A Collection of the State Papers of John Thurloe, Volume 2, 1654. Originally published by Fletcher Gyles, London, 1742.
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October (1 of 5)
A letter of intelligence.
Rome, 12/2. October, 1654.
Vol. xix. p. 480.
By this post I received yours with the great hopes of a settlement of the present government of England under the protector, whose wisdom and care are easily discovered by all nations.
The affairs in Rome are much changed. The pope is well recovered, and become young again. He laughs at all, and says, he will live as long as he can; in order to which, he looks only to his health, and will not be troubled with any great business; so that cardinal Francisco Barberini, being of the secret council of Donna Olympia, rules all, to the great grief of the Spaniard. Cardinal Chigi is he, that in open view does all, being secretary of state to his holiness, but by the influence from Olympia and Barberini. You may be assured, this pope thinks neither of a general peace, nor R. C. at least at present. When any thing shall be of either, it is very probable you shall know it from me.
Olympia is now very much discontented for 25,000 crowns she has been last week robbed of in her own palace, for which great inquisition is made in Rome, and some of her servants in prison.
There is a report and appearance, that the two brothers, cardinal Francisco and Antonio Barberini, are not in good correspondence, which is supposed to be real, and occasioned by the subtlety of old cardinal de Medicis, and the Spanish councils.
The title of general was taken from prince Camillo Pamphilio, for the reasons you had formerly, being too much a Spaniard suspected; yet being the pope's only nephew, and Olympia's only son, money is so prevalent with both to put him unto this disgrace; as also prince Ludovisio for the same cause, being married to a sister by father and mother to the said prince Camillo. That office of generalship is now exercised by Mons. Fransone, and it was offered to Maffeo Barberini, prince of Palestrina, nephew to the two cardinals Barberini, but he nobly would not accept of it.
The difference betwixt Spain and Genoa continues yet, but more mildly, because of the division in Genoa, and the small encouragement they find in Italy. Their embassador to Venice had once audience, and having declared his business, was desired, if he had no other matter, to return home; for that the states of Venice would not engage in a war against Spain in their quarrel. The duke of Florence would not admit their embassador. The pope did, but told, that his advice was to Genoa to make their peace with Spain, and not to expose their city to a war against so great a monarch. So stands that matter at present.
The fourth of this month we had great feasts and fireworks in this city, being the day of his holiness's coronation, and his entrance into the eleventh year of government. His holiness assisted that week two days in the consistory, in which he proposed the archbishoprick of Firmo for cardinal Gualtieri, son to the first husband of Donna Olympia.
From Venice, I hear, the French embassador there made great fires, caused public prayers for the victory before Arras, and distributed two hundred crowns to the poor.
From Naples, I hear of a felucca or small boat, arrived there from Leghorn, with some intelligence of the duke of Guise and his fleet; whereon that viceroy ordered a thousand of the army to guard Salerno, and garisoned the sea-ports, having in a readiness the galleys for any occasion. And he dispatched a felucca into Spain, recalling all the galleys of the Neapolitan squadron.
From Sicily we hear, that the city of Messina did exile the president Don Petro de Gregorio, the president Marotta, the advocate fiscal, and all the gravest ministers of his majesty of Spain in that city. The cause was, that the city alleged those ministers were the occasion of the present differences betwixt the viceroy and them. The viceroy is ready to fall with horse and foot upon that city, to punish this disobedience; and in the mean time dispatched Don Diego Joppolie to present the case to his majesty of Spain. So stands that business as yet.
Here is nothing more at present known to, Sir,
The states of Overyssel to the states general.
Vol. xix. p. 17.
High And Mighty Lords,
The lord vander Beecke, commissioner at the assembly of your H. and M. lordships, hath communicated unto us what your H. and M. lordships, according to the present conjuncture and constitution of affairs, upon the verbal and written propositions made by the special order in our name the fifth of October last, thought fit to resolve; whereby we are obliged, not only to thank your H. and M. lordships for their care, but also to desire your H. and M. lordships to continue in that good resolution, tending so much for the good, quietness, peace, welfare, and amity of the United Provinces.
H. and M. Lords, &c.
Your Lordships good friends,
The States of Overyssel.
By order of the same,
J. Prockel, Secret.
Deventer, 2/12. October, [1654.]
Extract out of the resolutions of the states general.
Lunæ, Octob. 12. 1654. [N. S.]
Vol. xix. p. 46.
The lords deputies of the province of Gelderland communicated to the assembly, and afterwards caused to be read, the following extract of the resolutions of the lords their masters, dated on the eighteenth of July last past, as the same is, word for word, inserted here; viz.
Extract out of the records of the provincial assembly of the lords the states of the duchy of Gelderland and county of Zutphen, held at Nimeguen.
Whereas by the resolution of the fourth of February last past, in the provincial assembly at Zutphen, taken in respect to the twenty-nine projected articles between the lords the commissioners of this state and the government of England, it was agreed to, that the words enemies, rebels, and fugitives, should not be interpreted, nor any otherwise understood, than only of subjects and inhabitants of the republic of England, coming to dwell under the jurisdiction of the republic of the United Netherlands; and that what further was agreed in the said resolution, should be sent to the deputies of this province in the general assembly, with order, that they should endeavour, that the same interpretation might be agreed to by a general resolution of their high mightinesses: and whereas nothing as yet has been resolved thereupon: the said province doth now, as before, still persist on the said interpretation, declaring, that they, in no other sense, have ratified the said treaty of peace.
Which being put under deliberation, the other provinces have desired a copy thereof, which hereby is granted to their noblenesses.
A letter of intelligence.
Vienna, Octobris 13. 1654. [N. S.]
Vol. xix. p. 379.
Yours are receaved punctually hitherto. Some weekes I write not to you, because I have not matter, as at present not much. Prince Rupert is still here, and promised what he pretended due to him at the conclusion of the peace of Munster. His traine nowe is come to sixteen persons. He is much honoured here. There was a strange report here, that R. C. was to come to this citty; which coming to the emperour's eares, he writt to the elector Palatine to hinder that journey; upon which the elector writt to R. C. to divert him from Vienna, if any such intent was. R. C. answered the elector Palatine's letter, that he never intended to goe to Vienna, which letter the said elector sent to the emperor.
