A Collection of the State Papers of John Thurloe, Volume 2, 1654. Originally published by Fletcher Gyles, London, 1742.
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January (3 of 3)
An intercepted letter of sir Edward Hyde.
Paris, 24 January, [1654. N. S.]
Vol. x. p. 240.
I Have deferred answeringe yours till now, because I could not speake at large with your old servant, and satisfie myselfe, whether he would be drawne to do my lord protector true and faythfull service, as you desyre, and as an honest man should do. But I see playnely, he is as very foole as ever, and talkes as senselesly; nay is still so madd, as to imagyne, that he shall compasse his businesse by his old frendes, and that the presbeterians and Lenthall's parliament will hold up ther heades agayne, which I say were better to be cutt off. However you see how little good is to be expected from him, when he talkes so like an asse. He seemes to be as much trusted as ever; that is, his few frendes love him as well, and his many enimyes curse him as much: and to tell you the truth, the divell rages so amonge them, that few have fewer enimyes then he; and they who hate him, hate one another too; which is a fyne variety. He goes to Charonton as he was woonte, and the papists love him as they used to do. Though he be not worth all this discource, yett because you asked an account of him, which was a greate condescension and humillity in you, I have given it to you; and for myselfe, I do so absolutely depende upon your judgement in all thinges, that, right or wronge, I will do any thinge you vouchsafe to requyre from
The superscription, For your aunt.
Your most obedyent servant,
An intercepted letter to Mr. Michael Arnold.
Hague, 24 Jan. [1654. N. S.]
Vol. x. p. 242.
My sons are both providing arms and cloaths for Scotland, to my great charge, where my eldest son is to receive the command of a troop of horse, and his brother to troop with general Middleton, both resolving to die honourably in so just a cause, or live conquerors.
Your faithful cousin,
A letter of intelligence from Paris.
24 Jan. [1654. N. S.]
Vol. x. p. 243.
The post of this day is not yet arrived that I hear of. Yesterday we received by the letters from Holland, that the peace was broken between you and them; of which truly we are extremely glad, having expected nothing more to our comfort than it.
Hence you have of the 21st instant, that his majesty began to mount on horseback in little Bourbon near the Louvre, his master being at last Mr Alnofini an Italian, notwithstanding the opposition of the queen, and many others besides, which desired Mr de Memon to be the man. Mr de Plessy, an academist of the suburbs of St. Germains, is his assistant, who pleases the king more than the master, as many say.
The same day M. de Saintot, master of the ceremonies of the king, was sent to the parliament with a letter of cachet, desiring them to come to him to the Louvre next morning, or at least send their deputies: and the said Saintot gave them another letter from the king, wherein was an arrest from council to parliament, that they should not make any more assemblies concerning the rentiers of the town-house: upon which letters all the chambers assembled instantly, and concluded, that the first president with two counsellors out of every chamber should meet the king next morning, as he desired, to know his request further.
Next day two members of the parliament were commanded to the frontiers of Picardy, within four leagues to Peronne, to plant there a post of wood, just fore against Metz en Couture, being the first village of Flanders, where the army of Flanders are quartered, being but a small river separating France from Flanders. They had with them two trumpets of the king's, to put up and affix upon the said post the arrest given last day unto the prince of Condé, signifying, if he does not appear before the parliament of Paris, to clear himself of what is opposed unto him, that he shall lose wholly his interest in France. I am certain he will not appear.
Next day after, being Thursday last, the council, being assembled, have determined, upon pain of declaration criminal, that the rentiers should not assemble any more, his majesty having granted the half quarter payment, which they desired of himself, they desiring to be wholly paid; which his said majesty could not afford, tho' his declaration of the year 1648 appears to the contrary; which necessity compels the king not to perform. Some say, M. Servient surintendant is to be sent as ambassador extraordinary to Rome; whether true, or what may be his business, I do not yet well know.
His majesty has commanded M. de Buissel, du Portail, Pithou, de Port Carre, Martineau, and de Britant, counsellors in parliament, to quit their charge and office within a short time limited.
His majesty has the place of M. president Viole and l'Aisnet to dispose of, both being criminal contra legem majestatis, as formerly declared in parliament before the king. It is reported, the duke of Beaufort has been within twenty leagues of this city of late; and some say, he is there yet; and besides they say, he was in this town for a while, and had a long discourse with his eminency: also that his majesty intends to make him admiral in chief at sea, and 34 great ships for him, with all manner of provisions, only to the end he might be separated from the duke of Orleans. We must expect the confirmation of it.
Lately after the duke of Amville's return from the duke of Orleans, his majesty sent him yet a gentleman of his own house, to see whether he would better prevail, and gain the said duke, than the said Amville: the effect we do expect shortly. His majesty this week caused the archbishop of Bourges to come to this town: some say, it is to give him the archbishoprick of Rheims; of which we are not yet sure. The duchess of Longueville endeavours to obtain permission from her husband to live in a monastery, as the wife of duke de Montmorency has done after the death of her husband, being uncle to the duchess of Longueville.
This week those of Bourdeaux have sent express orders to their deputies here, desiring them to return homewards, having understood his majesty, or his council, did not intend to stand to their promises to them, when they made their peace with them; as to re-establish the castles in Bourdeaux, and pay no more taxes or impositions than they did before; which is now doubted, being contrary to their articles in their peace with the king lately; by that reason they are resolved not to have any more parliament in this city.
One called Dureteste, taken near Bourdeaux, being one of the chiefest of the L'Orme, is coming to this town, that his process may be made. Better abstain, when he had his liberty.
From Nismes in Languedoc we have, of the 19th instant, that the Roman catholicks there have deputed two counsellors of their presidial to Vas and Aubenas, to put in execution the king's declaration in their behalf, which the deputies of the reformed catholicks here hearing of, went to the council heavily to complain of the offence done to themselves. What may be the end of it, I know not yet.
From Alsace we have only at this time, that M. de la Ferté Senneterre, with his forces, that went to besiege Besfort, were forced by the soul weather to retire.
By letters yesterday from the Hague in Holland we have, that that state had determined, that the prince of Orange shall have no more authority or power, as his predecessors had heretofore; which the province of Guelderland have taken very ill; and that the young princess of Orange, hearing of it, wept three hours together, seeing her authority wholly annulled by that means.
