A Collection of the State Papers of John Thurloe, Volume 2, 1654. Originally published by Fletcher Gyles, London, 1742.
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March (1 of 5)
A letter of intelligence from Paris.
De Paris, le 11/1 de Mars, 165¾.
Vol. xii. p. 5.
L'Emprisonement du duc de Lorraine, dont j'eus l'honneur de vous faire mention samedy dernier en ma depesche precedente, a esté depuis confirmé par toutes les lettres de Flandres, & ainsi celuy qui trompoit les autres s'est trouvé trompé. L'archiduc Leopold en a aussitost aprez faict publier un manifeste, ou en attendant qu'il soit convaincu de ses trahisons, on le taxe d'avoir merité cette punition par l'inhumanité de ses comportemens envers les voisins alliez du roy d'Espagne; sur lesquels il auroit exercé des violences & cruautez innouies, &c. Il se trouvé icy tres peu de personnes, qui le regrettent, & si on le plaint à la cour, ce n'est qu'a cause des services, qu'il devoit rendre à la France dans cette occasion, aiant promis, comm'on m'assure, outre ce que j'ay dit en ma precedente, delivrer St. Omer & St. Venant au roy, & puis venir joindre avec ses troupes l'armée de son majesté: mais ses desseins ont avorté, & l'on croit mesme, que desja sa soldatesque à tourné casaque, & s'est rangée souz Mons. le prince par le moyen de quelque argent, qu'il a receu pour leur donner. Ce prince à aussy achepté 4 regimens de Picolomini, de forte qu'on tient qu'il aura une armée considerable cette campagne pour la commander à sa volonté; dont il est a craindre pour cette cour, qu'elle se trouvera surprise a cause de la negligence, qu'elle a tesmoigné jusqu'icy aux recrües & levées necessaires, pour fortifier celle du mareschal de Turenne, sur l'esperance qu'elle avoit aux belles promesses dudit prisonnier, ne s'imaginant pas que les Espagnols pûssent mettre la main sur un prince pretendu souverain, & d'autant plus considerable, qu'il sembloit estre a craindre par ses trouppes; pour lesquelles gagner avec plus de facilité, l'archiduc Leopold a faict, dit on, venir de Vienne en Flandres le prince Francois de Lorraine, pour approuver, ce qui s'est faict, & ramener a leur devoir les esprits, qui pourroients'envir estre cabrez.
On parle tousjours du facrédu roy; mais plusieurs lecroyans misterieux dans ce rencontre, auquel la trahizon dudit due devoit esclorre, sont d'opinion, que le cardinal Mazirin ne se hastera plus en cette despense; & j'apprens que dez a present elle est remise aux festes de la Pentecoste, qui ne font que dans 4 mois: Cependant ledit cardinal accelere ses alliances, & s'appuye le plus qu'il peut.
Dimanche le marriage du grand maistre de l'artillerie fut accordé dans le cabinet de la royne, presente avec le roy, entre le mareschal de la Meilleraye son pere, sa eminence, le prince de Conti, & les dues de Vendosme, d'Espernon, & de Candale, & se doit consommer en fort peu de jours.
Il y en quelque petit different de jalousie entre la semme du prince de Conti, & une autre des niepces de mons. le Cardinal sur ce celle–cy ne rendoit pas a l'autre les respects dûs a une princesse de fa qualité, & la traictoit trop famillierement.
Lundy les esleus de Paris cassez avec tous les autres du royaume par la declaration que vous aurez sceu, aprez avoir fait leurs plaintes aux principaux ministres d'estat de sa majesté, les porterent aussy a ce parlement, qui print l'affaire en consideration, & resolut de s'assembler en corps cejourd'huy matin pour en deliberer d'autant plus serieusement qu'elle touche toutes les autres jurisdictions de France a cause de la consequence, si on en pouvoit dissoudre une en violant leurs privileges pretendus. J'apprens, que l'intention du dit cardinal a esté seulement de faire peur aux dits esleus par ladit declaration, & les obliger de payer quelque notable somme d'argent auroy; mais on ne croit pas, qu'ily reuisse sans bruit.
Un chanoine du chasteau de Vincennes fut amené il y a quelques jours prisonnier a la Bastille, pour avoir este l'instrument & entremetteur de quelque communication par lettres, qu'on a descouverte entre le cardinal de Retz & ses amis & adherans.
Les deputez de ceux de la religion preparent icy des nouvelles batteries contre le parlement de Toloze, en attendant que le marquis de Malause (allié depuis quelque temps avec le Mareschal de Turenne) & un autre aussy envoyé du haut Languedoc arrivent pour les appuyer. Une de dernieres lettres de Bourdeaux porte en ces termes que les protestants qui estoient tous par le passé si fort devouez au service du roy, declaroient alors hautement que si on continuoit a les opprimer, comm' on fait, ilz estoient certains de trouver de l'amityé & du secours en la bonté & pieté de S. A. my lord protecteur O.
La fille d'une dame de la religion retinüe dans un convent par stratageme, comme je croy avoir eu l'honneur de vous dire par mes precedentes, ayant derechef comparu au barreau du parlement de Paris aux instances du sieur de Ruvigni, deputé general desdits protestans, & ayant advoué publiquement, qu'elle avoit este subornée, & qu'elle vouloit vivre & mourir de la religion de sa mere, elle a enfin este mise en liberté, & hors dudit convent par arrest de la cour suivant les loix & edicts de S. M.
Les Stuarts ne bougent point encore de la taniere du palais royal, quoyque l'on m'assuré tousjours, qu'ils que s'en dovent aller, leur vray dessein seroit d'aller l'un en Angleterre, l'autre en Escosse, & l'autre en Irland: mais leurs affaires sont si descoupies, qu'ils changent a toutes les heures de resolutions, en attendant l'issue de la paix des deux republiques. Nouvelles viennent d'arriver de Breda, que l'ambassade des estats generaux estoit repartie pour Londres, dont il y a grand joye ici parmi ceux de la religion.
Captain Robert Halle to Mr. Alexander Griffiths.
Vol. xi. p. 333.