The said R. C. writt a letter to the emperor concerning monie promised to him, parte of which monies are paid, and orders for the rest soe to be, which is all of his business nowe here.
Of the diet of Hungarie, the Palatin, or the archduke, I can say yet no more than what you had before; onlie for the archduke's age you desire, he is just now fourteen years and near seven months; onlie in the monthe of May next, it is hoped, he shall be crowned kinge of Bohemia, and be sure of Hungary.
The empress is with childe, and expected to be delivered in Febreuarye next; after which the emperor will bestir himselfe for the promotion of his son Leopold.
The court is still at Ebersdorf.
The defeat given to the Polander was not soe greate as firste reported; for the Muscovite lost manie in the battle. It is said here, that the Muscovite is nowe 197,700 stronge; but that Ragotski, the Wallacks, Moldavians, with the Tartars, have joined with the Polanders; so that nowe they are very considerable.
I forgott to tell you of a storie I heard from the elector Palatine's court, which is, that the king of Sweedland's onlie brother shall be married to the elector's sister, called Sophia, which is here much spoken of; and that this kinge of Swedland will never gett a childe, being so corpulent, fat, and grosse a man; and therefore the brother beinge heir, and like to gett children, will in tyme strengthen R. C. and his party, &c.
Here is nothinge more considerable at present worth the scribling of, Sir,
Mr. Bradshaw, resident at Hamburg, to secretary Thurloe.
Vol. xix. p. 47.
This post brought me yours of the 22d September. I am hartily glad the great busines is soe happily over. I trust ere longe to heare, that all your members are agayne in the house, actinge unanimously the great affaires of the commonwealth, to the comfort of our friends, and disappointinge of our enemies, which great mercie to the nations God is able to effect for us. By the last post I sent you two letters from the gentleman at S—, who, I presume, maye be with you, ere this come, to give you a full acccompt of affaires there. And in my former letters of the twelfth and nineteenth of September, I acquainted you with my beinge returned to the place of deputie, with the manner of their actinge therein, who then had the court-power in their hands, which indeed that party hath still, and will hold it, by reason of their number, till some of their leadinge men be removed from sittinge in court, as they well deserve for their malignant actings, of which I formerlie gave you notice. By yours now received, I perceive Mr. Townley and his partie had writt a large letter to his highnesse for their vindication. I have perused the copie of that letter, their books being now againe in my hands; and doe finde, that therein they have the impudence to say, that I rejected the place of deputie, because I might not have it upon my owne termes, and professe to have endevoured all ways possible to testifie their good affections and dutifull obedience to his highness, through me his resident; yea even at such tymes, whenas my actings as deputy might have discouraged them, confidently affirming all to be false, which hath beene remonstrated to his highnesse concerninge them in their actings towards me. Trulie, Sir, I am sorrei, that the ambition and pride of some men occassions soe much trouble to his highnesse, yourselfe, and others; but whilst their addresses are received, I find a necessity to vindicate myselfe from their false aspersions. I have a better testimonie from the companie at London, and the court heere, under both their hands and seales, than to have given any man just cause of discouragement by my actings as deputie. But it seems, these men are discouraged, because they may not be as bad as they would. In a word, Sir, what either myselfe, or the honest partie here have remonstrated to his highnesse or yourselfe concerneinge these men, shall be proved true in each particular, if it be required, and much more will they enforce me to saye of some of them, if they contineue their stubborneness.
I shall not doubt but that his highness and yourselfe will credit what I write, before the
misrepresentations of such kind of men, who do deceitfully pretend to have given all due
respect to my publick character; and that you may see how impudent they are in that
particular, as well as in other things, I inclosse you a short narrative of a late affront given
me by these very men, who pretend so smoothly; which indeed I had not troubled you
with, but that I see these men are shamelesse, and thinke, because they writ as a court, they
must be beleeved. I shall not be further trublesome, but referr you to the inclosed paper of
what presents heere, and affectionatly remayne, Sir,
3. October, 1654.
Your humble servant,
Sir, if the articles with Sweeden and Denmarke be made publick, as I suppose they either are, or will be, I pray order them to be sent mee.
Intelligence from resident Bradshaw.
Hamburgh, 3. October, 1654. O. S.
Vol. xviii. p. 296.
There are great hopes of an happy accommodation of the Swedish difference with the Bremers, the states general having nominated three lords; viz. Beuningen, Lutzenburgh, and Aitsema, as mediators to compose the said difference.
The lord Rosenham is arrived at Stoade, and waiting for the Bremish legates, who were here yesterday, and are this morning passed for Lubeck, from whence they intend within three or four days to return for Stoade to make a beginning, and, by God's blessing, a quick end of treaty. It seems they are resolved, seeing themselves wholly left to themselves, to make a virtue of necessity, and to make their composition as good as they can, if the Swedes, who, as is said, will admit of no mediation, be not too unreasonable.
Count Erick from Sweden arrived in Holstein some days ago, with two royal ships, and a most stately train of one hundred and seventy persons, all most sumptuously apparelled. We hear as yet nothing of his dispatch; but no doubt but it will be hastened as much as possible, the wind being very favourable for them.
An intercepted letter.
Cologne, October, 3/13. 1654.
Vol. xix p. 27.
I doe give you very hearty thankes for yours of the fifteenth of the last, and for letting your good freinds knowe the good health you are in. There is nothinge more, that your friends desire to heare of, than that your commodities are in a way of putting of, which Mons. du Plore hath given his best advice to advance. There is little news in these parts, but that the beggarlie cavaliers with their king are now at Cullen, but intend not to stay there long, but to returne to the towne, where they were before.
To Mr. John Appleton.
A letter of intelligence.
Cologne, 13. October, 1654. [N. S.]
Vol. xix. p. 31.
