State Papers, 1654: March (5 of 5)

Pages 178-190

A Collection of the State Papers of John Thurloe, Volume 2, 1654. Originally published by Fletcher Gyles, London, 1742.

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In this section

March (5 of 5)

De Vries, the Dutch embassador in Denmark, to the states general.


High and Mighty Lords,
Your H. and M. lordships letter of the tenth of this month, with the extract of their resolution concerning the prohibition of frauds committed by the skippers of the Netherlands in the Sound, I did receive the twenty fifth following; and to communicate the contents thereof to his majesty, I made a journey to Copenhagen, and there communicated the same to the rix–chancellor, with my request, that he would communicate the same to his majesty. After I had read the heads of the said extract, his excellency gave me thanks in the name of his majesty, who is yet at Holstein.

Elseneur, the 28th of March, 1654. [N. S.]

De Vries.

Mr. James Powell to colonel Philip Jones.

Vol. xii. p.372.

Honourable Sir,
I have not as yet heard of your freinde aboute the money, but shall take care to pay it him. If I knew where he dwelt, I would sende to him; but however I shall not fayle him, when he calls.

Sir, I thinke good to acquaint you with a passage and relation I met with in Somersetshire two dayes since, which concernes his highnes, whome I dearely respect and honour; and although it may bee but a flyinge report of wicked men, yet some cautionary use may be made of such thinges.

I met with a poore honest man, a feltmaker, who as he was comeinge from Beckington to Bristoll, with a parcell of hatts, was constrayned to rest himselfe under a stone wall, joyneing to the highway; and as he fatt ther, two gentlemen–like met each other, and after a salutation past betweene them, the one asked the other what newes. The other answered, that hee knew none. Thereupon one replyed, and tould the other, seeinge he was his speciall freinde, he would acquaint him of very good newes; and that was, that he sayd, he came lately from Southampton, where he met with a French merchant, borne in France of English parents, and his wife a French woman, whose brother was a jesuite, and did afirme, that certaine jesuits had taken an oath and the sacrament, and thereby bound themselves to kill the lord protector, or to loose their owne lives; and that beinge done, he sayd, there would be greate confusion and fighting for the government, by which meanes Charles the second's party beinge greate, would strike in, and carry the cause. The other partie replyed, it would doe well, if it could be effected; only hee could wish the common people might not be made to suffer much; but the other told him, the kingdome would be brought into a poore condition. After this they saluted one another, and departed. The poore man overhearinge all this discourse, he was in such a tremblinge, that he durst not appeare to speake, for feare of mischeife, because they had uttered such horrible thinges; but when they weare gone, he lookt after them, but knew them not; only weare in a gentile habit, and gray cloathes. This is all that the man can informe, beinge extreamly troubled. I leave it to you what use to make it. The Lord preserve his highnes, and prosper him; which is all at present from

Bristoll, this 18th of March, 1653.

Your most humble servant,
James Powell.

The superscription.
For the honourable col. Philip Jones, one of the right honourable councill, this present in Whitehall.

A commission from the king of Spain to Anthony Brun, to treat with the states general against Portugal.


Don Philip, by the grace of God king of Castile, of Arragon, of both the Sicilies, of Jerusalem, of Portugal, of Navarre, of Granada, of Toledo, of Valentia, of Gallicia, of Mayorca, of Seville, of Cerdera, of Cordova, of Corsica, of Murcia, of Jaen, of the Algarves, of Algecira, of Gibraltar, of the Canary Islands, of the East and West Indies, of the Islands and Continent of the Ocean; archduke of Austria, duke of Burgundy, of Brabant and Milan, count of Habsbourg, Flanders, Tirol, and Barcelona, lord of Biscay and Mecklin: Forasmuch as it is my will and pleasure not only to hold and keep the peace agreed upon betwixt myself and the states general of the United Provinces of the Netherlands, but to secure the same by new and more close and rearer ties by treaties, for the good of my subjects and theirs; and taking into consideration the losses, which have befallen my kingdoms by the usurpation of Portugal by the rebel the duke of Braganza, as also the losses and damages the said United Provinces have suffered thereby, and in particular the loss of sundry places in Brazil; and for other interests, that concern me and them; and for to have satisfaction and reparation for the said losses, that it is necessary and convenient for to adjust and agree with the said states, upon the said reason and ground, and to make a treaty against the said rebel of Portugal, in such a manner as shall be best and most convenient. And to that end it is necessary, that a person be fully impowered by me in the best form and most sufficient manner that can be, that he may in my royal name and behalf assent, agree, and stipulate all things necessary to the aforesaid end and purpose: and having taken into consideration the good qualities and abilities, that concur in the person of Anthony Brun, a member of my supreme council of Flanders, and my embassador at this present with the states general of the United Provinces; as also considering with what zeal, ability, and care, he hath treated and managed the important affairs of my service in many employments; I had resolved, and hereby commissionate him, and give him as full and complete, as is requisite to be had, that he may in my royal name, and as if I were present myself in person, to treat, capitulate, establish, and agree with the said states general of the United Provinces, or with what minister or ministers they shall authorize and depute with sufficient powers for that purpose, and any new treaty whatsoever, upon the aforesaid reason and ground, such a form or way, and with such amplifications and limitations, as these found fit and convenient, to agree upon; obliging myself to an intire accomplishing and performance of all, whatever else is or shall be requisite for the effecting of so great and important business and negotiation. And I assure and confirm the certain and sure establishment of the form thereof, adding to it the same validity, strength, and authority, as if it had been agreed upon by myself in person; for it is my determinate, express, and deliberate will, that all that the said Anthony Brun my embassador shall agree, conclude, and capitulate in the said business, by virtue of this plenipotential power, with those that shall be appointed for that purpose, and that what shall be agreed and established on the behalf and for my royal person, shall be punctually performed; and by these presents I do confirm, establish, approve, ratify, and oblige myself to keep it, without any necessity of further powers, ratification, or special approbation. Wherefore by virtue of this plenipotentiary I held it for valid, authentic, approve, and ratify all what the said Anthony Brun shall treat, stipulate, and agree upon. In witness and faith whereof I have commanded these powers to be passed and signed with my own hand, and sealed with my privy seal, and countersigned by the underwritten secretary of state. Given in Madrid, this 29th March, in the year 1653. This was established, and made sure.

