State Papers, 1654: October (4 of 5)

Pages 685-696

A Collection of the State Papers of John Thurloe, Volume 2, 1654. Originally published by Fletcher Gyles, London, 1742.

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In this section

October (4 of 5)

Bordeaux, the French embassador in England, to Chanut, the French embassador in Holland.

Vol. xix. p. 331.

My Lord,
I perceive in your last, which you were pleased to write to me, a great cause to contest, in regard, that you pretend, that the tediousness of my negotiation doth touch you more than me. Although I have been here long enough to provide good store of patience, yet the delays of a day are now more insupportable to me, than those were of a month at the beginning of my arrival here; and I am no less resolved than you, as soon as the treaty is ended, to return into France. My difficulty is to know the time, when I shall be able to execute this design. If this government doth continue to proceed as slowly in my negotiation, as it doth at present, it may be measured with the siege of Troy; every word doth oblige me to a new conference; and it is but once in a month neither; so that I shall have none this fortnight. The lord Beverning, who came to see me to-night, told me, he was newly come from Mr. Thurloe, secretary of state, who had made several protestations to him of a real disposition of the state to an accommodation with France. This being true, I wonder they should insist upon such unreasonable things. He also told me, that he was resolved to return hence, and to leave the burden of affairs upon his collegue. The parliament have this week debated a question, which many did believe they would not have meddled with; and so the decision was not so as the protector did expect. They have resolved his charge shall be elective. General Lambert made a long speech to have it successive. It is thought, that this will alienate the minds of the officers of the army, whereof the least doth expect to govern England in time. Now they are debating to whom the election shall belong, and who shall govern in case of death, during the interval of parliament. General Blake is gone to sea. The other is still preparing. The quarrel of Overyssel is a spark able to revive the fire, which was supposed to be out. All the friends of the states general ought to pacify them. I spoke in these terms to my lord Beverning, and assured him, that it was the opinion of the king our master, and of his public ministers, still reserving the public declaration.

London, 30. October, 1654. [N. S.]

Barriere to the prince of Condé.

Vol. xix. p. 265.

My Lord,
I was so ill the last week, that I was not able to write to your highness. I am still forced to keep my bed, which doth hinder me from writing at large to your highness. I will only tell you of what last night I had advice, that the peace was to be concluded between this state and France; and that the protector had power from the parliament; and that which hindered the conclusion were the disorders, which are between the protector and the parliament. Wherefore there must be no time lost, and it would be very requisite, that Spain would hasten away their extraordinary embassador, to the end some stop may be put to the treaty with France; which might be easily done, if such means and endeavours were used, as there ought to be. I sent word of it to the king of Spain, who sent me word back again, that the Spanish extraordinary would be here within this fortnight, which I can hardly believe; and that in the mean time he would not neglect it; but that he did also believe, that although the peace was so far advanced, as I had been told, the business of Canada, which the English had taken from the French, would retard it; and that there must be an article for that.

It is thought the protector would break this parliament, which doth very much oppose his designs.

Mr. Henry Oldenburg, agent for Bremen, to the protector.

To his highnes Oliver, lord protector of England, Scotland, and Ireland, &c.

Vol. xix. p. 335.

The senat of the free imperiall city of Bremen hath commanded me to attend your highnes, to present their most humble respects and services unto you, to wish you a continuall increase of all prosperity, and to make on their behalf an humble request unto you.

The city of Bremen lyeth at present under a very hard pressure, which threateneth them with the losse of their liberty and life, which they, as all rational bodies ought, putt an equal price upon.

This city hath been from immemoriall times, yea from many ages, a free immediat city of the empire, constituting with the other imperiall cities a peculiar state in the same, whence it hath not only a session and vote in the diets of the empire, (as it had lately at Ratisbone) but also a call to such consultations, as concerne the welfare of the whole. Whereupon this city sent their deputies to the last treaty at Munster, in which the same was declared and confirmed to be seperat from the dutchy of Bremen; and artic. 10. in terminis, thus stipulated for, that unto the city of Bremen, and the territories and subjects thereof, should without any incroachment remaine safe and unviolated their present state, freedom, rights, and privileges, both in ecclesiastical and civil matters. And if paradventure any controversies should arise betweene the dutchy and city, they should either by an amicable composition, or by law, be terminated, salva interim cujusque parti sua, quam obtinet, possessione, & omni vi armorum sub pæna reatus fractæ pacis seclusa, art. 17.

