17. 6. 7. 14. 12. 17. 9. 7. 29. 7. 24. 27. 9. 7. 26. 22. 7. 17. 24. 27. 6. 12. 7. 29. 7. 14. 6. 12. 7. 17. 6. 7. 29. 3. 7. 24. 9. 7. 17. 21. 15. 7. 17. We hear that many of 24. 7. 9. 7. 24. 12. 17. 9. 7. 15. 7. 27. 12. 15. 22. 3. 27. 12. 7. 17. 27. 12. 7. 21. 22. 17. 3. 6. 7. 24. 21. 24. 6. 24. 7. 28. 3. 17. 21. 27. 26. 28. 7. 24. 29. 3. 5. I remain,

Westm. 3 Oct. 1653. [N. S.]

My lord.

An intercepted letter.

Sept. 23, 1653.

Vol. vi. p.334.

I am obliged to give you many thanks for yours of the 26th inst. wherein I finde your care of mee much above my merit; and I assure you nothing more afflicts mee, then this hard part of my misfortunes, that I am uncapable to serve you as I desire; for if I have any thing of honesty in mee, I protest my zeale to your affaires is a greater motive to mee to serve you then any thing of emolument that can possibly arise; soe that if the promises made by your freinds here doe want their effects, I promise you faithfully (as I have done formerly) that I can gaine a subsistance any other way, that will allow mee time to follow that, which you desire, I shall not faile to doe it. And if at any time I have complained to you, I beseech you bee soe favourable to thinke, that I have not done it with expectation of supply from you, but to implore (if I am constrained to recede) that good opinion of mee, if I submitt to necessitie, to which I will not yeild soe long as I have a possibilitie to resist. But to leave apologie, I very much wounder at the letter you mention sent by Doleman; for, to bee plaine with you, I believe you will finde our state have consulted soe much with honour, as not to retract any publique act of parliament; and I am very well assured, that the Dutch will not agree to a peace, unless they may trade as formerly. It is true, I know not what intestine divisions may produce, for indeed they dayly encrease amongst us; and this may happily cause the ruling party (but which that will bee, is yet doubtfull) to make all quiet abroad upon any termes, the better to suppress a violent party at home: such you may call the Anapabtist faction, which in their congregations have decryed all peace with the princes and states of the world (as I have bin curious to heare amonge them) and now strike very violently at the lawes and tithes to demolish them, and after them to abolish the profession of ministery. But this is prudently opposed by the generall and other discreet officers of the army; and as yet it is doubtfull, who will prevaile, there being parties for both in the army; and some male-contents have lately scattered a libell, in forme of an inditement against the generall, for having traiterously and maliciously subverted the laws of the nation and liberties of the people of England, to appeare in armes on the 16th of Oct. next, to vindicate their freedomes. This I was unwilling to hint to you in my last, because I beleived it a frivolous conceit of some single conceited braine; but finding there is strict search made after the contriver of it, I cannot but let you know it, because its believed it may be of dangerous consequence. This is all our newes at present. As to our owne asfaires and the private traffique you heard to bee driven on between Stepleton and Williamson, I have bin very diligent in the disquisition of it; and I have it from one of Williamson's familie (hee noe foole,) that there is noe such thing. And hee protested for his part, hee believed they would never agree. And if any such thing were in agitation, it were only in the breast of Will. Doleston, and Mr. Stevens; but a short time will discover this, for they cannot continue as they are. You may very well wonder, I have not yet satisfied your querie in heraldrie. Really I have followed a master in that familie a long time, and now he is slipt out of towne, but will returne e're long, and then I shall not faile to serve. In the meane time I hope you will entertaine a charitable opinion of mee.

Your most constant,
T. Richards.

I thanke you for the newes in yours of the 19th instant. I have done your commands in it to H. Clatford.

The superscription,
A mons. mons. Jean Stoneham tot de Joufron Cornelia Croulars naest de Witte wan in de schole straet Hague.

An intercepted letter from lord Newburgh at Paris.

Paris, this 4th of Oct. 1653. [N. S.]

Vol. vi. p. 402.