All the English court here says to your alterations, is, that they are afraid his excellency
the lord protector will not fail to give the liberty of conscience in the three kingdoms;
which having obtained, and being somewhat free of heavy taxes, will never look for any
king Charles, who used them and their predecessors worse before, &c. I am,
Sir, Your faithful servant.
The number of forces in the Highlands, according to information received this day, 14 January, 53.
Besides severall other parties under sir Arthur Forbes, and others, are ranging the countries to encrease their numbers, as the other above-named doe allsoe.
An intercepted letter from lord Newburgh.
Paris, Jan. 14/24. 1653/4.
Vol. xxii. p. 373.
By this post I have not receaved any letters from you: by the last I writt so fully to you, in answer to yours, that I have now little to say, only will not omitt any opportunity of writinge to you; yet I can send you no positive newes of my leaving this place, but I am confident shall stay till your unlucky days be passed, if already that tyme be not expired. I should be glad to heare, that George were upon his returne, and that Mr. Browne had furnished him with one, if he have none. I pray desire him to take George to the markett, and there desire him to buy the best he can for that money. How they sell now, I know not; but I beleive he may have a large young one for 25 l. and doe not lett him stay out of expectation of havinge a better. Pray God send you good succes in your busines, and continue your and my little cosen's health; which shall be the constant prayer of
Your most affectionat and faithfull
For Mr. Jonas Longe.
A letter of intelligence.
Nismes, the 25th of January, [1654. N. S.]
Vol. x. p. 234.
This is the seventh tyme I have wretin to you since my cuming; bot as yett have not hard from you, my only desyr being to know, if you have receaved my letter. We have no considerabel newes heer for the present. The last weik ther passed a regiment of Irishe, about 4 or 500 men, who war not permitted to enter into this toune, because some of them did vaunt, that they had massacred the English in Ireland. It is reported, they ar gon to Piedmont this weike. The stats at Montpellier have not sitten in respect the archbishop of Narbonne, who is thir president, is tormented with the gout (a proper disseas indeed for a bishop). The last sabbath day ther was a Jew baptyzed heir, who came from Venice expresly to imbrece our religion. He was one of thir rabbins, a learned man in the languages, who coming to Marseilles, and being informed that this was a protestant toune, cam hither; so after a private and publicke examination, giving a publicke testimonie of his faith, was receaved in the bosome of the church. The business of Castres, of which I wrett to you in my last, is composed to the protestants advantage. So expecting dayly your commandes, the which ye may be assured, that to my power I shall hartely accomplish, wishing the Lord to blisse your desseigns, I rest to the nixt occasion, having receaved presently this French letter of Coudre, have not time to translate it, pressed by the parting of the post.
A Mons. Mons. Humes, merchand à Londres.
De Vries, the Dutch embassador in Denmark, to the states general.
Vol. x. p. 249.
H. and M. Lords,
For this bout I can give your H. and M. L. no other advice from hence, than that the lord Otto Craick, formerly secretary of his majesty, and lately also chosen to be one of the rix counsellors, having lived in the country, and being now made one of the privy council of his said majesty, is now come to reside at Copenhagen, and very much affected and inclined to your H. and M. L. I am informed, that there is arrived at Copenhagen an imperial ambassador, sent to the queen and crown of Sweden.
Two snippers of the fleet lying at Copenhagen were with me yesterday, and did report, that they were certainly informed, that some English ships do keep near Schonen and Gottenburgh, to surprise the said fleet in their passage; and asked, whether there was any hope of getting more convoy. They told me likewise, that captain Backer, who was sent as commander over the men of war, was deceased at Copenhagen; and that his son, who was master, and lieutenant, were both sick on ship-board; and desired me, that I would go thither, and take order about it; which I am resolved to do to-morrow, and to furnish them with what is necessary for their present occasions.
H. and M. L.
Elseneur, 25 Jan. [1654. N. S.]
S. de Vries.
Resolution of the states general.
Read the 26th Jan. [1654. N. S.]
Vol. x. p. 255.
The lords of Beverning, Nieuport, and Jongestal, according to their H. and M. L. resolution of the 22d of January 1654. being ordered to give the lord Charisius, resident of the king of Denmark, a full communication of what had happened in their negotiation in England, concerning the including of the said king in the treaties to be made with the commonwealth of England, have this day reported, that they did observe and fulfil their lordships commands that night; and had declared to the said resident at large, and with all the circumstances, that they in the conference with the lords commissioners of the lord protector were broken off about it, because they could not accept of the extension of that point, as the same was made in conformity of the said king, and set down in the express order of their lordships; but that it afterwards had pleased the lord protector to send after them another extension upon that article, whereby they found the said treaty, and the instruction of their H. and M. L. to be intirely and perfectly observed and fulfilled, as the same extension was twice read distinctly to the said lord president; and that he, after some other discourses concerning the satisfaction to be made to damnified merchants in England, which being likewise cleared up to him, he did declare to have received full content and satisfaction; and that his majesty, his council, and all the people in Denmark, would receive unspeakable joy thereby; desiring a copy of the said article to send his majesty the next day by the post, which they had caused to be sent unto him.
Extract of the resolutions of the lords states of Holland and West-Friesland, taken in their lordships assembly, on Tuesday the 27th of January [1654. N. S.]
Vol. x. p. 258.
It being put to the debate, how and in what manner after the convenientest way satisfaction can be given to the commonwealth of England, for the damages, which the proprietors of certain English ships, that were stayed the last year at the instances of their H. and M. L. in the harbours of the king of Denmark, do pretend to have suffered, as is mentioned more at large in the 7th article of the 29 articles; upon which the commissioners of their H. and M. L. lately come from England, were agreed with his the lord protector of the commonwealth of England, Scotland, and Ireland: which satisfaction, according to the said agreement and the foregoing resolutions of their H. and M. L. is to be made and borne by this state. Whereupon it is thought fit and understood, that the business shall be referred to the generality, to the end that those that shall be sent into England, may be generally and absolutely authorized to make an end of the said point in a friendly way, for so much, with his said highness the lord protector, in case they can come to a reasonable composure; or otherwise therein to yield such submission, as they, according to the opportunity and the inclination of the humours there, shall judge to tend to least cost and charge of this state.