Yours of the twenty-fifth of last month, our account, I received, which represents the state of affairs in England far different from that, which is laid before R. C. and his company, to their great comfort; but next week, when theirs prove to be lyes, then new ones must be projected. And so the poor king and his train live, feeding upon hopes. But some great projects be in hand now, as I mentioned to you in my former letter; which will beget great sums of moneys, as they assure themselves. Part of his project I now send to you, the rest you shall have per next, if I can possibly come at it, as I presume I shall.
Thursday last, being the eighth instant, R. C. his sister royal, and their train, bag, and baggage, and I close to them, parted from Aken, and lodged that night at Julick, a town wherein the king of Spain entertains a garison, being received with some shots of great guns. The day following, being friday, at five o' clock in the evening, we arrived in this city of Cologne, where we were received with many shots of guns and muskets joined with the admiration of the people. R. C. the princess royal, and many others, do lodge in a protestant widow's house, called Cidalburg's, where the embassadors of Holland used to lie, a very fair and curious house, full of decent rooms, and pleasant gardens. The senate sent two hundred musketeers to give R. C. three volleys of shot at his door after his arrival, and did him much honour. He and his sister, saturday last, were invited by the Jesuits to their college, where they had a comedy prepared for him, and a banquet after: he and his sister standing eat some of the grapes and fruit, and drank two glasses of wine. The rest snatched away all that was, and I had my share of the spoil as near as I could.
The pope's nuncio here presented a stag to Ormond, and Ormond gave him a visit, wherein they had some private discourse, which I cannot give account of. The lord Wilmot parted from hence towards the duke of Brandenburg, and Culpeper was sent to Holland from Aken, for what you may easily judge, our designs being intended for Scotland, if the diversions in England invite R. C. to you. I gave you enough of this formerly, and, I hope, you need no repetition.
Sunday last, R. C. and Ormond, with two servants, went incognito to see all this city of Cologne.
Yesterday, being monday, R. C. with all his cavaliers went a hunting, killed five or six hares, and returned after four or five German miles or leagues riding.
Here is nothing remarkable this week of R. C. but what now you have from, Sir,
News sent to Mr. Stouppe from Paris, the 13th of October, [1654. N. S.]
Vol. xix. p. 49.
The earl of Grandpré with his brother, and six other gentlemen, which were taken by the earl of Duras, have been brought to Valenciennes.
Letters from the court say, that the king was at present with all the court at Peronne, and had been at Guise with the cardinal Mazarin, where being, had a conference with the marshal of Turenne, and that they were all to meet at Peronne, where his majesty shall cause the great council of war to meet to advise, what they shall have to do to finish this campaign, as soon as the forces of Guienne shall be come, and shall have joined with those of the army of Picardy; and all together will make at least 25,000 men.
Other letters from Peronne do say, that the king shall be in this city within fifteen days at furthest.
The rumour goes, that they will marry the king to the infant of Savoy, sister to the duke of Savoy; and the second brother of this duke hath one of the nieces of the cardinal Mazarin, and that they hold, that his majesty and all the court were to go to Lyons in a few days for that matter.
The news from Sweden do give notice, how that the king, their master, sends an embassador to the queen of Sweden his cousin, to pray her, she would return into Sweden; and in case that she will not consent to it, to declare to her, that the king of Sweden, and the states of the kingdom, are resolved to give her no more pension, the kingdom being reduced to such a want, that it could not supply the excessive expences, that she makes.
Of the 16th of October,
Letters from Compeigne of the thirteenth instant do give advice, how they did stay there this week for the king and all his court, and that the troops of Guienne were about their town; and that it was not yet known, what they would do with them.
Letters from la Fere in Picardy do give notice, that there was held the great council of war, whither his majesty came with the cardinal Mazarin and the marshal of Turenne, where this first did insist, that they should go and besiege the Chastelet, which Mons. of Turenne opposed, shewing to the king and to his council, that the season was too much on, and that the prince of Condé was as strong as they, who would hinder them from executing any siege. All those of the council were of his advice.
There are letters from St. Quintin of the twelfth instant, which do give notice, that they did expect that day the king and the cardinal Mazarin.
They said also, that the army goes the way towards Lorrain; which causeth many to say, that they go to Clermont.
There have been two encounters between the king's army and that of the enemy's; but with very little advantage on either side.
The king hath sent again to the marquis of Noirmoutier, that he should deliver Mont-Olympe into his hands; who made answer, that he was ready to obey his majesty, so that it pleased him to reinvest the cardinal of Retz his kinsman into his archbishoprick of Paris; protesting never to surrender it, before what he demanded be executed.
The last letters from Brussels do give notice, that the archduke Leopold goes again into Germany, to be crowned king of Hungary, because that the states of that kingdom would not receive the emperor's son, because he is but thirteen years old; and that the laws of the land do bear, that no prince shall be admitted to be their king, who hath not at least attained nineteen years.
It is given out also, that the prince of Condé remains alone, commanding in Flanders; and that the earl of Fuensaldagna was very much hated in that country, because of the cowardly action he did before Arras.
The king, being warned of the great disorders, stealing, and robbery, that the troops of Guienne have made, is very sorry for it, as also the queen and the cardinal; and they would very gladly, they had behaved themselves better.
This week they have taken possessions of all the goods of the prince of Condé, in the king's name, whereof the confiscation hath been given to the prince of Conti.
A letter of the states general to count William of Nassau.
Vol. xix. p. 21.
Highborn Prince and Lord,
We have received your highnes's letter, writ at Leuwarden the 26th September last, stylo loci, and there inclosed the original emperor's diploma, wherein we have seen and taken notice, that it hath pleased the emperor to promote your highness to the princely state of the holy Roman kingdom: whereupon having deliberated, we have thought fit to return your highness's diploma, as also to congratulate your highness in your promotion, and to wish you all happiness and prosperity. Datum Hagæ, the 13th of October, 1654. [N. S.]
Your Highness's affectionate good friends,
The States general of the United Provinces.
A letter of intelligence.
