State Papers, 1654: April (3 of 4)

Pages 233-244

A Collection of the State Papers of John Thurloe, Volume 2, 1654. Originally published by Fletcher Gyles, London, 1742.

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April (3 of 4)

A letter of intelligence from Mr. Angier's secretary.

Paris, 25/15 April, 1654.

Vol. xiii. p. 186.

The earl of Charost, governor of Calais, is not yet gone from hence, to go thither, as I had noted you by my last; but some reinforcement of men has been sent to his lieutenant, through the jealousy they have of the designs of the English navy.

The marquis of Sillery, commander of Dampvilliers near Sedan, hath with his garison surprised and carried away five troops of horse of the prince of Condé, as they were sleeping in a weak village. It is not thought the loss is of above 100 masters; but there are many officers, for whom the said prince will have cause to mourn; amongst others, his usher, and the count of Hollac.

The last letters from Provence say, that the chevalier Paul, made lieutenant of the forces by sea of that province, had caused the shutting up of the ports thereof, thereby to have mariners to arm nine ships he intended to put out of Toulon, for the executing of some design; in favour whereof five ships were to join him from the Ponient. There is great likelihood this court will have something to do against Naples, and that the Portuguese will also make some offer, to take advantage by the spite the pope has conceived against the base dealings done to some churchmen by the Spaniards.

There is notice come from Rochelle, that two of the said ships, which were to go and join with the said chevalier Paul, being gone out to sea, and having been met by four Spaniards, which had set on them, there had been such a hard fight, that the two first had been forced to save themselves all tattered in the port of Brest, after, say they, they had sunk two of the Spanish, and so beaten the others, that without a tempest, that separated them, they could have brought them thither.

There is still much talk of his majesty's going to Fontainebleau.

The cardinal Mazarin is in the unquietest of his pains of the gravel, and in the resolution to have himself searched and cut, if need be.

His eminence has remitted the difference between the four little bodies and the regiment of Maine unto another opportunity, and has agreed them; insomuch that this regiment shall be dispensed from serving during this campaign; so that it is sent to Brisac, whilst the said little bodies dispose themselves for the army.

The marshal de Clarembaut is married unto mademoiselle de Chavigny, who is to have four hundred thousand francs to her portion.

The parishioners of St. Paul's church murmur much for the exile of their curate; and the jesuits fear the consequences thereof, seeing themselves threatened by the people, set on by the jansenists.

The Dutch embassadors in England to the states general.

H. and M. Lords,

Vol. xiii. p. 155.

My Lords,
We hope that our letters of the fifteenth of this month were delivered in good time. We do long to receive an answer with your lordships farther resolution; and in the mean time we have received their farther intention, comprehended in the letter of the thirteenth of this month; whereupon we have given in the inclosed memorandum, as well to observe and fulfil the same, as also to have the third article explained according to your lordships intentions. But notwithstanding our endeavours, we have not been able to effect any thing in it, but what Mr. secretary Thurloe was pleased to signify unto us this afternoon, that his highness thought it very considerable, to make any alteration now about it. And as to the other particular, which he thought a convenient way to prevent all disorders and damages, during the expired times, and the uncertainty of the knowledge, we were answered, that that way, before the ratification be exchanged, would not be convenient. Yet we do hope, that they will admit it presently after, whereof we shall make new instance to-morrow, and inform your lordships of the success.

The lord Rosewinge is at last arrived, and hath given us two visits together. He tells us, that he hath made himself known to the government here, but hath not yet had any audience given him, which we do not expect he will have before the extradition of the ratification. The lord Neufville hath commissioners of the council appointed him to treat with him, whose names are viscount Lisle, Montagu, and Strickland, who were to enter into conference with him this night; and the lords Lambert, and others, are appointed to treat with the Spanish embassadors.

Westminster, 14/24 April, 1654.

Resolution of the states general.

Sabbati, 25th April, 1654. [N. S.]

Vol. xiii. p. 187.

The lord of Gent presiding in the assembly did declare to their lordships, that her highness, the princess dowager of Orange, being ill-disposed, and by reason thereof keeping her chamber, had desired his lordship last night to take the pains to come to her; and that his lordship coming there, her said highness did desire him, that his lordship would be pleased to congratulate their H. and M. lordships on her behalf on the peace made with the lord protector of the commonwealth of England, Scotland, and Ireland; and that her highness did heartily with the same to continue to all eternity. Whereupon being debated, it is thought fit, and understood hereby, to request the said lord of Gent to take the pains to return thanks to her said highness, on the behalf of their lordships, for her congratulation and good affection, by adding of such compliments as are requisite thereunto.


April 25, 1654. [N. S.]

Vol. xiii. p. 191.