On sunday last the 26th of February, Jon Williams preached at New Radnors church, in the presence of Walsham, sheriffe, Vautie, King, Yarley and Weaver, justices, and the greatest audience that ever was seene there, where he stormed many out of the church, railing much against the present times and government, as is generally reported by many that heard him; but for the particulars, there are sew that will relate them fully and expresly, for feare to suffer here, or to be called up to testifie there. And we have noe magistrate to inforce their examination; onlie these passages are publickly spoken, and we beleive, will be sufficientlie proved; viz. You must have a protector, and ministers, to be druncke together. You have a protector to protect you in slaverie and poperie. If we had knowne so much a sewe yeares agoe, we would have prevented him from being protector. And you shall have ministers, but you shall not enjoy them long, nor they you.
These, or words altogether to these purposes, I am consident will be proved; and truly, if a speedie course be not taken to alter our chiese officers, it is feared, that we shall enjoy nothing ere long; for it is generally suspected here, that they will verie suddenlie fall upon some dangerous designe; for they doe endeavour mightilie to strengthen and incourage one another both in private and publick, and there is no visible power to prevent or suppresse them. Va. Powell came to them the same sunday after, or in Williams his sermon, and preached more modestly, but urged persevearance to the death in publick; and at their private devotions (which lasted all night in Tom. Tudman's house) it will be attested by one, that over–heard them, that he wished his separation not to feare proclamations; for they were but fables. There have bin divers smale parties of their accomplices observed lately to meete well armed at Kingston and elsewhere. And it is said, that Va. Powel hath bin with our sheriff co assist him with his posse; and that he hath killed three horses with riding (moste by night) to procure friends to make the hue–and–cry a lyer, and to strengthen his partie, and confirme his adherents. And it may appeare by this inclosed, that he is not altogether unprovided; for he dares not come in the fight of his highnesses souldiers, who have offered monies lately to be informed of his meetings.
It seems some of their runners are wearied of that way; for they are setting downe in
severall parishes, by virtue of the act for propagation. It is thought to hinder the parishes
from petitioning for orthodox ministers. Sir, there is no more at present from him, that
is your servant in order unto the truth,
The 2d of March, 1653.
Robert Holle (fn. 1).
To Mr. Alexander Griffiths, my verie good frend,
at Mr. John Gunter's chamber in Clifford's
Inn, these, I pray.
Mr. Charles Roberts to Mr. John Gunter.
Vol. xi. p. 343.
I have receaved your letters. As for the quarter sessions, I can assure you, that you have a very true relation, that none that were eye wittnes to the same can deney. This alsoe I can justifie, that William Watkins, T. W. E. G. and J. Williams the sheriffe lest upon wednesday on the quarter sessions their service there, to hear Morgan Lloyd his seditious and dangerous sermons against his highnes the lord protector, perswadeing the people, that there would bee alterations shortly, and that his highnes (giveing him all the contemptible words that can bee spoaken) were not the person, to doc the worke, but that Harrison would be the man. His teaching (as I take it) was before the ordinance of his highnes to tell what was treason, and what else I could informe you, and that truly, of such passages, that would have deserved hanginge to him and all his seditious auditors. But I forbeare, since I perused the act; yet notwithstanding in private they teach strange thinges, and are still in a seeming opposition to his highnes. This faction is in power, and in all commissions in the countrie; soe that they rule the roast, and give life to the faction, that they seeme not to beleive but the parliament is sittinge. We must expect here nothing else until his highnes be pleased to take into consideration our condition, and to put those out of commission, that intends to bringe a ruine upon this nation, if they can. One of the faction said openly, that he had rather Charles Stuart should come in, then be subject to his highnes; and John Williams, a late parlement man, said in his sermon openly these words, Whatdoe you want nowe, a kinge ? You have one, and that as great a tirant as the former. Whether this was spoken since the said ordinance or noe, I will certifie you by my next. Here is great complaint in this county, and the rest of the countys adjacent, that by the meanes of Harrison, all the honestest, ablest and most understanding gentry, are put out of commission; soe that there be great complaints in the unequall taxing of the contribution every where, by reason the persons in power (who are Harrison's faction) who will give relief to none, but ease their owne party. There is a petition intended to his hignese in the behalfe of those gentry, that are putt out of commission, to have them in for the good of the countries, and whoe are of upright spirit and affection to his highnes. I shall speede with all the hast I may to London, and then I shall committ more to your memory than I am able to expresse: in the interim I commend you to God, and am yours affectionately,
For Mr. John Gunter at Clifford's Inne, London.
A letter of intelligence.
Ratisbon, 12 March 1654. [N. S.]
Vol. xii. p. 413.
Yours weekly come to me, and sometimes I write not, having nothing new to write; but be sure, when any thing is fresh, you shall have it, if I can. They are at this court with child, and cannot be delivered, till they know what the treaty betwixt England and the states general shall produce. Many censures are passed; and business is here suspended for the conclusion, be it peace or war. The emperor calls to all those, that he thinks receive letters from England, and so do divers other princes of the empire, of what news; and divers letters bring divers stories, so that we know not what to believe; but because mine were hitherto truest, they yet retain more credit than others; so I pray what you write may be truth, and no more. Your opinion, that the treaty is finished, and only to be ratified by the states general, if confirmed, will preserve much the credit of your letters.
R. Carolus his business, I assure you, is in eodem termino as yet, as you had in my former letters, and like to be so till we receive here the certainty of the conclusion of your peace or war with Holland; so is the gentleman's journey intended for Rome, as I writ to you long since. In summa, there is no more done, whatever is said or written to the contrary, by any, than what you had in the former letters.
Count de St. Amour arrived here last week in the archduke Leopold's name, who, after he had told to his imperial majesty the imprisonment of the duke of Lorrain, parted the same day in post to Vienna, to visit duke Francis of Lorrain, and to invite him to his brother's army, to command them, as the said brother did, or at least ought to do. The same day the news of Lorrain's committal being brought to all the diet, they were every–where very much pleased at it, hoping by that means, that the Lorrain troops should hereaster cause no further distempers or troubles in the empire.
The states here have given answer to the emperor's orders concerning the end of the diet to be the 20th of April next, to conform their minds and conclusions to his imperial majesty; in conformity also to which they labour every morning, till eleven of the clock or more; and in the afternoon, till eight a clock of night; notwithstanding it is thought they cannot finish all till at least the beginning of May next; and it is much then, if all can be completely done.
The point of justice touching the reformation of the imperial chamber at Spire is now near ended.
They continue at Vienna the raising of 2500 foot for the Milanese, and not doubted they shall be ready for this campaign.
The diet of the Lower Saxony continues still at Hamburg; there are deputies there from Sweden.