Cullen, 14. Octob. 1654. [N. S.]
Vol. xix. p. 65.
My deerest Friend,
I Doe not intend to continue here above ten days; by which tyme I do expect to hear news from my good friend concerning the proposition already made. Ch. Stuart will be very sad; for shortly he is to part with his most kind sister, which I believe will be of great trouble to both. Then he will return to his former habitation, where (if this place, which is far beyond it, doth not work upon him) the best part of this winter will be spent; but that is not a pin matter for or against our design; if that be the cheaper, this is the pleasanter. We will do things for the best, &c.
A letter of intelligence from Mr. Augier's secretary.
Paris, 14/4. Oct. 1654.
Vol. xix. p. 61.
The news of the pope's death hath proved false. A post arrived here on last saturday, bears, that he had only been two days in the convulsion-fits, and smothered, as it were, by an apoplexy; so that he was thought dead, when the first post parted from Rome. But although he was not, the cardinals, seeing he could not live many days, had already begun their-assembly for the election of a successor. Whereupon the cardinal d'Este hath written hither to send speedily an embassador to that court, with necessary means to favour the said election to have a French pope; which is much desired by cardinal Mazarin. I am informed, the duke of Rohan Chabot is like to have that embassy. In the interim it's thought, the letters, which are this day expected from Provence, will inform of the departure of the duke of Guise, being the last letter bore, that his shipping was ended. This fleet is or will be compounded of the following forces.
From the Levant,
12 men of war.
5 loaded with horse.
From the West, which have not yet joined the said duke,
5 men of war.
6 Portugal ships, commanded by the commodore of Neufchaise. 6 fire-ships.
In all which ships, it is thought, there are about 6000 men, besides the sailors. It is thought they may land about Civita Vecchia.
One might say, those affaires have changed the desires in Picardy, where the French are making no siege. I hear this court returneth hither; and that it will arrive at Compeigne on monday next, to be at Paris upon the latter end of that week, according unto a letter the queen hath written thereof.
At last we hear cardinal of Retz hath passed by Genoa; and that doth so much the more trouble the court, by reason that the above-said last post from Italy adds, that he had met him about three leagues from Rome, whither he was going.
It is not true, that Belle-isle hath revolted, and declared itself for the Spaniards; and the court seems too modest a little in what regards the house of Retz.
A letter to Mons. de Villere.
Paris, 14. Octob. 1654. [N. S.]
Vol. xix. p. 67.
The king will be here very suddenly. His eminence is so unquiet, so much troubled, and so much out of humour, that it is said, no access is to be had to him; yea almost his own servants dare hardly speak to him. And besides, he is afflicted with that pain of the gravel and gout, which do render him impatient. God comfort him! It is thought, that the king's army will only besiege Chastelet, if any place. Notwithstanding the troops of Guienne, that are now joined with them, no place is yet besieged.
Here is a report, that the peace is concluded between France and England. All your friends here with you in France again, and are sorry for your retreat into England. The cardinal de Retz is gone to Rome.
An intercepted letter to Mr. Trueman.
Heydelberg, 14. Octob. 1654. [N. S.]
Vol. xix. p. 53.
Mr. Antony is now at Cologne: Mr. Wiltshire hath been with him. Mr. Antony tells him, that he shall shortly be in action; but it is much feared by the great losses by the last grand tempest, that Mr. Polnut suffered. Prince Rupert is said shall have the government of Silesia under the emperor. Here hath been the king of Sweden's brother princely entertained; who before his going hence hath concluded a match with the princess Sophia. 'Tis thought he speedily returns, and then the marriage is to be.
A letter to prince William of Nassau.
Vol. xix. p. 71.
High-born Prince, Gracious Lord,
Upon the general summons against the fourth of this month, here appeared thirtysix gentlemen, and the commissioners of Campen and Zwol, who have this morning unanimously agreed about the choosing of a stadtholder, and in the afternoon proceeded to the nominating of persons: whereupon is nominated and chosen the lord prince of Orange stadtholder; and your princely grace is authorized to officiate for him during his minority, upon the same instructions as formerly the lords princes of Orange have officiated, with little alteration made therein. All this happened, notwithstanding the sharp protest delivered unto the assembly by the secretary of Deventer; but in regard the same was drawn up in the name of the states of Overyssel, it was not read, but delivered out again: wherein the opposing party doth declare, amongst the rest, to send commissioners to all the consederates to desire assistance against this usurpation and oppression of their freedom, as they say. We do hope, that notwithstanding these their discontents, your princely grace will not forsake our dear country, but take into consideration, whether with all speed all your highness's best friends in your province ought not to be admonished, in case any commissioners of the Deventer states of Overyssel might arrive there, might not be received, or at least might not be resolved any thing to the prejudice of this election. I doubt not, but there will be commissioners shortly appointed to carry this said commission unto your highness, and to desire your princely grace to come into this province.
Zwoll, 5/15. Octob. 1654.
Mr. Longland, agent at Leghorn, to secretary Thurloe.
Vol. xix. p. 125.
Althoh the affaires betwixt the Spanyard and Genowes hav bin long sylent, without any nois, as if they had bin nyh som ajustment, this week the Genowes galleys hav taken a couple of barks of Finale, a sea-town of the king of Spayne's, belonging to the state of Millan, the Genowes pretending the lordship of thos seas; and that the said barks ought to hav com to Genoa to pay theyr custom.
This day I hav had advys by a bark from Marcelles, that the French fleet, consisting
of 22 ships, 18 barkes, and 6 gallyes, departed the ysles of Eris the sixth of this month,
and three dayes after wer sien off the Bocca di Boniface, which is the streit or passage
betwixt the yles of Corsica and Sardinia. Now whether they are com thorow to this
syd, I know not; but the generall opinion is the contrary, that they ar gone to the South
end of Sardinia, and thence will steer throh the channel of Malta for the gulf of Venis,
to land their soldiers in Pulia, whither 'tis sayd the French ar sending 4000 horse out of
Piemont, and hav demanded pass throh the prince's country; which is granted them. I
dout not but you ar more fully advysed of the French fleet's proceeding from captain
Harris at Tollon. I know you ar extream ful of bisnes; otherwise now and then a word
of occurrences at hom would be very acceptable to,
Leghorn, 16. Octob. 1654. [N. S.]