Ordines generales confæderati Belgii constare voluimus omnibus & singulis, quorum interest, aut quo modo libet interesse poterit, quoniam nostro desiderio & propensa voluntate moti sumus cum serenissimo & celsissimo domino, Olivario, domino protectore reipublicæ Angliæ, Scotiæ, & Hiberniæ, contrahere & inire strictam, firmam, sinceram, mutuamque amicitiam, unionem, & consæderationem, pro defendenda & reservanda libertate ac jure utriusque nationis, necnon navigationis & commercii, pariterque communis causæ contra quoscunque, qui tam terra quam mari hunc vel illum statum turbare nitentur; et desiderantes hujus salutaris operis progressum, necessarium duximus ad serenissimam celsitudinem suam D. protectorem prædictæ reipublicæ ablegare dominos Hieronymum de Beverning, &c. Wilhelmum de Nieupoort, consiliarium & quæstorem generatem Hollandiæ Borealis, syndicum oppidi Scidamensis, Allardum Petrum Yongstal, ordinarium consiliarium in suprema curia justitiæ provinciæ Frisiæ, & curatorem academiæ Franekeræ, extraordinarios legatos nostros, ut cum alte memoratæ serenissimæ celsitudinis suæ commissariis convenirent de stricta, firma, sincera & mutua amicitia, unione, & confœderatione utrinque colenda & observanda. Illi igitur, cunctis accuratus, deliberatis, ventilatis, & discussis, nomine utriusque partis fædus mutuum pepigerunt & concluserunt, necnon peculiaribus articulis invicem convenerunt, quorum tenor is est, qui hic & infra verbo tenus sequitur insertus. Proinde prædictum ac supra hic insertum pacti fæderis atque articulorum conventorum instrumentum, cum serenissimæ celsitudinis suæ commissariis per dictos extraordinarios legatos nostros, in ordinem redactum, in omnibus punctis & clausis approbavimus, & ratum habuimus, prout tenore ac vigore præsentium illud approbamus & ratum habemus, spondentes nos dictum instrumentum in omnibus punctis & clausulis suis inviolabiliter servaturos ac impleturos, neque passuros, ut a quoquam ullo modo infringatur vel violetur. In quorum fidem & robur hasce per nostri consessus præsidem signari ac graphiario subscribi, & majori sigillo nostro muniri fecimus. Dabantur Hagæ Comitum, &c.

The states here were in such haste, that before the treaty came hither signed from England, this form of ratification was already drawn. And, in truth, from heaven could not come a more welcome thing generally to all these people, that were near destroyed; and for all their boast, and utmost endeavours, are not yet able to send any considerable fleet to sea; and for all is done, are yet in some sear of your formidable fleet. The royalists and Orange party are much dejected; yet lifted up with some lyes, and daily fresh ones, to comfort their friends.

Our embassadors with you in England have written hither, that some few days before the peace was by them and the protector's commissioners signed, the Spanish embassador was in private with the protector, and urged by all reasons and motives he could the continuation of the war betwixt the English and us; and that the king of Spain would give one million plate in hand presently to the protector; would also surrender to him, for security, the town of Dunkirk, and fort of Mardyke; and would be at the one half of expence of the wars, &c. This begets the said embassadors credit here, and they will get much moneys by it from the secret treasury; for, say they, it cost us much money to undermine and frustrate such heavy plots. In fine, they will get by it, whether the thing be true or false; for at their last being here, they inculcated many great friends they made, of which in my former letters you had more. Besides the loss these states had in Brasil, I hear the English and Portuguese have done them jointly some great harm in the East-Indies. But such news you may have from merchants; so I leave it. Sir,

A letter of intelligence from Brussels.

Brussels, 26 April, 1654. [N. S.]

Vol. xiii. p. 197.

Yours are received, and sent to Ratisbon, as accustomed. Your peace with Holland is now confirmed by all hands, from all parts; welcome news to some, and the contrary to many, chiefly your enemies.

Don Francisco Romero, sent by the archduke to congratulate the protector, is returned hither, as I writ in my former; and since that, gave a particular account to his imperial highness here, and in what manner he was treated by his highness the protector, which I need not repeat to you. But I can assure you, that gentleman is highly satisfied, and the archduke nothing less. The description Romero gave, and still gives, of the protector's person, physiognomy, gestures, and behaviour, get here many gallants about him, and are much delighted in hearing of him. In fine, Don Francisco is a noble grateful person, and well worthy of the honours he there received.

Here is no mention of a peace with France, but preparing for the field with all the speed we can. Yet, to be free with you, I fear we shall not be ready for it before it be about the twenty-fifth of next month. Interim, the Lorainers have plundered all in the quarters we assigned for them, and it seems will not be quiet till they have their duke; nor then also. But him they shall not have, who since the removal of count Bassigny and baron de Merci to the castle of Ghent, (as you had before) has got more liberty in the castle of Antwerp, having five chambers, and a little garden to take his pleasure in. The guards are also taken away from the said duke. His first gentleman, the captain of his guard, and Mr. St. Martin his first counsellor, which were all taken, with many other servants of his, are sent to the castle of Brussels. The process of count Bassigny and de Merci are making with all secret diligence. Duke Francis of Lorain is now here shortly expected, and a number of Lorain gentlemen parted from hence to meet him. Also the companies of the guard to his brother are preparing to meet him in the frontiers, when they hear of his departure from Ratisbon, which will be soon.

Prince of Condé has made the earl of Castlehaven commander in chief of the Irish under his command; but of the eight hundred colonel Montagh O Brian carried with him three companies already are gone into France, and more like to go. I hear there are two thousand men more landed from Ireland in Dunkirk; but upon what score, I know not, nor more now of any thing else worthy, from, Sir,

F. de Vries, the Dutch agent in Denmark, to the states general.

Copenhagen, 26. April, 1654. [N. S.]