Of Poland we hear nothing lately, and so we fear things are not well there; for we
should have the news, were they good. You have no more at this time from, Sir,
Regensborgh, 12th March, 1654. [N. S.]
Vol. xii. p. 332.
The emperor's departure remains determined on the 20th of April next. The states in the mean while are very forward in their meetings, and absolving of businesses. Monday last the four new princes, namely, Solm, Dietrichstein, Picolomini and Averspergh were by his highness our prince elector, in the name of his imperial majesty, personally introduced into the princely rix college, where the rix marshal, lord Papenheim, did shew them their respective places, which immediately they possessed. The point of justice is now fully resolved, and the Vechtish business propounded, which would easily be brought to the like perfection, if the restant moneys were but ready.
Mr. Charles Longland to secretary Thurloe.
Vol. xii. p. 18.
The other two Dutch men of war, which my former told you wer at sea, and therefore could not be disbanded or discharged out of that states servis, ar since coming at Toulon there discharged; so thes seas ar clear of Dutch men of war, but the French still each what they can. Two English ships are fallen into theyr hands, the one it seems fouht with them five houers; for which reson, it seems, when they took her, they put al the men to the sword; a cruel act. I hope 'twil be revenged on that nation both by God and man. The Dutch hav this week received the articles of peace with England, printed at the Hague the 19th of February, being 29 in number, which is strange, being all our letters from England make the peace doubtful. I am,
Legh. 13 March, 1653. [N. S.]
Your humble servant,
A letter of intelligence.
[13 March, 1653. N. S.]
Vol. xii. p. 55.
Many of their men of warr are already fallen down toward Texell, and the commissioners of the admiraltye on monday last gave order, that the worckmen should labour all night as well as day uppon these shipps yet preparinge, which maye be ready the next week; so soone as they are ready, they are dispatcht away with all speed, though not one ship man'd. Most have not above 12 or 20 men aboarde. This weeke the drum shall beat for men, that their fleet be manned with all speed, which I cannot beleive be done in les then * * * months tyme. They would be put to't for men, but that many entertaine service in hopes of a peace. As I conjecture, the reason of this sudden preparation was upon a flying report, that your fleet was designing for the Sound. They will send a convoye with their East India ships outward bound, and a fleet for the Strayts, to keep the French and the Turcks in, and will have a fleet in readines about home. All this must be done out of the number I sent you the list of. Their Eastcountrey fleet of 150 sayle, are arrived here. It is now the season to send out merchant men for all parts, many are ready; but attend on the conclusion with you. A ship, that went with Middleton, is returned hither, sayes he is safely arived, and brings news that you are all beaten; but (thankes be to God) * * * tells me the contrary. There is another ship with armes and amunition going from Amsterdam thither. All their businesse is done by one William Davison, a Scotchman, living at Amsterdam, who is and hath bin very averse against us from the beginning. It will be proper such may be taken notice of. * * * * that Ch. Stewart was gone with Middleton, which I contradicted, and he desired me to be silent, because he said it would be for their advantage. I do not heare where Ch. Stewart is; but 14 days since he signed * * * * * Paris letters for Walker to carry to the D. of Brand. * * * and therewith sends him the garter. There hath bin a booke put out against his highnesse, which the magistrates have forbidden to be sould, and a penalty sett on the maker, if founde out. Thus you have what is needfull. I am
A letter of intelligence from the Hague.
13th of March, 1654. S. N.
The embassadors of this state were yet on friday last in Zealand; but the next day the wind came about, and the wind fair, and continued so for three days; so that there is no doubt made, but that they are got over. Men do nothing else here but expect the glad tidings of the conclusion of the peace; for in effect they do equip and prepare here very modestly, to the end they would not offend or provoke; wherein privately and underhand it is said, that they did commit a great error in the year 1652. by making so much noise and stir in proclaiming of the great number of ships of war to the number of 150, which they were resolved to set forth here, and this on purpose to frighten the English the more. This was also insinuated and signified by the embassador of this state, being then in England, to the parliament or council of state; but now Holland will shew, that they make no doubt of the peace, and will therefore make no great shew or countenance of equipping; and yet notwithstanding (which God forbid) that they should fail of peace, they will strain to get forth to sea a very powerful fleet. In my foregoing I told you, that the prince of Hanault did also desire to be included in the treaty; and since that, the duke of Holstein hath desired the same. There is yet nothing resolved upon the one or the other; but they will do it some time or other.
The lords de Witt and Mulardt have been to see the embassador of France, and have given him an answer, and a compliment only by word of mouth, because that he did also pass his last office by word of mouth to the president and the said lord de Witt, which did only consist in thanks and protestations of amity, good affection, sincere intentions, &c. which is such a catholicon, whereof the world doth make great use at present to serve their turns.
The lieutenant general Middleton, according to some certain news that the courts have here, is arrived and landed near Aberdeen. Those that are with him are most officers, or are to serve for officers, being about 200 in number. He hath some few arms and ammunition also with him, but not much; yet all that being carried from home will, without doubt, a little offend and distaste the English. The princess royal, with the young prince, do still keep in the country at Teylingen, where she is visited by the old officers and soldiers; and if the peace be concluded, as there is great likelihood, I believe the said princess will fee herself yet more neglected.
Webster, a rich English merchant at Amsterdam, and such others, are now making ready to leave Holland, and intend to go and live in Brabant or elsewhere, fearing that they shall be driven out of Holland. At Amsterdam they have shewn within these 40 days great diligence to equip and prepare for the war, upon report and noise, that the English have a design upon the Sound; and the people begin to murmur for being lulled asleep upon the hopes of a peace.