Yo el Re.

Countersigned by Jeronimo de la Torre, and sealed with his majesty's seal, imprinted upon red wafer.

A letter of intelligence.

Paris, 31 March, 1654. [N. S.]

Vol. xii. p. 444.

My dear heart,
Since my last there is little to be said out of our family. The Scots king is doing all he can to get hence; but his affairs are obstructed by his peevish mother, who publickly reproaches him not going. She would have his brother sent before into Scotland with prince Rupert, my lord Gerrard, the man they call their keeper, and some other such brave wise men as those, for his council; that Charles Stuart should stay upon the terra firma, to wait for what he well knows nobody will do for him. This design is too well known to have nothing of tenderness, nor the kindness of a mother in it, but much malice to the reputation of Charles Stuart, and of advantage to herself, as she thinks. She believes she hath done what hath lost her the interest she pretended; and therefore she would have the son she hath most power over, in the head of an army, while the other passeth his time on this side with ignominy. But she was answered with great respect, quietness, and contrary to her expectation. He said, that if it was fit for his brother to go for Scotland, much fitter for him; but since she thought it conve nient for his brother, he should go with him. It was replied, that it was not wisdom to hazard both. He said, it was wiser and more generous to venture his life there, than in the wars of France, in which he was not concerned. Here the matter stopped; but will not certainly, if her weak brain, or the phantastic ones of her advisers, can help it, This is not known to many in that family; let it be as secret there. This mad queen hath another iron in the fire, which will trouble Charles Stuart no less than the former: she intends to stay the younger brother here by fair or foul means, and to make him a catholic, and, if she can, a cardinal: the other is as positive she shall not stay him, nor change his religion. Good God! what an indulgent mother he hath given to this unfortunate prince!

Our letters yesterday from Holland are full of fears, that your great fleet goes for the Sound, which you will have infallibly before the Dutch can relieve it, if the Swedes correspond. Very many believe you will have no peace with Holland: I am none of them, but secure myself you will not have war with this country, which I must confess I should not be sorry for; for I perfectly hate the cardinal, though he hath given liberty to the cardinal de Retz, for his dimission of the archbishoprick of Paris.

Mr. R. Bradshaw, resident at Hamburgh, to secretary Thurloe.


It is very good neuse heere, that his highnesse will nether make nor admitt of any alterations. Now all men conclude, the nexte letters will resolve the world the issue of the treaty, on which so much depends. Since the deliverie of my credentialls I have beene duly owned by the senate as resident for his highnesse, and as a testimony of their more then usuall respect and care to preserve the good will of his highnesse, I have prevailed with them to secure the revolted merchant George Waites to answer his persidious, if it prove not, traiterous actings. I have formerly acquainted you with part of his demaineour: I shall certifie of more very shortly, and so much, as I beleeve, will render him worthy the severest punishment.

The malignant English (for such I must call them, whilst I finde them so) bussle with theise burgers to oppose me what they can; but I presume shall keepe the senate to it, at least to hold him in restraint, till he give security for his appearance.

I inclose you a paper of the manner of his arrest, not doubtinge but now I have brought the senate to doe somewhat more then as yet they would, it will most sutbaly and effectually learne the rest of the disaffected English, who are the men that put all in disquiet, to behave themselves better for the future, and who (to speake but truth of them) are nothinge at all amended in duty to the state, since the cominge of his highnesse letter, but rather more averse.

This Waites (as you may see by this paper) hath carryed it heere, as well as in Denmarke, with that boldnesse and confidence, that the very senate, as well as the burgerie, did looke upon him as Charles St.'s agent. And now that hee's a prisoner, he abates nothinge of his former confidence to come of by his friendes; for yesterday one goeinge to see him in prison, he told him, hee liked his condition well enough, though he had some iron upon him, as is their manner heere with all forts of prisoners; and further jeeringly said, he could become or submitt to a haulter, as well as a paer of shackles, if he deserved it.

I am glad I met with him so seasonably, the kinge of Denmarke passing by this cittie but yesterday, who was pleased to harken to his councells, to his owne hardninge, and to countenance him as C. S's agent, whilst I was there.

Sir, I must agayne desire at least your advice and approbation in the businesse, whereof I writ you so longe since, touchinge my returne, if I might be worthy of any sutable imployment at home. If peace be concluded, I presume there will be lesse occasion for my service abroade. Be pleased to pleasure me in this with such answer as you shall thinke fit; for truly my desires do still increase homewards. I am,

Your most humble servant,
Richard Bradshaw.

Hamb. 21 March, 165¾.


Upon the delivery of my credentialls, understandinge that George Waites, a revolted merchant of the English company, mentioned in my former remonstrances to his highnesse, was returned from his attendinge upon the lord Wentworth, on his journey for Holland, and that he walked as confidently upon the exchange amongst the mar chants, as formerly, and was as freely and friendly receaved by them as ever. I sent to him to come speak with me, being one that had subscribed to the Engagement before me long since; but he excusing it that day and the nexte, and finding by the messenger, that I sent, he was sitting himselfe to be gone, I presently sent to the chiefe burgermaster, desiring he might be apprehended, to answeere such things, as I had to object against him. But he, as before in rhe businesse of Ball, answered, that he had heard Waites had a commission from the sonne of the late kinge; and therefore of himselfe could doe nothing against him, without acquainting the senate with my demand herein, as soone as they should meete. Whereuppon I sent to him againe, desiring to know, if he had seene any credentiall or comission, which Waites had; but he answeering noe, onlie heard soe. Whereupon I desired him to consider, how unmeete itt was, that he should alledge such a report in favour of an obstinate marchant of this company; and wished him not to hould me up till Waites should escape, as Ball had done. The next day the senate sitting, I sent then in the inclosed paper, and thought it best to putt them to it, heareby to discover the respects they had to his highnes and the commonwealth, havinge so meete an opportunity, wherein they could not pretend, as formerly they had done, this Waites being a subject to the commonwealth by his owne engagement, as also a marchant of the company, whom they are more immediately obliged to enforce to obedience, then others of the English nation; and also that he had not any commission or pretension to be in actuall service for Charles Steward; at least none that he durst owne, though his bould actings made it generally beleeved, that he was his agent.