H. and M. Lords,
Being arrived here the twenty-second of this month, on the twenty-fourth following, I had audience before the rixhoffmaster and chancellor, and delivered your lordships letters to his majesty to the chancellor, and desired him, that he would be pleased to send it to his majesty at Holstein with all speed; and that in the mean time the English ships and goods, that yet remain unsold, and the proceeds of those that are already sold, may be had in readiness to be restored to those, who shall appear here to receive them. To which the said lords answered, that they would do all that they could to effect it; and thereupon on the twenty-fourth they sent away your lordships letter by an express to the king. In the mean time I have endeavoured to get information of the constitution of the said ships, according to your H. and M. L. commands of the twentyfourth of April, whereof I am promised to have the true state given me the twenty-ninth of this month. The taking up of fifteen thousand guilders, to the end as in the former resolution, and to draw upon your H. and M. lordships, is here impossible, according to the report of a very vigilant man here, whom I have sent to all the merchants here, whom I suspected to have money.

A letter of intelligence.

Rome, 27/17. April, 1654.


I RECEIVED yours of the twenty-sixth of last month, by which you confirm, that your peace with Holland is to be for certain, but not believed here; nay, to the contrary, many letters bring, that France and Holland have a league and confederacy against the protector and England, of which I expect seriously the certainty from you, that I may confront some of the cavalier letters, and their receivers.

Of pax general nothing since my former, nor of cardinal Stalli; he remains in the same condition, because the Barberini will have it so.

The pope tandem granted bishops to the king of Spain for Catalonia.

This duke of Terra-nova, embassador now from that king here, is a gallant person. He told to the pope in plain terms, at his last long audience, that the king his master could well judge betwixt words and deeds. He prosesseth to be the ruin of the Barberini, and threatens that if the cardinals shall chuse a pope after this, of the known faction of France, that they shall repent it.

Cardinal de Medicis, senior, is still the leader of the Spanish faction, as you had formerly.

The pope is very old and various, and certainly feareth Spain, as now all Italy does, by reason of armies in Naples extraordinary; the like not seen these many years.

Negotia status in Rome are very doubtful; but those proceedings of Spain will cause all to be clarified, as it seems, soon.

Of R. C. here is nothing considerable at present, or any thing else; for every week brings no great matters from the slow and secret counsels of Italy: from France you may expect them, but not here, from, Sir,

Will. Tomson to the protector.

May it please your Highnesse,
I have out of my zealous desires to serve your highnesse, writ severall letters to you from France, some of which bore date the second, the fifth, and the ninth of July, 1653. others bearing date in Januarie and Februarie, 1654. but not being so happie as ever to resaive aine in returne, by way of answer from your highnesse, I have hitherto forborne to truble your highnesse 'til now, that I am acertained of so trustie a person, as I know the gentleman to bee, by whose convaence this comes to your highnesse. The busines yet stands fare; and if your highnes please to use your power to keep the three brothers in France but some small time, I am verie confident to bee verie instrumentall to effect something, that may give your highnesse good cause to beleeve me, and esteeme of mee, as your highnesse
Caliss, April 27th, 1654. [N. S.]

Moest dutiful and obedient servant,
Will. Tomson.

A letter of intelligence from the Hague.

27th April, 1654. [N. S.]

Vol. xiii. p.205.

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Holland hath not only resolved for themselves to give their voice for the lord Beverning, for the charge of treasurer-general, in the place of the deceased lord Brassart, but doth endeavour mainly to get likewise the voices of the other provinces; whereof I see so much likelihood, that there is no doubt to be made but it will be bestowed upon him; and there being also a place void in the chamber of accounts, which is master of the accounts, (wherewith the deceased lord of Heemstede was provided) I believe will be undoubtedly given to the lord Nieuport, for a sign and testimony, that Holland doth take great content in what they have negotiated in England. And those two lords will have all the honour and thanks, although their rhetorick and conduct did help there but little, in my opinion, if the protector had not inclined unto it himself, although that Holland itself, or the most part, (and I have heard it from the lord Nieuport likewise) did believe, that the protector would not have a peace; that he did seek the war; that the rencounter of Tromp, on the 19/29. of May, was only a pretence and colourable; and for all that, there would have been a war; and that the letters of marque granted to Mr. Paulet, and the visiting of ships going for France, were the forerunners of war; and that the peace was not like to last long, which Orange party had in their heads, I will not speak any thing.

The princess dowager hath sent her good wishes, and to congratulate by the president the assembly on the peace, desiring, that God would bless it. The states general have authorized the lord president to thank the said princess; but I do not hear any thing of the princess royal.