Men do also perceive, that Holland grows more and more jealous of the treaties of negotiations of the lord Whitelocke in Sweden; and besides that, having at present almost all the commerce of the Baltrick sea, which is the foundation of all commerce and navigation, they would fain keep it to themselves, exclusive of all others. Yea, there are some, that are of opinion, that Sweden would do ill to inlarge and increase their navigation; but as hitherto the Hollanders abounding in ships have carried their ships into Sweden, Livonia, Prussia, Pomerania, all that they wanted, and transported from thence the fruits growing in Sweden, Livonia, Poland, Pomerania; so likely the peace being concluded at present, Sweden, Livonia, Prussia, Poland, &c. ought to be quiet, and leave all that navigation, trade and commerce, to the Hollanders alone. And when they do perceive, that Sweden will increase their navigation, and transport, and trade with their own fruits, that is taken here presently to be done out of malice, spleen, or envy; that Sweden doth bear ill will or rancour to Holland; and from thence it comes to pass, that Holland doth now also endeavour to make a treaty with Poland; and they will do their best to stir up that king and commonwealth against Sweden, and to hinder and cross Sweden in their designs of increasing their trade and navigation with the English; for the English being rich and powerful at sea, may with the Swedes take a great part or share in the Baltick trade. It doth appear, that the duke of Lorrain had some private designs with the French against the Spaniards; for Orange party here, who formerly spake worse than hanging of that duke, at present speak ill of the Spaniards, who have imprisoned him, saying, that he is a sovereign prince, and nowise depending upon Spain. Item, the French here say, that they searched the daughter of the said duke very uncivilly, to take from her jewels of the duke, which she had hid about her. In short, the duke was never taken for an–honest man here than since his imprisonment.
They are here also ready to put in execution the resolution for taking of turns of presidentship in the Chambre mipartie. Guelderland doth pretend and desire, that it may be annual; but it would be a long time first, before it come to the turn of the last provinces.
Chanut, the French embassador at the Hague, to Bordeaux the French embassador in England.
Hague, the 13th March 1654. [N. S.]
I just now received your letter, which you were pleased to write to me of the 16th of this month; whereby I perceive the surprize of Mons. de Beverning upon the advice of the office, which I was commanded to pass, and which you had great cause to call necessary; for afterwards, if that had passed, if the success of your negotiation had produced a peace, the lords the states general, who have us in no consideration, would have attributed the honour thereof to themselves, as if their interposing had affected the business. In the mean time, it is true, that the affairs of the king are, God be thanked, in a condition, that he may treat of a peace himself, without being reduced to unequal terms by the apprehension of a war. I was ordered to tell the states general, that you were charged to assist and further the near negotiation of their ministers. They were made to believe here, throughout all the town, that the treaty was concluded. Now that they know the truth, they are afraid, that the lord protector will have no peace with us. Wherefore they do conceive, that if there be not a peace with us also, their commerce will suffer very much. I shall hereafter expect your letters with much impatience. The Spaniards have no other course or game to play to save themselves, but to embroil us with England. No doubt but they will assault you to that purpose with all the devices that may be.
Extract of the resolutions of the states of Holland.
13/3 March, 1654/1653.
The states having received a letter from Valerius Franciscus, sent as from the lord of Amelandt of the 22d of February, O. S. in answer to a letter of their N. and M. H. of the 27th of February, N. S. concerning the said Valerius his mission into England; after deliberation, their N. and M. H. disapproved and disallowed the quality, authority, and power, which the said lord Valerius assumed to himself in his letter; and also resolved, that when the answer shall come, which is expected by their N. and M. H. upon their letter, that then the matter shall be so guided, and ordered, on the part of their N. and M. H. that the said lord of Amelandt shall have a serious return to abstain for the future from any the like deputations.
The Dutch embassador in England, to the states general.
H. and M. Lords,
By our last we gave your H. and M. L. notice of our arrival at Dover. This morning we were fetched up from Gravesend by the master of the ceremonies, with five or six gentlemen, and eight barges, and carried to Tower–wharf, and there received by the lords Pickering and Strickland, together with the lord Claypole, son–in–law, and master of the horse to his highness; and after some reciprocal compliments had passed on both sides, we were conducted into the coach of his highness, with six horses, accompanied with twenty–five other coaches with six horses, and some thirty or forty more with four and two. At our coach sides attended some ten or twelve footmen of his highness. All the streets, on both sides, were full of people all the way, who did bless us with many acclamations; whereby we could easily perceive the inclination of the people; and thus we were brought to Sir Abraham Williams's house at Westminster, and this day at noon we were very nobly entertained. We sent immediately this afternoon a memorandum to his highness, and a letter to Mr. secretary Thurloe, to have audience, if it were possible, to–morrow; and we do intend that for a complimental congratulation, and so to order our business, that we may be ready to confer on monday upon the adjusted articles, which we have delivered in; and we will not omit one hour, till that, by God's blessing, the business be finished; whereof we shall advertise your H. and M. L. from time to time, keeping that to end the ketch, that brought over a packet of letters lately.
Westminster, 3/13 March, 1654.
H. and M. L.
Beverning, Nieuport, Jongestall.
Jongestal to his Excellency William Frederick Grave William, stadtholder and captain general of Friesland.
Westminister, 3/13 March, 165 ¾.
High–born Earl, and gracious Lord,
In my last of the 26th from Dover, I did advise, in all humility, your excellency of our hasty, but dangerous passage. The next day we went from thence to Canterbury, and from thence to Gravesend, where the master of the ceremonies brought us word, that they did expect us the next day at London. As far as I can gather by the rest of my consraters, the business of the prince of Orange will do well enough. I will do my best about it. The lord Beverning tells me, that he hath delivered in the articles to the council of his highness, according to the intention of their H. and M. L. and that we shall soon have an end; but time will reveal and tell us all things. I cannot advise your lordship of any particulars, not having any longer time to write, the post being ready to depart.
Jongestal to the states of Friesland.
Westminster, 3/13 March, 1654/3.
H. and M. Lords,
This day the 3d of March, we were received at London with great solemnity and demonstration of friendship, with about seventy or eighty coaches. As we rid through the streets, several people cried, God bless the lords embassadors! God send us peace! and such–like words more; whereby we perceive, that the people here are much inclined to peace. Near the Old Exchange, as we passed by, I saw a Spaniard lying upon his face in the dirt, with a pater–noster in his hand lifted up, crying aloud, God bless the king of Spain! which was not taken notice of. The lord Beverning hath told me, that he hath delivered in to the council of his highness the articles in writing, according to the intention of their H. and M. L. but as yet, hath received no answer to them; so that I hope we shall soon have an end of this troublesome business.
Whitclocke, embassador in Sweden, to the protector.
Vol xii. p. 141.