The senate after consultation sent me word, he should be arrested. In the meane tyme I had eyes upon him, who brought me word, he was sortinge his papers to be gon. Whereupon I presently sent to desire his papers might also be secured; but they demurred upon that so long, (though they granted it at last) that I beelieve he made away all such as might make against him; but if nothinge more appeare, than that he hath bouldly acted in the light, I presume itt will be found to render him worthy of severe punishment from his highnes. After he was arrested, the chief officer sent to me to put in security to indemnisie the citty; to which I replyed, that my credentials weere my security, and that I was very sencible of the indignity offered to my master by that demand; wishing them to have a care, that Waites escaped them not; wheereupon they sent him to prison. March 21. 165¾.


Hamburgh, 21 March, 1654. S. V.


The king of Denmark came yesterday to Altena, and was entertained in one of his agent's country–houses. The senate hearing of his majesty's being so near their city, caused all the guns on that side of their walls divers times to be fired, and sent a stately present unto him by two of their senators; but it was refused by the king, by reason, as is said, the burgomaster came not himself with it.

The 21st day of March, 1653.


An information, given in upon oath, touching certain tackle and other goods and monies taken out of the ship the Phenix of Stockholm, whereof Lucas Hendrickson was master, lately seized by a man of war of this commonwealth.

Lucas Hendrickson of Enchuysen in Holland, master of the said ship the Phenix, aged 50 years or thereabouts, sworn in court before the judges of the high court of admiralty, and examined, saith and deposeth by virtue of his oaths, as followeth; viz.

That the said ship the Phenix, being about the fourth day of this instant March taken and seized, not far from Dover, by a man of war of this commonwealth, he this deponent was carried to Dover, and there kept several days as a prisoner; and being afterwards permitted to go on board the said ship, he found, that during his absence several goods, moneys, tackle, and furniture, had been taken out of the said ship; and as he hath been informed and believes, the same were taken out by the company of the men of war that made the seizure. The particulars and value of which goods, and other things so taken out of the said vessel, were and are as followeth; viz. A cable–rope, of the thickness of 7½ inches, worth 180 guilders; one other cable–rope, 5 inches thick, worth 125 guilders; and one piece of new canvas, worth 25 guilders; 150 pound of shot, worth 18 guilders; two great kettles of the furniture for the kitchen, worth 25 guilders; one fine pewter flaggon, and a brass pot, worth seven guilders; nine bundles with white lime, lanthorns, and mark–pricks or mark–spikes, worth 9 guilders; a silver–hilted sword, worth 10 guilders; a cellar of bottles with French spirits, wine, oil, worth 13 guilders; one small box of sugar, and one small box of spices, worth 5 guilders; 500 pounds weight of cheese, worth 75 guilders; 52 pieces of eight in ready coin, and one ducatoon, two double pistolets, two single pistolets in gold; one portsail of the value of 6 guilders; and one ware, or wave, worth three guilders: all which goods, money and tackle did really belong to the said ship, and the owners thereof. And further faith, that there were taken out of the said ship as aforesaid, several goods belonging to this deponent, and his ship's company; that is to say, 1500 pounds weight of cheese, worth 225 guilders; three small rundlets or firkins of butter, worth 36 guilders; 5 pieces of eight belonging to the ship's boy; and this deponent's cloaths, linen and woolen work, worth 300 guilders: and more deposeth not

Ex. Wil. Chrymes.

The 21st day of March, 1653.


An information, given in upon oath, touching moneys and goods taken out of the ship the Hope of Stockholm, whereof Jan Janson was master, lately seized by a man of war of this commonwealth.

Jan Janson, of Stockholm in Sweden, mariner, master of the said ship the Hope, aged 51 years, or thereabouts, sworn in court before the judges of the high court of admiralty, deposeth and faith as followeth; viz.

That the said ship the Hope, being about the 4th day of this instant March 1653. seized by a man of war of this commonwealth, in the English chanel, he this deponent, being master of the said ship, was carried to Dover, and there kept in hold several days; and afterwards being permitted to go on board his said ship, he found that several parcels of gold and silver in ready coin, and likewise several goods and provisions, had been in his absence taken out, as he said, being informed by the company of the said man of war that made the seizure; and faith, that the gold and silver goods so taken out of the said ship, and the values thereof, were and are as followeth; viz. 3 pistolets in gold, worth 27 guilders; 33 double ducats, worth 310 guilders; 14 large ducats, worth 70 guilders; 56 Albertine or cruz rix–dollars, worth 140 guilders; 28 large rixdollars, worth 72 guilders; one new perd–line of 120 fathoms, worth 167 guilders; one barrel of powder, worth 80 guilders; one brass pot, worth 10 guilders; a new buoy rope, worth 16 guilders; a silver–hilted sword, worth 14 guilders; and 200 pounds weight of cheese, worth 30 guilders: all which moneys, goods and provisions did belong to the said ship and the owners thereof; and also one other silver–hilted sword, worth 10 guilders; two coats, and one jacket or jump, worth 50 guilders; one fail and coat, worth 25 guilders; and a cellar of brandywine, worth 12 guilders, all belonging to this deponent; and also the tools belonging to the carpenter of the said ship, worth 30 guilders; and also about 1850 pounds weight of cheese, and other goods belonging to the said ship, worth 277 guilders. And more deposeth not

Ex. Wil. Chrymes.