Extract of the secret resolutions of my lords the states of Holland and West-Friesland, taken in their assembly, on Tuesday the 27th of Jan. 1654. [N. S.]
Vol. x. p. 261.
Upon the report made by Mr de Beverning and Nieuport to my lords the states of Holland and West-Friesland, concerning the clause which was inserted into the 12th of the 29 articles, which were exhibited unto them from the government of England, upon the 18/38 November, touching the prince of Orange and his line; after a mature deliberation, it hath been resolved and concluded, that in conformity to a proposition made to that end, the said clause shall be totally obliterated, as it hath been already taken away out of the 12th of the aforesaid 29 articles; and that instead thereof it shall be decreed and concluded by an express article in the treaty, that all those, who shall be advanced by the states general to the place of captain or admiral general of the militia by sea and land, or by the states of the provinces to the place of governor or stadtholder thereof, shall be bound and obliged to confirm by their oaths the above-said treaty, and all the articles thereof; and also to promise by oaths, that on their parts, and to their utmost power, they will maintain and execute it from one article to another, and will cause it to be maintained and executed.
Extract of the resolutions of the states of Holland and West-Friesland, taken in their assembly, on Tuesday the 27th of Jan. [1654. N. S.]
Vol. x. p. 262.
Report being made this day in this honourable assembly by M. de Beverning and Nieuport, commissioners, together with the deceased M. vande Perre, as also M. Jongestall, for and on the behalf of the states general, concerning their transactions in England, with all the circumstances and communications of divers propositions, answers, and other pieces relating thereunto, happened in their negotiation since the late return of M. Nieuport and Jongestall, in the month of August last; and of all they have negotiated and treated of in behalf of this state, first with the council of state, and consequently after the establishment of this present government with the lord protector of the commonwealths of England, Scotland, and Ireland; and especially that after sundry conferences, and various debates, the business was carried so far, that after they had agreed on both sides upon the articles of the treaty in hand, there wanted nothing more, but that the same should be signed and subscribed; and that the said M. de Beverning, Nieuport, and Jongestall, (Mr vande Perre being then deceased) had resolved unanimously to sign the same in the name of God, and in reference to a due ratification from the states general; but that they were hindered in this their resolution by a difference, that happened in the extent of the article touching the including of the king of Denmark, and the things depending thereupon; and that not knowing how to overcome this difficulty, nor how to accomplish together the instructions and orders of their superiors, by the extension that was offered, they were necessitated to defer the said negotiation; in which interim it pleased his highness the lord protector of the commonwealths of England, Scotland, and Ireland, to send unto the said deputies, after they were gone, such an extension upon the aforesaid points, which did satisfy them very much: and having given notice of this their resentment in a letter to his highness, they found it expedient and necessary to the happy and speedy accomplishment of the said treaty, that themselves should go over with all expedition, for procure an approbation and ratification of this their said negotiation; and that for the same end they thought it good to set down in writing what was agreed upon; the said conferences consisting of 29 articles. Which writing being read in the said assembly, and report being likewise made by the pensionary concerning the transactions of the said deputies of the states general upon the said 29 articles so mentioned; and all being seduced and cleared from the point, that the substance of the said articles was grounded upon, the articles of the instructions upon the ancient confederacies and agreements upon the resolution of the state that was sent to them; and that being weighed and considered, were found within the compass of the commission and order of the states general, thanks were returned by the members of the nobility, and the deputies of the cities, in the name of their superiors, unto the foresaid M. de Beverning and M. Nieuport; as the states of the province of Holland and West-Friesland do also return them thanks for these presents for their good offices and services, but especially for their zeal and fidelity they have shewn in this negotiation, for the good of the state, and the execution of the good intentions of the states general, according to their instructions, resolutions, and orders given unto them; which said members of the nobility, and deputies of forty cities, have also approved and ratified, in the names of their superiors, the said 29 articles absolutely without any reservation, according as they were agreed on the said conferences, as the states of Holland and West-Friesland do by this approve and ratify the same. And it is further resolved and concluded, that in the general assembly of the states it shall be declared by the states of Holland and West-Friesland, by way of their provincial resolution and advice, that thanks be given likewise by the states general unto the said deputies in general, and to every one in particular, in form and manner as is above-mentioned; and that the said their negotiation ought to be approved of, and likewise ratified; for which end the said states of Holland and West-Friesland, also shall do all their endeavour, as much as is possible or imaginable, henceforth, without any intermission, that the said ratification of the other provinces be procured, concluded, and affected, without any delay or loss of time; and that in the mean time the said deputies, or some, or at the least one of them be sent forthwith for England, to confer and sign the said articles with the commissioners of his highness, or as his highness pleaseth; and to procure, that as soon as possible may be, all hostility and retorsion may cease, and a suspension of arms may be made, including the king of Denmark, according to the treaty; that likewise letters be sent by the states general to all publick ministers of this state, and deputies of this nation, residing in France and Denmark, that they advertise the merchants and mariners intending to return for this land with their ships and merchandizes; and commanding them in the name of the states general to keep themselves yet for a while longer in the havens of the said kingdoms, till they be acquainted further, what the issue and final conclusion of this treaty with England shall be.
Extract out of the resolution of Holland.
Tuesday the 27th [1654. N. S.]
Vol. x. p. 267.
Was read the written proposition made by the lord ambassador Chaunt yesterday in the assembly of their H. and M. lordships, first by word of mouth, and afterwards in writing; tending to the end, that the king of France, for many and divers reasons, to be seen more at large in the said declaration, may be included in the treaty of alliance of this state to be made with the commonwealth of England: whereupon being debated, it is thought fit and understood, that the business shall be referred to the generality, to the end their H. and M. L. commissioners, or those who to the final finishing of the said treaty shall be sent into England, may be ordered in mandatis, that they do use all possible means, to the end the said king may be concluded in the said treaty; and that what shall be resolved by their H. and M. lordships, communication thereof be given to the said ambassador, with assurance, that their H. and M. L. will not only use all possible means for the said inclusion, but likewise in case of success, that the treaty take effect, their lordships will be ready to do all good offices at the desire of his said majesty, either by interposition and mediation or otherwise, to the end his said majesty, as well as this state, may come to a good understanding with the commonwealth of England.