The last night, I receaved all the other letters you promised by your former, which I have delivered and disposed of, according as you have directed. The commodities you expected are part gone, and more will shortly be in readines. I should be glad to heare they were safely landed; it will give us good encouragment to hazard more; but the seas are now so dangerous, and all tradinge so dead, that my partners and I dare scarce venture any more, at least untill that the bills of exchange, you lately returned me, be paid; for yet some scruple is made in the accepting of them, though the banker believes them good; however as yet, his letters of advice are not come to his hands. This letter to Mr. Hewson I shall desire you to read and deliver with your owne hand. I have sent it open; but pray seal and direct it, and desire him to hasten his mony, as he expects his own profitt and the creditt of his and

Your assured true friend,
Will. Carter.

An intercepted letter from lord Newburgh, written in white ink on the back of the preceding. [Oct. 4 1653. N. S.]

Vol. vi. p. 403.

I Have just now receaved all your letters of the 7th, 9th, and 10th of September. Those for Middleton from my lord Balcarres I have sent to him, but I must tell you, that the whyte inck you have used in writing these last letters is so pale, that it will not appeare with the other powder, only the latter part you directed to Moyett is legeable, and the little letter, which you transcribed of my lord Balcarres for the king; but as for particulers you have spoken of, I cannot read a word; and therefore I must desire you to recollect your thoughts, and write it over againe in the same kind with more powder, for formerly your letters were very legeable. That directed to Mr. Huson in the backside theer is a commission to John Hume, for the leavying and comanding of a regiment of horse. The letter to Mr. Davison is for my lord Balcarres from me, and the inside is his majesty's letter, in answer to his long one, which the king has read every word, it being very legeable. I hope it will fully satisfye him, and let him see, that the king never had the least distrust of him, or prejudice by any done him; but on contrary he ever has done and does as much depend upon and trust him, as any subject he has; and really is the thing most troubles the king of any, to see so small a misunderstanding between him and Glencairn, who the king did beleave were his good friends as any two could be. And, sir, send me the comissions to Glencairne, and likewise one to himselfe, to comand untill Middleton's comeing. The . . . has, and with all reason said, that must needs satisfye him, for none of us did beleave Balcarres in a condition to have gone to the feilde. The king has likewise sent to Glencairne, that nothing be wanting on his part for reviving the mutuall and good correspondency, that has been formerly between them. I am sure, they have all enough to doe, and their is a part larg enough for Balcarres to act, if he likes to undertake itt. I hope I need no arguments to you for your endeavouring yourselfe, and employing all other persons and things you beleive can contribute itt. His majesty does earnestly recomend it to your care, as the thing you will do him the best service in. Coll. Drumond is not yet come hether. Tomorrow the king goes to Chantilly, a house of the prince of Condé, to stay about ten dayes. Middleton is making all the hast he can to you, and is in good hopes not to come empty handed. I am,

Your most assured freind
Newbrugh. (fn. 1)

Comend me kindly to John Hume.

An intercepted letter from lord Newburgh, to lord Balcarres. (fn. 2)

Paris, Octob. 4, 1653. [N. S.]

Vol. vi. p. 415.

Good Mr. Davidson,
I Doe heartily thanke you for you most kind letter of August the 19th, which I receaved by this last post with two others for Mr. Kinloch, which though he is at present gone out of this country, I delivered them both to his factor with my owne hand, and he has taken his owne way of answering of them. I cannot but be extreamely troubled at the condition I perceave you are in, and that you and your friends should so much differ in the managing your little stock. Some ill instruments have been betwixt you; else the mistakes could never have been so great. For any stories or misreports of you more then what you have writt your self of them, I do assure you, none here has heard, but on the contrary the person I used to write to at the same times I writt to you, in all letters I ever received from him, spoke of you with as much kindness, and confidence in you as is imaginable, and as of one, with whom he had rather venture his stock then any others. Of late it's true, he hath much regretted the mistakes did happen between you, which he does attribute to some, whom he believes neither wish you nor him good; but of this my master in his, I hope (if it have fortune to come to your hands) will fully satisfye you, and be a means to remove all the differences have bein between you, which he likewise has written to him, that nothing on his part may be wanting. If you come hither, I am sure you will be welcome; but I do confes I do wish, our meeting may be with you; for as times are, I am confident you may both for your selfe and freinds, gaine much more by trading at home. I do assure you, their is not any man alive loves you better then I do, nor shall serve you more faythfully in any way you shall direct me, which makes me, with so much freedom, give you my oppinion, which I hope you will receive so, what use soever you make of it; and be confident it's not in the power of any to prejudice you in the oppinion of those you know did and do so perfectly love you. I hope I need say nothing either to your wife or you for my selfe, being confident you beleave me the same person to you both, I have ever professed, it being impossible for any thinge to chaunge me from being with all perfect kindnes her's and

Your most affectionate faythful servant
W. Carter.