The humble remonstrance of Gerbant Cornelison, master of the ship called the Abraham's Offering, of Nicoping in Sweden,


That the petitioner failing with the said ship from Nicoping for Hamburgh, on the third of this month hee was seized by John Tresorr, captain of a private man of war, with no flag out, who took two men out of my ship; and pretending himself to be an Irishman, presently plundered me and my men of all things, as also much of the ship's furniture, money, and provisions, and opened a fatt of copper kettles, and took some of them away, as also four deckers of cordovant: and I telling him, that he should not deal so with us, because we were friends, and not enemies, the said captain Tresor himself did thereupon, in my own ship, violently assault me, and with his sword cut a deep wound in my head, beat me, and hostilely used me several times, saying, that he valued not the pass of her royal majesty of Sweden, but would wipe his posteriors with it, with other scandalous language; and coming into the river, his men have several times set pistols to my breast, and would have shot me through, when I would have gone on shore to make myself known.

A letter of intelligence from Scotland.


The lord Ray hath to skelbe for armes for his men. Seaford was expected the tenth instant within three miles of Crabsdale with his men: sir George Monroe and Middleton were then in Strathnaver, and to meete Seaford, and Ray at Iwra with their whole force, where also Glengary with his rabble are to joyne them, and soe force Sutherland and Caithnesse to rise with them. The garrison of Lewis have made slaughter of the country people that joined with Seaford; and they have also slaughtered some of the garrison. The old natives joyne with our men against the rest of the country, so that these divisions cause greate devastations in these parts.

Dalkeith, 21 Martii, 165¾.

Sir, I am
Your humble servant,
Will. Clarke.

Mr. Berkenhead to secretary Thurloe.

March 21. 1653.


Honourable sir,
The day after I last waited on you, Charles Stuart's agent tooke his journey for Cheshire, Lancashire, and North Wales; and is not as yet returned, nor will he before friday at the soonest, and saturday is his furthest day perfixt. The ceane of his busines tells mee, that he is come in colonel Roger Whitly his place, thos parts being the places he formerly used to act in. I doe find you have not found the head of the plott, since col. Whitly (as I am inform'd) had several conferences with sir John Owen, and col. Roger Burges, late governor of Guernsey, his countrymen; to the first of which heretofore he hath giuen me letters. Charls Stuart is not yet gone out of France, nor wiil till after Easter, unlesse invited by Middleton in Scotland; to which purpose since Middleton's landing he sent to Cha. Stuart, that a very short time would render him in a fitt capacity to receive his majestie. Thes in letters from France; and that James Stuart continues still with his forces full of expectation. Soe soone as they have heard a certainty of a conclusion of this treaty, they intend to goe forward for Germany, and soe for Hamburgh, and thence for Scotland, if Middleton prove successful. Col. Lovelace (Whitlye's great comrade) sent one Mr. Doubledee to me, on the last Lord's day, to desire to know, what was against him, and wished me to inquire the utmost. I have made diligent search after (fn. 1) Henrich Williamson Rosenwinge. I have had converse with several that way, masters and seamen, and beene abord fix of their ships, and have found, that the same ship that carried him and the ambassadors out of England last, is here with the same masters and pilote, that it then had; which masters, after they were out of the river of Thames, did brag much, for that they had deceived the English, for that the shipp was onlie a merchant–shipp, and came onlie about merchants affayres, and another with her: but the ambassadors tould the councell, that they were sent to fetch them away, which was not. I shall this evening, I hope, give you a good account of Williamson.

A letter of intelligence from Paris.

De Paris, le 1 April/22 Mar. 1654.


Ensuite des formalitez observées de poinct en poinct au procez de Mons de prince, l'arrest de sa condamnation au genre de mort, que le roy ordonnera, en fut rendu samedy dernier par ce parlement, le roy seant en son lict de justice, comme j'eus l'honneur de vous marquer ce jour–la en ma precedente; en consequence du quel le president Viole, le sieur L'aisné, (aussy l'un des membres dudit parlement) & les sieurs Marsin & Persan, qui y sont compris, furent pendus en essigie en la place de Greve, gardez toute une nuict fur le gibet par des archers de cette ville, & le lendemain enlevez par des laquais.

L'affaire du cardinal de Retz s'est trouvée si considerable, que cette cour a esté obligée de le flatter extremement, & de luy faire changer d'air & de prison, pour, sous couleur d'un apparente liberté, exiger de lui les moyens de couler le temps, & passer ces festes sans bruit, de forte qu'il fut dez lundi transferé de Vincennes à Silly, où on l'amusera, me dit on, 7 ou 8 jours à traicter son accommodement, aprez la conclusion du quel 400 chevaux, qui le gardent, l'escorteront à Nantes, pour y demeurer sous la charge de sa garde ordinaire, jusque ce que le pape ait consentit aux articles dudit accord, par lesquels on m'assure, qu'il convient desja d'aller resider quatre ans à Rome, & cependant à se demettre de l'archevesche de Paris, moyennant 30000 escus d'autre revenu annuel, qu'on luy baillera pareillement en benetices. Le mareschal de la Meilleraye est celuy, qui agit le plus en cette affaire, en laquelle on l'a interesse par le mariage de son fils avec la fille du duc de Retz, asin qu'il se rendit garant au cardinal de la bonne soy de la cour. Ce mariage plait à son sils, qui n'aime pas parsaictement celle, avec laquelle il estoit accordé à cause qu'elle n'est pas belle. Mais le temps montrera, s'ils ne seront point pris pour duppes, & si ce projet aura lieu.