May it please your Highnesse,
I returne you my most humble thankes for the care of your servant, and for the great favour of your highnesse letters, which I received this weeke, wherunto I shall faithfully conforme myselfe, and obey your highnesse commaunds in all thinges within my poore power. I likewife humbly present my thankes for your highnesse favour in the buisnes, wherin you were pleased to give leave to my wife to waite uppon you, whoe doth likewise acknowledge herselfe much bound to your highnesse, as I doe. My buisnes heere continueth att a stand, and so is like to doe, untill the issue be knowne of the treaty betweene England and Holland, and whether your highnesse permitt the Dane to be included in the treaty, which they reporte heere is done, with mutch other newes, as formerly they were accustomed to doe; butt after my letters are come, they are silent. Whatsoever Mr. Beuningen is pleased to write, they have not yett found me in an untrueth. The perticulars of this weeke, I have given an account of in my letters to Mr. secretary Thurloe. I beseeche your highnesse to make use of the water on the other lease of this letter.
Upsale, March 3. 1653.
Your highnesse most faithfull and most humble servant.
Whitelocke to secretary Thurloe.
Vol. xii. p.145.
Monsieur Piemontell, the Spanish resident, visited me on saturday last, and informed me, that he had received letters from Don Alonzo de Cardenas ambassador in England from the king of Spaine, in which he was desired to testifie all respects to me, as alsoe to make me proffers of his service, with many other compliments; after which he was pleased to shew me a coppie of a letter, which Mons. de Beuningen had writ to Holland concerninge the designe the queen of Sweden had to quit the government. He alsoe told me, that his master had comanded his returne, and that he intended to departe hence assoone as he could conveniently, which he hoped would be in a few weeks.
Mons. Chanut havinge been formerly with her majesty in the quality of an ambassador, and lately understanding, that she was resolved to quit the government, had sent a letter wherein he endeavoured to disswade her from it, to whome she lately returned an answere, a coppie of which I have here inclosed sent you.
Sunday last the queene came from Westraas, where she had spoken to the prince of Sweden touchinge her quittinge the government; some say he hath agreed to take it upon him.
Munday I waited upon the queene to bid her welcome home, and stayed with her above an hower, duringe which tyme she said nothinge to me touchinge her designe, nor I to her in that busines; but wee discoursed much about my busines, to which she promised a dispatch in a very few dayes, after she should certainly knowe the issue of the treaty betweene us and the Hollanders, which, she said, she had understood by some was broken of; and alsoe that the Highlanders had lately given a greate defeate to the Englishe, askinge me, if I hearde nothing of it. I told her, noe, and that I did not believe it to be true; and the rather, because it was said, that the Scotts had pursued the Englishe even to Newcastle, which is about one hundred miles from the Highlands. She farther told me, that she heard the kinge of Scotts was to come to Breda near Holland, or to some other place thereabouts. She was alsoe pleased to tell me, that she thought it would be of greate advantage to both Sweden and Englande, to have an allyance togeather with 210; and asked if I would treate about it. I told her, I had noe commission concerninge any thinge of 210; and I hearde out of Englande, that the 209 there had begun a treaty of allyance with England, and that my lord protector had appointed some commissioners to treate with him on that subject. She replyed, that it would be good to have all three nations comprehended in one treaty, and that she would send an ambassador into England, by whome it might be affected. I told her majesty, that I could not yet tell what would be the issue of the treaty begun there with 210; and I thought it would be best to conclude the treaty heere first between England and Sweden, and afterwards, if both these nations did see it fitt, 209 might be admitted, as there should be cause; whereunto the conclusion of the treaty heere would be no hynderance. She said, that was true, and desired me to acquaint my lord protector with her opinion in this matter, which I promised to doe.
Tuesday, I understood by some persons of quallity, that the prince of Sweden had accepted of the queene's propositions, and that the determination of the whole matter was left to the greate assembly of the estates of the nation, which is called rix–dat, viz. the kingdome's day, whoe are all summoned to meete the second of May next. In the meane tyme the prince returnes not to the isle of Uland, where he hath formerly resided, beinge very farr from this place, but stayes hereabouts at a house of his, to the ende he may be necre at the meetinge of the estates.
Wensday, I visited the count de Montecuculi, whoe told me, he was come to kisse the prince's hands, which was the reason wherefore he waited upon her majesty to Westraas, where he had the honour to meete with the prince; but communicatinge nothinge to me of her majesty's business there, I thought not fitt to inquire of him about it. By the discourse we had, I gathered, that he was imployed hither from the emperor, and I yet beleeve about the busines of the kinge of the Romans. At my returne home, the Frenche resi dent, and after him Mons. Woolfeilt, came to visit me, and stayed with me neere three howeres; duringe which tyme we had much discourse of France, Flaunders, and of the Duke of Lorraine; and Monsieur Woolfeilt said, that he had formerly ben imployed to treate with the duke of Lorraine for the transporting of 5000 foot, and 3000 horse into Ireland, to assist Charles Stewart; which the duke would have undertaken, if the other would have given him one hundred thousand crownes in readie money, and ships to transport his souldiers from some part in Fraunce; but the said Charles Steward could neither doe the one nor the other. After Monsieur Woolfeilt had taken his leave, the French resident stayed with me, and asked me, if France were comprised in the treaty with Holland? I aunswered, that hitherto my letters had not given me information of that busines: he then told me his master would be very willinge to contynue all good understandinge and friendship with England; to which I answered, that I beeleived England would doe the like.
Thursday, Monsieur Scute, one of the senators, came to visit me. He told me, that his father had ben formerly ambassador (from this crowne) in England; that he waited on his father thither, and had from that taken an occasion to come now, and be acquainted with me. I gave him thanks for the honor he was pleased to doe me, and after a large commendation of our nation and country, to make me beleive which there was noe neede of many arguments, he fell into discourse of the queene's designe to quit the government; to which I said little in answere, he beinge a stranger to me. He told me, that three senators were deputed by the councell, to conser with the prince of Sweden on certaine perticulars to be observed in the resignation; and he hoped I would take into consideration the importance of that busines, and I would resolve to attende with patience the issue thereof, it beinge necessary, that the prince should be advised withall in my busines. I asked him, if the three senators had order to acquaint his royal highnesse with my busines; he said, that he beleived they had. I told him, I had ben in this place neere two months before the queen had mentioned her designe unto her councell, and had remayned heere with much patience all that tyme; and that I should contynue my residence heere, untill my lord the protector should be pleased to call me home, which I would obey. He said, the reason of my former delay was occasioned by theire not knowinge the issue of the treaty betweene us and the Hollanders; and that as yet it is impossible for me to returne until the passages are unfrozen. I told him, that I beleeved the amitie with Englande did merit acceptance, whether wee had peace or warre with Hollande; and as to my staying heere, I should altogeather submitt myselfe to the pleasure of my lord the protector. He used much discourse in this busines, which gave me occasion to beleeve he was sent to me of purpose to excuse their delayes in it, and that the prince ought to be in like manner informed, and to give his advice and consent thereunto. This night I received two weeks letters togeather from Englande; the former, as Mr. Bradshaw did write me, was stayed by crosse winds.