Mr. Francis Wrenn to the protector.
Vol. x. p. 270.
May it please your highnes,
The incumbent dutie upon me I owe your highnes and commonwealth, binds me to give you this true, though short account, how these inclosed letters came to my hands; which for the matter conteined in them, your wisdome can best judge of; onely for the manner be pleased thus breifely to receave it: The carrier of them or intelligencer was a Highlander, who called himselfe Kinmore, and came from thence with an English fugitive, whom he named Edwards, as farr as Darlington in this county, where Edwards tooke post the 16th of this instant January for London. The Highlander comes backe the next night to a gentleman's house, one Butler, uppon a mistake for Bulmer, the name for the place, as the superscription of the letter shews; and gave Butler the letter, which he reads; and finding what bad consequence it was of, siezed the fellowe, and with the helpe of the constable of the towne searched him, and found those other letters uppon him; and havinge thought to have brought him before me that night, in the way made an escape. Then Butler comeing to me with the constable, and informeing me thus much, I immediately issued out a warrant to pursue him with huy and cry; and likewise sent to the post-master of Darlington, to pursue the other; of which yett I have noe account.
Durham, Jan. 17th 1653.
bound in all dutie,
Intelligence from Paris.
28 January [1654. N. S.]
Vol. x. p. 272.
Since my last to you, I received yours of the 9th instant, which I should have received last Friday, were it not that the post arrived not timely, as the post of this day is not yet come.
By letters of yesterday from Bruxells it is reported, your peace is made and concluded with Holland; which tho' it is not yet believed here, I believe France would not much dispute that matter, if they were sure to be comprehended.
There is great endeavours making for a general peace, by the advice of his holiness, between the French and the Spanish crowns, as it is hoped will appear by the time.
The pope's nuncio and the Venetian ambassador are the two persons here appointed for that purpose; though yet they have done nothing in effect.
It is reported king Charles will soon remove for Holland, and from thence for Scotland, hearing his party to be strong there at present.
Our king and cardinal went last Saturday to take their pleasure at St. Germains, five leagues off, and returned last Monday at night.
The 24th instant the most part of the rentiers of the town-house met at the first president's house, where likewise met M. Marshal de l'Hospital governor of Paris, prevost des marchands, and M. Fouquet procureur general in court. The business of the three last men is not yet come to light: but the first president was not much pleased, that all the rentiers should come daily together complaining, as he told them, at that present; and that it had been enough for them to send twelve men as deputies from them, and for the rest; for such assemblies would give occasion to the enemies of this crown to take their advantage, and withdraw the people to some mischiefs, which had been a great prejudice to the king's affairs, and his estate. To which they answered, that every man had an interest in that business; and if some of them had come, the rest at home would think they had been betrayed by the deputies, and therefore it was necessary for the whole to look after their own profit. Upon which the first president promised them, he would do his best to assemble all the chambers this week about their business.
Saturday last the queen being at the mass at Nostredame, most part of the wives of the above-mentioned rentiers cried there after her, that her majesty might pity their children and themselves, ruined and ready to starve for want of their bread; which if she would not do, they should be necessitated either to beg their bread from door to door, or die for want thereof; and desired, not to be advised by five or six that were in the council, being both the ruin of themselves and the whole country. The queen answered, that the king had business with the moneys to pay his army in the field, and that he could not have a better fund for it than that of the town-house, all the poor people abroad being ruined by the wars; and therefore they ought to have patience yet: that she would advise his majesty to content them the best she could. They did press her so much, that some of her guard were like to affront and strike the poor women, were it not the queen hindered it; and the women said, they themselves were better servants to his and her majesty than they, having given them their goods in their necessity, whereas they gave nothing, nor had it to give, &c.
Here it is reported, that the prince of Condé intends to get the lord protector's daughter married to his own son the duke of Enguien: is it true ? Some say, the prince Thomas will command the next campaign, the army that Turenne commanded the last.
The duke of Candale is like to be made grand ecuyer de France, in count de Hatcourt's place, if he does not obey himself.
The cardinal does all his endeavours to make the said duke a favourite with the king, in lieu of M. le duc d'Amville; which he could not yet obtain.
Last Friday arrived here deputies from the parliament of Rouen, assuring his majesty, he shall be well received at Rouen, when he pleases to do them the honour to visit them, as he has done in most towns of France since his majority; of which the king was glad, and the deputies returned much satisfied.
We hear the marriage between duc de Nemours with mademoiselle de Longueville is broken off; and that he is to marry one of the cardinal's nieces.
It is written, prince Condé is now at Rocroy; and to pass his melancholy, lives still in Debois.
The last letters from Philipsburg bring, that the emperor hath quitted count de Harcourt, saying he will not trust the like of him, who had betrayed the king and country. The said letters bring also, that Harcourt is not master in Brisac, but rather M. Charlevois, to whom his majesty sent a bâton of mareschal de France lately, with 500 m. livres to pay his garrison.
The letters of Montpelier mark, that La serté Senneterre is retired from the siege of Beffort, by reason of the foul weather.
Those of Bourdeaux, hearing their deputies here could prevail nothing in court, have recalled them homewards. What may come of it, I know not yet.
It is written from Bourdeaux, that marquis de St. Lucas, lieutenant for the king in high and low Guienne, came to St. Foy, where he met M. lieutenant Estrade, and both the intendants of the high and low Guienne, where they were in conference two days. What it may be, we do not yet know; but the marquis went towards Quercy, to see the rest of the king's forces in Guienne, passed marching to their winter quarters in Languedoc, according his majesty's orders.
The extraordinary express from his holiness hither, and that parted this day was sevennight for Spain about the general peace, is expected here back again about the beginning of Lent, if not sooner.
I hear the archbishop of Fermo Rinuccino, that was nuncio in Ireland, died lately; which
is all at present from, Sir,
Your real servant.
A letter of intelligence from Mr. Augiers secretary.
Paris, the 28th/18 January, 165/43.