Nous n'avons point d'autres nouvelles, si non que cette cour a esté tous ces jours passes fort allarmée de l'armement Anglois, qui est dans la marche, & de quelques advis, qu'il y avoit esté embarqué de la cavaleric sur des vaisseaux plats, avec des provisions pour quclque entreprise: mais le duc de Vendosme a fort rassuré les esprits, en assurant, que ce n'estoit pas contre cet estat, mais bien pour Irlande, où tout se seroit souslevé & revolté contre l'Angleterre; ce qui n'empesche pas, que le sieur d'Estrade n'ait eu ordre de s'en retourner d'icy en Xaitoigne sans perte de temps, M. le Tellier estant cependant fort empresse à faire des levées pour opposer à Moneignr le prince, qui a esté beaucoup plus diligent, & se trouve desja en tel estat, qu'il a comme enclos le sieur de Faber au pais de Liege, où l'on croit, qu'il le combattra avec un notable advantage, avant qu'il puisse avoir le renfort, qu'il demande par des lettres, qui donnent de l'aprehension. Le mareschal de Turenne les appuye fort instamment, & dit, que si ces trouppes la venoient à estre deffaictes, il ne pourroit avec honneur commander l'armée du roy. Les dernieres lettres de Flandres portent, que le duc de Lorraine devoit estre mené en Espagne, & qu'en attendant on s'estoit saisi de plus d'un million de livres de son argent, pour esté appliqué à la guerre, dont l'archiduc avoit desja fait faire quelque paye à la soldatesque.

Monsieur le marquis de Montbrun, qui est icy, a esté chargé depuis peu des plaintes de ceux de la religion du Dauphiné, & le comte d'Entragues de celles, que font leur confreres du Vivarez. Ils se doivent joindre avec leurs autres collegues pour agir unanimement, & ont quelque esperance de se faire considerer, mesmement s'ils sont appuyez des recommendations de ceux qui les aiment.

On pretend avoir icy de tres bonnes informations, que la reine de Suede quitte le gouverhement pour se pourmeiner par l'Europe, & qu'elle envoye la plus part de ses joyaux, & toutes les richesses, qu'elle a pu ramasser imperceptiblement, à Ostende, sous pretexte de renvoyer au card. Mazarin quelques livres, qu'elle avoit fait achepter à l'encan de la bibliotheque de sa eminence, & de faire divers presens à des personnes de merite.

A letter of intelligence from Paris.

Paris, the 1st of April, 1654. [N.S.]


We have not much news in these parts; for having, as we believe, dispatched all that was formidable to us in the interest of the prince of Condé, we have given the greatest part of our time to balls, masques, and plays; and having repelled his army, and condemned in parliament to the loss of his life and fortune, and all other pretensions in France, and to be hanged in effigy; which last part, by reason of his nearness of blood to the king, was by him moderated as to the execution, by an act, as is called by the malignants at court, of grace; yet believe me, the wiser fort amongst them were hotly alarmed last week upon the landing of some Irish at Dunkirk, believing it had been the foot they heard were drawn out of several companies, and sent on ship–board; which for two days were thought to be landed there, and sent in assistance to the prince of Condé. It happened not to be so, to their great joy; but if such an accident should happen, it is not to be imagined what the consequences of such a conjunction might produce. Certain it is, there were never so many discontented persons in this nation as at present; and that our friends both in Switzerland, and our friends the protestants in Languedoc, and Provence, and Geneva, are inclinable enough to join with any thing of power or interest; which probably they can but think will give a larger advantage to their religion. If our friends in England were but well instructed, what advantage of profit and honour they might make in assisting their friends here, they would not sit down with the many affronts the Hollanders have done them, nor suffer their afflicted brethren in these parts to be oppressed any longer under the hand of tyranny, but assist them to the recovering their liberty, that the whole world by such an agreement of empire might receive their law from the commonwealth of England, and live after their redemption under their own vines and fig–trees; wishing prosperity to your great protector.

A letter of intelligence from Paris.

Paris, April 1. 1654. [N.S.]


I Having not yet received your letter, though the post arrived, you may see what follows of news since my former.

Last saturday cardinal Mazarin invited all the bishops and archbishops of France, that were here in Paris, to the number of forty; made them as good a feast as any that was seen in France, if it were for the king; and all to hinder the liberty of the poor cardinal de Retz.

Monday in the afternoon at three of the clock, all the said bishops and archbishops came to the cardinal's chamber, as he desired them the day of the invitation, and were there in discourse about the aforesaid business till ten a clock at night. At last the cardinal, having done his best, could not gain the bishops against cardinal de Retz; at which the cardinal was like to run mad, and they went away much discontented; and he might be angry with them. However, the matter being pressed, and the people of the city removing, and murmuring with the most part of the clergymen, it was determined that night to set cardinal de Retz at liberty; and at three a clock after midnight the cardinal ordered 150 horse of the king's, and his own guard, to go to Bois de Vincennes with one of the king's coaches of six horses, to conduct the said cardinal to Bretagne, having, as some say, consented to the demission of his place in Paris; for which the king gives him upon six abbeys in France nine hundred thousand livres by the year, being twice or thrice more than Paris was worth to him. He will stay a while in Bretagne, and will go to Rome afterwards: but it is said he may be guarded in the castle of Nantz, till the pope confirms his demission, which the cardinal here fears he will not. He is to get now from the king 80,000 pistoles, to pay half of it for his debts, and the other half to put him in equipage for his voyage. They would not permit to come into Paris by any means. He slept yesterday six leagues off at Silly. Mazarin is mad, because he was forced in a manner to give him his liberty. He fears him more than any living. Last saturday, as I mentioned in my former, the king went to the Palais, accompanied with his brother, due de Guise, mareschals de Grandmont, de Villeroy, de l'Hospital, de Plessy Praslin, and many others; where they had pronounced the arrest of death, given in parliament the day his majesty was there before, against the prince of Condé, who is to suffer what death the king pleases to give him; and the rest are to be beheaded, as criminals læsæ majestatis, being hanged in effigy; so at la Greve, count de Bouteville, marquis de Persan, president Viole, Mr L'Aisne counsellor of the parliament at Dijon, and some other adherents to the said prince de Condé, and all their estates and goods to be confiscated to the king. Last saturday an arrest of the council of state was affixed to the walls of Paris against M Chevalier chanoine of Nostredame, received vicar by the chapter, in the archbishop's absence; because he did not obey both the king's letters of cachet sent to him before, to retire out of Paris; that no man should acknowledge him for such, seeing the archbishop was prisoner of state, and therefore could not give any procuration, till he had been at liberty; and consequently that the king ought to provide for an archbishop for Paris. But the man stirred not; neither did he much care, though they should give an hundred arrests against him, till such time as pleased the archbishop to compound with them, which the said Chevalier could not hinder. The sacrament continued always upon the altars in all the churches notwithstanding the king's defence against it, till the king made them sure, their cardinal should be let out, being monday last in the afternoon.