Notwithstanding all this it hath pleased the Swedish government of the dutchy of Bremen residing at Stade, not only to call the knowne rights and liberty of the city in question, but also against the express words of the forementioned treaty, to attempt to right themselves in a hostil manner, by taking from the said city several places indubitably belonging to them, by stopping their commerce, and by wastinge their territories with fire and sword; which violence the city of Bremen, out of a deepe respect to the crowne of Sweden, and an abhorrency from shedding of blood, endured with all patience imaginable, and for a long while made use of no other armes, than of appealing to the compact of Munster, of demanding either a friendly composition, or legal decision; and of procuring from the emperor several earnest edicts and inhibitions against such violent proceedings. But the city finding, that by bearing wrongs they occasioned but more, and that their adverfaries interpreting their patience pusillanimity, went near to put the sword to their throat; the senat of Bremen then, and not till then, thought themselves bound to defend, what God had intrusted them with, from that violence and mischief, which every day came nearer and nearer upon them. And in this their undertaking they prospered so well, that the adverse part was forced to send for succor, which being come in from a kingdom, whom a single city in an human way is not able to grapple with, they began to lose ground; and the assistance of the empire cominge on slowlie for the city, a cessation of armes was agreed on for two months, which will expire the fifteenth of November approaching. In which cessation a treatie being begun, the senat of Bremen reflecting upon your highnesse's renowned zeal to righteousness, just freedom, and the interest of the Protestant religion, as also upon the power you have with the king and crowne of Sweden, they with all humility present themselves before your highness, beseechinge you would please to look upon them with a compassionat heart, and effectually and (ob summum in mora periculum) speedily to interpose your authority to this purpose, that the crowne of Sweeden would ponder well what hath been articulated with them concerninge the city of Bremen; and that therefore no hostility may be reassumed, but those ways of amicable composition, or legal determination alone insisted on; and the city in the interim remaine in a quiet enjoyment of what she did possess by the treaty of Munster, till it be otherwise by either of those waies declared.

Such an interposition the senat and whole city of Bremen do looke upon as that, which being granted, will be the life of that treaty, and a great rejoicing of all good Protestants in Germany and Helvetia, if they shall see your highnes imbarqued in their vessel, and keeping intire the Protestant line of communication from the Ocean unto the Alps; which, if Bremen be lost, will be cutt asunder. And the city of Bremen will ever acknowlege your highnes as the chief pillar, under God, of their preservation, and earnestly pray for your highnes's perfect recovery, constant health, and flourishing government.

Your Highnes's
Most humble and devoted servant,
Henry Oldenberg, of Bremen.

London, 20. October, 1654.

A letter of intelligence.

Hague, 30. Octobris, 1654.

Vol. xix. p. 378.

This is a barren week of news with me; I know not what it might be with others. All I could gather this week is as followeth:

Our embassadors in England have writ a letter to the states general here, dated the sixteenth of October instant, wherein they give an exact relation of the accident befallen the lord protector and secretary Thurloe, in all the circumstances, in Hyde-park. And truly they write very modestly of all the story, and the being well of the protector and his secretary. I need not send you an extract of this letter, being you know all best there. In the same letter the said embassadors give a relation to their mighty highnesses of the proceedings of parliament, and that also with much modesty.

Jongestal is daily expected; but for as much as I can find, he shall not stay long here, but be remanded into England, because those of his province will have him to attend the public and secret actions of the other two embassadors, who are suspected by them; so that when the dissenting provinces can pump Jongestal dry of all they can learn from him for their advantage against the province of Holland, in my opinion he will return to London again.

The differences continue still in the province of Overyssel. Those, who have chosen the prince of Orange (as you had formerly) their governor, gave notice of that their election to both the prince's mother and grandmother, and likewise the elector of Brandenburgh, and sent to prince William of Nassau, inviting him to come and to take possession of the said places, during the prince of Orange's minority. The two, that opposed that election, made a protest against it, and desired from the states of Holland relief to conserve their liberties and privileges. Whereupon those of the province of Holland caused an assembly extraordinary to be made, which was but yesterday dissolved, and no other resolution taken upon the whole, but to try and endeavour an accommodation, and in order thereto to send commissioners. What further shall become of this business, I know not, neither speaks this week more from, Sir,
Yours, &c.

Intelligence from several parts.

Brussels, 31. October, 1654. [N. S.]

Vol. xix. p. 377.

Yours of the twenty-third instant I received, which clears many lies spoken of here, of the protector's being past recovery; and the world of lies, which in the end must be a shame to their authors. Yours I sent to Vienna and Cologne, and also send to you letters herewith from your friends in both those cities.

News in this court since my last are thus: Don Antony Pimentelli is arrived tandem from the court of Madrid at Dunkirk; and now is in his way from thence hither. From hence soon (as I hear by good authors) he will go to Antwerp to the queen of Sweden, to which office he is qualified embassador, and has instructions of large offers and great kindness to the said queen, in testimony whereof, by the king's special order, in the king's palace in this city, lodgings are a preparing for her majesty, and for certain she will shortly come hither; by which it is inferred by some, there is more in the matter of a long time than yet discovered. Of this time must be a witness.

The marquis de Lede, governor of Dunkirk, and admiral for the king in these countries, named embassador extraordinary for the said king to your protector, is now preparing for his journey into England to execute the said office; so that shortly you may see him in London. Of our army here is nothing considerable to be said since my former; both armies being in the same posture. Ours is still near Avennes, observing the enemies march. It is said marshal de la Ferté's army is marched to besiege Clermont, and Turenne watcheth our army, while Clermont shall be besieged.

Count Fuenseldagna has been here these two days, frowned upon by all forts. This day he went to Antwerp to visit the queen of Sweden, and returns within a day or two. Some say still he shall be recalled into Spain with disgrace, and not without just cause, as most men say. Never was any so generally behated, and unworthily spoken of. The archduke is well, which is all this week produceth known to, Sir,

Monsieur Petit to Monsieur Augier.

Paris, 31/21. October, 1654.

Vol. xix. p. 381.