The lord de Witt, raedt pensionary of Holland, hath also been to see the princess dowager; hath expresly entertained her upon the contents of the peace, and upon the rigid articles ten, eleven, twelve: item, upon the proviso, assuring the said princess, that the intention of Holland was no wise to be understood by the word hostes, item the word declarare, notisicare; for then presently upon such a single declaration, this state must banish or misuse all those, whom the English should declare such; but yet however Holland did not think it fit to passan act or resolution, (as those of Guelderland and others did much desire) for fear that might presently have given offence and distaste to the English. The lord of Swieten Bicker of Amsterdam likewise hath been to see the princess dowager; the one and the other assuring her, that wrong was done to Holland, in saying, that Holland was an enemy of the house of Orange; that in convenient time and opportunities it would otherwise appear; but at present, besides the youngness of the prince, the time was not convenient; that there must be first an end made of this war.

To tell you my opinion of this, I do believe, that those, who at present are the most powerful among the magistrates of Holland, do not think of making themselves to depend upon the prince of Orange, and therefore will maintain the power they have of chusing their own magistrates; secondly, those, who are at present the most powerful among the magistrates of Holland, cannot imagine, that if they submit to the prince, they shall be admitted into the cabinet; but that the cabinet will be reserved to the old faction, or to those, who were formerly at the devotion of the prince. Without these two considerations, I think that all things would be managed as formerly.

The act of neutrality, which the states of the empire have presented here, by virtue of the fifty-third article of the peace of Munster, having been perused and examined, hath given no satisfaction here. They do pretend, that the act being simply promised in the said fifty-third article, it must be simply given; that the clause de gravaminibus doth presuppose some sort of enmity; they will have it without any tail or limitation.

As for the inclusion desired by the king of Spain in the peace of England, they pass it by in silence, without declaring either in the negative or affirmative.

The lords of Holland are suddenly called and assembled upon this news of the peace. Without doubt they will be now admonished and persuaded to give their consent for the present to be given to the lord Brasset, who otherwise will give in a serious and sharp protestation.

1st of May.

The states of Holland are met suddenly together, and especially upon the points, or one point of importance, which was communicated in private, and under an oath. I am told it is, that the English by virtue of the articles ten, eleven, twelve, had declared the lords Somersdyke, Renswoude, and Boreel, for their enemies; and consequently desiring, that they be forthwith banished. Some do also add hereunto the lieutenant colonel Henderson; others saying, that they are forty in number; but I believe this conjecture cometh out of England, from whence they write, that the son of his highness the lord protector doth embrace the interest of the king against the said protector. That which is aforementioned is very incredible; and yet the contents of the tenth, eleventh, and twelfth articles, will produce something.

They have not yet expedited the business of Embden, whereof the commissioners are very importunate, desiring that the state would give new orders, whereby to continue the raising of taxes for the payment and maintenance of 600 men, which is in question. The earl and other members of East-Friesland are against it. So likewise they have not yet known, how to explain themselves upon the act of neutrality of the states of the empire. They do think they have satisfied the said states by the publication of the peace of Munster, of which peace the fifty-third article is a member, without being obliged to any other act of neutrality; but the king of Spain, having obliged himself to furnish an express act, must look to the effect of it.

The lord resident Brasset went away from hence on wednesday the twenty-ninth. The lord de Beverweert lent him his yacht, or little frigat, to carry him to Encluse: he went away without any present; yet he did not exhibit his protestation.

Extract of a letter of M. de Bordeaux, the French embassador in England, to M. de Brienne, secretary of state in France.

27 d'Avril, 1654. [N. S.]

From the collection of M. de Bordeaux's letters, in the library of the abbey of St. Germain at Paris.

Petit a petit le protecteur purgera l'armée des Anabaptistes; apres quoi l'on croit, qu'il prendra encore une nouvelle qualité. Beaucoup lui donnent ce conseil; mais quand monsieur de Baas en a voulu laisser aller quelque mot a un de ses ministres, il ne l'a point receu en bonne part. Ainsi je ne crois pas si a propos de nous mester, que d'en temoigner de la satisfaction, apres qu'elle sera publique.

Report of what has happened, concerning the granting of the act of exclusion of the prince of Orange to Cromwell.


On the 28th of April 1654. the counsellor pensionary de Witt reported, that to the said counsellor something was sent from England, whereof secrecy to one another was recommended.

Whereupon the same being put to the vote, it was resolved, that before the affair was opened, every one should make oath with his fingers lifted up, which was done accordingly; viz. That the said affair should not be revealed, neither should any one say, that some secret matters had been consulted upon, before it was agreed upon what foot, and how far it should be kept a secret; upon which some declared, that they were obliged by their oath to communicate the same to the burgomasters. Whereupon it was reported; That besides the signed and sealed treaty, there was come a letter from Beverning and Nieuport, directed to the states of Holland, dated the 15th of April, mentioning, that after all endeavours the protector of England would not be persuaded to accept the regulation concerning the prince of Orange; and that the protector had told them, that the seclusion of the prince was the interest of Holland, and agreeable to the resolution of the 28th of August, 1653. setting forth that there was no inclination for a captain general; and that he had all his confidence in the affection of Holland. Against which the two embassadors afore-mentioned alledged, that they had their commission from the states general, and no particular character from Holland; and therefore they insisted upon the acceptance of the said medium or regulation. Hereupon Beverning was sent for to come to Cromwel, and after having acquainted Nieuport therewith, but without communication to Jongestall, he went and spoke with Cromwel, who told him, that he could not be easy in himself, unless Holland would promise by herself, that they would never chuse the prince of Orange, nor any of his line, to be stadtholder or admiral of their province; neither that they would consent by their votes, that he should be placed over the forces of the generality. Therefore the protector had declared, that he would ratify the other articles of the treaty, provided the embassadors would promise, that either now, or within three months time, the said act should be made out; whereupon they at last took it upon them, that they would write to the states to get further instructions; saying, that upon this act depends peace or war, and that Cromwel put his confidence in Holland.