If you continue your resolution of coming, I have so much concerne for you, as to venture this advice to you, which I hope you will keep to yourselfe, and that is, bring not your unckle with you.

Part of a letter of K. Charles II. to lord Balcarres in white ink, the rest being obliterated.

Your constant true friende
Charles. R.

I have commanded Newburgh to transcribe this letter, being my selfe not able to write this way so much.

C. R.

Pray remember me very kindly to your wife.

An intercepted letter from lord Newburgh.

Paris, Oct. 4th 1653. [N. S.]

Vol. vi. p. 404.

I Have this last night receaved yours, and shall not fayle to observe your directions in evening the accounts betwixt you and Mr. Moyett. I have spoken with his wife, and though she does insist upon the interest fully payd with the principall, I doe not doubt, but that I shall bringe her to a reasonable composition, for she is in no very good condition here.

As for those commodities you writt of, let this assure you, I have now sent the best I could at this present get, which I hope will serve for present use, and of the better sort you may have them with the others.

All the news we have here is, that Mareschall Turenne has take Mozon; but the prince of Condé, it's thought, will gett Rocroy in exchange; and this has been this summer's worke between the two great armies. I pray commend me heartily to all friends, and be assured I shall always continue

Your affectionate friend
Will. Carter.

Directed to Mr. H. Hewson.

A commission of K. Charles II. written in white ink, and inclosed in the preceding.

Vol. vi. p. 405.

Charles R.
Charles by the grace of God, king of Scotland, England, France and Ireland, to our trusty and well-beloved colonell John Hume, greeting. Wee reposing speciall trust and confidence in your fidelity, courage, and conduct, do hereby constitute and appoint you the said colonel John Hume, to be colonel of a regiment of horse, within that our kingdome, and we do hereby authorize you to leavy, raise, and arme the said regiment of horse, and to grant commissions to other inferiour officers, and to conduct the said regiment, and therwith to kill, slay, and destroy any of the rebells, and to seise upon any place for our service. And you shall observe such further orders as you shall receive from us and all your superiour officers. Given under our sign mannuall this 4th of October at Paris, and in the fifth year of our reigne.

A letter of intelligence from Paris.

Paris, 4 October, 1653. [N. S.]

Vol. vi. p. 335.

I Received yours of the 25th last month, being come by the post of Tuesday last; but the letters of this day I have not yet, by reason the post is not arrived. I see our fleet is safe, God be thanked, as also that ours are all in peace. By this post you have your letters from Rome, being only arrived here yesterday.

From hence you have at present, that duke d'Aumale, brother to the duke de Nemours killed by his brother the duke of Beaufort, is to be married to madamoiselle de Longueville, and quits all his benefices, and the archbishoprick of Rheims, which he sets in the king's hands, aud the king conferrs the whole upon cardinal Mazarin, upon condition he shall give 400,000 livres to the house de Nemours, to be disposed of as they shall think fit, either to the duke or his sister (being lately brought to bed of a young daughter) which is the reason the said duke quits the church, and takes his brother's place, no male of the house being left but he.

The king, after he parted from Soissons, went to Laon, where he lodged these four days past. Yesterday we received news, that he was to come yesternight to Chantilli within ten leagues to Paris, where he is to stay yet a while, some say, till the end of this month; and then, they say, he will come to St. Germain's, others to Châlons, of which yet no certainty. It's written from court, that his majesty hath gratified mons. Garde de Sçeaux with all the benefices, that mons. de Chasteaneuf had, upon condition he shall give his commission of Garde de Sçeaux into his majesty's hands, which his said majesty intends to confer upon mons. count de Servient, now sur-intendant de finances, whose place is to be given to mons. marshal de Palluau.

His majesty having sent orders hither for the tryal of messrs. Bertault, Aubry, and Ricou, now in the Bastile, (fn. 3) and accused to be sent hither by the prince Condé, or some of his faction, to murder cardinal Mazarin, which when Condé heard of, he writ to the king, desiring him not to put any of them to death by any means, and if he had, he would do the like himself with all the prisoners he has got, not only those, which attempted his own person, but also all prisoners of war he has. Notwithstanding those, which received the orders here, do not leave off to follow the said prisoners process exactly, according the request of the king's procureur, called Berthete who gave his conclusions that they should be condemned to death: by the time we shall see the effect of these doings.