Your most faithfull servant,
Col. Algernoon Sidney to Mr. Spencer.
Hague, 16. Octob. 1654. [N. S.]
Vol. xix. p. 121.
We have been of late alarmed by the two dangerous elements, fire and water. The other day the town of Delft was almost blown up by a magazine, that took fire. was such a terrible blow, that it shook the Hague. Since, by storm and rain, we have been in no less danger. Some take upon them to tell us; that these signs are very ominous to the province of Holland. Above two hundred houses were blown up: it made the very Hague to shake again.
This sad accident happened through the carelesness of one, that hath the looking to the magazine. The commissioners went at ten o'clock into the magazine, and about eleven it was fired.
A letter of intelligence from the Hague.
Vol. xix. p. 77.
D'Overyssel est venu response, je dis des deputés des estats, disants avoir veu avec grand étonnement la proposition, que le sieur Beecke a fait dans les estats generaux le 3: ergo le desavoüent; item, que le 13/3. de ce mois ils tiendroient un assemblée provinciale de leurs estats, & que du resultat d'icelle ils advertiroient les estats generaux.
L'on verra si ceux de Twent & Deventer voudront aussi venir sur cette assemblée-la. Je pense que non.
Il y en a bien aussi qui s'étonnent, que la Hollande favorise en ce cas à ceux de Twente & de Deventer; car il pourroit aisement arriver, qu'aussi 4 ou 5 membres d'Hollande discrepassent des autres membres d'Hollande; & que ces 4 ou 5 membres s'addressent aussi à la generalité, comme à present font les deux membres d'Overyssel. Contre quoy les quatre autres membres (faisants notoirement la pluralité) disent, que ces deux font contre le souveraineté & hautesse de la province d'Overyssel.
Et il est notable, que jamais encore ni Leyden ni les autres villes, qui en la seclusion du prince ont esté contre les autres villes d'Hollande, toutefois jamais encore ne s'ont ofé ny voulu addresser aux estats generaux: consequement, ayants un grand zele pour ne toucher pas à cette partie de la fouveraineté d'Hollande, en laquelle ils ne veulent point que les provinces ayent rien à dire.
Cependant c'est aussi signé, que tous, qui ont le prince en la bouche, ne l'ont pas au cœur; & l'on remarque, que la pluspart du parti d'Orange n'ont fait que suivre auram popularem; car à present la peuple se lassant decrier tout, Vive le prince! & s'occupant à autre chose, l'on voit que l'interest du prince s'en dort; & les nouvelles disputes font oublier les vieilles.
Comme en Zelande à present ils ne peuvent pas accorder sur des offices vacants. Ces offices sont une chose fort friande; on oublie pere & mere (beaucoup plus le prince) pour les obtenir: & l'Hollande ayant tant d'offices militaires à conferer, aussi ayant une bourse si riche, seroit malhereuse, si elle n'acqueroient pas beaucoup d'amis. Mais pour dire la verité, son plus grand amy (après Dieu) est le protecteur; & son plus grand ennemy est ou a esté le peuple, lequel peu à peu s'appaise fort.
Il femble, que la Geldre veuille derechef un peu monstrer les dents pour le party royal ou du prince; car elle produira une resolution, soustenant, que les mots bostis, rebellis, &c. dans le traité de paix fait avec l'Angleterre, ne doivent pas estre entendu selon la lettre; comme si aussitost que les Anglois declarent quelcun enemy, cest estat seroit obligé de le chasser. Mais tous ceux de Geldre ne sont pas d'accord en cela, & desja la pluspart des estats generaux aussi sont d'avis, qu'on laissat telle chose hors les notules; & que le Geldre peut bien retenir ce sentiment pour elle; mais que crabrones non sunt irritandi.
Item, ceux de Geldre ont predict une resolution, asin de parachever l'alliance avec la France. Ils veulent aussi, qu'on face alliance avec l'electeur de Brandenborg.
Hier nous avons vû ici à Delft un triste spectacle, dont parle cette relation.
C'estoit comme une croup de canon, qui fit trembler même toutes les maisons de la Haye telle facon, comme si elles se vouloient renverser de fonds en comble. Cent-mille coups de canon n'ont jamais fait le degast en une ville assiegé, comme ce seul coup a ruiné Delft. Le commis de ce magazin à dix heurs dit à sa femme, qu'il alloit pour en tirer deux livres de poudre; il reviendra encore. C'estoit un tour environné d'une fossée. Le tour est tellement arracheé, qu'il ne reste pas une pierre, & est devenu une gouffre ronde. Divers spectateurs (6) venant voir la destruction, ont encore esté tues de ruines de murailles esbranlées, & lors tombants, quand ils y passoient. La pluspart des maisons tombées ou renversées sont des pauvres, principalement fileurs de laine, tisserants, &c.
Jusques encore le monde est venu de tous costés voir la destruction de bien un tiers de la ville de Delft, dont se content quantité de particularités & effects mirables du poudre. Le lendemain on trouva encore un petit enfant sur une petite chaise, vif, quoique entouré de pierres & ruines. Deux jours apres on trouva encore une servante dans une cave, vivante, avec le bras rompû. L'occasion de ce feu on dit, que le commis entra avec un autre homme dans la magazin, pour y prendre une preuve ou deux de la poudre pour le vendre, & frappant sur le tonneau pour l'ouvroir, en frappant aura fait feu.
La populace indiscrete (principalement ceux qui ont perdû en cette destruction leurs maisons, ou meubles, ou enfants, ou pere & mere, ou amis, voir toute leur fortune) dit, que ce second, qui entra avec le commis, estoit un Anglois, & que tous deux (apostés & gaignés par les Anglois) ont mis de la mesche au poudre, qui a prins feu en demi-heure après qu'ils s'en estoient sortis, & sauves, ou fuis, on ne sait oú. Mais pas une homme de discretion le croit.