That in a conference with Thurloe, he used very harsh expressions against the prince, and against his family, as being related to the house of Stuart.

Hereupon it was resolved, to communicate the same, under oath, to the burgomasters, that they should consult how far this affair ought to be carried on. On the first of May, the said affair was again brought upon the carpet, and was then accepted: in the afternoon they consulted further upon it, and left off; but on the fourth it was resumed again, and that day, against the protest of five members, it was resolved, that they being forced to it, and against their inclination, and out of mere necessity, would sign an act, which that night was still drawn up and read, containing, that Holland shall never chuse the prince of Orange, nor any one of his line, to be stadtholder or admiral of Holland; and that she shall never consent by her vote, that he be made captain general of the land forces of the generality; and that orders should be sent to the embassadors, that they should still try their utmost for the medium or regulation, and afterwards deliver the act.

The counsellor pensionary declared, that he for himself had written to the embassadors, that they should do their utmost to get the regulation accepted, whereby they would do the greatest service to the country and to themselves, since that act was forced out with great difficulty, and out of mere necessity.

On the fifth of May, it was put to the vote, how long the secrecy concerning the passing of this act should last; and since divers members thought themselves to be absolved from the oath, it was resolved to manage this affair so as the welfare of the country should require, and to absolve the members from their oath of secrecy.

An intercepted letter from Paris.

Paris, 28/18 of April, 1654.

Vol. xiii. p. 277.

In my last, I sent you one inclosed from Charles Stuart, and told you, while I was last week absent with your mistress in the country, my cabinet was stolen out my chamber, and the character, by which I used to account with you for divers things, stolen with the rest. Whether it was want or curiosity, a thief or a spy, I cannot tell; but certain I am, neither will be satisfied, when they find so little what either expected; for there was neither money not letters, only some papers of accounts such as yours, which they will no longer be able to make use of, than until the persons, who have interest in them, are acquainted with their loss, which is already certified; and you, by supplying me with such another, will enable me to serve you as formerly. What remains in my memory I shall a little employ at present, though I fear imperfectly.

a Scots lord hath complained of her own and divers of her friends ill usage by some persons, whom for reasons above-named I cannot specify. Charles Stuart promises all satisfaction and tenderness in that consideration; and hereupon it is agreed, that Mr. Long, whom they do the honour to believe as faithful as impartial, should be sent into Scotland, to see how the state of affairs stand there, and to carry such orders as the Scots lord shall advise, for the settling and reconciling the divided interests and humours amongst those merchants, and return to the true state of the common stock, that Charles Stuart may by such an account be enabled to make a judgment, whether she ought to employ her person, or whole estate there, or follow those little trafficks she hath here and in other parts, until she finds some other juncto or market more advantageous. You will much advance your mistress's service, if you will give your opinion by the next return; and whether or not you conceive, that those, which are concerned there, will with clearness, confidence, and integrity, communicate freely with him in all their grievances and desires; for I am so well acquainted with the gentleman, as I dare affirm, this is far from his seeking, nor can he otherwise be engaged, than as it is manifested to his understanding, that his going may be of service to your mistress, and all those that are engaged in that war. I shall, for what my share shall be in it, rely wholly upon your advice; and if you think, that my treating with them may unite them to unanimity of understanding, or that a faithful report from a man she trusts, may incline your mistress to lay out more of her person, stock, and endeavours for the common good of those people; I shall incline Mr. Long, as much as I can, to go through those difficulties and dangers I know he must meet withal to serve your mistress, and the rest, to the utmost of his power; but if you think he may not be proper, let me intreat you as his friend, to advise his stay, and advertise your mistress of some other you think will be acceptable to the employment.

The superscription was,
To Mr. Greene, under cover to Mrs. Anne Egleston.

The Dutch embassadors in England to the states general.

High and Mighty Lords,


My Lords,
We have received your lordships resolution and instrument of the ratification by the hands of M. Ruyshaver, whereof we gave notice presently to his highness and the secretary of state, and have spoken about the exchange thereof, which we hope to do very suddenly. We have made further instance about the elucidation of the third article, and we expect every hour an answer thereupon, which we shall presently dispatch by an express to your lordships. We do greatly long to receive the names of the arbitrators for the deciding of the questions mentioned in the thirtieth article of the treaty of peace, because the instrument cannot be perfected till such time as the names be known.

18/28. April, 1658.


Bradshaw, resident at Hamburgh, to secretary Thurloe.

Vol. xiii. 231.