(fn. 4) I have signified you in my former, how the governor of Perigueux was killed by the procureur of the king in the town. The governor's name was count de Chanlo, who as soon as he was killed, the inhabitants rose in arms against the garrison, and turned them out of the city, having killed those, which resisted, and cried out vive le roy; sent for duke Candale, who was then at Bergerac, which the king hearing of, sent for mons. baron de Bougy, one of his lieutenant generals in Guienne, to bring him from thence 3000 men to the army of Flanders, which are expected soon at Chateau-Thierry, where they shall take their rest, and afterwards will march according to their orders to the said army of marshal Turenne.

Young colonel Walsh's regiment marched also the last day within six leagues of this town, going to the said army. Old Preston parted last Wednesday to meet his wife at Abbeville, to bring her to this town, and afterwards he will go to his quarters at Catalonia. The rest of his officers are marching hence this day, with their few number of soldiers, to their quarters in Picardy in the suburbs of Noyon. We have news from Châlons, that mons. counte de Vaubecourt their governour fought a duel with mons. counte de Netancourt, his own cousin; and after the last had disarmed the first, he gave him his life, and now they are good friends. The same letter bearing date the 29th of last month brings, that Mouson held out yet, tho' with much difficulty; also that marshal Turenne was very sad, for the loss of two of his nephews there (fn. 5), the one being son to mons. marquis de Duras called counte de Montgommerie, brother to counte de Duras and Lorge, which are at present in prince of Condés service. I do not know the other nephew's name. Others were killed there too, as mons. marquis de Ravé, baron de Vautourneu, captain of the regiment of the guard, and many others of quality. By an assault the enemies made out and took possession of our trenches for two hours time, but were beaten in again with the loss of sixty reformed officers besides their single soldiers.

From Bretagne we have, that the duchess of Longueville is at present in Bel-Isle, a house that belongs to duke de Retz in Basse Bratagne, and as some say, she intends to go to Normandy to her husband, which some doubt, being out with one another this long while for some some jealousy since her being in Flanders, when Turenne took the Spanish party; you heard the cause before yourself; &c.

The news of yesterday from court brings, that Mouson is at last surrendred, having had no hopes of any relief; and that the forces, that were about Mouson, were marching to relieve Rocroy; but I have it from as sure hands, (fn. 6) that Rocroy was taken before Mouson; and so some of themselves, which would not have it taken, write it. So in any thing, that shall be apparently against us, we shall never receive the truth from court of it, if not by a friend.

I hear certainly from Catalonia, that the siege of Girona is raised, and the French wholly routed, many considerable persons lost, besides their soldiers.

(fn. 7) I have likewise as certain from Turin by sure hands; that the armies of Savoy and Piedmont are beaten by marquis de Caracena, they having endeavoured to oppose the passage of the Spanish army going towards Genoa. The passage is called Tenaro; which the French held a good while, till they lost about two thousand men; then they were forced to retreat, the Spanish army passed and pursued them five or six leagues, till they came to the mountains. They lost about twenty five persons of quality, as gentlemen; captains; and officers, and, as they say, in the whole four thousand men. Caracena lost his lieutenant general of horse, and a captain, with some soldiers. I was promised to see the list, but I am not sure it will be performed; and by a captain that was in the fight, who complains of mons. de Grancéy their commander, who opposed the Spaniards against the council of war's advice.

Mr. Daniel O Neil is going to Flanders: I know not what to do. Sir,

Your humble servant.

King Charles is here still, saying he will soon part hence; either to Holland or Scotland; but I know not when: he is now well in health. We have great hopes here; the Hollander will make no peace with the English, &c.

A letter of intelligence from Brussels.

Brussels, 4th Octob. 1653. [N. S.]

Vol. vi. p. 337.

By this post I have no letters for you from Ratisbon, the reason I know not, for very seldom he misses; but I have seen in some letters come by the last post, that the elector of Cologne presseth much the whole empire to be in arms at this conjuncture of affairs, and it is thought his advice will take; for some designs are in hand. The pretext is most against the duke of Lorrain and his forces in the empire; but that is not the true object. The States General may fear as much as Lorrain or more; so may others, as time will let you see; which is all of worth I hear from Ratisbon by the last letters.