This day being fryday, I received only a visitt from grave John Oxensterne, eldest soun to the chauncellor, with whome I had little discourse, which I think not fitt to trouble you withall; only hee seemed purposely to come, that he might excuse the stay of my busines, which likewise my lord Lagerfeild did, whoe came this day to me from the chauncellor, and told me intended to have visited me, but that he was not well; but suddainly intended a conference with
Upsale, 3 March, 1653.
Your very affectionate friend to serve you,
Secretary Thurloe to Whitelocke, embassador in Sweden.
In the possession of the right honourable Philip ld. Hardwicke lord high chancellor of Great Britain.
I am sorry your last letters of the 3d of February, received yesterday, give us noe greater hopes of that, which wee soe much long for, to witt, your excellencie's speedy returne home; it seeminge by them, that the treatie was not much advanced since your last before, notwithstandinge the great care and diligence used by your excellency for promotinge thereof; as alsoe the great acceptance you have with the queene and court, as is acknowledged by other publique ministers resideinge there. It is more then probable, they will expect the issue of the Dutch buissenes, before they will come to any conclusion; as alsoe to see what terms wee are like to bee upon with France, that soe the queene may manadg her treatie with England accordingly; which I suppose shee may not be longe ignorant of. In the mean tyme his highnes thinkes, that he is somwhat delayed on her part.
This day the three Dutch ambassadors were brought into towne from Gravesend. Newport and Yongstall arrived at Dover upon the last Lord's day at night, and came to Gravesend upon wednesday after, whither Beverningk, who was here before, went unto them; and soe all three were brought to Tower–whars in the states barges, and thence to Sir Abraham Williams his house, the place of their entertainment.
It is expected, they will aske their audience to–morrow; after which the treatie will be entred upon, and very probably concluded, there remeyneinge noe great differences upon the articles. And certeinelye, if the states generall had not beene resolved to have fully complyed with what is insisted upon by this state, they would not have sent this extraordinary embassie, which is very splendid, consideringe the place whence it comes.
France, who certeinelye hath hindred the peace all they can, as appeares not only by Chanut's speech, but severall other wayes, and were doubtles lead to it by their interest, now pretends very great desires to have it effected; and accordingly the same Chanut hath exprest hymselfe very lately in the states generall, although in words savoringe of much discontent, that France was not included in the treatie. The omission whereof is one great reason, why France hath qualified monsieur Bordeaux with the title of ambassadour to his highnes; and his credentialls and powers beinge come to that purpose, he is to have audience the next weeke as ambassador. The cardinall hath sent unto hym mons. le; Baas, who is to remeyne heere to advise with monsieur Bourdeaux upon all occasions. The cardinall very much relyes upon this le Baas, and certeinelye all possible skill will be used by the French to make a treatie with this state, that court beinge resolved, if monsieur Bourdeaux cannot effect it, to send some other person of greater eminencye; neither is the Spanish ambassadour behind–hand with his applications. He endeavours very much to promote his master's interests heere, accordinge to the present constitution of affaires, which seemes to be very extraordinary, and whereof every one is very apprehensive.
Scotland hath afforded us noe newes this weeke. The enemy is gone into the hills; those of them, which are left, under many discouradgements. We doe not heare, that Middleton, who went about two months since from the Netherlands with betweene two and three hundred men, is yet landed,
Ireland is in a good condition, and is perfectly settled. There have beene great discourses heere of much dissatisfaction in the army, and perhaps your excellency will meet with some such relations; but I can assure your excellency, there is nothinge of it true. My lord Harry went thither eight days since to visit his brother Fleetwood, and to give hym a full account of all thinges heere.
As I remember, I acquainted your excellency by my last, that the arch duke had committed the duke of Lorreine to the castle of Antwerpe, and hath appointed his army to his second brother, who lives in the emperour's court, and is (they say) a sober man, free from his brother's excesses. The cuntryes round about rejoice at this, as if the devill were chayned up from doeinge further mischeife. It is more then probable, that the duke was committed as haveinge a hand in the designe of betrayeinge Flanders, whereof I gave your excellencie a large account formerly; whereof there will be little doubt, if that be true, which one letter from St. Omers certifies me of yesterday, that an army of 8000 Frenchmen are marcht over the Maze into Flanders, other strong forces beinge alsoe at the heeles of them, whereby Brussells itselfe will be put into danger, especially if Lorreine's discontented army joyn with them, as is expected; but the certeintie of this newes I will looke for by the next letters. The duke's secretary, upon the newes of his master's apprehension, fled; but, beinge pursued, was taken, and with him many letters, and a cabinet of jewels worth five millions of livres.
What French newes I have received this weeke comes inclosed.
I thanke your excellencye for your information concerninge the German intelligencer. I shall endeavour to find him out.
My letters by the last post gave your excellency an account of the counsell's orders, concerninge what you mention in your letter concerninge yourselfe. The arreares of your allowance is payd, and 1500l. more ordered upon your former letters, in respect of the increase of charges, which I believe is alsoe payd, or shortly will. I will take what care I can to get the other 500l. to make the 1500l. 2000l. which your excellency mentions in this last letter. I pray for your safe returne, and in the meane tyme will endeavour, as farre as I am able, to express myself in all things,
3 March, 1653.
Your excellencie's humble servant,
I have not omitted writeinge any one weeke since your excellency went hence. I hope my letters are all come safe unto you.
Another letter of secretary Thurloe.
Vol. xii. p.51.
Mons. Nieuport and Jongestall landed at Dover last sunday, and came unto Gravesend on wednesday, wheither Mons. Beverningk went to them; and this day they were all three brought from Gravesend in his highnes barges to the Tower, and from thence to the house of sir Abraham Williams at Westminster, the place of their enterteynement, in his highnes coach, attended with neare sixty coaches besides, whereof there were 25 or 30 with six horses. The French and Portugall coaches were there, the Spaniards not.