Mons. Vestric hath written unto the deputy of Montauban, that all they had done at the court had only provoked the parliament of Toulouse, and that its deputies at the chamber of the edict at Castres are still worse and worse. He intreats the said deputy to insist here anew against them, which he prepares himself to do; and if so be he cannot speak thereof unto cardinal Mazarin, to write of it in good terms unto the said cardinal. You shall have at my next the decree given in the behalf of those of Montauban, which is exceeding favourable.

A letter of intelligence.

Paris, last of October, 1654. [N. S.]

Vol. xix. p. 367.

Since my former I received two letters from you, by which I see the lord protector is well in health, though quite contrary to all other relations, saying, that he is very ill, and in danger of life, as also his secretary of state; but it was not the first lie they writ before, I hope.

Here all is quiet. His majesty was resolved to go to Blois to visit the duke of Orleans, who was very sick; but now seeing he was recovered, it is thought he will not stir. When he writ to the duke, that he was to go, he writ in answer, if he had, not to bring the cardinal with him.

Here was a report of the king's going to Lyons to confer with Madame la duchesse de Savoy about some business of importance; but now I see no certainty of it. Some say, that was to conclude a marriage with the princess of Savoy between the king and her highness; and her brother the duke to marry one of the cardinal's nieces, of which nothing yet certain.

Yesterday was broken alive at la Greve one called Chevallier, being captain of about a hundred robbers in the highway; being taken, was examined, and suffered the question ordinary and extraordinary, where he confessed all; and has also accused himself to be one of a certain company, that were resolved to murder the cardinal, and that each of them was to have or receive from the secretary of Mons. president Viole, being now with the prince, ten thousand crowns; also that one of the cardinal's own domestics was with them, who knew the whole plot, and did not discover it. This poor man was taken, and will suffer as well as the accuser, and may accuse yet more. Madam de Chastillon having last week conferred with Mons. l'Abbé de Fouquet, is thought she will come to court within few days.

It is written from Charleville of the twenty-fourth instant, that marquis d'Uxelles, with la Ferté's army, passed the river Aisne near Rethel, and took their rout towards Clermont, where la Ferté himself was to meet him; because he heard, that Mons. le count de Duras passed the river Meuse at Guienne with a great quantity of flying horses, and went into Luxemburgh, and draws toward Clermont. We may hear of some meetings between both parties.

We hear from St. Quintin of the twenty-sixth instant, that the enemies army parted from Boye near ours, and marched towards Aisne to refresh themselves, till they see ours going to winter-quarters; after which Condé will take his course the best he can. We have also of the twenty-seventh instant from Neufville, that our army is there considerable in number, sixteen or eighteen thousand men, and does not intend to undertake any business of consequence this year, only to quarter themselves upon the enemies in the frontiers.

Last tuesday his majesty and the cardinal visited the duchesses of Joyeuse, de Mombazon, and Angoulesme, to comfort the first on the death of her good husband, being much lamented here.

The twenty-eighth the king and cardinal went to take the air at Bois de Vincennes, and returned on thursday in the afternoon late. In the mean time the court do consider, how to subsist their army this year upon the frontiers, that this country might be free.

Last wednesday the clergy assembled about the cardinal de Retz's process, and resolved to maintain their privileges, and give their names and titles to the king, as formerly he demanded.

Thursday some deputies from court went to gain possession to the prince of Conti, or put him in possession of the chasteau and land of St. Maur, and l'hostel de Condé, where now the princess his wife lives royally.

You have from St. Menehault of the twenty-sixth instant, that the day before that day Mons. marquis d'Uxelles arrived here with about 2500 foot, and 2000 horse, and next day formed their siege about Clermont; of which more in due time. However, the garison is well provided, and have prevented their siege long since; so that we may have difficulty to get it so soon. We hear Madame la duchesse de Longueville passed Maulin, and comes to Vervins to meet her husband to come with him to Normandy.

Mons. de Lionne, heretofore secretary to the queen, is upon his departure hence to Rome, to be sent as a man from the king to do business, having refused the quality of a resident; also from the court the quality of an embassador. Yet some think he will go no further than Piedmont about marriages or some such. I have no more at present, but that I am, Sir,
Your most real servant.

A letter of intelligence.

Paris, last of October, 1654. [N. S.]

Vol. xix. p. 370.

Yours of the nineteenth and twenty-second instant I received; you would not believe what a noise there is here of the protector and his secretary of state, by several letters from London, that they cannot live; that the postillion of his highness is already dead; and a thousand such; but I see by you the business is nothing considerable, and that those fellows ranting will soon blush, when truth appears. The court is not displeased at the worst of relations, and make their pastime of the discourse. Mazarin laughs at it. I could write large of this subject, but I leave it, till time gives a better subject.

Mazarin is all here, I assure you, emperor absolute of France, and the king no more than the captain of his guard, as great men here say.

Orleans holds out stiff, and cannot be reconciled to Mazarin. The report of Canada continues; and if it be certain; the English took it, they will recal the embassador Bordeaux, as they vaunt at court; but these are bugbears. Mazarin desires nothing more on earth than peace with the protector, without which he thinks himself always in danger; but he is yet, as he says, in hopes the parliament will do something, before it rises. He has good intelligence from England in divers ways; besure of it, he doubts not of the conclusion of the treaty with the protector. Mons. Bordeaux has some new orders and instructions sent to him about it; which will shortly appear there, as is told at court to,

An intercepted letter to Mons. Ouitte.