The 24th of this instant the king and the cardinal Mazarin parted from the Louvre for St. Germain, having before made a list of the names of those, that were to follow them; which makes one think, that journey has rather been made for business, than for recreation.
The rentiers stubborness in this conjuncture of marrying the said cardinal's nieces is one of the affairs that vexeth and presseth most his eminency, angry to the uttermost to see, that notwithstanding the king's prohibitions, and all that his majesty hath expressed to them concerning the present and urgent estate of his affairs, they leave not their ordinary assemblies and cryings for their payment: but it is impossible to deal violently with so great a body, without exposing the city to new troubles; and therefore they are obliged to make use of industry rather than force to appease them. To that purpose it was propounded to satisfy underhand one part of those, that made most noise; but by reason that could not so secretly be done, but the others would know of it, they have found out another means; namely, that consenting into the half-quarter they ask, they shall set their hands unto a verification of a declaration full of edicts his majesty should send to the parliament for the establishing of several new impositions; as a crown upon each sextier of salt, which is already sold about 39 livres the sextier; as much upon every tun of wine; and a certain tax upon all the gold and silver lace-merchants, &c. whereof the part is said to amount to above twelve millions of livres, instead that the rentiers pretensions amount not to above 4 or 500 thousand crowns. This was the explication of those good words, which M. de Bellievrece said have been given him; whereunto he answered, that he had nothing to say, save only, that the said rentiers were no partizans, and that they did only ask for their means.
The 26th/16 the king returned from St. Germains; and it was resolved, that the said declaration should be sent yesterday to the parliament.
Yesterday the declaration was carried to the king's attorney; but by reason it was long, and the parliament had met late, they could not read it, and contented themselves to say, that having over-run it, they had found several considerable points something hard to be verified; the discussion of it being put off unto Thursday next, which will be tomorrow.
It is not thought the said edicts will pass. In the mean while the court gains always time; and the half quarter, which the said rentiers ask, will likely slide away, as it did last year.
There hath lately been a dispute between the chancellor and the lord keeper, by reason that this last having sealed some decrees before they were signed by him, the said chancellor has refused to sign them after the said lord keeper.
The deputies from the reformed churches have thought convenient to deal weekly with the popish, and have already concluded one part of their differences by the persuasion of their commissaries, who are to procure them such decrees as they shall require. But a Rocheller makes great complaints here, by reason he has been refused the office of attorney; and that the other inhabitants their brethren cannot enter into any charges or mastership, (says he) will cast them into desperation.
I am informed, that for certain this court having purged at his pleasure the parliament of Bourdeaux, and exacted an assurance of fidelity from all its members, hath sent them commission to go to Nerac, to publish again the king's amnesty; and that taking notice of the amnesty preceding, they should condemn to punishment those, whom his majesty had excepted, and amongst others, the named Dureteste, whose punishment will doubtless be strange and rigorous, being not true, that he is to be brought hither.
(fn. 1) Charles Stuart has newly received a letter from the queen of Sweden, in answer to one he had written her for some assistance; but it containeth nothing but civilities, after many excuses, that she can do nothing in his favour, and much exaggeration of the capacity and prudence of the messenger he had sent her.
The queen of Bohemia to the states general.
Hauts & puissants seigneurs, nos tres chers & tres bons amis;
In the possession of the right honourable Philip ld. Hardwicke lord high chancellor of Great Britain.
Ily a desja quelque tems, que nostre fils monseigr l'electeur Palatyn nous a convié & requise, comme vous scavez, de nous transporter au Bas-Palatinat, tant pour eviter la necessité d'augmenter nos debtes causées par les estranges changements survenus en Angleterre, d'ou nous soulions tirer nostre entretenement ordinaire, que pour pouvoir tant mieux adviser avec luy aux moyens d'y satissaire; mais la consideration de nos crediteurs & livranciers, & le desir que nous avons de leur donner quelque contentement avant nostre partement, nous a retenue jusques icy de nous resoudre à ce voyage; & maintenant que nous entendons, que vos traitez en Angleterre sont pervenus jusqu'au point de leur finale & entiere conclusion & subscription, nous esperons, qu'en suite de vos declarations precedentes il vous plaira vous servir de l'occasion, pour procurer & obtenir par vostre entremise à nos dits crediteurs & livranciers leur payement sur les arrierages, tant vieux que nouveaux, qui nous font deubs en Angleterre de nostre dit entretenement, lequel du commencement fut ordonnée par les roys defuncts, à dixhuict mille livres sterlings par an, outre une rente personelle du deux mille livres à nous octroyees par le roy Jacques nostre tres-honoré pere, en faveur de nostre mariage; en deduction desquels dixhuit mille livres sterling annuels, comme aussy de la dite rente, le parlement d'alors fit à diverses fois fournir quelque chose par le menu, laissant le reste en arrierage: mais en l'an 1646. le 22 d'Avril il reduisoit nostre dite entretenement à deux mille livres sterling par an, & y adjouta la ditte rente de deux mille livres, dont la premiere année fut payée, & les suivantes discontinues, sans que toutesois l'acte en aye esté oncques revoquée, de sorte que nos dits arrierages vieux & nouveaux montent au plus de deux fois autant, que ce qui est deu par nous à nos dits crediteurs & livranciers, ainsy qu'il appert par la specification, que nostre agent en Angleterre le chevalier Abraham Williams en fit le 6 de Juin 1651, dont nous leur fismes donner copie, comme aussy des auparavant nous leur avions à leur requisition donne nostre consentement en date du 21 de Mars 1650. de rechercher & obtenir par vostre favorable entremise ou autre voye licite leur payement sur nos dits arrierages, à quoy nous persistons encores, veu que ça este sur la foy publique d'Angleterre qu'il nous ont fait credit, iceux sçachantes assez, qu'ils ont tousjours esté tres bien payez aussi long temps, que nous avons joui de nostre dit entretenement, & toutesois nous nous contenterons pourveu qu'ils recoivent leur payement des dits arrierages; nostre intention n'est pas pour tant de renvoyer simplement nos dits crediteurs & livranciers à nos dits arrierages: car comme c'est bien à nostre grand regret, que nous sommes tombées en debtes par une inevitable necessité, ne desirants rien plus que d'en pouvoir sortir au plustost; & à cest effect nous nous avons à diverses sois & en divers endroits recherché quelques moyens pour les amoindirir, voire nous avons à cause de ce manquement en Angleterre vendu & engagé par le menu presques toutes nos bagues, & vaisselles, & l'argent, qui en est provenue, a este distribue entre nos dits crediteurs, lesquels ont de temps en temps receu par le menu quelques derniers sur leurs parties; & ne serons pas en repos, qu'ils n'ayant finalement receu entiere satisfaction; sur quoy nous vous prions & requerons tres affectueusement de leur faire comprendre, que nostre sejour icy à la Haye ne leur sçauroit estre utile, puisqu'il ne feroit qu'augmenter nos debtes, au lieu de les diminuer.