Last saturday arrived a courrier extraordinary from Guienne to the court, signifying great rumours to be in Guienne and Languedoc; and that they seared much the English upon the coasts there, many English ships being daily up and down, they knowing not what their design may be.

Here arrived lately an Italian Jesuit, or rather a Sicilian, an old man, that lives now in rue St. Antoine with the Jesuits there, and makes cardinal Mazarin's genealogy, to know and make known to the world from whence he came; some say he shall be made confessor to the king.

Saturday in the afternoon the executor of the high justice has put up a post at la Greve, and affixed a picture to it, where comte de Bouteville, marquis de Persan, presi dent Viole, and L'Aisné are condemned to be beheaded by an arrest of parliament, as above mentioned.

Cardinal de Retz has resigned his place only to his holiness, to be disposed of as he shall think fit; for which some are afraid he may be kept in the castle of Nantz, till the pope gives the disposition of it to the king. Time will let us see the event of it. All the above–mentioned bishops have gotten good all his bulls, and agreed together before Mazarin, that no man living could hinder him of his bishoprick or archbishoprick of Paris, if not unjustly; which made Mazarin mad, after all his feasting of them.

Monday last an arrest of the council of state was affixed to the walls of this city, that no strangers being enemies to this state, should go or come into the kingdom of France, without passports signed under any of the hands of the four secretaries of state here. Last sunday prince Rupert, with an Irishman called Homes, a captain, were returning from hunting at Cour de la reyne behind the Louvre, where two gentlemen rid in all haste coming into Paris, to which prince Rupert gave way; and after they passed, they returned back again, and drew their pistols against prince Rupert, and both failed; which the prince seeing, drew one of his own, and killed one of them, and wounded mortally the other; which Mr count de Mongiron their master, married to mareschal de Plessy Praslin's daughter, riding after them, and seeing one of his gentlemen killed, began to revenge him. Prince Rupert was to do with him as he had done with his man, till he cried, and told he was such a man. The prince said, he could not believe him for such; yet seeing he said it, he would not meddle with him. So the matter passed, and the gentleman slain, the worse for him. Sir,
Your faithful servant.

An intercepted letter from Paris.

Paris, the 1st of April, 1654. [N.S.]


I Shewed yours to Char. Stuart, though neither he nor I can tell by neither of your letters, who it is, that is coming to him from Scotland; which I thought had been my sister, by what you intimated in your first; but in your second it doth not appear to be she. Yet your mistress is, as I told you before, upon the opinion you have of the person you recommended to attend his coming, if so soon as expected, before she take any resolution concerning her Sco ch engagement. And for the business of Holland I am the only man on this side the water, that is to be persuaded, that all is already concluded between them and Holland and if it should happen otherwise, Ch. Stuart would suddenly have such trading, as would quickly make himself a rich man. Your own stock with us will make you more than ordinarily inquisitive into that matter, and incline you to inform yourself and us with all the diligence you can, both of that, and all other things, that may give us the advantage of the first market. Your mistress is so great a friend to the Scots, that she is glad to hear Middleton got lately some advantage. She hopes her friends will preserve her credit, until she be able by drawing her debt from Germany France, and other parts, to discharge herself, as becomes a woman of her reputation. Those here are a little backward in paying her, being loth as yet to part with her company, until they have settled their own trade in Engl nd, or see it totally impossible; and then it is likely they will desire Ch. S uart not to go at all; for that they will put some of their stock unto his, to employ in Scotland England and other parts; yet I find he desireth to be going. The debt of France is weekly promised to be paid; but I doubt his expectation from Suffock will amount to little; for Mr. Edwards is come already to Tarmouth, and hath been able to effect very little.

Extract out of the resolutions of the lords states of Holland and West–Friesland, taken in their lordships assembly, uponwednesday the first of April, 1654. [N. S.]


Received a letter from the lords Beverning and Nieuport, two of the extraordinary embassadors of this state in England, dated at Westminster the 27th of the last month, containing advice of several affairs, and amongst the rest of what they, for the finishing or perfecting, and in pursuance of the last of the 29 articles, for a treaty to be entered into with the lord protector, had negotiated and agreed upon: whereupon being debated, it is thought fit and understood, that the business be referred to the generality, to the end an extract of the said letter for such as concerneth that particular of the 29 articles, may be sent from their lordships to the commissioners of the East India company, at present in the ordinary assembly at Amsterdam now met together; as also to the commissioners of the West India company; item to the Greenland company, and Muscovy company, to serve for their respective information; with advice, that they will respectively prepare themselves, and be in readiness to bring in their pretences concerning damages suffered by the English in time, and before the term therein prescribed.

Extract of the resolutions of the lords states of Holland and West–Friesland, taken in their lordships assembly, upon thursday the second of April, 1654. [N. S.]


Received a letter from the lords Beverning and Nieuport, two of the extraordinary embassadors of this state in England, written from Westminster the 28th day of the last month, with an extract inclosed, containing what the said lords embassadors had negotiated there upon the 24th, 25th, and 26th whereupon being debated, it is thought fit and understood, to desire herewith all merchants, that would speedily propound to this assembly some able merchants, not interested by the pretences, to move against the English, in pursuance of the 29 articles formerly agreed on for a treaty to be entered into with the commonwealth of England; to the end that their lordships may make such choice of some of them, whom they shall think fit to serve in pursuance of the said 29th article, for the answering and annulling of such questions, which out of the said pretences, and the like counter–pretences of the English, may arise. And the said respective merchants are hereby also desired to cast their thoughts upon such experient judges, as may be employed for the said purpose accordingly.

A letter of intelligence.


Honourable sir,
I am commanded to let you know, that if our master in his intended jorney passes any place where the prince of Condé hath power to command, hee wil be in very greate danger.

Lett a word be sufficient from him, that is as faithfully yours, as loyally his, and

March 23, 1653.