Bien une demi-lieu de Delst, aux champs, on a trouvé une main & une demi-teste, estant probable, que ces sont des fragments du commis & de l'autre homme, son second, sans savoir qu'il estoit: mais on l'a veu entrer au magazine avec le commis, ayant la mine d'un capitain de mer, ou semblable officier. Les curieux font des explications, que Dieu nous veut & peut aussi bien punir en paix avec les instruments de la guerre, qu'en guerre.
Autres disent, que c'est un accomplissement de la prophesie de ces provinces, qui ont si haut crié contre la seclusion du prince d'Orange, dans la troisiéme piece & troisiéme bylage, imprimé derriere la deduction d'Hollande, fol. 10. (selon l'impression in folio) que les os des princes interrés à Delft crieront vengeance de cette ingratitude, & que cette destruction est un effect de ce cri. A quel propos on remarque, que le temple, où est cet enterrement, est crevé, ou a eu des crevasses diverses dans la muraille, des vitres rompus, les tuiles jettés, le toit ouvert, sans que la sepulture des princes ni celle de Tromp aye eu la moindre mal ou dommage; specialement on remarque, que les beaux vitres de grand artifice & rareté, où le roy & la reine d'Espagne sont peints à genoux & en devotion, sont brisés.
L'Overyssel sont ici maintenant dans les estats generaux, de cliaque partie un: le sieur Beeck de Deventer, (ou des bons Hollandois) le sieur Wolssen de Zwol pour les partie d'Orange; & par fois ont quelque petite velitation touchant leurs differents provinceaux; mais il faut attendre l'issue du land-dagh.
Le baron de Griethuysen ayant esté ici quelque temps de la part du due de Neuborgh, en fin demande credentialles pour partir, ayant assopié le mieux qu'il a pû les
reprisailles, que cest estat a exercé contre les sujets de Juliers par plus qu'une douzaine
d'années. Là où on crioit ici tant contre les Anglois pour avoir seulement exercé reprisailles contre les Hollandois douze semaines à peine. Je suis
Votre très serviteur.
Ce 16. Octob. [1654. N. S.]
Chanut, the French embassador in Holland, to Bordeaux, the French embassador in England.
Hague, 16. Octob. 1654. [N. S.]
Vol. xix. p. 91.
As I was speaking here of your negotiation, as of a thing whereof the success was yet uncertain, a certain person of this state told me, that my lord de Witt had assured him, that the accommodation was infallible; and that lie had it from a very good hand. We are not (thanks be to God!) in that condition, that the event of that business should give us so much apprehension. Those, that will declare themselves our enemies, will have a good share of the fear. The reserve, which you have made of that declaration, which was desired of us, is very worthy your judgment. I have not yet refused it here: the time runneth on, and I hope, that without explaining, if we would go so far, the occasions and desire of pressing us to it will cease. The lord pensionary de Witt hath been for some days at Amsterdam, where it is said he doth intend to marry a niece of the deceased Becker, being a rich, fair, and well-qualified lady. He deserveth to meet with a good fortune; for he is a very honest person. He is very ingenious, very honest at heart, and of good judgment and prudence, far above his age. I can assure you, that I do all, that I can, to preserve the union; but it is impossible to imagine, how casual and undeterminable the motions of this state are, by reason of the multitude of resorts and motions, which are not subordered. Without doubt the party of the lords of Holland is the best governed, and the strongest; but not having within itself any authorized head, by a well-governed power, it is capable to be dissolved through itself: and I do understand, that many are weary of the controversies, which do daily arise about the distributing of honours and offices; and do avow, that it will be very difficult to keep all quiet any longer, without making choice of a governor. If they must have one, let them choose one of themselves. And what concerneth us, who do love them and desire their preservation, let us follow their government, such as they shall think fit to set up, without presuming, that they should alter it upon our persuasions. I am very glad of what you write to me of the satisfaction, which you have of my lord Beverning. He is here in very good esteem amongst those also, who are not of his party; and upon your relations, I do help them to speak well of him.
I have writ to you of the cessation of arms between Bremen and the Swedes. They do make no haste to accommodate the business, as was thought they would; but the cessation of arms is to end the twenty-fifth of November, where the nature will prolong of itself, without any treaty. Somebody told me, that the Swedes are jealous of some troops, which the Muscovites have upon the frontiers of Livonia. That province is not only in debate between the Swedes and the Polanders, but those of Russia do pretend to it; and without having any further right to a place, it is enough for a prince, that his predecessors have once had it in possession.
Mons. d'Avaugour is hindered at Stockholm from having audience of the king, by reason his credentials are not in such form and terms as are pleasing to the Swedes. They were writ at a time, when the court had no notice of the alteration. This doth very much trouble him.
The earl of Oxenstierne hath received aboard his Swedish ships the princess of Holstein. She is the second daughter, much fairer than her elder sister, seventeen years of age, and who may be said to be more agreeable than extraordinary handsome. We have had here the earl Tot sent by the king of Sweden to the queen of Sweden, to desire her, as is said, to return to the Swedish territories, or at least that she would remain in France. All doth consist in the payment of the pension, which that princess hath reserved for herself. It will fall very heavy for Sweden to entertain three queens at once; and at the same time many think, that her pension will be ill paid her. And the queen herself declared unto me, that she was very doubtful of the certainty of the payment. You will have heard from several hands of the horrible disaster happened in the city of Delst, through the firing of the magazine, wherein were fifty thousand pound of gun-powder. This house, which is at least a good hour's going from thence, did shake with the very blow, and most of our glass-windows broke to pieces. It is said, there are above four hundred houses ruined, and a great number of men killed.
A Jew of Amsterdam hath informed me for certain, that the three generals of the fleet have presented a petition to his highness the protector, to obtain, that their nation may be received in England, to draw the commerce thither.
The states general to his highness the elector of Brandenburg.
Octob. 16. 1654. [N. S.]