I am sorie to heare so late from you, how bad the powder proved: all possible care was taken heere by nombringe and markinge every parcell from the parties it was bought of, that in case any part proved bad or not merchantable, upon notice from you, or the officers receiveinge it, course might have been taken heere for satifaction, which everie person stood obliged unto by the custome of the place, it beinge a commodity, which could not be so inspected, but much must be left to the honnesty of the seller; but now reparation cannot be required, so much time being lapsed since the deliverie in England. I am certaine the merchant I employed for the buyinge of it in, is both as honnest and as understandinge as any we have in this place; he's much trubled to heare how bad it proved, now it's too late to seeke reparation. It was to outward appearance all of it as good, and shipt in as good condition as ever any that went hence, except it should take wett in the ship, which had extreme foule weather in the river and at sea, as I then writ you; but it may be (though it be kept from you) there was not due care had of its landinge. I shall endeavour to get the rest sould again heere; but now peace is concluded, there is no present vent for it. The ship is loadinge the masts. I expect your order, if she shall come away as soone as wee heare hostility ceaseth, or stay for a convoy; she will be ready now in ten dayes. In my last I writ you, that this senate, to please the partie, had sett Waites at liberty. You may well imagine the malignants are high, findinge their solicitation so prevailent. I have not yet heard from my lord protector or yourselfe touchinge that businesse. I shall waite his highnesse pleasure, and in the meane tyme keepe me as much as I can out of the eye of insolencie. I am, Sir,
Hambr. 18. April, 1654.

Your humble servant,
Richard Bradshaw.

A letter of intelligence from Paris.

29. April, 1654. [N. S.]

Vol. xiii. p. 232.

Having received yours of the 24th instant; here is not much of consequence since my former, only great bruit commonly in court, of a truce between this king and his majesty of Spain for two year's time, which many believe to be true, but others not; and that prince Condé is comprehended in that treaty, upon condition he shall retire five years to Venice, and give over all his estate in France, to the king, except his offices in the king's house and elsewhere. We must expect more certainty of it, before we believe it.

We hear just now, that M. Pimentelli, embassador lately for his majesty of Spain in Sweden, having received a passport from this court to return into Spain, is arrived yesternight at Montrouge, half a league from this city, and a house belonging to the first president here, who entertained the said embassador very gallantly there since his arrival; and that cardinal Mazarin visited him there yesterday, where (as said) he proposed the above-mentioned truce for two years time, thinking him to have power from his master to treat or conclude the like.

The said Pimentelli will arrive in Paris this night, where he shall be entertained by his eminence, being acquainted with him, when he was banished out of France last time to Bonvillon and Dinan in Pays de Liege.

Last week M. duke de Richelieu presented a petition to the high council, by which he desired, that his majesty might be pleased to give him the government of Havre de Grace, which is now in possession of Madame la duchesse d'Esquillon his own cousin; but she having the king's commission for it, the council determined yet nothing concerning it.

The king danced yesternight at the royal ballet, where the queen of France was, and she that was of England; as also king Charles, his brother York, and the little princess, &c. The king is to part monday next for Fontainebleau. What he is to do afterwards, I do not yet know.

Last friday the crocheteurs and menue people of the parish of St. Paul were in a mutiny, and to kill some Jesuits, or they should have their curate recalled back again; which was promised to them for fear of mischiefs; but whether it soon will be performed, I cannot yet assure.

Last saturday an arrest was given in council, that M. de Bordeaux, father to our embassador there, as also Gargon, Bordie, and others, being intendants de finances, should pay their part of the high impositions ordered before upon them, as well as upon others, which shall come to about four or five hundred thousand livres each of them, as others have paid before by the proportion.

The Jesuits at present dare not stir abroad, and especially go in that side of St. Paul, by reason of the boatmen, that wait daily for them. Last saturday two Theatines were passing near the church of St. Paul; the people, thinking them to be Jesuits, fell suddenly upon them; and were it not that some reasonable persons happened in the place, which assured them they were no Jesuits, the poor Theatines had been undone.

All the doctors and curates of this city have many assemblies concerning the king's arrest against the said curate, and favour of the Jesuits; and have determined and concluded among themselves, that no Jesuit shall ever preach in their parishes or churches. I do not yet know, which of them shall prevail. Saturday last, M. Boreel, embassador of Holland, received orders from his masters, that he should visit the king here, and let his majesty know, their peace with England was concluded, and partly signed; which he did, and got no more answer than Ala bonne heure.

We hear, M. de la Marin's regiment goes to garison in Brisac, by reason of the differences happened between him and the other antient regiments, as you heard of before.

His majesty received letters last week from Bretagne, that the English appeared at sea with about a hundred and twenty sail upon those coasts, and had three hundred cannons shot towards the fort of Louis, alias Blauet, which caused marshal de la Meilleraye to write to his majesty, that he might be pleased to send arms and ammunition to those places; also order all the peasants to have their arms in a readiness in case of any sudden attempt, &c. They are fortifying all places there and elsewhere in France, where they fear their present or future enemies; which is all known at present. Sir,
Your faithful servant.

A letter of intelligence from M. Augier's secretary.

Paris, 29/19 April, 1654.