Your honor's most obliged.

To his Highnes Oliver, Lord Protector of England, Scotland, and Ireland, The humble petition of the sons of sir Peter Richaut deceased,


That since it hath pleased the last council of state to free from the arrest of your petitioners certain woolls belonging to the king of Spaine, for a debt of above twenty thousand pounds owning by the said king unto your petitioners, and acknowledged under his hand; and that your petitioners have used all possible meanes, both by forraine sollicitation, and domestique endeavours, for recovry of thir said debt, and yett could never obtain any effectuall satisfaction or returne of their expensive labours:

Your petitioners humbly pray, that it would please your highnes to interpose your mediation with the king of Spaine, for a certaine and lymitted tyme of payment of the aforesaid debt; that your petitioners, being natural subjects of this commonwealth, may not be deprived of their hereditary right to your due protection, nor be exposed to oppression and injury, without proportionable amends therein; nor their whole family be utterly ruined by the long delays and protraction of justice, which their desire is peaceably to procure, without haveing recourse to your highnes for some more extraordinary remedy. This they doubt not to obtain out of the great zeale you bear to righteousnes, and your continual professions to relieve the oppressed.

March 23. 1653.

And your petitioners shall ever pray, &c.
P. Rychaut.
James Rychaut.
Samuel Rychaut.

Don Alonzo de Cardenas, of the council of his catholick majesty, and his embassador to the parliament of the commonwealth of England,


Doth remonstrate and represent, that his catholick majesty did by his agents and ministers, cause to be laden aboard the ships the Samson, Salvadore, and St. George, in the port of Cadiz, being his own port, several bags of wools, to be transported to another port of his own in Flanders, for his own account, there to be delivered to his assistants, for his own account, towards the payment of his armies.

That these ships were upon the high sea surprised by the ships of this commonwealth, and forcibly brought in hither against their wills, with the said bags of wool then aboard them.

That afterwards the matter coming in debate in the admiralty court, though it was much pressed, that the said ships ought not to be unladen, yet that court over–ruled it, and unladed the said wools and lading against the mind of the retainers.

That his catholick majesty having upon full and undoubted evidence proved his right and true property in the said wools, upon full debate plenary restitution was adjudged him.

That a judgment and definitive decree of restitution in such cases doth by the law of nations import, that the same be full, free, and intire, with security and defence, that they be again reladen a shipboard, and have free passage out of the territories of this commonwealth, free of all private arrests, attachments, disturbances, and molestations.

That by the law of nations, restitutio in integrum in these cases is and doth import reposition, or placing in pristino statu. Thus as they were brought in hither by the fleet of this commonwealth against their wills, so they shall by the judgment of restitution have freedom and defence against all disturbances, to go out of those territories to the high seas again in pristinum locum & statum, to the same place, and in the same free condition, as they were at the time of the surprisal.

That yet notwithstanding, Peter Richaut, James Richaut, Samuel Richaut, and Philip Richaut, upon pretence of levying a plaint before the sheriff of London, per exemplum manisestum inter gentes, hath disturbed the lading of the said wools again on shipboard, in retardation of the said judgment of restitution, and de facto still hinders the same in contemptum dicti decreti curiæ admiralitatis, & in manisestam violationem juris gentium

That a seculo non est auditum, that ever till now the goods of any supreme king in the world, having been brought by force into another nation in amity, and under pretence of a feizure at sea, as the goods of an enemy, and being brought to the test in judgment in a court of admiralty, and there adjudged free, as the goods of a king in amity, and restitution in integrum awarded, should notwithstanding be arrested in the territory at the suit of a private person, upon pretence to draw that king to answer there to a private action, whether he will or no.

That the pretended debt, now in demand by Peter Richaut, James Richaut, Samuel Richaut, and Philip Richaut, is claimed by them as executors of Sir Peter Richaut their father, who was a native and subject of the crown of Spain; and it was never attempted in any nation, for a subject to cause the goods of his own king to be arrested in any foreign nation at his private suit, thereby to compel his own king (to whom by all the rights divine and human he owes allegiance and subjection) to answer him, as a private person in alieno territorio.

That it is a received principle inter gentes, that par in parem non babet imperium, & neque contrahendo nec delinquendo officitur subditus alieno territorio, & licet voluntarie subjiciendo. A supreme power may compromit or submit an oath to a neutral, and so be obliged ex sacto suo voluntario, to stand to the judgment; yet it is otherwise, where an attempt is made against his person per institutionem actionis in alieno territorio; for non rogatur respondere; and the general rule of the law is,

That no private person can enter an action against the person of any king or supreme power, to compel his person to appear or put in bail to answer in alieno territorio, nor attach any goods of his, to cause him to enter such bail.

For though where the action is instituted per rei vindicationem, that is, to the property of the thing itself, whoever hath right, must become a voluntary reclaimer, to shew the thing to be his, or else suffer the thing, the accord being in rem, to pass by default; yet where the action is not in rem, but in personam, and the goods only attached upon pretence of debt or trespass, owing by the person, for that only end, to cause the person to appear, or put in bail to answer: the goods of no supreme power are subject to such attachment or arrest, the same being utterly against the law of nations.

Every embassador of a king, or supreme power, is both in person and goods free from arrests by the laws of nations; much more the person and goods of the king, or supreme power themselves.

The proceedings against kings and supreme power is, concurrentibus his, quæ in jure requiruntur per concessionem repræsaliarum, & non per privatam actionem.

The embassador doubts not, but you will take this contempt of the right and laws of nations into consideration, and cause right to be so done thereupon, that so exorbitant a proceeding may not be drawn into example.

Thursday, 23 March, 1653.

At the council at Whitehall.


On consideration of a certificate from the judges of the admiralty, bearing date in February last, concerning the wools claimed by the lord embassador of Spain, as appertaining to the king of Spain, being taken in the ships Morning Star and Augustine; and of a report made this day by major general Lambert from the committee of the council, to whom the said certificate was referred; ordered by his highness the lord protector and the council, that the said wool shall be delivered unto the said embasiador, or such as he shall appoint to receive the same, upon sufficient security first given in the court of admiralty by English merchants residing there, that in case the said wools shall be condemned in the said court of admiralty as confiscate to the state, the full value thereof shall be paid to the use of this commonwealth. Whereof the judges of the admiralty, as also the advocate for the commonwealth, are to take notice, and to proceed accordingly.