Et quant a nostre voyage à Palatinat, nous vous prions & requerons de mesme tres
affectueusement, qu'il vous plaise non seulement l'avoir agreable, mais aussy de le favoriser
& avancer, sans permettre, qu'au un entreprenne d'y mettre obstacle; mais à grand peine
trouvons nous des paroles assez significatives pour vous exprimer l'estime tres parsaite, que
nous faisons de tous les honneurs, bons offices, assistance, liberalitez, courtoisies, & civilitez, dont il vous a pleu user envers nous & les nostres, durant tout le temps de nostre
sejour en ce lieu, dont nous vous remercions de toute nostre affection, recognoissant, que
nous vous en sommes à jamais tres estroitement obligée; aussy aurons nous le soin de vous
en tesmoigner nostre gratitude en toutes occasions, and d'exhorter nos ensants à ce mesme
devoir. Cependant nous prions Dieu pour votre santé & prosperité, demeurant inviolablement,
Hauts & puissants seigneurs, nos tres cheres & tres bon amis,
Donné à la Haye, le 29 de Janvier, [1654. N. S.]
Votre tres affectionée amy,
Extract of the secret resolutions of my lords the states of Holland and WestFriesland, taken in their assembly on Tuesday the 29th of January [1654. N. S.]
Monsieur de Beverning, in the report he made in this assembly, upon the 27th of this month, of that what he with Mons. Nieuport hath negotiated in England, having touched amongst other points, that after the establishment of the present government of the commonwealth of England, Scotland and Ireland, we had not met with an opportunity, for the advancement of the said negotiations to salute his highness the lord protector of the said commonwealth: And whereas he had no order from the state to that effect, to make for his own particular unto him a compliment of congratulation upon the authority and dignity, wherein his highness by the said establishment was placed; the states of Holland and West-Friesland, after deliberation, have commended and approved of the said congratulation, as they do commend and approve thereof by these presents.
Extract out of the resolutions of Holland.
Tuesday, the 29th of January [1654. N. S.]
Vol. x. p. 283.
The lords of Beverning and Nieuport, together with the lords vander Perre deceased, and Jongestal, having been in commission of their H. and M. L. in England, have fully reported in the assembly, and with communication of several propositions, and answers, and other papers, and businesses serving to that purpose, to their H. and M. lordships, since the late coming over of the said lords Nieuport and Jongestall happened in August of the last year, on the behalf of this state in England aforesaid, first with the council of state there, and afterwards also after the establishing of the present government of the commonwealth of England, Scotland, and Ireland, negotiated also with the lord protector of the said commonwealth; and especially that after many and divers conferences and debates, the treaty was brought so far, both sides being agreed about the points for making the said treaty, there remained nothing more to do, but the drawing of them, and the signing of them; which the lords of Beverning, Nieuport, and Jongestall, at the decease of the said lord van Perre, jointly in the name of God, and under sufficient ratification of their lordships, were resolved to have done; but that they were hindered in their designs through a certain difference, which did reveal itself in the extension of the article, speaking of the inclusion of the king of Denmark, with what depends thereon; that they not being able to overcome the said difference, and not being able, with that extension that was offered, fully to satisfy the instructions and orders given to them by their H. and M. L. they found themselves necessitated thereupon to break off the said negotiation: But that the lord protector aforementioned (the said lords commissioners being departed) had sent after them such an extension upon the said article, wherewith they received full satisfaction and content; and that they having given notice thereof to his said highness in a letter, and they did conceive, that the said treaty would be speedily brought to a happy conclusion and desired end, in case they went over speedily, to effect the necessary approbation and ratification of what had been negotiated; to that end having reduced what had been negotiated in the said conferences, and adjusted from point to point in a handsome order and method, and put it in writing, consisting in a writing of 29 articles; which writing being distinctly read in the assembly, and afterwards report being made by the lord pensionary by word of mouth, of the affairs which had been negotiated and adjusted by the commissioners of their H. and M. lordships comprehended in the articles of instruction; out of what old alliances and confederacies also the resolutions of the state, upon which the said lords commissioners were authorized to negotiate, the substance of the said adjusted articles is drawn: whereupon being seriously debated, and all being compassed with the orders and commands of their lordships, and the lords of the Ridderschap, together with the commissioners of the towns, in the names and behalfs of the lords their respective principals, have given thanks to the said lords Beverning and Nieuport, as their H. and M. lordships do hereby return thanks unto them, for their good endeavours and offices used and done in the said negotiation, with special care, and good conduct, and perfect faithfulness for the good benefit of the state, and for the effecting the good intention of their H. and M. lordships, according to their successive intentions, resolutions, and orders. Furthermore the said lords of Ridderschap, together with the said lords commissioners of the towns, in the name and behalf aforesaid, having absolutely, without any reserve, approved, ratified, and confirmed herewith the 29 articles, and the same were agreed on and adjusted in the said conferences: and moreover it is thought fit and understood, that on the behalf of their lordships there shall be declared to the generality as their provincial advice, that so they may also return themselves to the said commissioners jointly, and each in particular; and that they do also ratify and confirm what they have negotiated and agreed on; and that their lordships will take special care, to the end the said ratification by the other provinces may be speedily effected; and that in the mean time the said lords commissioners, or one of them, be sent over into England, to the end to collationate the said articles, as they ought; and to sign the same, and to effect, if possible, the sooner the better, that all acts of hostility and retorsions may cease; and as soon as is possible, that a cessation of arms may be made, with the including of the king of Denmark, in performance of the treaty made with his majesty the 18th of February the last year: and that in the mean time word be sent to the ministers of this state, and the consul of the Netherland nation in France and Denmark, that they will admonish the masters of ships and merchants homeward bound, not to stir out of the ports or harbour; but that they do order them to stay there a while longer from their lordships, till such time as they shall have notice given them of the final conclusion of the treaty with England.