Brussels, 31. October, 1654. [N. S.]

Vol. xix. p. 371.

I am now come from the army to supply myself with some money. The states of the country have been here to treat for the payment and quarters of the army, but are returned discontented; so that treaty will bring great alterations in the militia here; and truly it will go near to be the loss of the country. Count Fuenseldagna stands high.

The prince of Condé is extremely satisfied with the Irish; for none of them all, that were prisoners, ever stayed in France, but returned and brought others with them.

The Spaniards give his highness very little power in the army; but he was never better in health nor merrier.

A letter of Mr. Edward Sedgwick.

Vol. xix. p. 383.

Were it not that I apprehend the honor and justice of the nation; as well as the interest of Sir Peter Richaut's family, were highly concerned in the granting of letters of reprizall against the kinge of Spaine, and that I cannot give the business that attendance that I would now, the service being at hand, I had not given you the trouble of these lynes, to request you to putt your perfectinge hande to that worke; but being full well setled in the premises, I could not witholde my penn from paper, to intimate thus much to you, that I received it in chardge even now from general Disbrow in his name to desire you to putt an issue to it; which, I assure you, will not only oblige the family before named, but him also to express his gratitude one way or other, that is, Sir,
Your humble and affectionate friend and servant,
Edw. Sedgwick.

Whitehall, 21. October, 1654.


Hamburgh, 22. October, 1654. O. S.

Vol. xix. p. 408.

The Bremish affairs remain still in suspense, &c. Though the day of their first session was appointed to have been on wednesday last, yet something is fallen in the way, insomuch that as yet nothing is passed. It seems the Protestant churches do make it their interest to mediate in the business; and it is said, the Bremers are privately resolved to prolong the beginning of the treaty, until the coming of the expected Switzer legation, the Dutch embassadors being already arrived, and now admitted by the lord Rosenhaen.


Vienna, 22. October, 1654. O. S.

Vol. xix. p. 520.

Saturday last the two Muscovian embassadors were brought to their audience before his imperial majesty at Ebersdorf, in great state and solemnity, who presented his majesty with a box full of oriental pearls of inestimable value; and thereupon having delivered their commission, were conducted back to their lodgings with the same magnificence. The king of Poland hath likewise sent the master of his horse hither, to present his majesty with six gallant horses of Tigrehaire, and several other rarities. But it is believed the emperor will meddle with neither of them, provided they give not any just cause thereunto by offering violence unto any of his majesty's dominions.

The prince of Condé to the marquis of Barriere.

From the camp at Hanmont, the first of November, 1654. [N. S.]

Vol. xix. p. 385.

I have received your letter of the twenty-third of October. In regard the earl of Fuenseldagna is not here, I could not speak to him about your business; I have writ to him concerning it. I have sent you another cypher according to your desire. I have not much news to impart to you; only the enemy is retreated upon their frontiers, and a party of their army is gone to Clermont; the rest remain in their quarters about Aubauton, which is not above three or four leagues distant from Rocroy. They stay there to go to their winter-quarters, as soon as our army hath taken up theirs. I believe there will be nothing further done this campaign.

Resolution of the states general.

Lunæ, 2. November, 1654. [N. S.]

Vol. xix. p. 389.

The lord Jongestal, one of their high and mighty lordships embassadors extraordinary in England, being returned home from thence, hath made a full report of the constitution of affairs there to their high and mighty lordships; whereupon being debated, their high and mighty lordships have welcomed home the said lord Jongestal, and moreover desired of him, that he would put his said report into writing, and deliver the same to their high and mighty lordships; and also, that he would add such points, as he shall think for the service of the state, that so resolutions may be taken in order thereunto; as also, that the copy of the treaty made between England and Portugal, brought over by the lord Jongestal, shall be put by provision into the secret, and kept private till further order.

Mr. Bradshaw, resident at Hamburg, to secretary Thurloe.

Vol. xix. p. 399.

Honourable Sir,
I am sorie to understand from Mr. Dorislaus of his highnes and your then indisposition with the occasion of it: blessed be God, who delivered you both soe graciously. I shall longingly waite for the good newse of your perfect recoveries. Haveinge noe notice by the last weeke's post from any frend at Whitehall of that accident, I could not give such a check, as I desired, to the malignant reports given out here presently aboute it, some affirminge his highnes was slain, and you dangerously wounded, and that the house was much divided; but by good happ I had notice by a frend from Amsterdam, what had befallen his highnes and yourselfe in goeinge to take the ayre, soe as I wrote thereof to all parts by the very same post, which could vent the malignant newse.

I this day receive a letter from Sir John, then at London, who I presume hath accompted to you his services, and that I shall heare thereof by the next, which is all the truble at present, and that you will please to looke over the inclosed, if there be any thinge worth notice; yet it is all wee have heere, and that Mr. Townly and his party heighten dayly in their insolent behavior, which I shall not complayne of, till I see what the company at London will doe upon it. I am, Sir,
Hamburgh, 24. October, 1654.

Your most humble servant,
Richard Bradshaw.

An intercepted letter.

[Cologne] 3. Novembris, 1654. [N. S.]