Here all the news we have is, that Rocroy was surrendred to the archduke the last day of the last month; and the first instant his highness entered into it. The garrison had honourable quarter, with colours flying, drums beating; the ordinary quarters; &c. The prince of Condé moved to the archduke; to be governor of the town; to which both the archduke, and Turenne, and count Fuensaldagna yielded; but the garrison is all of Germains. The three princes are all now in Rocroy; and the army near it: what they shall do farther, is not yet determined.

The prince of Condé is troubled with a quarten fever, but desists not for all that, to be very active upon occasion, and cannot be perswaded to retire, whilst the army is in the field. You have had from me long since, how don Antonio Pimentel (fn. 8) was bound from Swedland strait into Spain, in one of that queen's ships: he was at sea; but by the late tempest was forced to return into Gottenburgh, from whence he set sail; and the ship, wherein he was, being disordered by the violence of the storm, her majesty gave order presently to another great ship of war for his transportation into Spain; but before he could be ready to set out again, by land he received a packet from the king his master, requiring him to desist from that journey, and to stay where he was, and negotiate as he did and shall receive instructions.

Mouson is taken by marshal Turenne, which is not welcome news here, but we having Rocroy allayeth that. Of the general truce nothing said since my former; nor else of importance known to

Sir, yours.

Beuningen, the Dutch ambassador in Sweden, to the States General.

Vol. vi. p. 406.

High and mighty lords,
My lords, It hath now clearly appeared (fn. 9), that the taking that resolution of removing the court to Gottenburgh for a while, whereof I advised your lordships in my former letter of the 20th of Sept. was not only done in regard of the pestilence here, but rather for some reasons concerning the management of the affairs of this kingdom; whether it be to watch more narrowly the occasions, which the war with England may produce; or whether through the presence of the queen and her council, the better to promote the projects, which they have had here long since, to make Gottenburgh a notable town for trade and commerce; or also for some reasons, of which there falls variety of discourse. Certain it is, that the plague doth cease, and this week there was not any that dyed of it, and yet there hath been no alteration made in the said resolution; so that notice was given on Wednesday last to foreign public ministers, that her majesty was to depart upon Saturday, the eleventh of this month; but on the Thursday following, when the post was come, there was some doubt made less or more of this journey, and yesterday her majesty did finally resolve to put off her journey, and to remain here; for besides the trouble and charges she must be at in the transporting of her whole court to so far a remote place, it is thought, that the consideration of the loss, which this town would come to suffer through the absence of the queen and her followers, and the inconveniencies, which were foreseen by reason that Gottenburgh is little, and not well provided with all manner of provisions; and also the abundance particular businesses, which are here to be expedited, have contributed much to change their resolution.

I cannot altogether conform myself with those, who do think, that the news which is come this week, how that the ambassy from England to this kingdom is not fully agreed on, hath been of any weight as to this; although that ambassy might have been a reason to have moved this court to have gone to Gottenburgh.

I did also advise your high and mighty lordships in my former advice, that they had resolved here not to put in execution the placart concerning the convoys of Gottenburgh; and in effect the ships, that were designed thither, were stopt; and this was told me by a very good hand, that I had no reason to doubt it. Bat yesterday, one of the ships, that were appointed for the said convoy, received an order to sail to Gottenburgh, and to stay there; which I do esteem the more to be my duty to advise your high and mighty lordships; and if it doth not proceed, I shall farther advise your lordships, for that the execution of this placart, as doth seem to me, doth partly tend to the prejudice of your high and mighty lordships order for the prohibiting of transporting contraband goods into England.

The lord ambassador of Denmark hath received an order last week from the king his master, to expedite an answer to the letter of his majesty concerning the common alliance, and the adjusting and deciding of a dispute, which is between the queen, as duchess of Bremen, and the duke of Holstein, concerning the precedency at the general meeting day; and hath thereupon desired audience, but still deferred, with excuse that her majesty is always busy; who in the mean time hath sent commissioners to his excellency, to enter into conference about the complaints of Denmark, that in regard the Swedish resident doth make some innovation in the Sound, in exhibiting of the port-schedules of all such ships as pass through the Sound, by which occasion the Danish ambassador did desire, that they would deliver the order to the queen, which he had received from his king, and move her majesty for an answer; so that thereupon some resolution is suddenly expected to be taken by her majesty, altho' the deferring of the said audience in a time, when all other foreign ministers have audience, doth argue, that they are not yet fully resolved to declare themselves.