Agreeth with the said register,
H. van Beaumont.
Extract of the secret resolution of the states of Holland and West-Friesland taken in their assembly, on Tuesday the 29th of January 1654. [N.S.]
Vol. x.p. 281.
It being put to the question, how and in what manner, and with what formalities, the resolutions of the lords the states of Holland and West-Friesland, taken the 27th of this month, concerning the negotiation with England, might be put in execution; the members of the nobility, and the deputies of the cities, have concluded and determined unanimously, that in the assembly of the states general the business be so ordered, that monsieur de Beverning, Nieuport, and Jongestall, or such as shall be employed for the execution of the said resolutions, which the states general, upon the provincial advice of the states of Holland and Friesland aforesaid, shall take, may be authorized and charged in the name and on the behalf of the states general, to congratulate his highness the lord protector of the commonwealth of England, Scotland, and Ireland; and to declare, that they are informed with great satisfaction, that his highness is inclined sincerely to remove those present differences that have fallen out betwixt the two nations, that the same may be accommodated and reconciled by convenient means, and a good and sincere confidence be established between the two commonwealths; and that likewise they be very glad, that his highness is constituted and enabled both freely and absolutely to exercise that good disposition and inclination, which will appear to all the world, and especially to those two nations; further adding, that the states general shall not be wanting on their part to contribute all that in reason, and according to christian sincerity, may be expected from them; beseeching thereby the almighty God, that he will continue his highness in the same intention, and dispose him more and more for the accomplishing and perfecting of so good a work, to the welfare of both nations, and the mutual joy of the respective subjects and inhabitants on both sides; and that therefore it may please his divine majesty to bless and preserve the person and government of his highness. Lastly, that the aforesaid monsieur de Beverning, Nieuport, and Jongestall, or they that shall be employed for the execution of the said resolutions, that shall be taken by the states general, according to that vote of the 5th of June last, shall be qualified and endowed before their departure with the character of publick ministers or embassadors; or that at leastwise the said qualification and character be sent after them, before the ratification; and the deputies of the other provinces, being there present with the general assembly, shall be intreated by the states of Holland and West-Friesland; as they are also by this intreated, to send this resolution to their lords and superiors with all haste and expedition that possibly may be; that so they may be sufficiently authorized, as well for this present purpose, as that for provincial advice and result of the states of Holland and West-Friesland, concerning the principal work.
A letter of intelligence from the Hague.
The things you desired of me I have sent by sea, hoping that you have received them ere this. I have received the assignation. Holland is very busy to finish the treaty of peace, as you may see by the sending over of the lord Beverning.
The earl of Oldenburgh hath also desired here to be included.
The ambassador Chaunt hath had audience, and made a long speech, whereof the design and subject was, to congratulate upon the peace with England, but not without some reproach or assaults, by reason they had not taken so much care and zeal here, as they ought to have done, for the including of France; demonstrating by good and lively reasons, that the interest of this state did require the said inclusion, and that this state could not be secure and safe in the observance of the peace with England, but by this inclusion; and in the end all his conclusion was the said inclusion of his king. But after he was withdrawn, there was said by those of Holland, that the French pirates had plundered and robbed the Hollanders in the Mediterranean sea of many millions.
One of the commissioners said, that the English demanded of the French upon the same subject twenty millions; and although this state should pardon and forgive the French their own damage, how and why can this state content the English, if they insist for satisfaction of these twenty millions ? It is true, that they did insist for the king of Denmark concerning the three and twenty English ships; for they had promised the king to bear him harmless: but they have made no such promise to France; yea to the king of Denmark himself they have promised to bear him harmless in nothing but those three and twenty ships; for his old differences, if he have any, men very much wonder, if the said king will be contented with the form of the inclusion, which is agreed on. It is true, that the commissioners that were in England, did communicate to the resident of Denmark the article of the inclusion; whereupon he returned thanks, and did seem to be as well contented, as the commissioners did shew themselves to be, with the lord protector. So have those commissioners reported it, and their report they have inserted in a resolution to make use of it, if at any time the king of Denmark should complain, that he is not satisfied.
The 29 articles being examined, they were found conformable to the instructions; so that those gentlemen had thanks returned them, approving of all.
The effect of that will be, that Holland only, if need be, will accept of these articles; and it is held here, that underhand they are agreed with his highness therein.
Holland did very much insist, that the lord Beverning might return to England; or otherwise that the commissioners should write to Mr. secretary Thurloe; but the provinces would not agree to it.
I am also told, that the princess dowager is contented, it being considerable, that she will not that men should say, that for the particular greatness and interest of a child, the state should continue in an effusion of blood, and the ruin of the commerce and of the state.
Madam Strickland having transported many cases and coffers towards Antwerp, and having already paid the duties, now desiring to bring them from thence back again hither, to embark them in the ship of war that brought over the commissioners, without paying new duties, they have agreed unto it.
As soon as the commissioners, being come from England, had made a report and communication of the 29th article, the privy council went each of them towards their cities to communicate them; which did cause a very sudden meeting of the states of Holland, and in a competent number; so that there appeared nine from Amsterdam alone. On Tuesday the 29th of this month they were together till almost midnight; and then, concordibus votis, (Leyden alone, which heretofore was so well affected to the parliament, taking it ad referendum, but since hath confirmed itself) inso quoque nobilitatis membro assentiente, it was resolved to report it to the states general, as was done the next day, that Holland did ratify and approve all; and that they did give the commissioners thanks for their good services, and for doing all that they ought to do.
And concerning the point of the prince of Orange, of the king of France, item the king of Denmark, they did produce other resolutions of the same date; but the provinces (since that, expresly, they keep assemblies) they have taken that ad referendum.