Vol. xix. p. 393.

Noble Sir,
I receaved not yours of the 5/15. of the last moneth, till the first of this, just as Mynheer van Lorne was taking horse to accompany Mr. Good parte of his way towards France, soe as I had onlie tyme to shew it him, whoe was very well satisfied with Mr. Ashwell's kindnes and redynes to assist in his suyte, which he hopes will be brought to a full hearing this terme. I should be glad to heare, that Mr. Hutchins were soe well recovered in his health, as that he were able to take their ayre, which would doubtlesse make him the sooner gather strength againe. As for Mr. Crosse's busines now depending in the higher bench, I am told by those, that seeme to understand that case very well, that all his evidences and witnesses are soe well prepared, and ready to make appeare his right, as he and his freinds are confident, that they shall now have a speedy and happy determination of that troublesome action, without any further demurrers in law; but if it shall (after all the cost he hath bene at) be againe putt off, it will even breake the poore gentleman, who is alreddy undonne by that tedious and chargeable suyte. Mr. Dovey acknowledges himselfe much obliged to Mr. Ashwell for his good opinion of him, and wishes he were capable in any sorte to serve him as effectualy as he shall ever doe affectionately and faithfully. Mons. de Fond's wares in Normandy are much fallen in their price of late, and I doubt will loose of their vallue every day more then other, being of late growne much out of request, soe as it is now thought by many, that it will not be worth Mons. du Fond's labour to goe thither to trye, if he can there gett a better market for them. Philip Williams saith, he is a playne-dealing merchaunt, and soe he hath ever bene, being unaquainted with such shirts of witt, as are of late practised by many factors; but if Mr. Ashwell, or any friend of his, shall have occasion to make use of his factorage, he will give him a very cleere and faithfull account of whatsoever he shall intrust him withall. If you please sometymes to lett me understand how the exchange and merketts goe there with you, and what trade is there driven betweene Mr. Crosseby, Mr. Kirton, and Mr. Isaace's factors, I shal be the better able to know how to manage Mr. Crosse's traffique in these partes, and to comply with the markets, and shall not fayle to lett him see your care of his small concernments. You cannot have to doe with fairer dealers, nor merchants more expert in commerce, then Mr. Calloway and Nick's friend, whose name I cannot call to mind, that came lately to Bridges, and soe Mons. de Fond willed me to assure you. I pray present my service to them, when you see or send to them. Pray lett Mr. Dovey heare frequently from you by your owne pen or by Mr. Row; whereby you will very much oblige, Sir,
Your humble servant,
E. de Beavieu.

Mr. Crosse is not yet returned hither, but expected this night, being longer detained by Mr. Good then he intended, when he went hence.

The superscription,
For my honoured friend Mr. Stinton, these.


Stockholm, 24. October, 1654. O. S.

Vol. xix. p. 520.

Thursday last, the long expected royal bride with her whole princely train arrived safely at the Dollers, where the king himself with his chief nobility gave her majesty the first welcome, and afterwards a most royal entertainment, the said place being most richly provided with all kind of rarities for that purpose; whence on tuesday next his majesty intends to conduct the young queen to his castle called Carelsburg, about an English mile from this city, being most: royally adorned and provided for their majesties to lodge in for some days, until the country thereabouts be likewise fully prepared for the due reception of her majesty, with as great pomp and magnificence as can be advised, whereof more in my next, God willing.

News from Paris sent to Mr. Stouppe.

Paris, 3. Nov./24 Oct. 1654.

Vol. xix. p. 285.

The 30th of the last past, the duke d'Amville went away to go and meet the duke of Orleans, and to dispose him to return to his majesty; but 'tis said, that the duke of Orleans hath made an oath, that there shall never be any reconciliation between him and cardinal Mazarin; and that he will never trust to him. The marshal de Villeroy was also gone two days before to meet the said duke for the same matter. We shall see at the return of these two lords, what shall be the answer of the duke of Orleans.

The first of this instant the king and all his court went to St. Germain's.

The king hath made a present to the marshal de Turenne of 10,000 livres.

The duke of Modena hath asked in marriage one of the cardinal's nieces.

There is news, that the duke of Guise was upon the coasts of Sicily, and that the Spanish army did follow him; but it is not believed, that this durst encounter him, because the duke of Guise is much stronger; besides, that they prepare at Toulon a supply of galleys and men to send to him.

News from Poland say, that part of the army of the great duke of Muscovy was gone towards Warsaw to besiege it; and that another part was entred into Lithuania.

Barriere to the prince of Condé.

Vol. xix. p. 397.

In my last I gave your highness to understand, what I feared would happen here: I do still fear the same thing. I do not fail to sollicit the person, whom your highness writ word about in your last, wherewith you were pleased to honour me; but I fear there are considerations, which do hinder him from pressing of that business. I cannot write to your highness what I have to communicate unto you, by reason of a mischance, that is happened to my cypher: therefore pray let there be another sent me with all speed. In the mean time I will not fail in any thing, that concerneth my duty.

The parliament doth all that they can to diminish the authority of the protector; which, notwithstanding, I believe he will keep in spite of the parliament. As soon as I have a cypher, I will give your highness a full account at large.

3. Novemb. 1654. [N. S.]

A letter of intelligence.