Vol. xix. p. 89.
Most serene, &c.
On the sixth of January last past we received your electoral highness's letter, written at Cologne on the Spree, dated December 5. 1653. together with the pieces thereunto annexed; whereby we observe with a particular satisfaction and pleasure, that your electoral highness has been pleased to have the confidence in us, and to desire of us, that we might appoint some deputies from among us, to go to Ratisbon, to assert, together with your minister plenipotentiary there, your electoral highness's right and claim to the countries of Juliers, Cleve, Bergue, and Marck, and to support the same, since the right of succession to the said countries was to be decided there, either by the treaties of peace, or by a final sentence. All which being taken into mature deliberation, we have this day resolved to give our sincerest thanks to your electoral highness hereby, for the great honour you have done us and this state by the aforesaid; and to declare, that we desire nothing more earnestly, than to remain and inviolably to continue with your electoral highness in a most sincere correspondence, friendship, and confidence; as being one of our nearest, best, and most confident friends and allies; assuring your electoral highness, that we, in corroboration and testimony of our sincere good meaning and intention, will not fail to send our deputies against the limited time, and for the above-mentioned purpose, to Ratisbon aforesaid; wishing with all our hearts, that every thing may succeed to the intire satisfaction and content of your electoral highness, to the advantage of your electoral house, dominions, people, and subjects, and especially to the advancement of the true Christian reformed religion. Wherewith we conclude; and after recommending ourselves most friendly and neighbourly to your electoral highness, we pray the almighty God, &c.
The Dutch embassadors in England to the states general.
H. and M. Lords,
Vol. xix. p. 103.
After the sending away of our letters of last friday, we were acquainted the next morning, which we heard nothing of the night before, that about that time a mischance happened to the lord protector, which might have been in all likelihood very fatal unto him, if God had not wonderfully preserved him; as we are informed the manner of it to be thus. His highness, only accompanied with secretary Thurloe and some few of his gentlemen and servants, went to take the air in Hyde-park, where he caused some dishes of meat to be brought; where he made his dinner, and afterwards had a desire to drive the coach himself, having put only the secretary into it, being those six horses, which the earl of Oldenburgh had presented unto his highness, who drove pretty handsomely for some time; but at last provoking those horses too much with the whip, they grew unruly, and run so fast, that the postillion could not hold them in; whereby his highness was flung out of the coach-box upon the pole, upon which he lay with his body, and afterwards fell upon the ground. His foot getting hold in the tackling, he was carried away a good while in that posture, during which a pistol went off in his pocket: but at last he got his foot clear, and so came to escape, the coach passing away without hurting him. He was presently brought home, and let blood; and after some rest taken, he is now pretty well again. The secretary, being hurt on his ancle with leaping out of the coach, hath been forced to keep his chamber hitherto, and been unfit for any business; so that we have not been able to further or expedite any business this week: neither do we hear of any resolution since our last taken in the parliament, but that they are still busy in examining of the articles of the government, and especially the fifth article, wherein is spoken of making peace or war. It seemeth the opinions do incline, that his highness or his council ought not to have an absolute power for the taking up of arms; but that he, in case of any such necessity, ought to call a parliament, to consider of it. There have been several other businesses under examination, but nothing finally concluded on.
Westminster, 16. Octob. 1654. [N. S.]
Bordeaux, the French embassador in England, to Chanut, the French embassador in Holland.
Vol. xix. p. 111.
I cannot begin my letter with a more pleasing news, than the arrival of the abbot of d'Issoire with the earl of Chastelut. The rarities of London have so taken up their time, that I have hardly been able to enjoy their company; only yesterday I had an opportunity to offer unto them, and chiefly to the lord your brother, all that is in my small power. And I must also complain, that he did not come and lodge at my house. You will do me justice for it, my lord, one day; and the better to obtain it, I will apply myself with more care, to render him some service during his abode here. He hath made me a relation so accomplish'd of the manner of the queen of Sweden's living, that there wanted nothing, but your judgment to frame mine, and to beat with more authority those, that dare to blame her conduct. I have not yet any thing to write unto you of my negotiation. It was referred six days ago, under pretence of an accident happened to the lord protector and the secretary of state in a promenade, wherein the first took the place of his coachman, and his horses running away with him, he was slung out of the box, amongst the horses; and if his shoe had not broken or slipp'd off, the misfortune had been intire. He got off only with some bruises, and was likewise noways hurt with a pistol, that went off in his pocket. During this disorder, the secretary of state sat in the coach, who endeavouring to get out, sprained his foot; which was all the harm that happen'd to him. Both of them do not forbear to keep their beds, nor to busy themselves also. But the affairs of the parliament go before all ours; whereof some of the council have assured me I shall soon have an end. The embassadors of Holland have not yet any answer given them about the salt laden in their ships. It is put off without any cause; and I doubt of the effects of those words, which have been given them. The parliament doth continue to proceed upon the articles of the government; and it is said, that they have resolved, that neither peace nor war can be declared without the consent of parliament. Some of the commissioners have been busy with my lord protector to reduce the militia; and some regiments are to be disbanded. This will give a pretence to the lord protector to rid his hands of those, who are not thoroughly affected to him, and who have shewn themselves not altogether pleased with this last alteration. It is said, that the fleet under general Blake is gone for the Streights; that the other will be also suddenly ready to set sail: however, some do imagine, that there is more of feigning than reality in this voyage.
16. Octob. 1654. [N. S.]
[The embassador Chanut's brother, to his brother's secretary at the Hague, hath this expression in his letter: No doubt you have heard of the accident happened to the protector, who, being in the park in his coach, got up into the box; and his horses being unruly, they flung him out of his throne, and he had like to have been rack'd alive. This doth afford matter of speculation to some, and discourses to others. His enemies speak him to be very ill; and his friends, in health.]
A letter of intelligence.
Hague, 16. Octob. 1654. [N. S.]
Vol. xix. p. 144.