Here is great rejoicing in the states of Holland, and on the contrary the courts, and the men of the courts, are very melancholy, seeing very well, that this peace will not only prejudice the king of Scotland, but chiefly here the young prince of Orange; and prince of Orange's party do especially tax the 11th article of the 29, where it is said, that this state must turn away all those, whom the English declare their enemies. It would suffice, say they, to call them rebels or sugitives; for under the name of enemies the English will be also driven away from hence; yea all such as speak ill of them: and how many new difficulties and scruples the French ambassador did put in, is to be seen in his proposition, which the other provinces do take very much into consideration. But Holland will strongly endeavour to overcome that, and to make peace; which will render the governors of that province very firm and establish'd against the prince of Orange's party. I can assure you, that the prince of Orange's party were never more dejected and disheartened than at present by this peace.
But Gottenburgh will not care for any thing at present; sed contra audentius ibunt.
The design of Middleton will also come to nothing. It is true, that he hath sent some arms and ammunition out of the Texel for Scotland. The money was procured and furnished by one Douglas, and some other royalists; but that cannot be very much, for the royalists are poor.
They advise hither from France, that the king of Scotland hath disputed with the queen his mother; that the domesticks of the king do eat up one another, and betray one another; in ipsa miseria regnum inter se divisum. The lord Beverning doth assure again, that this state is not to fear any thing from Sweden; that Sweden will not separate from France; but I do not know, whether he be well informed: yea he did write to somebody, that the queen will resign up the crown; which would be a thing rare enough.
Holland hath very much insisted for the sending of somebody into England, but hitherto in vain.
There is nothing done with the ambassador Chanut, and they begin to neglect him.
I do understand, that Holland alone will send somebody towards England, which will the sooner cause the other provinces to resolve likewise.
The assignation I have received by sea: you will receive something, which I have sent you.
30 January, 1654. [N. S.]
Extract out of the journal of the lords states of Friezland.
Vol. x. p. 397.
Upon the 10th, 11th and 12th articles the lords commissioners understand, that the words, declared and yet to be declared enemies, ought to be omitted out of the said articles, as are found in the 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5th articles of the treaty of intercourse, dated the 14th February, 1495; and being all too general, and subject to much captiousness; and that instead of those words, declared or yet to be declared for enemies, rebels, &c. these words ought to be put, those who shall attempt any thing against the articles of this treaty, and that no subjects of the one or the other commonwealth, where the same do not live, shall be declared for enemies or rebels of the one or the other commonwealth, unless that after sufficient information it do appear, that they have attempted and transgress'd the text, meaning, and intention of the articles of this treaty.
[30 January, 165¾. N. S.]
P. Van Doma, Secretary.
The deputy of the count of Oldenburg to the states general.
Presented Jan. 30. [1654. N. S.]
Vol. x. p. 291.
High and Mighty Lords,
To your high mightinesses sends the high-born count and lord Anthony Gunther, count of Oldenburgh, and Delmenhorst, lord of Jever and Kniphausen, my gracious count and master, friendly greeting; and wishes to all in general, and to every one in particular, not only for this present, but for innumerably many following years, constant health, long life, prosperous regency, and all self-desired prosperity, from the almighty God, with all hail, grace and welfare, with such a sincere heart as ever can and may be wished. And whereas the said high-born count, during his 52 years regency, has constantly borne towards your most illustrious state the greatest respect, and neighbourly love and friendship, and has actually and willingly shewn the same to his power, in several occurrences well known to your high mightinesses; so my gracious lord and master is ready to continue his said friendly and neighbourly behaviour, even to his death; and offers for that purpose his ready services to your high mightinesses, recommending himself, and those that belong to him, hereby, and in the best manner, to your high affections.
And whereas the prosperity, flourishing condition, and welfare of these most illustrious United Provinces, has been always very dear and acceptable to my said gracious count and master, he has been, for some time, under a sincere sorrow, seeing that such great differences and disputes between this most illustrious state and the present government of England were risen, which at last are broke out into open hostilities; but having understood now, with joy, that the said differences are likely to be settled by a friendly and amicable composition; and whereas I, in my passage hither, have been informed, that the treaty, by the wonderful direction and providence of God, is advanced so far, that a happy issue thereof is no longer doubted: my said gracious master, doth congratulate your high mightinesses, in the best manner, to the further continuation of the said treaties, wishing at the same time all self-desired success for a happy conclusion thereof from the most high God, as the only author of peace, most fervently praying to the almighty God, that he would be pleased to direct the counsels, intentions, and undertakings on all sides, so that this highly to be praised, necessary, and important business may be brought about, especially to the glory of God, and to particular advantage, prosperity and increase of these United Provinces; and further also, for the tranquillity of all Christendom; but more particularly, that the same prove and fall out to the entire satisfaction of your high mightinesses.
And whereas it is customary among all nations, from of old, that eminent and mighty princes and republicks, in such treaties of peace, do also remember their good friends and neighbours, to the end that they may be included therein, my gracious master has the friendly confidence in your high mightinesses, and doth also most earnestly request, that your high mightinesses would be pleased to have him and his family, together with his dominions and subjects, to be included in this intended treaty of peace; and for that purpose, to give your excellent ambassadors your orders, that this request, to be included in the said peace, and friendly and neighbourly friendship, may be complied with in the best manner.
My said gracious count and master has never willingly neglected any opportunity, to
give the world to understand, that he has always had and continues still to have, a great
esteem towards this most illustrious state; and that he likewise bears a care, as it becomes
the father of his country, for his dominions and subjects; and therefore doth not doubt,
since this request can be of no prejudice to your high mightinesses state, and since you
have, at reiterated times, shewn great favours and neighbourly affection towards my
gracious master, but that you will be pleased to continue the same, and to shew him those
friendly and neighbourly proofs thereof in this his great age, by communicating your
good and affectionate resolution thereupon; which as it tends to the preservation of a
friendly neighbourly correspondence, and good intelligence, my said gracious count and
master will acknowledge the same as a high favour; and holds himself, in the mean while,
highly obliged to do you all grateful services, wishing at all times for an opportunity to
give you real proofs thereof; as I for my person wish to be reckoned,
High and Mighty Lords, Your High Mightinesses Most humble and obedient Servant, Bernhard Hielersig, Deputy of the Count of Oldenburg.