It is hoped, that they come with resolutions to make an end, and not to insist upon the many particulars, that some of the provinces would have inserted; which may raise many prejudices here. This side will be willinge to make good what was formerly agreed, but will not admitt of the least alteration; and therfore it will be the prudence of the ambassadors not to mention additions to thinges they have already agreed in ipsissimis verbis. Beverningk hath done nothinge since his comeinge hither last, but delivered in the 29 articles. Whereupon his highnes hath declared noe resolution as yet, the arrival of the ambassadors beinge expected dayly. It hath beene told here, that Beverningk did very much boast at the Hague, how dextrously and couragiously he managed this treatie, and thereby frighted the counsel from their owne demands; and that England might have had better termes, if they would have stood upon them. Such vain boastings doe noe good, but rather create difficulties.
M. Bourdeaux hath received powers to be ambassadour to his highnes; and Mons. le Baas is come alsoe to him to advise with hym, who is a confident of the cardinall's.
Scotland affords us noe newes this weeke. Those of the enemy, which are left, are gone into the hills. Wee doe not heare, that Middleton is yet landed. I suppose he will not finde his hopes great, when he comes there. I rest
3 March 1653.
Your humble servant.
Another letter of secretary Thurloe.
Vol.xii. p. 53.
I Received yours: and although the peace tends to the disadvantage of our master, yet trade will flourish thereby; and soe wee may get a livelihood. I pray let me receive from you the commodities I writt for by my former letters.
Mons. Nieuport and Jongestall landed at Dover the last sunday, and came to Gravesend on wednesday, wheither Mons. Beverningk went to them, and this day they were all three brought from Gravesend in his highnes barges to the Tower, and from thence to the house of their enterteynment, in his highnes coach, attended with neare sixty coaches besides, neare thirty whereof had six horses apiece.
There is noe doubt of a peace. If they had not intended a peace, surely ambassadors would not have beene sent; and it is here on this side firmely resolved on; and sure a few dayes will end all. Middleton is not yet landed, as we heare. The enemy, that is left, is gone into the hills: The last defeat I doubt hath killed their hearts.
3 March 1653.
This to be writ in sacke.
I writt the last weeke; which I hope you have received. I received yours by the last post; but nothinge therein concerning their fleet, which I rely upon you for, and earnestly desire you to give me weekly and perticular information thereof. Wee are told here, they have a great fleet ready. I pray, whatever it cost, by the ymployinge trusty persons therein, that may make it their worke, let me knowe certainly, what ships they have ready, where they lie, and when they will move forth; upon what designe; if it be possible. I knowe this is a worke that will take up your whole tyme, if it be followed to purpose. I will consider accordingly, as alsoe your charge; and therefore I pray spare neither paynes nor money, that there may not any ships get out but I may know of them; nor any fleets of merchant–men, either outward or inward bound. If Mr. Webster forsake his enmitie, and act not against the state, he need not feare any thinge in this treatie.
Your last bills of exchange are payd.
Sir Tho. Bendyshe, embassador at Constantinople, to the council of state.
Vol. xii. p.105.
Your noble letters of the last of August I received by the hand of your agent Mr. Richard Laurance, which were most wellcome to me; not so much in regard of my revocation, as the worthy and honourable expressions I there found, and the memory you are pleased to retaine of my former services in this place, which is much more grateful to me, in regard I did apprehend, that no remembrance thereof could have survived that of the Levant company. Now as your former favours, and the trust reposed in me, doe stand as eternall obligations faithfully to serve you, so should I not informe your honours what I conceive may be prejudiciall and inconvenient to the commonwealth, I should but abuse the one, and betray the other. Wherefore I shall crave pardon in this particular, to let your honours know, that I apprehend, when these letters (some of the Levant company have desyred you to send to the grand signor, and vizir, by your agent) shall be delivered, and read according to direction, it will greatly endanger, if not utterly overthrow the whole trade in Turky. My reason is this: at Aleppo, about two yeares since, our consul was dragged about the streets, our merchants houses broke open, and 34500 dollars violently taken from them by the bassa thereof; which abuse, as never the like was offered before to our nation, so have I loudly cryed in the ears of the vizir, and mustie, and many other officers against it; and when I found no other releife but faire promisses, I told them, I would complaine home against them, as I was advised to doe by some great officers here. And to be as good as my word, in May last I wrote to the company the full of all matters; and desyred letters from the state, in way of complaint for this and some other late grievances offered us; and that the particulars of our case might be rightly understood, I drew a forme thereof, and sent it them; which had they bten so happy as to have obtained, I might safely enough have assured them of the regaining of their Aleppo losses, redressing the other grievances, and in fine have obtained here, what your honours should have desyred, without noise, disturbance, or any charge at all. Now these your honours letters to them being full of thankes and acknowledgments for courtesyes and respects done, (which they were never guilty of to any) and desyres of continuance of the same (which I feare they will easily grant); for uppon the reading of the letters, they will not only use us as they have done, but (if possible) worse, thinking our injuries give them the more respect from us; by which means if any factory in Turky shall be able to hold up their heads hereafter, yet that of Aleppo with their suffering and losses will be undoubtedly lost: beside, the customer, who did a long time struggle with me in vain about inlarging his custom, may now take what and where he please, without controul; and in fine the capittulations (the only weapon we have here to fight withal) will be trodden under foote, and no man regard our nation, nor no publique officer you can send will have the confidence to demand justice for what wrongs are past, or courage to require redresse for what may hereafter happen. For my owne particular, I cannot expect less from these people then to be upbraided for so highly resenting matters here, whereof the state itself takes no notice. Neverthelesse my desyres were such to observe your honours commands, and to doe what I conceived might be acceptable to you, and honourable to our nation, that so soone as I heard the agent was coming, (more slenderly attended than publique ministers use to be) I sent him my owne horse for his riding, and all our nation (together with my secretary, drogermen, and janizaries) for his attendance a day's journey to meet with him, and bring him in with as much honour as we could. Being arrived, I proffered him what he could desyre for his accommodation, and myselfe ready, when he pleased, to present him and his letters to the grand signor and vizir; notwithstanding, he refused to goe, untill such time as he can rayse a present for them from this factory and that of Srayrna, to the import of eight or ten thousand dollars, being as large as for an embassador, which summe cannot in probability be found, until some ships from England doe arrive, seeing the factors have already sent out of their private purses (through the long obstruction of trade, for the payment of officers, and the maintenance of the priviledges) above 20,000 dollars; infomuch as without such a new and great expence, we could not have been able to subsist of ourselves any considerable time. Now, if it may please your honours, to thinke of some tymely remedy and redresse against this great danger, that hangs over the heads of the Levant company, and the general trade, as may seem agreeable to your greate wisdomes, whereby the Turks may be at least made sensible of the wrongs they have done us; and that, if possible, before the ships may arrive, or the letters be delivered, (for till that tyme I have, at the agent's own request, before our nation excused his audience, by signifying to the vizir, as he desyred, that his and the grand signor's presents were in certaine ships expected from England) it would exceedingly rejoice the hearts, and refresh the spirits of many in these partes, whose eyes looke towards you for reliefe, and be even a resurrection to the factory at Aleppo, who are now in a manner swallowed up alive by their great oppressions. And I assure your honours, although I may not be so happy to have this charge longer instrusted with me, yet it would grieve my heart in my absence to heare of the death and destruction of that trade I have beene so long, and taken so much paines, in preserving and bringing up.