(fn. 10) The lord resident of France contributes by occasion all good offices, which can be expected or required from a minister of an allied crown, to promote the affairs of your high and mighty lordships at this court, with the credit and interest of his master; and hath oftentimes told me, that he hath precise order from the king his master thereunto. And if it shall be found true that, which the queen saith to have been informed from a good hand, viz. that between Spain and England some treaty is on foot, although not known how far proceeded, it is to be presumed, that the interests of France and your high and mighty lordships will go hand in hand here; but whether we shall be able to effect to engage this crown to our advantage, is the more to be doubted, since the queen told the said resident lately, that she was fully satisfied of the proceedings of the English, and had neither reason nor inclination to render herself partial against them.

The three ships, that were loaden with great guns, are kept here in the river through contrary winds; and that which was loaden at Nieucopping was set sail from thence, before I writ my last to your high and mighty lordships.

The lord chancellor is not yet come to town; and it is thought, that his excellency will now not come to the court in a long while, since he excuses himself by reason of his age and indisposition, not to be in a capacity of officiating any longer.

The lord Magnus is come hither again, and received by the queen with many marks of favour.

High and mighty lords,
Stockholm, 4 Octob. 1653. [N. S.]

C. Van Beuningen.

A letter of intelligence from Holland.

The 4th October, 1653. [N. S.]

Vol. vi. p. 344.

The lieutenant admiral Opdam is at present in Amsterdam, having been there two days feasted in the heeren logiment by the lords of the city; and there is a letter sent from the States General to the particular towns for a general day of fasting and prayer to be holden every week as follows:

"The States General of the United Provinces have thought good; for divers good reasons and considerations, to change the present weekly day of prayer, that useth to be kept only the half day, into a day of fasting and prayer, which shall be holden the whole day in all the United Provinces and associated lands, cities, and members thereof, which shall be every Wednesday from five to five weeks, to begin on Wednesday come sevennight, being the eighth of this next October new style; which that it may be effected and observed; so serve these presents, to the end your worships timely do publish the same at the place, where usually such publications use to be done, forbidding that day all kind of handywork, trading, drawing of any kind of drink, tennis court play, or other playing with balls or any such kind of exercises, upon such penalties, as are thereunto ordained. Praying also that the French and English churches may be advertised thereof in the cities, where they are; whereupon we do confide.

"Hague, 26/16 Sept. 1653.

H. Van Beaumont, 1653."

Lieutenant admiral Opdam hath accepted of the admiralship at sea, upon the same terms that admiral Tromp had the same; whereupon the same day some deputies from the states of Holland went with two coaches to his house to congratulate him, and the 24/14 September he received the confirmation thereof in the assembly of the States General; to whom he took the oath of faithfulness; whereupon they wished him joy of the place, and we believe he will go suddenly to sea with a good fleet.

(fn. 11) This admiral hath long served his country at land, and we hope shall do with good success at sea, tho' he hath never yet been at sea; yet no exception can be taken thereat, seeing neither Blake, Monck, nor Penn were seamen, but brought up to land-service, and yet have behaved themselves very manfully at sea to give them their due, &c.

The assembly of the states of Holland parted last Sunday for about fourteen days time.

Last Monday admiral Opdam was at Rotterdam, and there sate the first time for president of the admiralty.

The vice-admiral Jan Evertson is at present in the Hague, who also goes to sea with the next fleet.

Letters from Denmark advise, that our fleet with Witt Cornelius de Witt were safely arrived in the Sound: the men of war lay at Flecker on that side of Norway, and the merchant ships in the Sound; so that we may expect them home with the first good wind; and some believe still the king of Denmark will send fourteen or fifteen of his best ships to convoy them home.

The sentence given the 30th September upon the captains that are prisoners, is,

That captain Houlthuyn shall be three times drawn under the keel of the ship, and pay 1000 guilders for a penalty, and be put all his life into the work-house.

Hendrick, the lieutenant of captain Strick, shall be drawn three times under the keel of the ship, and stand with a halter about his neck, and be put twenty years into the tucht-house, or workhouse.

Captain Jan Clye, the halter about his neck and his sword broken, a kick in the breech, and to pay besides six hundred guilders for a penalty, and declared a rogue.

Captain Pereboom put out of his place, pay a penalty of six hundred guilders, and be put four years into the work-house.

The lieutenant of captain Huykes to stand with a halter about his neck, and three years in the workhouse.

Captain Henricke Claissen Van Etrick put out of his place, and pay a penalty of two hundred guilders.