The 25/15th of this instant, the rumour ran through this city, that cardinal Mazatin had done so well by his intelligences, that a truce of ten years was, as it were, concluded between this state and Spain; but it was only found to be grounded upon the arrival of a secretary, which the embassador Pimentelli, coming from Sweden into Spain, has sent here as a forerunner before him, to found the ford, and tell him news of it; whereof the said cardinal would have prevailed for three reasons; first, to insinuate himself in the people's good favour, in shewing how much he desires peace; secondly, to terrify the officers of the army, in giving them to understand, that the worst may be the less unserviceable; and, thirdly, to favour the alliances with other foreign countries, in giving them jealousies, thereby to moderate their pretensions, which is a politick work enough amongst the more understanding. Nevertheless his eminence, to give lustre thereunto, hath several times conferred with the said secretary; and they forget not to coax him, until his master arrives with the necessary powers to end the treaty of the said truce, which they content themselves to have well begun; which is a thing, that seems to be vain and ridiculous enough, being the said embassador comes from Sweden, and not from Spain, and that such powers ought to come from Madrid. Although there is much likelihood, that for the said cardinal's part, he would be so much the more disposed unto that truce, that the jealousies he hath of the English armings give him much to think, and have cast him in some manner of disgust, since it is commonly said in the Louvre, that his highness the lord protector hath not spoken French unto his majesty's embassador. The said secretary hath been brought from Montrouge near Paris, (where he is, and where the cardinal hath seen him) to the Louvre, to see the masque; and they are preparing an honourable lodging in Paris, to receive the said Pimentelli his master.

They also expect here in a few days a new embassador from Savoy, where the marshal de Grancey returns, whilst Don Joseph de Marguerit goeth to a command in Catalonia, until the prince of Conti and the marshal of Hocquincourt be arrived there.

The Portugal embassador hath informed this court of the news he hath received, that their nation hath wholly defeated and repulsed the Hollanders out of Brasil.

There are news, that the prince of Condé hath had some fits of fever, and that he hath run a great danger in leaping out of his coach to avoid a greater inconveniency.

The deputies of the reformed churches do not yet receive any satisfaction; but audience is ere long promised them.

We have notice from Bergerac, that the pastors of the churches of Languedoc had written unto those of Guienne, that it was convenient to demand vigorously justice on this occasion; but that, amongst others, the minister of Bergerac had answered, that they were not minded to press, but to temporize, until the end of the synod.

It was said, the cardinal Mazarin was in a resolution to have himself cut; but that operation hath been remitted for some months.

The elus have offered six millions of livres Tournois unto the king, if so be he would only re-establish them for twenty-four years, whereunto his majesty will not give ear.

The Stuarts take much delight in the great masques, until the displeasure of their still pretended voyage.

Mr. W. Ryley to secretary Thurloe.

Vol. xiii. p. 288.

Honourable Sir,
Since I saw you last, I was told by a gentleman of worth, that there is an ordinance to be drawn up for the improvement of the forrests (fn. 1), and that the act for the sale of them was declyned. Truly, Sir, I may with a cleare conscience and assured confidence affirme, that I have cordially served his highness the lord protector and the states in all trusts reposed in me, and more particularly in the weighty business of the forrests, (whereof his highness hath had some speciall testimony) and for which I had so great esteeme with the committee of inspections and others before them, as likewise with the trustees for the sale of the forrests, as to meritt an imployment of agency under them; the which I doe not hereby declyne, being most willing with the best of my skill to serve his highness and the state. But knowing my place of Norroy king of armes to be an office of quality, though not of profitt, and the agency farr inferiour to that, amounting but to the degree of a sollicitor at most, (in which employment I tooke great paines, was at much charge, but had noe recompence at all) and likewise taking notice of the declension of some of the trustees in the execution of the forrest business, in which I may, (I humbly conceave) by reason of my knowledg and long experience in the records, be very usefull; I doe therefore humbly desyre you to be a meanes, that my employment may be changed from agency to a trustee or commissioner for improvement of the forrests, where I am bold to say, I shall knowingly discharge my trust and duty, and appear therein very dilligent and faithfull. And for your further satisfaction herein, I have inclosed the copies of some papers, which I presented heretofore to his highness, to whose service I am devoted. Sir, I crave pardon for my boldness herein, and humbly acknowledg all your noble favours expressed to, Sir,
19 April, 1654.

Your reall and faithfull servant,
William Ryley.

A letter of intelligence.

Ratisbon, 20/30 April, 165¾.


Yours I received by the last, confirming the conclusion of your peace with the United Provinces; unwelcome news to many here, especially to the lord Wilmot's crew; but they cannot help it. That business is not yet fully ended here, but will be, before the emperor departs, and no sooner done but that you shall know of it. The gentleman to be sent to Rome is not yet dispatched by the emperor and the elector of Mentz, nor will till the emperor's arrival at Vienna; which gives me cause to believe, that he shall not be dispatched 'till the month of September next, by reason of the excessive heat in the months of June, July, and August. As it shall happen, you shall know.

It is impossible, (for all is said) that the emperor can go from hence 'till the fourth or tenth of May; for they cannot sooner make an end of some points, which concern the empire, as to settle the justice of Spire, to adjust the credits and debts of those that represented their grievances, and to settle some manner of defence against every one that shall invade the empire.

The emperor demanded some sixty Roman months, (as they call it) which is 1,500,000 [dollars] at least; and after this, the recess of the diet to be done; and so they expect, that all this may be done in so short a time, the most part being already concluded; and then all will be gone.