Since my former last week, I have to add, that the differences betwixt the provinces are still continued; the one protesting against the other, and these differences have yet produced no other effect. Something you may see by this extract of Guelderland; to which they add lately, that they will renew their league with France, though the rest of the provinces are not disposed to it.
Hague, 12. Octob. 1654. [N. S.]
The lords deputies of the province of Guelderland have presented to the assembly, and after caused to be read, the following extract of the resolution of the lords their principals, bearing date the eighteenth of July last, as it is here following inserted de verbo ad verbum.
The extract of the recess of the courts of the lords the states of the principality of Guelderland and earldom of Zutphen, held at Nimeguen,
Tuesday, 18. July, 1654.
As by the resolution of the fourth of February last, taken in the courts of Zutphen upon the conception of the 29 articles, agreed upon by the deputies of these states with the commonwealth of England, it is understood by the interpretation of the words hostes, rebelles, fugitivi, that they shall not be explained otherwise than of the subjects and natives of the commonwealth of England, who shall come to live under the jurisdiction of these provinces. And that which further has been understood in the said resolution, is ordered to be sent to the commissioners of this province in the generality, to assist and obtain from their high-mightinesses a general resolution, tending to that sense: upon which nothing has been done hitherto; and therefore the province doth persist as before in their precedent interpretation, declaring, that they have not ratified the treaty of peace with England in any other sense. And after deliberation, the other provinces demanded a copy thereof, which was granted, &c.
I have seen here a letter from our embassadors in London to the states general and the greffier, which contain nothing but the proceedings in parliament, and of general Blake's being ordered to go to sea with his fleet. The letters were of the ninth of October, 1654. and their substance being better known there, it is needless to return further their contents.
Count William of Nassau, governor of Friesland, signified to the states general his being made a prince of the empire, and sent to them the emperor's letters-patents for it, which the states returned to him, wishing him all happiness with that dignity.
Upon monday last at Delft, a league from hence, at eleven o'clock in the morning, a most sad accident happened by some fire, that got into the magazine of the province of Holland, and which was blown up, with all that was in it, with the death of many persons, and ruin of many houses.
Before yours and other letters came hither, were great rumours of the death of the lord
protector; which now appears false. This is the collection of this week's news from,
Vienna, 7. Octob. 1654. O. S.
Vol. xii. p. 106.
Some days ago the embassadors from the prince elector of Brandenburgh departed hence homewards, and count Montecuculi, as it is said, for Antwerp.
The Hungarian land-day is deferred and prolonged until next year; and his imperial majesty resolved first to go to the city of Prague, there to have the empress crowned queen, and the young prince archduke Leopold Ignatius king of Bohemia.
A letter of intelligence.
Stockholm, 7. Octob. 1654. O. S.
Vol. xix. p. 407.
The king's majesty is with his chief noblemen, at the present, at the Dalderoon, making all necessary preparations for the entertaining of the royal company of his bride, whom he now shortly expects, she being to land at the said place. As for other news hence, none of importance, save of the French embassador's reception, who having received other letters credential on sunday last, retired himself two miles hence, and was thence brought into the city with eighteen coaches, most whereof were lords of the secret council, and convoyed to his lodgings: whereupon the next day, being monday, he had public audience; and tuesday again a private conference with his majesty for the space of almost three hours; and then he was dismissed with great civility. An express is gone hence for Muscovy, and another for Poland, with letters from his majesty, whose business and reception shall be imparted as soon as it can be known.
A letter of intelligence.
Maestricht, 17. Octob. 1654. [N. S.]
Vol. xix. p. 141.
I am just now arrived here. The post being upon the instant of parting, the importunitie of friends, my owne wearenes, and the shortnes of time, will not permitt mee to enlarge; only this, that the place is full of the protector and his two sons being murthered; which news I range amongst the old tales. The court is at Collen, but will winter at Aix, if nothing extraordinary happen.
I hope by this time the captain is safely arrived with you. Pray tell his brother Cos. A. Man, that I sent him last weeke a bill of exchange from Rotterdam. I would gladly know, whether he hath received it. My friends must excuse mee for this time; and farewell.
I have heard nothing from you these two weeks.
For Mr. Antonio Rogers, at the post-house, London.
Intelligence from several parts.
Brussels, 17. Octob. 1654. [N. S.]
Vol. xix. p. 143.
Yours of the ninth instant I received, and sent yours to Vienna and Cologne, as likewise I send new letters to you from your friends in both those cities. Till your letters came, I was in great doubt, some mischance happened to the protector; for instead of Mr. Holland's being slain, it passed current all this week, that the protector was slain in the parliament-house, and his children also cut off. This has been also published in Holland, but now all here cry out upon them as lyars, that invented it; whose joy sure now must return to sorrow and dishonour.
Several letters bring hither from Holland and Flanders relations particular of divers ships come from Spain, with plate to the value of four millions.
This night was to arrive at Antwerp an embassador from the king of Sweden to her majesty the late queen. It is reported among other things, that he brought to her majesty the security for her rents: his name is count Tot. He is a senator of that kingdom, and of kindred to the royal blood; a young man, of about thirty years old at most. The king of Spain has dispatched Don Antonio Pimentelli to the said queen, (as you had formerly) to welcome her into his dominions, and thank her for the honour she does him in so coming into them, &c.
I do not yet hear of any embassador here to go into England, more than you had long since of the marquis de Lede.
The count Grandpré is sent prisoner to the castle of Antwerp, where he is to be this night. He is sent with a guard, armless, and without any great noise or shew.
Count of Salazar, governor of the citadel of Cambray, provided sufficiently with victuals and ammunition Châtelet, left the French should besiege it.
It is certain, prince Condé met with a considerable French convoy, which he has
routed and slain, taking some hundreds of prisoners, officers and soldiers. The French
army is still about Château-Cambresis, Quesnoy, and that way, fortifying Cambresis, to
secure convoys to Quesnoy. Our army is strong about Bouchain. Condé had fought
before now, if he had been permitted by the Spanish councils. The archduke is indisposed, and not like to take the field more this campaign; which is all the news of this