Captain Giles Tyssen condemned to pay two hundred guilders.

A Zealand captain condemned to pay an hundred and fifty guilders.

Captain Poppe Banckes condemned to pay an hundred guilders.

Captain Bruyushvelt condemned to pay thirty guilders.

The states of Holland and West-Friesland have published a proclamation against the meeting together of the Socinians and their teachers; as also against the printing and selling of Socinian books, upon great penalties, as is more at large to be seen in the act itself.

From Texell they write, that there lay thirty five men of war almost ready to go to sea; also a private man of war of thirty guns to go out with the first wind; and 'tis said, two private men of war more are to go down to the Texell, and then all three to go out together.

From Flushing were also three private men of war gone to sea, who will do much hurt abroad.

At Cadiz in Spain were arrived out of the Streights fourteen Hollands men of war, and were in two or three days to take their voyage towards Holland, and in the Streights remained still twelve men of war, under the command of the young Boer of Enckuysen.

The second instant there went seventeen men of war out of the Texell, under the command of John Gidionson, to meet if possible the ships coming from the Sound, and other merchant ships that are laden and coming from Hamburgh. There is a business hatching between the states and the king of Denmark about hindering all trade between England and Hamburgh; to which end either a fort must be built upon the river of Elbe, or the king of Denmark must for a time upon conditions give the town of Gulicke into the states hands; which by some is thought may be brought about well enough, and some say, 'tis agreed on already.

Some great ones also insinuate, as if there would be some great enterprize against England e'er long, when the fleet from the Sound be but safely arrived; which shall be convoyed home with fourteen of the king of Denmark's men of war.

Opdam I believe goes not to sea 'till the men of war be come from the Sound and other places, and de Boer with his squadron out of the Streights, who are already come as far as Malaga.

Young Tromp is also to come home; which will be some thirty ships together. And there is orders to have some fifty new built men of war against the spring; and if Opdam goes not to sea before, 'tis thought he will have a fleet of an hundred and fifty men of war at least.

To raise money 'tis now thought the states will pitch upon this course; namely, every one throughout these lands shall give the thousandth penny of their estates every year. Then they will take up money upon life-rents, that is, he that shall give 100l. to the states, shall have 10 or 14l. a year for the same, as long as he lives; and this life-rent shall be paid with the thousandth penny upon all estates, which is supposed will bring in a world of money.

'Tis strange to see, how willing the people are to bear all these great burdens for the war against England; but if the people once again break out against them, that are in government, woe be to them.

I wonder much what the two ambassadors do in England. I doubt they lay some ill correspondence with ill affected persons against England. Myself heard one of the lords say here, their deputies in England did them better service, than ten thousand men in arms. I wish England may consider it, and look well about them.

Here are also 5000 pistols, with saddles, &c. sent for Scotland, to arm so many horse, and a working apace, if possible, to set England in a flame.

Two millions of silver are arrived at St. Maloes in France from Spain, and do wait for the men of war, that are to come from the Streights that way, to carry the ships, that have it, home to Amsterdam.

The news, that the English fleet were gone into their havens again, doth much rejoice them here; and here is William Davidson the Scotsman and some others do mightily correspond with the king of Scots, &c.

Here are so many hundred thousands of mice upon the lands as is incredible. 'Tis a very great plague, for the pastures are spoiled by them. By Wesop was a mouse-hole digged, in which was found three bushels of buck and corn, a wonder we never heard before; and there are so many, that the holes in the fields are like to coney-holes; and when we pour water into them, there come out seven or eight hundred, yea a thousand mice at once. Which is all at present, &c.


  • 1. See Clarend. vol. iii. p. 226. 349.
  • 2. See Clarend. vol. iii. p. 397, 420.
  • 3. Prlorato Hist. du Cardin. Mazarin. tom. ii. p. 182. Hist. of France, p. 546.
  • 4. Ibid. p. 137, 138. and his Hist. of France. lib. x. p. 533. 534.
  • 5. D. of York's Mem. 423.
  • 6. Turenne Mem. 122. D. York's Mem. 425. Priorato. Hist. du Mazarin. tom. ii. 168. 173.
  • 7. Hist. of France. 548.
  • 8. Chanut. Mem. tom. iii. p. 233.
  • 9. See Chanut. Mem. tom. iii. p. 240, &c.
  • 10. Ibid. tom. iii. p. 249.
  • 11. See Vie de Ruyter, p. 44.