Dantzick, 4 Nov./25 Oct. 1654. [N. S.]

Vol. xix. p. 519.

From Riga it is written, Smolensko is lost. From the Wildt they mention it not, but say, they in Littaw draw their forces thither, and join to the number of 30,000 men, and will before winter see what they can effect against the enemy, who lieth still, only seeking to reduce these garisons within his quarters, which are like to be lost, if they get not timely relief, which is much feared. The Swedes have drawn 12,000 men to the borders of Courland, desiring to pass through that country for their moneys into Prussia for winter-quarters, where they pretend interest in a dowry belonging to the old queen of Sweden: but it is thought rather to ease their own country of their burden, and to be in readiness against the spring, to force these garisons of the Poles upon the river Dwina, between them and that part of the country, which the Muscovite hath taken from the Poles; that so they may have free trading to Riga. We are like to have troublesome times; and it is feared the Poles will come to ruin, who are divided and secure.

A letter of intelligence from Monsieur Augier's secretary.

Paris, 4. Novemb. 1654. [N. S.]

Vol. xix. p. 405.

The first present/2nd past arrived here deputies of Rochelle, sent from those inhabitants and from the militia, which is there, to assure his majesty of their fidelity, and compliment cardinal Mazarin upon the happy success of his ministry: but they have not yet had audience, by reason the king is gone to celebrate the holyday of St. Hubert, or of hunters, at St. Germain in Laye, still accompanied by his eminency, who by the same means hath, or is, as I am informed, to settle his nephew in the office of captain of that castle, and of the huntings depending thereon. It is also thought, that for certain the said nephew will be established colonel of the French horse, which the duke of Mercœur pretended to have; and as for marshal of Turenne, some think, that he hath demanded it, and that it hath purposely been refused him, thereby to hinder some demanders, less considerable than he, from demanding of it.

There is some talk of abolishing the great number of treasurers of France, which are at this present, and to leave but very few in each generality, which shall be obliged to make each one a present of 10,000 livres Tournois unto the king.

We have no news from Rome, nor of cardinal of Retz, nor also of the duke of Guise, notwithstanding what may be said of his landing. Each one doth much praise the design general Blake is said to go to execute in the behalf of the Christians detained at Algiers; but many fear, lest he meet with the French fleet.

The embassadors of Muscovy arrived here yesterday, where they expect his majesty's return: their train consists only in ten persons.

The embassadors of Holland and Hamburg do still complain of the little justice done unto them, and do much mistrust the arming of some ships by marshal de la Meilleraye, saying it is only to pirate.

Fleetwood, lord deputy of Ireland, to secretary Thurloe.

Vol. xix. p.429

The late wonderfull deliverance of my lord protector is such, as indeed ought exceedingly to affect the hearte of all that feare the Lord; for certainly there hath not bine for many ages past more concernment in one man's life then in his, for the good of these three nations; and I am very confident, it wil be more and more manifested suddenly, how much the mercy to all the Lord's people is in his preservation. The Lord sanctifie these late providences unto him and us all concerned therein, that wee may understand the mind of the Lord in this dispensation. It seemes you had a large share in the deliverance at that time. The Lord grant, that as you had a newe life given you, so the Lord grant you may still improve it to his praise, and the people's good. I know not how at present your condition may render you capable of business; and therefore I shall not trouble you with any thinge of that nature; onlie that you would endevour to procure the lord of Muskerrie libertie to transport four or five thousand men; and that securitie may not be insisted on to hinder so good a worke. I am
25. Octob. 54.

Your affectionate friend and servant,
Charles Fleetwood.

Boreel, the Dutch embassador in France, to the states general.

H. and M. Lords,

Vol. xix. p. 409.

My Lords,
Here are some men, as is said, of great understanding and experience, who have propounded to the king's council an expedient, whereby this kingdom might be provided in a few years with above four thousand merchant ships; and that thereby the inhabitants might drive all their own trade and commerce. It is also added, that this expedient may be practised without any prejudice to the English nation, but to the great prejudice and ruin (which God prevent!) of all the United Provinces commerce and navigation.

H. and M. Lords, &c.

Paris, 5. Nov. 1654. [N. S.]

The Dutch commissioners at Staden to the states general.

H. and M. Lords,

Vol. xix. p. 411.

My Lords,
On wednesday the fourth of this month the commissioners of Bremen delivered in their plenipotential power; but in regard therein was mentioned, that they should act according to their instructions, thereupon the lord embassador Rosenhaen did refuse to receive it, and would not be disposed to be in the treaty than upon the mediation and promise of us and the lords commissioners of Lubeck and Hamburgh, that within five days we would undertake to get a power without any restriction; so that we this day begin to treat. The place of our conference is in the chancery, where as in tertio loco the lord Rosenhaen sits at the upper end of the table, and then we, and next to us those of Lubeck and Hamburgh. The lord Rofenhaen hath caused overture to be made unto us of the demands of the Swedes by the lord Hoppe, director of the chancery, who doth assist his excellency. First they do demand, that the city of Bremen should renounce their being a free city of the empire. Secondly, acknowledge the king for their lord. Thirdly, they should make restitution of what they have taken, and make satisfaction of charges. Fourthly, give security de non turbando vel offendendo. The lord Rosenhaen told us at our conference, unless we would agree to the first, there would be no hopes of the treaty. We do all that we can to accommodate the differences.