Now having beene bold to declare to your honours the dangers hang over this
trade, my care in bringing your agent in with credit, my readinesse to introduce him,
(which that I may, and with speed, I have wrote earnestly to Smirna to raise moneys for
him) I might here have closed this letter; but leaste your honours may apprehend it
may be an easy worke to procure his receipt uppon the delivery of your letters, I am
bound in duty to declare unto you, what obstacles I may find in the way. First, for the
Turks to receive an agent from another nation, is contrary to the tenour of our capitulations, which were made at first, and renewed from tyme to tyme, in the name of embassadors; and the grand signor's letters are allwayse conformable thereunto, running after
this manner, We received your embassador, and accept his person and your present at his
hands, &c. Now whither we shall be able to drawe them from theire accustomary wayes
(being a nation much addicted thereto) is not a little questionable. Secondly, the vizir
hereupon causing the records to be searched for presidents, found, that one Chapman was
sent to resyde here as agent, in the roome of fir John Eyres, until sir Thomas Roe, who
was then elected, should arrive; who notwithstanding he carried a present to them, yet
he was not received by him, but sir John Eyres kept in his place, till sir Thomas Roe
came. Neverthelesse I assure your honours, that I will doe my utmost endeavours to
observe your desygne, and run through any difficulty to serve you therein, or in what
else you shall command me. But since the agent's introduction hath been thus long,
and may be much longer demurred, in regard he will not be presented without so large
a present, for which I am not to question commission, if divine providence, considering
the fore–mentioned dangers, may be thought to have any part to act, I leave it to
your honours to judge, praying alwaies, that God's Spirit may worke powerfully in
you to his glory, and guide all your actions to the advantage of the publique good. I
take leave to subscribe myselfe, as you shall ever finde me,
Constantinople, this 4th of March, 1653.
Your honours very faithfull
and most humble servant,
Dantzick, 14 March, 1654. [N. S.]
Upon the rixday at Warsaw it is concluded, that the treasurer shall give an account to the commonwealth of the moneys he received and disbursed. Some other secret councils are kept, but unknown what is treated of in the same. Some are of opinion, that they have concluded to send an embassage to Sweden with the first opportunity, to admonish that queen to the inviolable observation of the truce, and to prevent her alliance with the grand duke of Muscovy. But I shall be able to give you more certain information of this hereafter.
The queen of Bohemia to Mr. Laurence, president of the council of state.
Heidelberg, 4/14 of March, 1654.
Vol. xii. p.89.
Since you have approved of my liberty to recommend the business of my lord Craven, and promised to serve him therein for my consideration; I hope you will give this bearer, fir Edward Sayer, leave to make his address to you, and tell him freely, what he may expect in favour of his friend; being confident you had never accepted the imployment you are now in, but that it may give you means to help those that suffer wrongfully; of which number the lord Craven is so well known to be, that the righting of him will conduce as much to your own satisfaction, as to the obliging of,
Your most affectionate friend
to serve you,
I beseech let me know, whether you received my last letter, which was an answer to yours; and if I may hope, that you will resolve some few queries, which I would propose unto you.
Indorsed, This letter came inclosed in a letter from the lord Craven to Mr. Laurence.
A letter of intelligence from Mr. Augier's secretary.
Paris, the 4/14 March, 1654/3.
Wednesday last the sovereign courts of this city having assembled themselves, as I had the honour to write unto you the same day, three affairs were therein put into deliberation, viz. that for the suppressing of the esleus; that for the abolishment of the Paulette; and that for the suppressing of the syndics: all this to daunt them, thereby to get some considerable sum of money.
Their majesties meditate to go to Fontainebleau; and it is thought they will sojourn there for a while, to avoid the trouble of this conjuncture, wherein the duke of Lorrain's accident, and Mr Chanut's ill success in Holland, as also the news come from London of the arrival of the embassadors from the United Provinces to England, seems to put this court into some unquietness.
I am informed, the said duke of Lorrain is to be carried to Spain; and that the mareschal of Hocquincourt, who is returned hither, was gone under a pretence of discontentment, only to favour the projected imprisonment of Monsr le prince.
Mons. Boreel, embassador of Holland, hath received order from his masters, to uphold by his intermission, at their instant prayers, the interest of those of the Reformed churches in France, for the maintaining of the edicts, according to their demands and deputations towards the king, where the marquis of Malause is arrived; as also the baron de Fourques, a discreet gentleman, and who has shewed much vigour in the last business of Vals, where he alone guided three thousand men from Montpellier.
The duke of Candale prepares for Guyenne, where I am informed this court will send 2000 horse and 4000 foot, under his command.
The prince of Conti is destinated for Catalonia, with an army of 20000 men; and this court doth moreover intend to make an effort towards Naples: but those armies are but yet upon paper, and there is no likelihood, that the Italian princes will be troubled to refuse the passage of the same, which they have already refused heretofore. It is thought the strongest of the armies will be against Monsr le prince towards Champagne, where his majesty hath declared unto his generals, that he would really have 25000 men, whereunto they were to use all diligence and care, lest they should displease him, when he shall himself go and make the review.
The duke d'Amville hath of late received some letters and orders to speak unto the king, from his royal highness; but the reasons thereof are yet unknown.
It is published through Paris, that the mareschal d'Aumont hath received a paquet, which containeth the agreement of the affairs between England and France, by the means of four millions of livres Tournois this king shall pay unto the interested of our commonwealth.
All the honest people rejoice here at the Dutch embassador's return, and expect the accomplishment of the peace, which breaks the heart to all those of the royal palace.