The emperor promises to call another diet within two years at Ratisbon; and in the mean time, the justice to fit at Spire, and to put in order all the gravamina and points of restitution, that all things may be settled in the diet.

The embassador of France died here, as you had in my former.

The elector Palatine came hither to take his leave of the emperor, and the duchess of Bavaria is to meet the emperor six leagues from hence in a city of her own, with her children, and there will take her leave of her brother.

The emperor sent away all his guards, and the most of the nobility, that follows the court; for it was published for certain, that the emperor was to depart the twenty-seventh of this month, and all the boats were ready, being 200 great ones in all, and 2000 mariners. The charges are great; therefore the journey must not be longer deferred.

From Poland, nothing certain.

I return to your peace with Holland. It has been well for them; for I have it from a good hand, that the emperor, the duke of Newburgh, the electors of Cologne and Brandenburgh, with (it may be) private assistance from Spain, were to besiege Guelders; and the two last engaged themselves so far, that if they appeared not in it, they were contented to lose their interests in the country of Guelders; and that occasioned them to take the places heretofore possessed by the Hollanders in the country of Brandenburgh; but since they have made their peace with your protector, that design is broken and frustrated.

Here is nothing more now worth the writing. Take what is, from, Sir,

Whitelocke, embassador in Sweden, to secretary Thurloe.

In the possession of the right honourable Philip ld. Hardwicke, lord high chancellor of Great Britain.

I have very little, whereof to give you an account since my last letters to you, the queene and her court beinge absent. This is a very sollitary place. I know but one senator in towne, graef Leonhough, whoe did me the favour to visitt me; and wee had some discourse concerninge their militia, part whereof he was goeinge to take a muster of, which I could learne noe other ground but the usuall course every yeare to doe it. The Danish ambassador and the Dutch resident are still heere. The Spanish, Germaine, and Muscovia envoyes are gon away. My busines remaynes in a readines to be signed, which is appointed upon the queene's returne, and shee is looked for every day. If it be not signed within this few dayes, it cannot be done by her at all, because shee intends to resigne the government the beginninge of May, and perhaps the prince may be crowned in June; and two or three monethes after that, before new credentialls cann be sent from his highnes, and it may be two or three more in ceremoney and dispatch of the busines; by which tyme another winter will be heere. Upon which considerations, I humbly conceive it much more for the service of my lord, to dispach my busines heere out of hand; and the rather, because of the conclusion of the Dutch treaty, which I hope will proove very prosperous to our nation. My articles had ben signed before the queene's goeinge away, but that shee was willinge to communicate them to the prince, before her commissioners signed them, which I likewise thought very fitt to be done, in regard he is soe neere the succession. And I likewise intend to salute him from my lord, before my goinge out of this country. I am now only in expectation of his highnes farther commands and instructions concerninge my returne, which I hope for by the next post, accordinge to your letters of the last of March, which I receaved yesterday. I presume Mrs. Thurloe will joyne with me in asking your pardon for the importunity of a lovinge wife, whoe troubles you daylie sollicitinge for an order for her husband's returne. I consesse wee have troubled noe other freind but yourselfe (since my beinge heere) in my affaires; and it hath pleased God to give a blessinge to it. I have seen the testimonies of the affection and respects of a true freind, and the successe of my desires, which I hope it will please God to contynue to me, and to give me leave in England to make my most harty acknowledgements of your curtesies. I give you many thanks for the papers, which you sent me concerninge your treaty with the Dutch, and the other papers, which are not only a comfort, but very usefull to me heere. I receaved formerly from you the coppy of the articles betwixt you and the Dutch; and if I did not returne you thanks for them, I consesse I forgott myselfe; and likewise, if in one of my letters I did not acquaint you, that the queene had an intention (as the told me) to sende a congratulatory letter to my lord the protector; but how the direction was, I know not, because I never saw it; but take it as a particular favour in parte to me, that his highnes was pleased to receive it, though it were not as it ought to have ben, wherein he hath aunswered the respect of the queene, whoe excepted against my credentialls, but yet received them. I am exceedinge glad of your good conclusion of the Dutch business, which I am perswaded wil be of greate advantage to our nation. And I look upon the issue of my busines heere beinge agreed, before the issue of our treaty with the Dutch was knowen, to be both a perticuler respect to my lord and the government under his highnes, and lesse difficult then it might have ben, if transacted after our agreement with the Dutch. They are much amused in these parts at our gallant fleete, and soe erly at sea; and I permitt them all their conjectures; nether have they gained much from me by their inquisitivenes about it. I had a complement sent me the last weeke from the Dutch resident, that he hoped ere longe to have an opportunity to come and visitt me. I aunswered, that I should not be wantinge in that civility which became me. With my prayers for your happines, and the prosperity of your affairs, I remayne
Upsale, 21 April, 1654.

Your respectfull freind to serve you,
B. Whitelocke:

I was intreated by the cittizens of Stockholme to recommend this suite of theirs conteyned in the enclosed paper.


  • 1. The order of council for this purpose passed 18 Apr. 1654. Whitel. p. 588.