Staden, 5. Novemb. 1654. [N. S.]


A letter of intelligence.

Vol. xix. p. 423.

Yours of the third present came to my hands last night, butt after some trouble; for Mr. Burett our burgher of Aken, that speakes English, had by his too much officiousnes gott my letters (amongst others); and ere we could meete, 'twas night: but next poste, my lodginge beinge soe neare the post-house, I will prevent such unnecessary kindnesses. Your other last I met withall that day after my last to you at Mr. Ring's house, who the day before had beene att my lodginge, where he and my new host could not agree by theise wise computations, I was the person, to whome the letter was directed; butt nowe, for a more methodicall course and proceedinge, I have in my letters att lenght, and accordinge to the German mode, given my exact and formall landlord my name and distinction (which he calls titles); soe that if hereafter you direct your letters for me at Fredrick Dercum's, in the Stenegasse streete, they will finde me outt, if I finde not them at the post-house; for Mr. Ring's house is distant some good space from me, and either he or I, or both, will find trouble, if they come to his hand. I thanke you very kindly for your ingenious and free manner of correspondinge. There can be noe measures taken, or judgement made, by or uppon palliated informations. You shall find me after your owne heart herein: you shall know trueths, lett them bee for us, or against us; and the same you will continue to mee by your hand. I am sure, since my last this place hath afforded us nothinge of new matter; for his majestie return'd hither butt last night, havinge accompanied his sister nere twenty leagues from hence, where wensday morninge they parted in teares. Theire entertainment by the duke of Newburgh was greate and very civill, meetinge the kinge and princesse royall a mile from his court, accompanied with his princesse, nobility, and gentry of his subjects, with twelve coaches, beside horse, just at theire cominge in a manner out of the jolke, which passage the king chose rather, haveinge a fair and brave gale of wind that day, and sent the coaches and horses to meete them at that place; from whence the duke conducted his majestie and sister to his court, where were tables appointed for all persons of their traynes, according to their severall qualities. The cheere and order is greately commended, and his respect to the kinge admired, for to be paid his majestie that respect, that had he beene free from any notion of his misfortunes, and as absolute as any of his predecessors, he could nott well have done more; for he press'd infinitely to give the kinge the towell to wash, and was very hardly denied that condescention. They staid there all friday, and on saturday (uppon very greate importunitie too) they were suffered after theire repast to departe; yett upon condition too, that his majestie would give the duke his royall word, that he would within ten or twelve dayes honour him with his companie againe, and spend some tyme with him in sports. This is the sum and substance of that journey. Now to tell you of all the particulars of the matter and forme of their treatments and passages therein, will take upp a good winter's eveninge; and after my imprimis, my very items, without sayinge more, would fill upp this sheete, which I cannot give way unto: for I must tell you somethinge from the other side of the countrey from Brandenburgh's court. Yesternight I receaved two letters from my lord of Rochester and Mr. Bellings his secretary, dated the 27th of October, N. S. My lord tells me, that he hath two or three troublesome and tedious journeys to make yett, ere he can returne: butt if he bee as well receaved every where, and as kindly, as there, itt will make his journeys much easier. Yet he says, (to use still his owne words) he shall never be at ease, untill he is with us againe; which he will hasten to doe what he can. Mr. Bellings assures me, the elector will approve very much the king's friend; yet I doe not heare they have their monie yett: that must come at partinge, or else all the rest is complement; but I find noe doubt of itt made there. Theire next will tell us more particularly. They are butt enteringe into busines yet; for I find my lord is but newlie come thither.

If the good company be yett with you, pray present my most humble and affectionat service to them, and lett them knowe our newes. In earnest, I doe honour both my lord and the collonell with all my heart, beinge persons of greate thoughts, parts, and honesty. I would to God, that circumspection and diligence they have were in fashion amongst us: I believe then our busines would be better clad then nowe it is. Coll. Tuke will stay with you: pray present my kind and best respects and service to him, and lett him knowe, I am ready to obey and expect his commands. I shall not trouble you with any forreyne news, but shall keepe myselfe to the diurnall of our affayres here and abroad; and if you can furnish me with English news, (because for your friends sake I shall not seeke the same from any other hand there) our busines is done. The English diurnall is the best present you can give us here, after the knowledge had of your health and wellfare. I am sorry for the indisposition of your family. You may attribute the same, I believe, very much to the season, which gives us all chatarrs. I am sure I have had a bitter boute of itt, but, thanke God, am now by a violent partinge of one of my teeth parted with the same. I wonder I hear nothinge from duke Darcy: he is amongst you somewhere in Holland. Pray, if you knowe where, and can with conveniency, present my humble service to him; and by noe means forgett my true and faithful respects and service to my lord Culpeper, whom if I had knowne he had beene in the towne before, I had nott beene now to have begun that duty by your hand, and the advantadges I shall have by your doinge itt. In the last place doe me the best office to yourselfe, and inrich me with your esteeme, that I am
Cullen, 6. Nov. 1654. [N. S.]

Your truly faithfull friend,
and humble servant.


Borcel, the Dutch embassador at Paris to the states general.

Vol. xix. p. 435.