Ex. W. Jessop,
Clerk of the council.

A letter of intelligence from Rome.

Rome, 3d of April, 1654. [N. S.]


By this poste I receaved nothinge from you, or from my friend at Paris. Our occurrences here are but verie little. His holines wednesday last went to St. Peter's, accompanied with all the cardinals and the nobilitie of the cittie, with solit pompe of horse and foote; his holines having assisted to all functions in proper person, and chieslie to the washinge of the seete of twelve, representing the twelve apostles. Hee will return to monte Cavallo to–morrow, and shortlie bound for St. Martino neerc Viterbo; and thence, as we hear, for Loretto; thogh manie doe thinke this last to be in a manner impossible, by reason of his holines's podagra in a knee. Our last nuntio sent for Spaine, is detained at Ralena, by his majesty of Spaine's order. Som say, his holines sent worde to Terranova, the Spanish ambassador, that he may have patience for to have audience from his holines, till further order from him; yet nexte weeke will let us see the truth. From Genoua, the gallies wherein conde de Onata passed to Spaine, are thither returned, and conde de Onata made major domo major of his majestie of Spaine. The queene of Spaine is still wich childe. Those gallies broght from Spaine 300 barrels of reals of eight for particular marchants in Genoua. Donna Lucretia Barbarina is departed for Loretto, and thence for Modena, to meete her husband the duke of Modena. Card. Ant. Barbarini, some say, will for France soone, to be present at that kinge's coronation. Some say, his holines to–morrow coming from St. Peter's to Monte Cavallo, will dine with the princess Donna Olympia. From Naples, the moste parte of that militia are commanded to the sea–shores, or Marina. The duke of Termoli, sonne and heyre to the prince of Rocca Romaine, is declared by that viceroy a colonell of a thousand foote, to be levied in Tarante and the borders of Barye. There dyed of a sudden the duke of Poya. That V. R. as yet gives good account of his government from Venice.

Four vesselles here are preparing with all haste, bound with souldiers, and eighty thousand crownes for Candia, under the command of Giacomo Canale. That from Florence there arrived the general Borrye. The duke of Lunemburg, and prince Erneste his brother, went from Vincenza to see that cittie. From Dalmatia, the Venetian army having arrived Clim, and besieged it, and bravely resisted so many sallies, at last by number and forces of the Turkish horse were forced to retreate with the loss of 1000, and imprisonment of 800; amongst which, I meane amongst the slain, were the conte Avocatio, conte Capia of Vicenza, conte Dotti of Padua, with the loss of the cannon.

From Poland, the great duke of Muscovy is marchinge against the Polonian army, with a body of 25,000. The Tartarians did invade some parts of Poland, with the loss of 2000 Cossacks. The levies made in Germanie and Grisoni for the Spanish service in Milan are entringe there every day, which gives couradge to Caracena for the next spring service; which is all at present from

Your assured servant.

Our expresse sent for Spaine and France for a general peace is come; but as yet nothing known, nor will be till next consistory.

A letter of intelligence from Holland.


In my last I wroate you my intentions for this place, where I arrived but yesterdaye; havinge four dayes bin prevented by the unseasonable weather. However I made use of my tyme, by viewing the condition of affaires at Roterdam and Hellvoetsluys, where they are fittinge their ships with all possible speed, yet not earnestly, as if they intended, they should goe to sea, before they see the issue of the treatye; nor doe I finde by discourse with others, that these doe it for any thinge, but to please the people. This was the last week confirmed to me by one of the states general of my good acquaintance, whoe told mee, the newes of your great preparations for sea made the people so unquiet, that they will not be satisfied without their fleete be made ready. So order was given to the courts of admiraltie to fitte out part of their shippinge, but not all. The drumes beat at Amsterdam for men. How many shipps shall be fitted there, I could not so suddenly learn but shall tymely advise you. At Rotterdam they take on men but for seven shipps, whereof the admirall and vice–admirall are two of them. The admirall's ship is not ready; and the soonest the carpenter promises to fit her out, is twenty–four dayes. One of the carpenters sayes, they cannot be ready in lesse then a month, by reason a great part of their men are gone. Heere I find them more vigorous in their equipping, then in the fore–named places, and the men readier to enterteyne service; yet they feare that will be the chief want, they having so many capers or private men of warr abroad. They tooke on men for sixteen shipps, all of the best they have; and so doe the other townes. 'Tis to be supposed, the state doe not intend a warr, because the whole fleet is not made fitt for the sea. A fleete of sixty or eighty sayle they purpose to keepe in readinesse, to convoy their marchantmen, and wayte on you, least you prove perfidious; for they say, there is no trustinge you. All the last weeke and this the common people have spoaken nothinge but warr, complayning of the deputies for not singneinge, are much dejected to thinke of a new quarrel. It appeares plainly thorough all the countrey, that these are weary of the warr in this province; where formerly they were so incensed and couragious, are now very calme. It seemes they find theire own weaknes. Even now comes more pleasing newes, that the treatye is concluded, which putts another countenance upon them. This will cause a scarcitye of men for their fleet. Every one rather chuses to goe in a marchant–man, then a man of warr. You may be assured, it will be a month before their fleete can be readye. There is diligently labored in the new ships; yet I am confident they will not be fitting for the sea before the latter–end of the summer, whereof more largly shall be writt in convenient tyme. I shall, God willinge, goe hence to–morrowe; and if there be any further service, you may command

Flushinge, 3d Aprill, 54. [N. S.]

Your most humble servant
John Adams.

The superscription.
A Monsieur Monsieur Pieter Hacker, a Londres.


  • 1. Henrich Williamson Rosewinge, envoy from Denmark to England. De Witt letters, tom. i. p. 156.