H. and M. Lords,
Here is arrived an ambassador from the duke of Muscovy. He gave no notice of his arrival to any foreign embassadors here residing; so that none of us sent him our coaches to wait upon him. He hath not yet had audience; he is lodged in a private house.

The embassadors of the Hans-towns are still here, having as yet effected nothing of their commissions. They insist upon these two points; that their alliance with this crown may be renewed; and secondly, that the inhabitants of the Hans-towns may be used and treated in every thing in the kingdom, as the inhabitants of the United Provinces.

Paris, 6. Novemb. 1654. [N. S.]

A letter of intelligence from the Hague.


I have heard again, that the two embassadors and states general are very ill satisfied with me, especially the first; yea that they have writ a letter to states of Holland against me, wherein he is sufficiently accused, to the end to have him punished in his book and relations. I hath not yet heard of a certaine, whether any such letter be come to states of Holland, and much less, whether states of Holland hath resolved any thing to his friend. If that be true (as I do verily believe, that their intention is such, but that their correspondent here hath diverted or suppress'd it) men do see again, that they are not yet quite cured of their ancient malady; which is, that they are ashamed to have spoken with demonstration of amity to council of state and protector or in a word, that they are ashamed to have amity with protector and council of state or, to speak better, that they are ashamed of the state, and that they would be glad to belong again to pr. of Orange for I do hear, that with great expression, chiefly the first, they have declared, that they are very humble servants to prince of Orange that they are most cordially sorry for what they were forced to doe against prince of Orange and that they will do all what they can to annull it. But this first hath magnum ingenium cum mixtura dementiæ; and he is often used to offend people, and then to aske their pardon. states of Holland have given to Mr. Doleman four thousand guilders, and to his son an ensign's place, for only making way for the peace or pacification. Was it so agreeable and necessary with them; what harm is there then laudare quod ipsi fecerunt ? I rest
6. Nov. 1654. [N. S.]

Your most humble servant.

Bordeaux, the French embassador in England, to cardinal Mazarin.

London, 6. Nov. 1654. [N. S.]

Vol. xix. p. 437.

My Lord,
I did not write to your eminency by the last post, the letters not arriving here till it was late. Since, all my time hath been imploy'd to pursue the measures of the ministers of this state, or in a conference with them, to put an end to our accommodation, stopped through the same difficulties, whereof mention hath been made in my former letters; and through a new one, which I did not foresee.

On the reciprocation of the secret article, I thought fit last night to signify to the secretary of state, en nous separant, que les ordres du roy m'obligeoient, puisque ma negotiation ne prenoit point de fin, de voir aujourdbuy Mons. le protecteur, pour estre esclaircy de la derniere intention & resolution, & de temoigner beaucoup de regret de ce que les advances de sa majesté n'avoient produit l'effect, qu'elle en devoit attendre. But my business was deferred till night, under pretence that his highness in the mean time would assemble his council to consult upon our affairs, before he would see me; which will make me to defer writing my letters, which, it may be, I shall be forced to send by an express. The raising and transporting of Scotchmen is still uncertain. The two officers, that presented themselves to me, do refuse the offer of twelve escus for each soldier, pretending great difficulties in the raising and transporting of so considerable a body.

Bordeaux to Mons. Brienne.

Londres, 6. Novemb. 1654. [N. S.]

Vol. xix. p. 459.

Les deux lettres, que vous m'avez fait l'honneur de m'escrire, feront sans doubte esperer quelque eclaircissement des intentions de Mons. le protecteur par l'ordinaire. Aujourdhuy je me suis mis en estat de satisfaire à cette attente, & depuis trois jours il n'est passé aucune heure, que je n'ai pressé mes commissaires & le secretaire d'estat de me donner une response. Ils m'envoyerent samedy au soir par escriture, sans aucun changement des premieres, ce qui m'obligea de demander hier au soir une conference avec le dernier, chez qui un de mes commissaires se trouva. Il n'y fust encore rien resolu, & mesme oultre les premieres difficultés, qui regardent le titre & la matiere, qui doit estre misé en arbitrage, ils rejetterent la reciprocation de les articles secrets, pretendans que je devois nommer les personnes, que le roy desiroit esloigner d'Angleterre. Après beaucoup de contestations sur ces deux derniers points, le premier n'ayant point esté agité, ne peuvant rien advancer, je les prie, puisqu'il n'y avoit plus d'esperance d'accomodement, je puisse voir aujourdhuy Mons. le protecteur. Ils me promirent l'audience pour ce matin, & ayant envoyé chez un de mes commissaires pour sçavoir l'heure, il la remise jusques à cette soir, sur ce que son altesse desiroit, auparavant que de me voir, resoudre avec son conseil nos affaires, & à neuf heurs du soir il ait mandé qu'elles avoyent esté traictées cette après-dinée, mais non pas entierement resolue; & que je pouvois faire estat demain d'avoir un decisive response sur tous mes articles. Que mesme les termes en seroient examinez, afin que je ne pretendisse plus y rien changer. Ainsi je ne puis rien escrire de certain, ni donner eclaircissement du voyage du Blake, dont sans doubte j'aurai demain des nouvelles; & s'il y a quelque changement d'ordre, je l'envoyerai par courier exprès, qui arrivera aussi-tost que la presente.